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1.

The right circular cylinder


A right circular cylinder is a solid
described by revolution of a rectangle
about one of its sides which remains
fixed.

AP = Radius of the circular plane


AB = Axis of the cylinder
PQ = Height of the cylinder
Features of a right circular cylinder
1) A right circular cylinder has two plane surfaces, circular in shape.
2) The curved surface joining the plane surfaces is the lateral surface of the cylinder.
3) The two circular planes are parallel to each other and also congruent.
4) The line joining the centers of the circular planes is the axis of the cylinder.
5) All the points on the lateral surface of the right circular cylinder are equidistant from
the axis.
6) Radius of circular plane is the radius of the cylinder.
Two types of cylinders :
1.
Hollow cylinder and
2.

Solid cylinder

A hollow cylinder is formed by the lateral surface only.

Example : A pipe
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A solid cylinder is the region bounded by two circular plane surfaces and also
the lateral surface.

Example : A garden roller


2. Surface area of a right circular cylinder
A. Lateral Surface area :

Activity :
1. Take a strip of paper having width equal to the height of the cylinder.
2. Wrap the strip around the lateral surface of the cylinder and cut the overlapping
strip along the vertical line. (say PQ)
3. You will get a rectangular paper cutting which exactly covers the lateral surface.
4. Area of the rectangle is equal to the area of the curved surface of the cylinder.
Expression for the lateral surface area :
(i)
Length of the rectangle is equal to the circumference, l = 2 r
(ii) Breadth of the rectangle b is the height of the cylinder = h
Area of the rectangle A = l x b
Lateral surface area of the Cylinder A = 2 r h
A = 2 r h sq. units
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88 4
22
= x
x r3
21 3
7
88
3
7
x
x
21
4
22

r3 =

r3 = 1
r =

1
r = 1 cm

d = 2r
d = 2 cms
Diameter of each ball = 2 cms

Exercise : 9.6
1) Find the volume of the sphere whose radius is 3 cm.
2) The diameter of a shot put is 9 cm. Calculate the volume of the shot-put.
3) The depth of a hemispherical water tank is 2.1 m at the centre. Find the capacity
of the water tank in litres.
4) Twenty one lead marbles of even size are recast to form a big sphere. Find the
volume of the sphere when the radius of each marble is 2 cm.

Remember at a glance :
Solid

Curved Surface
area

Total Surface
area

Volume

Cylinder

2rl

2r (r+1)

r 2 h

Cone

rl

r (r+1)

1 2
r h
3

Sphere

4r 2

4r 2

4 3
r
3

2r 2

3r 2

2 3
r
3

Solid hemisphere

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SCALE DRAWING
After studying this unit you will be able to
*
*
*
*

Develop the skill in drawing the polygonal figures to the scale.


To find the area of triangles and trapeziums.
Relate the area of polygonal figure to the area of irregular field.
Represent the irregular shaped field into known geometrical rectilinear figures, taking
the measurements to the scale.

You are familiar with the geometrical figures like triangle, rectangle, trapezium and
the formulae for the area of these figures.
Area of triangle

1
x base x height
2

Area of rectangle = length x breadth


Area of trapezium =

1
bh
2

= lb

1
1
x height x (sum of two parallel sides) =
h (a+b)
2
2

Recall :
1) Find the area of triangle when the base is 12 cm and height is 8 cm.
2) Find the area of trapezium given AB = 8 cm, CD = 6 cm, AB || CD and the
distance between AB and CD is 5 cm.
1. Measurement of the area of a land :
Observe the following piece of land. How to find the area of the land?
D
4

R
3
E

Q
2

P
1

1) Irregular shaped field is divided into known geometrical shaped fragments.


2) Measurements are recorded and a sketch is drawn to the scale.
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3) Measurements are recorded in the surveyors field book.


4) Total area of the land is the sum of the areas of all the right angled triangles and
the trapezium.
Surveyors mode of recording the measurements of a land is given below.
To.D (in mts)
200
140
To E 60

50 To C

120
40

30 to B

From A
Activity :
To measure the area of the land
1) Take suitable scale, say 20m = 1 cm
2) Draw the base line AD
3) Draw the perpendiculars to the base line PB, QE and RC
4) Complete the polygon joining the end points.
5) Find out the area of ABP, AQE, DQE and DRC and also the are of
trapezium BPRC.
6) Total area of the land is equal to the sum of the all the triangles and trapezium.
D

60
50

R
E

60

100

30
40

A
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Total Area of the land = Area of 1 + Area of 2 + Area of 3 +


Area of 4 + Area of Trapezium.
Remember :
Area of the land is expressed in hectares.
Worked Example :
Example 1 : Plan out and find the area of the field from the following notes from
the field book.
Meter to D
150
100
To E 80

70 to C

80
30

40 to B

From A
Solution : Scale 20 mts = 1 cm
Observe that,

AM = 30 mts
50

AN = 80 mts

70
P

MP = (100-30)

C
20

= 70 mts

80

ND = (150-80)

50

= 70 mts
40

PD = (150-100)

30

= 50 mts

1) Area of ABM

1
bh
2

1
x 30 x 40
2

= 600 sq.mts
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2) Area of Trapezium MDCP =


=

1
h (a+b)
2
1
x 70 (70+40)
2

= 3850 sq.mts
3) Area of DPC

1
x 50 x 70
2

= 1750 sq. mts


4) Area of DEN

1
x 80 x 70
2

= 2800 sq. mts


5) Area of NEA

1
x 80 x 80
2

= 3200 sq. mts


Area of the field ABCDE

= 600 + 3850 + 1750 + 2800 + 3200


= 12200 sq mts.
= 1.22 hectares

Observe :
1 hectare =10,000 sq.mts.

Exercise : 9.7
1) Draw a plan and calculate the area of a level ground using the information given
below.
Meters to C
220
To D 120

210
120

To E 180

80
From A

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200 to B

2) Plan out and find the area of the field from the data given from the Surveyors
field book
Meters to E
350
To D 100

300

To C 75

250

150 to F

150
To B 50

100 to G

50
From A

3) Sketch a rough plan and calculate the area of the field ABCDEFG from the following
data.
Meters to D
225
To E 90

175
125

To F 60

100

To G 15

80

20 to C

60

70 to B

From A
4) Calculate the area of the field shown in the diagram below :
[Measurements are in meters]

B
C

35
F

40
D

30

25
G

30

70
A

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