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You are on page 1of 8

A right circular cylinder is a solid

described by revolution of a rectangle

about one of its sides which remains

fixed.

AB = Axis of the cylinder

PQ = Height of the cylinder

Features of a right circular cylinder

1) A right circular cylinder has two plane surfaces, circular in shape.

2) The curved surface joining the plane surfaces is the lateral surface of the cylinder.

3) The two circular planes are parallel to each other and also congruent.

4) The line joining the centers of the circular planes is the axis of the cylinder.

5) All the points on the lateral surface of the right circular cylinder are equidistant from

the axis.

6) Radius of circular plane is the radius of the cylinder.

Two types of cylinders :

1.

Hollow cylinder and

2.

Solid cylinder

Example : A pipe

229

A solid cylinder is the region bounded by two circular plane surfaces and also

the lateral surface.

2. Surface area of a right circular cylinder

A. Lateral Surface area :

Activity :

1. Take a strip of paper having width equal to the height of the cylinder.

2. Wrap the strip around the lateral surface of the cylinder and cut the overlapping

strip along the vertical line. (say PQ)

3. You will get a rectangular paper cutting which exactly covers the lateral surface.

4. Area of the rectangle is equal to the area of the curved surface of the cylinder.

Expression for the lateral surface area :

(i)

Length of the rectangle is equal to the circumference, l = 2 r

(ii) Breadth of the rectangle b is the height of the cylinder = h

Area of the rectangle A = l x b

Lateral surface area of the Cylinder A = 2 r h

A = 2 r h sq. units

230

88 4

22

= x

x r3

21 3

7

88

3

7

x

x

21

4

22

r3 =

r3 = 1

r =

1

r = 1 cm

d = 2r

d = 2 cms

Diameter of each ball = 2 cms

Exercise : 9.6

1) Find the volume of the sphere whose radius is 3 cm.

2) The diameter of a shot put is 9 cm. Calculate the volume of the shot-put.

3) The depth of a hemispherical water tank is 2.1 m at the centre. Find the capacity

of the water tank in litres.

4) Twenty one lead marbles of even size are recast to form a big sphere. Find the

volume of the sphere when the radius of each marble is 2 cm.

Remember at a glance :

Solid

Curved Surface

area

Total Surface

area

Volume

Cylinder

2rl

2r (r+1)

r 2 h

Cone

rl

r (r+1)

1 2

r h

3

Sphere

4r 2

4r 2

4 3

r

3

2r 2

3r 2

2 3

r

3

Solid hemisphere

247

SCALE DRAWING

After studying this unit you will be able to

*

*

*

*

To find the area of triangles and trapeziums.

Relate the area of polygonal figure to the area of irregular field.

Represent the irregular shaped field into known geometrical rectilinear figures, taking

the measurements to the scale.

You are familiar with the geometrical figures like triangle, rectangle, trapezium and

the formulae for the area of these figures.

Area of triangle

1

x base x height

2

Area of trapezium =

1

bh

2

= lb

1

1

x height x (sum of two parallel sides) =

h (a+b)

2

2

Recall :

1) Find the area of triangle when the base is 12 cm and height is 8 cm.

2) Find the area of trapezium given AB = 8 cm, CD = 6 cm, AB || CD and the

distance between AB and CD is 5 cm.

1. Measurement of the area of a land :

Observe the following piece of land. How to find the area of the land?

D

4

R

3

E

Q

2

P

1

2) Measurements are recorded and a sketch is drawn to the scale.

248

4) Total area of the land is the sum of the areas of all the right angled triangles and

the trapezium.

Surveyors mode of recording the measurements of a land is given below.

To.D (in mts)

200

140

To E 60

50 To C

120

40

30 to B

From A

Activity :

To measure the area of the land

1) Take suitable scale, say 20m = 1 cm

2) Draw the base line AD

3) Draw the perpendiculars to the base line PB, QE and RC

4) Complete the polygon joining the end points.

5) Find out the area of ABP, AQE, DQE and DRC and also the are of

trapezium BPRC.

6) Total area of the land is equal to the sum of the all the triangles and trapezium.

D

60

50

R

E

60

100

30

40

A

249

Area of 4 + Area of Trapezium.

Remember :

Area of the land is expressed in hectares.

Worked Example :

Example 1 : Plan out and find the area of the field from the following notes from

the field book.

Meter to D

150

100

To E 80

70 to C

80

30

40 to B

From A

Solution : Scale 20 mts = 1 cm

Observe that,

AM = 30 mts

50

AN = 80 mts

70

P

MP = (100-30)

C

20

= 70 mts

80

ND = (150-80)

50

= 70 mts

40

PD = (150-100)

30

= 50 mts

1) Area of ABM

1

bh

2

1

x 30 x 40

2

= 600 sq.mts

250

=

1

h (a+b)

2

1

x 70 (70+40)

2

= 3850 sq.mts

3) Area of DPC

1

x 50 x 70

2

4) Area of DEN

1

x 80 x 70

2

5) Area of NEA

1

x 80 x 80

2

Area of the field ABCDE

= 12200 sq mts.

= 1.22 hectares

Observe :

1 hectare =10,000 sq.mts.

Exercise : 9.7

1) Draw a plan and calculate the area of a level ground using the information given

below.

Meters to C

220

To D 120

210

120

To E 180

80

From A

251

200 to B

2) Plan out and find the area of the field from the data given from the Surveyors

field book

Meters to E

350

To D 100

300

To C 75

250

150 to F

150

To B 50

100 to G

50

From A

3) Sketch a rough plan and calculate the area of the field ABCDEFG from the following

data.

Meters to D

225

To E 90

175

125

To F 60

100

To G 15

80

20 to C

60

70 to B

From A

4) Calculate the area of the field shown in the diagram below :

[Measurements are in meters]

B

C

35

F

40

D

30

25

G

30

70

A

252

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