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CYME 5.

02
Equipment
Reference Manual

November 2010

Copyright CYME International T&D Inc.


All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form


or by any means without the written permission of CYME International T&D.
Possession or use of the CYME software described in this publication is
authorized only pursuant to a valid written license agreement from CYME.
CYME makes no warranty, either expressed or implied, including but not
limited to any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular
purpose, regarding these materials and makes such materials available solely on
an "as-is" basis.
CYME International T&D reserves the right to revise and improve its
products as it sees fit. The information in this manual is subject to modification
without notice.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual,
CYME assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting
from the use of the information contained herein.
CYME International T&D Inc.
1485 Roberval, Suite 104
St-Bruno QC J3V 3P8
Canada
Tel.: (450) 461-3655
Fax: (450) 461-0966
Canada & United States: Tel.:1-800-361-3627
Internet : http://www.cyme.com
E-mail: support@cyme.com
Other Trademarks: The names of all products and services other than CYMEs
mentioned in this document are the trademarks or trade names of the respective owners.

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Table of Contents
Chapter 1

Introduction.................................................................................................1

Chapter 2
2.1

Properties and Settings .............................................................................3


Overview of the Equipment Properties .........................................................3
2.1.1 Common Window Elements.............................................................3
Overview of the Equipment Settings ............................................................8
2.2.1 Common Window Elements.............................................................8

2.2
Chapter 3
3.1

Sources......................................................................................................11
Source Properties .......................................................................................11
3.1.1 Source Equivalent Impedances .....................................................12

Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Regulators .................................................................................................15
Regulator Properties...................................................................................15
Regulator Settings ......................................................................................16
Regulator Control........................................................................................17
Regulator Meter Settings ............................................................................19

Chapter 5
5.1
5.2

Transformers.............................................................................................23
Connection and Phase Shift Symbols ........................................................23
Transformer Two Winding .......................................................................24
5.2.1 Two-winding Transformer Properties.............................................24
5.2.2 Two-winding Transformer Settings ................................................26
5.2.3 Load Tap Changer Settings ...........................................................27
5.2.4 Transformer Meter Settings ...........................................................28
5.2.5 By Phase Settings ..........................................................................30
5.2.6 Single-phase Two-wire Configurations ..........................................30
5.2.7 Three-phase Configurations ..........................................................32
Two-winding Auto-transformer ...................................................................34
5.3.1 Two-winding Auto-transformer Properties .....................................34
5.3.2 Two-winding Auto-transformer Settings.........................................36
5.3.3 Auto-transformer Meter Settings ....................................................37
Transformer Three-winding .....................................................................39
5.4.1 Three-winding Transformer Properties ..........................................39
5.4.2 Three-winding Transformers Settings............................................41
5.4.3 First / Second Load Tap Changer..................................................42
Three-winding Auto-transformer.................................................................43
5.5.1 Three-winding Auto-transformer Properties...................................43
5.5.2 Three-winding Auto-transformers Settings ....................................45
5.5.3 First / Second Load Tap Changer..................................................46
Grounding Transformer ..............................................................................47
5.6.1 Grounding Transformer Properties ................................................47
5.6.2 Grounding Transformer Settings....................................................48

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Chapter 6
6.1

6.3

Generators.................................................................................................49
Synchronous Generator .............................................................................49
6.1.1 Synchronous Generator Properties ...............................................49
6.1.2 Synchronous Generator Settings...................................................53
Induction Generator ....................................................................................55
6.2.1 Induction Generator Properties ......................................................55
6.2.2 Induction Generator Settings .........................................................59
Electronically Coupled Generator...............................................................60

TABLE OF CONTENTS

6.2

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

6.3.1
6.3.2
Chapter 7
7.1

7.2

Electronically Coupled Generator Properties.................................60


Electronically Coupled Generator Settings ....................................61

Motors ........................................................................................................63
Induction Motor ...........................................................................................63
7.1.1 Induction Motor Properties .............................................................63
7.1.2 Induction Motor Settings ................................................................68
7.1.3 Induction Motor Starting Assistance (LRA) ....................................68
Synchronous Motor.....................................................................................70
7.2.1 Synchronous Motor Properties ......................................................70
7.2.2 Synchronous Motor Settings ..........................................................73
7.2.3 Synchronous Motor Starting Assistance (LRA) Settings ...............74

Chapter 8
8.1
8.2

Static Var Compensators (SVC) ..............................................................77


SVC Properties ...........................................................................................77
SVC Settings ..............................................................................................78

Chapter 9
9.1

Wind Energy Conversion Systems .........................................................79


Wind Energy Conversion Systems Properties ...........................................79
9.1.1 Wind Turbine Tab...........................................................................79
9.1.2 Generator Tab ................................................................................80
9.1.3 Generator Equivalent Circuit Tab...................................................81
Wind Energy Conversion System Settings.................................................83
Blade Pitch Control Settings.......................................................................84
Voltage Source Converter Settings ............................................................85
9.4.1 Full Converter Control Settings ......................................................86
9.4.2 Doubly-Fed Converter Control Settings .........................................87
Wind Model Settings...................................................................................88

9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
Chapter 10
10.1
10.2
10.3

Micro-turbines...........................................................................................89
Micro-turbine Properties .............................................................................90
Micro-turbine Settings.................................................................................91
Voltage Source Converter Settings ............................................................91
10.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings ......................................................92

Chapter 11
11.1
11.2
11.3

Photovoltaic ..............................................................................................93
Photovoltaic Properties...............................................................................94
Photovoltaic Settings ..................................................................................97
Voltage Source Converter Settings ............................................................98
11.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings ......................................................99
11.4 Insolation Model Settings .........................................................................100

Chapter 12
12.1
12.2
12.3

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ............................................................................101


Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Properties...............................................................102
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Settings ..................................................................103
Voltage Source Converter Settings ..........................................................103
12.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings ....................................................104

Chapter 13 Protective Devices..................................................................................105


13.1 Protective Devices Properties ..................................................................105
13.1.1 Fuse .............................................................................................106
13.1.2 LVCB ............................................................................................107
13.1.3 Recloser .......................................................................................108
13.1.4 Sectionalizer.................................................................................109
13.1.5 Switch...........................................................................................110
13.1.6 Breaker.........................................................................................111
13.1.7 Network Protector ........................................................................112
13.2 State Settings ...........................................................................................113

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6

Operation Settings ....................................................................................114


Meter Settings...........................................................................................114
TCC Settings ............................................................................................116
Relay Settings...........................................................................................117

Chapter 14
14.1
14.2
14.3

Miscellaneous Equipment .....................................................................119


Miscellaneous Equipment Properties .......................................................119
Miscellaneous Equipment Settings...........................................................120
Miscellaneous Equipment Meter Settings ................................................120

Chapter 15 Lines and Cables ....................................................................................123


15.1 Overhead Line ..........................................................................................123
15.1.1 Overhead Line Balanced...........................................................124
15.1.2 Overhead Line Unbalanced ......................................................124
15.2 Cable.........................................................................................................125
15.2.1 General Tab .................................................................................125
15.2.2 Multi-wire concentric neutral cable...............................................126
15.2.3 Shielded cable..............................................................................128
15.2.4 Unshielded cable..........................................................................130
15.3 Conductor .................................................................................................131
15.3.1 General Tab .................................................................................131
15.4 Spacing .....................................................................................................133
15.5 Lines and Cables Settings........................................................................134
15.6 By Phase Configuration Settings..............................................................135
15.7 Spot Load and Distributed Load Settings.................................................136
Chapter 16 Shunt Capacitors ....................................................................................141
16.1 Shunt Capacitor Properties ......................................................................141
16.2 Shunt Capacitor Settings ..........................................................................142
Chapter 17 Shunt Reactors .......................................................................................145
17.1 Shunt Reactor Properties .........................................................................145
17.2 Shunt Reactor Settings.............................................................................146
Chapter 18
18.1
18.2
18.3

Series Capacitors ...................................................................................147


Series Capacitor Properties......................................................................147
Series Capacitor Settings .........................................................................148
Series Capacitor Meter Settings...............................................................148

Chapter 19
19.1
19.2
19.3

Series Reactors.......................................................................................151
Series Reactor Properties ........................................................................151
Series Reactor Settings ............................................................................152
Series Reactor Meter Settings..................................................................152

Chapter 20 Network Equivalent ................................................................................155


20.1 Network Equivalent Settings.....................................................................155
20.2 Cumulated Information Settings ...............................................................156
Chapter 21 Harmonic Devices...................................................................................157
21.1 Frequency Source ....................................................................................157
21.1.1 Shunt Frequency Source Settings ...............................................158
21.2 Ideal Converter .........................................................................................159
21.2.1 Ideal Converter Settings...............................................................159
21.3 Non-Ideal Converter .................................................................................160
21.3.1 Non-Ideal Converter Settings.......................................................161
21.4 Arc Furnace ..............................................................................................162
21.4.1 Arc Furnace Settings....................................................................163
21.5 Filters ........................................................................................................164

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

21.5.1 Single-Tuned Filter .......................................................................164


21.5.2 Single Tuned Filter Settings .........................................................165
21.5.3 Double-Tuned Filter .....................................................................166
21.5.4 Double Tuned Filter Settings........................................................168
21.5.5 High-Pass Filter............................................................................169
21.5.6 High Pass Filter Settings..............................................................169
21.5.7 C-Type Filter.................................................................................170
21.5.8 C-Type Filter Settings ..................................................................171
21.6 Branches...................................................................................................172
21.6.1 Shunt RLC Branch Settings .........................................................172
21.6.2 Shunt Parallel RLC Branch Settings ............................................172
21.6.3 Shunt Frequency Dependent Branch Settings ............................173
21.6.4 Shunt Mutually Coupled Three-phase Branch Settings...............174
21.6.5 Series RLC Branch Settings ........................................................174
21.6.6 Series Parallel RLC Branch Settings ...........................................174
21.6.7 Series Frequency Dependent Branch Settings............................175
21.6.8 Series Mutually Coupled Three-phase Branch Settings ..............175
Chapter 22
22.1
22.2
22.3

Model Libraries .......................................................................................177


Control Model Library ...............................................................................177
Wind Model Library...................................................................................177
Insolation Model Library ...........................................................................177

Chapter 23

Symbol Library........................................................................................179

Chapter 24 Instruments .............................................................................................181


24.1 Instruments Settings .................................................................................182
24.1.1 Current Transformer.....................................................................182
24.1.2 Over Current Relay ......................................................................183
24.1.3 Motor Relay ..................................................................................185
24.1.4 Potential Transformer...................................................................187
24.1.5 Voltage Relay ...............................................................................188
24.1.6 Frequency Relay ..........................................................................190
24.1.7 Load Shedding Relay Control ......................................................192
24.1.8 Generic Control ............................................................................193

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 1

Introduction

The equipments database contains a set of generic equipment models to be used on the
distribution network. Once placed on a network section, the generic equipment may acquire new
properties and the original values of some of its parameters can be modified according to the
control to be performed. Thus, by virtue of its position on the network and its parameters new
values, from generic the equipment becomes specific. Consequently, it will acquire a new
identity through the equipment Number.
It is really important to realize that the original values of the generic equipment do not
change in the equipment database tables. Instead, the new values (the changes made to the
original values (that we also call the Settings) are saved in the network database tables.
Changes to a generic equipment require necessarily that you invoke one of the Equipment menu
commands in order to access the relevant equipment properties dialog boxes. Other access
points to the equipments properties dialog boxes will authorize only to visualize the parameters
values. The modification of specific equipment in the network always requires access to the
properties dialog box of the section containing the equipment in question.
In the following chapters, the display of an equipment property dialog box (for example a
regulator) will imply the use of the command Equipment > Regulator. The display of an
equipment settings dialog box (for example shunt capacitor settings) will imply access to the
Properties dialog box of the section containing the shunt capacitor in question. You may access
the section properties dialog box in many ways using the one-line diagram or the Explorer Bar;
refer to the CYME Reference Manual for more details.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 2

2.1

Properties and Settings

Overview of the Equipment Properties

Every piece of equipment connected to a section in a feeder (network) represents an


individual unit of a type defined in the equipment database. You may think of the Equipment
database as a warehouse, or catalog, where each type of transformer is described.
Selecting an equipment type from the Equipment menu will display the appropriate
equipment dialog box, listing all available variants defined under that particular type, where you
can add, edit or delete equipment in the active equipment database.
2.1.1

Common Window Elements

Equipment
List
(1)

Unique name of a variant of the equipment type. To edit an existing


variant, highlight its name in the Equipment List and then change
the data in the tabbed area of the dialog box.
If you click anywhere inside the Equipment List window, the
following menu will pop up.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Create Copy: To create a copy of the selected equipment. Pops up


the Equipment ID dialog box with the selected name highlighted to
allow you to enter a new name. The new name, if it is unique, will
be added to the list of available equipments.
Delete: To delete the selected equipment from the list.
Rename: Pops up the Equipment ID dialog box with the selected
name highlighted to allow you to enter a new name. This name, if it
is unique, will replace the old one in the list of available equipments.
After using the Compare With Library command (See List
Command buttons below), the menu may offer an additional item:
Update to Library Version.

If the data of an equipment taken from the library have been


modified, this command will allow you to revert to the original data.
Equipment whose data have changed will have a red dot placed
next to it. Equipment with exactly the same data as the reference in
the library will have a check mark next to it.
Filter
(2)
Tabs
(3)

To find a component just by typing a series of characters that


appear in its identification name (example: typing CU in the filter
of the Cable database dialog box might bring all copper conductors
in the cable database).
All equipments have the tabs General and Comments in common.
In some cases equipment may have additional tabs such as
Loading Limits, Reliability, Harmonic, and Equivalent circuit and so
on.
In general, the Comments tab contains a multiple lines editing field.
It allows entering a description or significant comments about the
equipment in question.
The Loading Limits tab will let you define capacity in kVA or
kVA/phase or MVA (for Summer, Winter, Summer Emergency and
Winter Emergency) used for overload detection. Summer,
Winter, Summer Emergency and Winter Emergency are labels
that are used to describe the rating values of these fields. To enter
the labels in question, go to File > Preferences, Text tab.
Choose which rating to use for overload detection via the Analysis
> Load Flow dialog box, Loading / Voltage Limits tab before, or
even after, running a Load Flow calculation.

Record
command
buttons
(4)

OK:

Updates the Equipment database and exits the dialog box.

Cancel: Exits the dialog box without saving any of the work you did
since opening it.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Title bar
buttons

Contextual help. It will display relevant section of the help file.

(5)

Closes the dialog box dismissing all changes.

List command
buttons
(6)

Add: To add a new variant to an equipment type. Pops up the


Equipment ID dialog box with the selected name highlighted to
allow you to enter a new name. The new name, if it is unique, will
be added to the list of available equipments.
Copy: Pops up the Equipment ID dialog box with the
selected name highlighted to allow you to enter a new name. This
name, if it is unique, will replace the old one in the list of available
equipments.
Add From Library: To get equipment directly from the library.
The library is a file, provided by the software that contains
equipment from various manufacturers. Click on the command to
open the Library interface. This interface is almost the exact copy of
the equipment type selected. The main difference results from the
fact that you cannot modify any data.

In this dialog box, you may select equipment individually by clicking


inside the check box next to the equipment or you may use Select
All to select all elements in the list. As soon as an equipment is
selected, the Add button will be enabled. Click on it to add selected
equipment to your equipment list. Use Unselect All to clear all
selections.
The Add From Library command will function differently for fuses,
reclosers and LVCBs. For those cases, the dialog box displayed
will look like this:

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Characteristics: This sections parameters are the same found in


the Information group box of the previous dialog. Refer to the
fuse/recloser/LVCB dialog box for description.
ID Generation: This section is used to give an ID to the equipment
you are about to create. The field ID indicates the pattern the
generation process will use to generate the IDs. In the example
above, the ID content (MODEL_RATING) indicates that the ID will
be a concatenation of the Model field content COOPERD (without
the space), then _ (Underscore character) ending with the Rating
field content 4D. Note that Model and Rating are indicated as keys
and consequently are shown in blue in the ID field contrary to other
pattern elements (like the underscore). You can select the number
of characters to use for keys (Model and Rating) during the
concatenation process. In so doing, remember that ID length
cannot exceed 32 characters. Note that if the contents of keys in
the pattern are set to (ALL) you can generate instantaneously the
whole range of possible IDs. You may create your own pattern but
you must make sure that the names generated will be unique
otherwise they will not be allowed.
button, the
Equipment to Add: When you click on the
device or set of devices described in the Characteristics group
box will be added in the list under the name(s) generated according
to the pattern provided in the ID field.
To delete an item from this list, select it and then click on the Delete
key. Multiple deletions are also possible. Select the range of items
to delete and then click on the Delete key.
It is also possible to use the popup menu to rename or delete any
item in the list. Make a right-click on the item you want to rename or
delete in order to display the following menu. Then click on
Rename or Delete.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

You can rename only one item at a time through the Equipment ID
dialog box that will open on selecting the Rename function. To
delete more than one item, first select the items and then make a
right-click anywhere within the lists window to access the Delete
function.
Click on Add to transfer all elements from this list to the Equipment
List in the previous dialog.
Compare With Library: The program will go through the
equipment list comparing each equipment in the list to the same
equipment (if it exists) in the library. If the data is not the same, the
equipment whose data have changed will have a red dot placed
next to its name. Equipment with exactly the same data as the
reference in the library will be flagged with a check mark next to it.

Equipment not found in the library will not be flagged.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

2.2

Overview of the Equipment Settings

The default properties for the devices, lines, etc. are set through the commands found
under the Equipment menu. Once a section is identified as a line or a cable, and when an
equipment is connected to a section, you can make adjustments to them in the field. These
adjustments are called settings and are comprised in the right hand portion of the Section
Properties dialog box.
Note:

The data given in the settings pane of the Section Properties dialog box have
priority over the (default) data given when the equipment was originally defined
under the Equipment menu.

To modify the settings of a specific instance of a device, click on the elements in the
Devices list of the dialog box to select the target equipments layer, and sub-layers
(TCC Settings and or Meter Settings), and then modify the parameters in the Settings group box
according to your requirement.
2.2.1

Common Window Elements

All the section Properties dialog boxes contain a group box that is located at the upper
right hand section of the dialog box. You will notice that the name of that group box will change
depending on the element selected from the Devices list and its position on the section.

ID
or
Type

Applies the standard / global settings as defined in the Equipment


menu for each device type. You may select the exact device your
need from the ID drop-down list. For lines and cables, you make this
selection from the Type drop-down list.

Number

When you create a new section, CYME will automatically fill this field
with the default section ID. You can control the section naming
mechanism by modifying the parameters in the group zone Default
Section ID of tab System Parameters from the dialog box
Preferences (File > Preferences). However, you may enter your own
unique identifier for the individual device.

Location

The position of the equipment with reference to the section. Available


positions may be At From Node / At Middle / At To Node, or At From
Node / At To Node, depending on the type of equipment.

Status

May be: Connected, Disconnected or Bypassed.


To consult the default parameters of the related equipment type.
To display the Failure History report related to the component.
Failure History data are used by the Reliability Assessment module of
CYME.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

The bottom part of the right hand part contains the settings specific to each equipment.

CHAPTER 2 PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 3

3.1

Sources

Source Properties

The source (source equivalent) is the starting point of a network. It represents the
impedance of the generation and transmission network. The following data is required to define a
source. Use this command to create, modify, or delete the list of sources in your database. This
chapter covers the General tab of the dialog box. Information about the Harmonic tab can be
found in the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide.

Nominal
Capacity

Nominal capacity in MVA used for overload detection.

Source
Equivalent
Voltage

Nominal

kV line-to-line reference voltage.

Operating kV line-to-line operating voltage.


Note:

Phase Angle

CHAPTER 3 SOURCES

The operating voltage of each instance of a


substation equivalent (source) can be
changed individually when creating the source
(Edit > Add Source, Source tab.

Angle of the desired voltage on Phase A.

11

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Source
Equivalent
Impedances

Positive-sequence resistance and reactance, in Ohms at the


nominal voltage, or in per-unit on the system MVA base defined in
the File > System Parameters dialog box.
Zero-sequence resistance and reactance, in Ohms at the
nominal voltage, or in per-unit on the system MVA base defined in
the File > System Parameters dialog box.

Source
Configuration

3.1.1
3.1.1.1

Wye-Grounded or Delta. Note that the calculations and the


behavior of the network will take this data into account.

Source Equivalent Impedances


Calculate using short-circuit power
This option uses the short-circuit MVA to calculate the equivalent impedance of
the transmission network, including the substation.

Three phase
MVA

Is the magnitude of a 3-phase fault on the secondary side of the


substation transformer. It is computed from (current in kA) x (line-line
voltage in kV) x 3.

Single phase
MVA

Is the magnitude of a line-to-ground fault on the secondary side of


the substation transformer. CYME defines it the same way as threephase MVA.
Note: Do not enter single-phase MVA as (current in kA) x (lineneutral voltage in kV).

12

Three phase
X/R

Is the positive sequence ratio (X1/R1) of the equivalent fault


impedance. It is computed from tan (angle) if necessary.

Single phase
X/R

Is the ratio (Xg/Rg), where:

Voltage

Is the line-to-line voltage in kV at the substation transformer


secondary.

Xg = X1 + X2 + X0 and Rg = R1 + R2 + R0.

CHAPTER 3 SOURCES

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

3.1.1.2

Calculate using source details


This option calculates the equivalent impedance from the sum of the impedances
of the substation transformer(s) and the transmission network. Refer to the diagram
below for a definition of the substation equipment and configuration.

Typical substation as understood by CYME

Rsrc : total resistance of the transmission network in ohms.

Xsrc

XFO : Substation transformer.

Xs

: Fault-limiting reactance connected in the branch (optional).

Xss

: Fault-limiting reactance connected at the secondary bus (optional).

: total reactance of the transmission network in ohms.

With this option, you begin by defining the primary side impedance (Rsrc, Xsrc)
and the (optional) secondary fault-limiting reactance (Xss).

CHAPTER 3 SOURCES

13

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Primary
Network
Equivalent

Secondary
fault-limiting
reactance (Xss)
Transformers
Configuration
Transformer
Branches

Offers two ways to define the primary side impedance:


y

Calculate using short-circuit power: enter the short-circuit


MVA and X/R ratio and line-to-line voltage (in kV) at the
primary side of the substation. Refer to 3.1.1.1 for a definition
of the short-circuit powers and X/R ratios.

Primary Impedances: enter the equivalent sequence


impedances (Z1, Z0) and the line-to-line voltage in kV at the
substation transformer secondary.

Given in Ohms. It is optional. When a value of 0 is indicated,


then CYME considers there is none.

) in order to select the connection type at


Click on the arrow (
the primary and the secondary for all transformers.
The substation consists of one or more "branches" each
containing a transformer and optional fault-limiting reactance (Xs).
You must define at least one branch in order to continue with the
calculation. You may create as many as 5 branches.
Click on the Add button to define a branch.

Status: Branch may be on (


) or off (
box to toggle between on and off.

). Click on the check

Branch ID: Select the cell with a single left-click and start typing
the ID. You may also double-click in the cell area to select the
original value and then start typing the new value.
Fault-limiting reactance (Xs): Enter the impedance, if there is
one. Select the cell with a single left-click and start typing the
impedance. You may also double-click in the cell area to select
the original value and then start typing the new value.
Transformer ID: Click on the arrow to select the desired
to display the parameters of
transformer from the list. Click on
the one selected.
Click on the Remove button to delete the selected (highlighted)
branch.

14

OK

CYME saves the changes and computes the total impedances


and writes them in the spaces provided in the initial dialog box.

Cancel

CYME cancels all data modifications before returning to the initial


dialog box.

CHAPTER 3 SOURCES

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 4

4.1

Regulators

Regulator Properties

Regulator Type

Select single-phase or three-phase.

Nominal Rating

In kVA / phase and Amps.

Rated Voltage

Rated kV is line-to-neutral for Wye-ground connection, line-toline for open Delta.


Note: For the purpose of overload detection, the rated kVA will
be adjusted as a function of the actual regulation range
(See below). You can modify these default values via the
Analysis > Load Flow dialog box, Loading / Voltage
Limits tab. (see the CYME Basic Analyses Users Guide)

Range: 10.0%
Range: 8.75%
Range: 7.50%
Range: 6.25%
Range: 5.00%

-> Rating: 100 % of nominal


-> Rating: 110 % of nominal
-> Rating: 120 % of nominal
-> Rating: 135 % of nominal
-> Rating: 160 % of nominal

Maximum buck

Maximum range for which the regulator can lower the voltage.

Maximum boost

Maximum range for which the regulator can raise the voltage.
Note:

CHAPTER 4 REGULATORS

To model an auto-booster with CYME, you can use a


regulator with maximum buck = 0% so that the
regulator can only raise the voltage.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

4.2

16

Number of taps

Number of possible positions for the regulator, excluding the


nominal position.

Bandwidth

Tolerance ( bandwidth / 2) on the voltage to be maintained by


the regulator. It is expressed on the voltage reference (e.g. 121 V
1V).

CT primary
rating

Primary current rating of the current transformer used to provide


a current source value for the line drop compensation and for
metering functions. For example, if the nameplate indicates a CT
ratio of 250/0.2, 250 has to be entered.

PT ratio

Overall potential transformer ratio of the regulator.

Reversible

If reverse power flow is allowed, activate the Reversible option.


If not, then CYME will prevent the opening or closing of regulator
that would lead to reverse power flow through the regulator.

Regulator Settings

Primary

To indicate where the primary of the regulator is connected on


the section: At From Node or At To Node.

Phase shift

Enabled only when the configuration Closed-Delta is selected,


the options are Lagging and Leading.

Configuration

Is Wye-Gnd, Closed-Delta or Open-Delta for a single-phase


regulator. A three-phase regulator is either Wye-Gnd or ClosedDelta.

Maximum Buck
Maximum Boost

Buck or Boost may be set to lesser values than what the


regulator is rated for, increasing its current/power rating.

Bandwidth

Tolerance ( bandwidth / 2) on the voltage to be maintained by


the regulator. It is expressed on the voltage reference.

CHAPTER 4 REGULATORS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

CT primary
rating

Primary current rating of the current transformer used to provide


a current source value for the line drop compensation and for
metering functions.

PT ratio

Overall potential transformer ratio of the regulator.

The default voltage setting for regulators is set in the File > Preferences, Systems
Parameters tab dialog box. To ignore all regulators during a Capacitor Placement or Voltage
Drop, select the Analysis > Load Flow menu command and select the Controls tab.

4.3

Regulator Control

Operating
Mode

There are four methods to obtain the settings for the regulator.

The first is to treat the regulator as a Fixed-tap auto-transformer.

The second method is to set the regulator to control the voltage at


its own Regulator terminal.

The third is to calculate the R-X settings to compensate for the


line impedance between the regulator and the load center where
the voltage is to be controlled.

The fourth method is to simply specify the Load center where the
voltage is to be controlled by entering the section ID. CYME will
evaluate automatically the impedance equivalent of the line
between the regulator and the load center.

Depending on the option selected, the relevant fields of this dialog box
will be enabled or disabled.
At Node

Name of the load point. Enabled when the Load Center operating
mode is selected. Location for which the regulator will control the
voltage.

First House
Protection

Enabled when the Load Center or R-X Settings operating mode is


selected. Voltage limits that the regulator must respect.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Reverse
Sensing
Mode

Bi-Directional
Operates in both directions. If the real component of the current is
above the threshold, the regulator operates in the forward direction. If
the real component of the current is below the threshold, it operates in
the reverse direction. When the current is within the threshold, the
control stays at the last tap position.
Co-generation
When reverse power is detected, the control sensing input voltage will
not reverse (always in forward direction) and the line drop
compensation settings will be altered to account for the change in
power flow direction.
Locked Forward
Always operates in the forward direction. When more than 2% reverse
current is detected, the control stays on the last tap position.
Locked Reverse
Always operates in the reverse direction. If more than 2% forward
current is detected, the control stays on the last tap position.
Neutral Idle
Only operates in the forward direction when the real component of the
current is above the threshold. When the real component of the
current is reverse and is below the threshold, the control will tap to the
neutral position (buck/boost within 0.3%).
No Reverse
Always operate in the forward direction. When the real component of
the current is reverse (>0), the control stays at the last tap position.
Reverse Idle
Operates in the forward directions. When the real component of the
current is above the threshold, the regulator operates in the forward
direction. When the real component of the current is below the
threshold, it stays at the last tap position.
Reactive Bi-Directional
Operates in both directions depending on both the real and reactive
component of the current. When the reactive component of the current
in the reverse direction, it operates in the forward direction. When the
real component of the current in the forward direction is above the
threshold and that the reactive component is within the threshold, it
also operates in the forward direction.
When the reactive component of the current in the forward direction is
above the threshold, it operates in the reverse direction. When the real
component of the current in the forward direction is above the
threshold and that the reactive component of the current is within the
threshold, it also operates in the reverse direction.

Threshold

Current threshold at which the control switches operation, either from


forward to reverse or vice-versa.

Status

For a single-phase regulator, indication of the phase(s) on which the


regulator is installed. The user will have to enter the settings for all
phases selected.
For a 3-phase regulator, indication of the control phase. Only one
phase can be selected.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Tap

If the option Fixed Tap is selected in the Operating Mode field, it is


the fixed tap position at which the regulator will be considered by
CYME. Otherwise, it is the present tap position of the regulator. During
any related load flow analysis, CYME will determine automatically the
tap position depending on the status of the network and update this
number.

FORWARD/
REVERSE

Depending on the Reverse Sensing Mode selected, the forward and


reverse settings will be enabled accordingly.
Voltage: Voltage to be maintained by the regulator.
Rset: Enabled when the R-X Settings option is selected, this is the
R setting of the regulator.
Xset: Enabled when the R-X Settings option is selected, this is the
X setting of the regulator.

Hint:

If you already know the R-X Settings, simply select the R-X Settings option
and type the values in the appropriate spaces.
If you dont know the R-X Settings, and want to use this control option, you
can use the following method:

Under "Operating Mode/Mode", select "Load Center" from the pull


down menu.
Click on the pull down menu of "At Node" to list all sections downstream
from the regulator. Click on the one whose voltage is to be regulated.
Under "FORWARD/Voltage", enter the desired voltage (in terms of the
base voltage) at the regulated section. Do this for each phase selected.
Under First House Protection, you can specify the High / Low voltage
limits.
Click OK and run the Voltage Drop analysis. CYME will compute the RX settings and indicate them in the regulator/control dialog box.
Return to this dialog box and change the Operating Mode/Mode to
R-X Settings.
Follow the same procedure for the reverse direction.

4.4

Regulator Meter Settings

CHAPTER 4 REGULATORS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

Location

To indicate on which side (Primary or Secondary) of the regulator


the meter is connected.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.
To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the
different consumer categories. See also Analysis > Load
Allocation.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

To display a summary of the downstream load and capacitors, for


information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer
type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays the meter profile.

CHAPTER 4 REGULATORS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 5

5.1

Transformers

Connection and Phase Shift Symbols

The star, delta, or zigzag connection of a transformer is indicated by the capital letters Y,
D or Z for the primary-voltage winding, and by the small letters y, d or z for the secondary
(tertiary)-voltage winding. If the neutral point of a star-connected or zigzag-connected winding is
brought out, the indication is YN (yn) or ZN (zn) respectively. Open windings are indicated as O
(o). The winding connection letter for the secondary (tertiary)-voltage winding is immediately
followed by its phase shift clock number
The phase shift of a winding is the phase angle between the phasors representing the
voltages between the neutral point (real or imaginary) and the corresponding terminals of two
windings, with a balanced three-phase positive sequence voltage being applied to the primaryterminals. The phasors are assumed to rotate in a counterclockwise direction. Using the primaryvoltage winding phasor as the reference, the displacement of the secondary (tertiary)-voltage
winding will be expressed, according to the convention, by the 'clock notation' hour. This is the
hour indicated by the secondary (tertiary)-voltage winding phasor when the primary-voltage
winding phasor is at 12 o'clock (rising numbers indicate increasing phase lag).
'Clock number' notation two examples (IEC 600760-1)

Example 1 Symbol: Dyn11: A distribution transformer with high-voltage winding for 20 kV, deltaconnected (D). The low-voltage winding is 400 V star-connected (y)with neutral (n) brought out.
The LV winding lags the HV by 330 (11h).
Example 2 Symbol: YNd5: A two-winding transformer with high-voltage winding for 123 kV,
star-connected (Y) with neutral (N) brought out. The low-voltage winding is 7.2 kV deltaconnected (d), lagging by 150 (5h).

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.2

Transformer Two Winding

5.2.1

Two-winding Transformer Properties

Generally, these transformers are in-line, step-down power transformers. Customer


(i.e., load) transformers are generally not modeled explicitly.
5.2.1.1

24

General Tab

Transformer Type

Three types are available: Single-phase, Three-phase Shell


and Three-phase core. The latter requires three sets of zerosequence values compared to one for the other two.

Nominal Rating

Total kVA for 3-phase Type transformer or per phase for 1phase Type.

Primary Voltage

kV line-to-line.

Secondary Voltage

kV line-to-line. For any winding of a 1-phase transformer


which is connected line-to-ground, enter (line-ground voltage)
x 3.

No load losses

kW Total for 3-phase and kW per Phase for 1-phase.

Insulation Type

Select either Liquid-filled or Dry.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Sequence
Impedances

Positive-sequence Impedance Z1 in percent on transformer


kVA base, zero-sequence Impedance Z0 in percent on
transformer kVA base, positive sequence (X1/R1) and zerosequence (X0/R0) ratios.
If you click on the Default button, CYME will suggest typical
values for Z1, Z0 and X/R based on the kVA and primary
voltage.
In a three-phase core transformer, zero-sequence impedance
and ratio are required for the following combinations: primarysecondary, primary-magnetizing, secondary-magnetizing.

Grounding
Impedances

Grounding resistance and reactance for the primary side and


grounding resistance and reactance for the secondary side.

Reversible

If Reversible is not active, then you will be prevented from


closing any switch that would direct power flow from the
transformer secondary side to its primary side.

Configuration

CYME supports the four practical configurations for a singlephase transformer: See also section 5.2.5 By Phase Settings,
5.2.6 Single-phase Two-wire Configurations, and 5.2.7 Threephase Configurations.

Note:

5.2.1.2

If you connect a 1-phase unit to a 2-phase or 3-phase section, identical


transformers will be installed in each phase.

Load Tap Changer (LTC) Tab

The data for the on-Load Tap Changer (LTC) should be set to zero unless the
transformer is equipped with such a device.
Bandwidth

Is the tolerance on the voltage that the LTC must maintain; in percent
of the base voltage. (see 5.3.2 Two-winding Auto-transformer Settings)

Taps

Is the number of discrete tap positions in the LTC.

Maximum /
Minimum
Range

Is the range of voltage boost/buck covered by the taps.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.2.2

Two-winding Transformer Settings

Primary

To indicate on which node the primary of the transformer is


connected.

Fault
Indicator

To indicate via a signal that the fault is located downstream of the


device. The Reliability Assessment Module (RAM) uses this
parameter. See the Reliability Analysis Users Guide.

Fixed Tap

To enter primary and secondary taps setting of this particular


transformer, either to raise or lower the voltage.

Grounding
Impedances

To define the grounding impedance on both the primary and


secondary side.

Configuration

To define the configuration of this particular transformer.

Protection

Will open the TCC protection coordination dialog box for the
selected device, so that you may inspect and adjust its settings as
well as create a new standard setting.
Note:

System Base
Voltage

26

You do not need to have CYMTCC installed in order to


use this command. However, with CYMTCC, you will be
able to perform more extensive protection analyses.

To define the primary and or secondary base voltage. Checkmark


User defined to enable the voltage field.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.2.3

Load Tap Changer Settings

If you entered data for a Load Tap Changer when you created the transformer in the
equipment database, then the Load Tap Changer sub-layer will appear directly under the main
transformer layer. These are the same as defined for Regulators. Click on the sub-layer to set
the desired voltage, R-X settings or tap position.

Location

To indicate that the Load Tap Changer is located on the Primary or


secondary side of the transformer.

Mode

The different methods to obtain the settings for the transformer. See
Operating Mode in chapter 4.3 Regulator Control.

At Node

Enabled when the mode Load Center is selected. Location for which
the LTC will control the voltage.

LDC
settings

R:

Resistive voltage drop on the line between the transformer and


the load location.

X:

Reactive voltage drop on the line between the transformer and


the load location.

They represent the voltage drop on the line when the line is carrying
CT-rated primary current.
Set Voltage

These values are in percentage of the system base voltage at the


secondary of the transformer.

Use last
load flow

To consider the last position of tap after a load flow analysis when the
VCR was active.

Initial

Enter the initial tap position if you are not using the Use last load flow
option.

Final

Final tap position at the end of the simulation.

Buck/Boost

Range of voltage covered.

Is slave

When connected in parallel, checkmark this option to enter a Master Id


for the two-winding transformer.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Master Id

When two transformers are connected in parallel, one of them may


be chosen as Master and the control settings (fixed-tap, terminal, load
center, R-X settings) defined for it. The other transformer may be
designated as Slave by:
1. Selecting the Is Slave option in the Parallel Operation group box
(see illustration above)
2. Specifying the Master transformer section ID
The Slaves controls are locked with the Master control in a load flow
calculation
(e.g., Voltage Drop).

If you have the Transient Stability module installed, you will notice that the Load Tap
Changer item in the Devices tree list can be expanded to reveal the Stability Model settings
group box. This element is discussed in the Transient Stability Analysis Users Guide.
5.2.4

Transformer Meter Settings

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Location

To indicate on which side (Primary or Secondary) of the twowinding transformer the meter is connected.

Diversity

Calculates the diversity factors based on the demands of each of


the feeders and the transformer demand. The value calculated is
displayed in the Diversity field.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

Total

28

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.


To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the
different consumer categories.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for
information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer
type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and


displays the meter profile.
5.2.5

By Phase Settings

The transformer by-phase settings dialog box is to model a configuration of single-phase


transformers of different ratings. It is also the only model that permits the modeling of center tap
connections. To add this type of transformer configuration in the network, click the Add button in
the Devices group box of the Section Properties dialog box and select the Transformer ByPhase from the pop up menu.
If you need to model loads connected to a center tap, you need to define a transformer
by-phase upstream of the load and enable the phases where a center tap connection is present.

5.2.6

Single-phase Two-wire Configurations


CYME supports the four practical configurations for a single-phase transformer:

Ygrd - D

Ygrd - Ygrd

Ygrd (Wye-grounded) means single-phase, two wires, grounded.

D (Delta) means single-phase, two wires, ungrounded.


Single-phase
Ygrd Ygrd

30

D-D

D - Ygrd

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a singlephase section.

Downstream sections are connected to the same phase as the


primary.

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Ygrd.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Single-phase
Ygrd D

Single-phase
D Ygrd

The secondary of this transformer is a two-wire ungrounded system


(single-phase Delta). CYME reports the current on one wire only
since the other carries the same current.

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a singlephase section.

Downstream sections are connected to the same phase as the


primary.

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Delta (D).

The primary of this transformer is connected between two phases


(AB, BC or CA).

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a twophase section.

Downstream sections and loads must be single-phase. See


table below.

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Ygrd.
Primary phases

Secondary phase

Load phase
A

AB

BC

CA

Example: If the primary side is connected between phases A and B,


any load or section connected to the secondary must be
connected to phase A.
Single-phase
DD

The secondary of this transformer is a two-wire ungrounded system


(single-phase Delta). Although you connect the load to only one
phase, it is in fact connected between the two wires. CYME reports
the current on one wire only since the other carries the same current.

The primary of this transformer is connected between two phases


(AB, BC or CA).

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a twophase section.

Downstream sections and loads must be single-phase. See table


below.
Primary phases

Secondary phase

Load phase

AB

BC

CA

Example: If the primary side is connected between phases A and B,


any load or section connected to the secondary must be
connected to phase A.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Delta (D).

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Example: The main feeder is a 3-phase section (phase ABC). The


lateral starts with a two-phase section (phase AB) and a
single-phase transformer D-D is set at the end of this
section. The downstream section from the transformer is
a single-phase section (phase A) and the delta load is
connected at the end of this section on phase A.

5.2.7
5.2.7.1

Three-phase Configurations
Common Configurations
The common configurations for three phase transformations are Wye-Wye (Y-Y),
Wye-Delta (Y-D), Delta-Wye (D-Y) and Delta-Delta (D-D). The transformation could be
realized by placing three single-phase transformers or one three-phase transformer.
The phase shift is in reference with the primary side and is clockwise.
Three-Phase
Ygrd Y grd

Three-Phase
DD

Three-Phase
Ygrd D

Three-Phase
DY

32

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (YNyn1)

The primary and the secondary of this transformer must be


connected to a three-phase section.

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Delta (D) or Wye (Y). If load configuration is set to Wye
grounded (Ygrd), CYME sees the load as Delta (D).

Phase shift:
o Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (Dd0)

The primary and the secondary of this transformer must be


connected to a three-phase section.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down Transformer: 30 (Ygd1)
o Step-Up Transformer: -30 (Ygd11)

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down Transformer: 30 (Dy1)
o Step-Up Transformer: -30 (Dy11)

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Three-Phase
D Ygrd

5.2.7.2

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

This configuration should be use only with balanced network.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down Transformer: 30 (Dyg1)
o Step-Up Transformer: -30 (Dyg11)

Other Configurations
Other configurations supported in CYME:
Three-Phase
Ygrd Y

Three-Phase
Ygrdo Do

Three-Phase
Do Do

Three-Phase
YD

Three-Phase
Y Y and

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

This configuration is valid only when running a Balanced Voltage


Drop.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (Ygy0)

The primary and the secondary of this transformer must be


connected to a three-phase section.

CYME will not calculate the current for a short-circuit on the


secondary of an open-wye transformer.

CYME will not use the third phase on the primary side and will
not report any current on it.

Phase shift:
o Step-Down Transformer: 30 (Yodo1)
o Step-Up Transformer: -30 (Yodo11)

The opened phases must be specified (AB, BC or CA).

The downstream section on the secondary side must be threephase

Phase shift:
o Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (Dodo0)

The primary and the secondary of this transformer must be


connected to a three-phase section.

The load configuration downstream from this transformer must be


set to Delta (D) or Wye (Y). If load configuration is set to Wye
grounded (Ygrd), CYME sees the load as Delta (D).

Phase shift:
o Step-Down Transformer: 30 (Yd1)
o Step-Up Transformer: -30 (Yd11)

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

Phase shift:
o

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (Yy0)

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Three-Phase
Y Ygrd

The primary of this transformer must be connected to a threephase section.

This configuration in valid only when running a Balanced Voltage


Drop.

Phase shift:
o

ZigZag

Step-Down and Step-Up Transformer: 0 (Yyg0)

One end of each phase winding is connected to a common point


(neutral point).

Each phase winding consists of two parts in which phasedisplaced voltages are induced.

5.3

Two-winding Auto-transformer

5.3.1

Two-winding Auto-transformer Properties

An auto-transformer is a transformer where both the input and output circuit are sharing
the same winding. Therefore, there is no isolation between them. A two winding transformer can
be connected as an auto-transformer.
5.3.1.1

34

General Tab

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Transformer
Type

Three types are available: Single-phase, Three-phase Shell and


Three-phase Core. The latter requires three sets of zero-sequence
values compared to one for the other two types.

Nominal
Rating

Total kVA for 3-phase Type auto-transformer or per phase for 1phase Type.

Primary
Voltage

kV line-to-line.

Secondary
Voltage

kV line-to-line. For any winding of a 1-phase auto-transformer


which is connected line-to-ground, enter (line-ground voltage) x 3.

No load
losses

kW Total for 3-phase and kW per Phase for 1-phase.

Reversible

If Reversible is not active, then you will be prevented from closing


any switch that would direct power flow from the auto-transformer
secondary side to its primary side.

Sequence
Impedances

Positive-sequence Impedance Z1 in percent on auto-transformer


kVA base, zero-sequence Impedance Z0 in percent on autotransformer kVA base, positive sequence (X1/R1) and zerosequence (X0/R0) ratios.
If you click on the Default button, CYME will suggest typical values
for Z1, Z0 and X/R based on the kVA and primary voltage.
In a three-phase core transformer, zero-sequence impedance and
ratio are required for the following combinations: primarysecondary, primary-magnetizing, secondary-magnetizing.

Grounding
Impedances

Grounding resistance and reactance for the grounding connection.

Configuration

YG connection only.

Note:

5.3.1.2

If you connect a 1-phase unit to a 2-phase or 3-phase section, identical


transformers will be installed in each phase.

Load Tap Changer (LTC) Tab

The data for the on-Load Tap Changer (LTC) should be set to zero unless the
auto-transformer is equipped with such a device.
CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.3.2

36

Bandwidth

Is the tolerance on the voltage that the LTC must maintain; in percent
of the base voltage. (see 5.3.2 Two-winding Auto-transformer Settings)

Taps

Is the number of discrete tap positions in the LTC.

Maximum /
Minimum
Range

Is the range of voltage boost/buck covered by the taps.

Two-winding Auto-transformer Settings

Primary

To indicate on which node the primary of the auto-transformer is


connected.

Fault
Indicator

To indicate via a signal that the fault is located downstream of the


device. The Reliability Assessment Module (RAM) uses this
parameter. See the Reliability Analysis Users Guide.

Fixed Tap
Group Zone

To enter primary and secondary taps setting of this particular autotransformer, either to raise or lower the voltage.

Grounding
Impedance

Grounding resistance and reactance for the grounding connection.

Configuration

YG connection only.

System Base
Voltage

To define the primary and or secondary base voltage. Mark check


User defined to enable voltage field.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.3.3

Auto-transformer Meter Settings

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Location

To indicate on which side (Primary or Secondary) of the twowinding auto-transformer the meter is connected.

Diversity

Calculates the diversity factors based on the demands of each of


the feeders and the transformer demand. The value calculated is
displayed in the Diversity field.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the


different consumer categories.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for
information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer
type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays the meter profile.

38

CHAPTER 5 TRANSFORMERS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.4

Transformer Three-winding

A three-winding transformer is capable of tap changing under load, to try to maintain a


desired voltage at a particular bus.
5.4.1
5.4.1.1

Three-winding Transformer Properties


General Tab

Nominal
Rating

Transformer total kVA.

Rated
Voltage

Enter the voltage in kV Line-Line for the primary, the secondary and
the tertiary sides.

Prim-Sec

Measured from primary to secondary, in per-unit on primary base


power.

Prim-Ter

Measured from primary to tertiary, in per-unit on primary base


power.

Sec-Ter

Measured from secondary to tertiary, in per-unit on primary base


power.

Z1

Positive sequence impedance in %.

Z0

Zero-sequence impedance in %.

X0/R0, X1/R1

The ratio of the reactance to the resistance.

Phase Shift

The angle by which one side leads the other.

Configuration

There are three types of winding connection: GY, Y, D

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5.4.1.2

40

Rg, Xg

Grounding impedances (in ohms) for the grounding connection of the


primary/secondary and the tertiary, respectively. (Applies to GY
winding connection only.)

No load
Losses

The core losses plus winding losses at no-load, in kW.

Load Tap Changers Tabs

Load Tap
Changer

Mark check to enable the parameters below.

Lower / Upper
Bandwidth

Lower and upper tolerance on the voltage that the LTC is to


maintain in %.

Minimum/
Maximum range

Is the range of voltage boost/buck covered by the taps. To fix the


tap at a certain value, set Min = Max.

Number of taps

The number of (equal) taps into which the voltage range is


divided. It is usually an odd number, to provide a center tap.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.4.2

Three-winding Transformers Settings

Primary Tap

Tap setting at the primary of the transformer.

Secondary Tap

Tap setting at the secondary of the transformer.

Primary

The primary base voltage in kV.

Secondary

The secondary base voltage in kV.

Tertiary

The tertiary base voltage in kV.

User defined

Mark check to enable and modify the corresponding system


base voltage.

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5.4.3

First / Second Load Tap Changer

If you entered data for a Load Tap Changer when you created the three-winding
transformer in the equipment database, then the Load Tap Changer sub-layers will appear
directly under the Three-Winding Transformer At Middle layer.

Location

To indicate on which side of the transformer the Load Tap Changer is


connected. For the First Load Tap Changer, it is Primary or
secondary.
For the Second Load Tap Changer, it is always tertiary.

Mode

The different methods to obtain the settings for the transformer. See
Operating Mode in chapter 4.3 Regulator Control.

At Node

Enabled when the mode Load Center is selected. Location for which
the LTC will control the voltage.

LDC
settings

R:

Resistive voltage drop on the line between the transformer and


the load location.

X:

Reactive voltage drop on the line between the transformer and


the load location.

They represent the voltage drop on the line when the line is carrying
CT-rated primary current.

42

Set Voltage

These values are in percentage of the system base voltage at the


secondary of the transformer.

Use last
load flow

To consider the last position of tap after a load flow analysis when the
LTC was active.

Initial

Enter the initial tap position if you are not using the Use last load flow
option.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Final

Final tap position at the end of the simulation.

Buck/Boost

Range of voltage covered.

Is slave

When connected in parallel, checkmark this option to enter a Master Id


for the three-winding transformer.

Master Id

When two transformers are connected in parallel, one of them may


be chosen as Master and the control settings (fixed-tap, terminal, load
center, R-X settings) defined for it. The other transformer may be
designated as Slave by:
1. Selecting the Is Slave option in the Parallel Operation group box
(see illustration above)
2. Specifying the Master transformer section ID.
The Slaves controls are locked with the Master control in a load flow
calculation. (e.g., Voltage Drop).

5.5

Three-winding Auto-transformer

5.5.1

Three-winding Auto-transformer Properties

5.5.1.1

General Tab

Nominal
Rating

Auto-transformer total kVA.

Rated
Voltage

Enter the voltage in kV Line-Line for the primary, the secondary and
the tertiary sides.

Z1

Positive sequence impedance in %.

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5.5.1.2

44

Z0

Zero-sequence impedance in %.

X0/R0, X1/R1

The ratio of the reactance to the resistance.

Configuration

Primary-Secondary connection in GY or Y, tertiary in D.

Rg, Xg

Grounding impedances (in ohms) for the grounding connection of the


primary/secondary. (Applies to GY winding connection only.)

No load
Losses

The core losses plus winding losses at no-load, in kW.

Load Tap Changers Tabs

Load Tap
Changer

Checkmark to enable the parameters below.

Lower / Upper
Bandwidth

Lower and upper tolerance on the voltage that the LTC is to


maintain in %.

Minimum/
Maximum range

Is the range of voltage boost/buck covered by the taps. To fix the


tap at a certain value, set Min = Max.

Number of taps

The number of (equal) taps into which the voltage range is


divided. It is usually an odd number, to provide a center tap.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

5.5.2

Three-winding Auto-transformers Settings

Primary Tap

Tap setting at the primary of the auto-transformer.

Secondary Tap

Tap setting at the secondary of the auto-transformer.

Primary

The primary base voltage in kV.

Secondary

The secondary base voltage in kV.

Tertiary

The tertiary base voltage in kV.

User defined

Mark check to enable and modify the corresponding system


base voltage.

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5.5.3

First / Second Load Tap Changer

If you entered data for a Load Tap Changer when you created the three-winding autotransformer in the equipment database, then the Load Tap Changer sub-layers will appear
directly under the Three-Winding Auto-Transformer At Middle layer.

Location

To indicate on which side of the auto-transformer the Load Tap


Changer is connected. For the First Load Tap Changer, it is Primary or
secondary.
For the Second Load Tap Changer, it is always tertiary.

Mode

The different methods to obtain the settings for the auto-transformer.


See Operating Mode in chapter 4.3 Regulator Control.

At Node

Enabled when the mode Load Center is selected. Location for which
the LTC will control the voltage.

LDC
settings

R:

Resistive voltage drop on the line between the auto-transformer


and the load location.

X:

Reactive voltage drop on the line between the auto-transformer


and the load location.

They represent the voltage drop on the line when the line is carrying
CT-rated primary current.

46

Set Voltage

These values are in percentage of the system base voltage at the


secondary of the auto-transformer.

Use last
load flow

To consider the last position of tap after a load flow analysis when the
LTC was active.

Initial

Enter the initial tap position if you are not using the Use last load flow
option.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Final

Final tap position at the end of the simulation.

Buck/Boost

Range of voltage covered.

Is slave

When connected in parallel, checkmark this option to enter a Master


ID for the three-winding auto-transformer.

Master Id

When two transformers are connected in parallel, one of them may


be chosen as Master and the control settings (fixed-tap, terminal, load
center, R-X settings) defined for it. The other transformer may be
designated as Slave by:
1. Selecting the Is Slave option in the Parallel Operation group box
(see illustration above)
2. Specifying the Master transformer section ID.
The Slaves controls are locked with the Master control in a load flow
calculation. (e.g., Voltage Drop).

5.6

Grounding Transformer

In many existing systems, particularly the older ones, the system neutral is not available.
You may want to use grounding transformers to create a neutral in order to ground these
systems. Basically all grounding transformers configurations aim at the same objective. They
must present high impedance to normal three-phase current and a low impedance path for the
zero-sequence currents under line-to-ground fault conditions.
5.6.1

Grounding Transformer Properties

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5.6.2

48

Rated Capacity

Transformer total kVA.

Rated Voltage

kV line-to-line.

Configuration

The configuration is either Wye-Grounded or ZigZag.

Z1

Positive-sequence Impedance in percent on transformer kVA base.

Z0

Zero-sequence Impedance in percent on transformer kVA base,

X1/R1

Positive sequence ratio.

X0/R0

Zero-sequence ratio.

Grounding Transformer Settings

Rg

Grounding resistance.

Xg

Grounding reactance.

Configuration

The configuration is either Wye-Grounded or ZigZag.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 6

6.1

Synchronous Generator

6.1.1

Synchronous Generator Properties

Generators

This chapter covers the General and the Equivalent Circuit tabs of the dialog box.
Information about the Harmonic tab can be found in the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide.
6.1.1.1

General Tab

Notes:

1. 3-phase synchronous generators only are allowed.


2. The reactive power output will be fixed by the power factor if the
generator is not individually set to control its voltage. If it is controlling
its voltage, then the Max and Min kVAR limits will apply, and the power
factor will vary.
3. The Steady State, Transient, and Subtransient impedances will be
used for the short-circuit and fault flow analysis according to the shortcircuit parameters setting.

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Rated Voltage

The generator nameplate voltage, in kV.

Active
Generation

This is only a default value. The value that will be used is defined in
the Synchronous Generator Settings.

Power factor

It could be positive or negative. A positive power factor will indicate


that the generator generates both active and reactive power. A
negative power factor will imply that the generator generates active
power and consumes reactive power.

Configuration

There are three types of winding connection: GY, Y, D

Reactive Power
Max / Min

When the generator consumes reactive power these values can be


entered as positive in the dialog box, but during load flow
calculation, the generator will absorb reactive power instead of
generating it.

Z (R, X)

Steady state impedance may be given in per-unit on the generators


kVA base or in Ohms.

Z (R, X)

Transient impedance may be given in per-unit on the generators


kVA base or in Ohms.

Z (R, X)

Subtransient impedance may be given in per-unit on the generators


kVA base or in Ohms.

Z0 (R0, X0)

Zero-sequence impedance may be given in per-unit on the


generators kVA base or in Ohms.

Zg (Rg, Xg)

The grounding impedance is always given in Ohms.


Click on this button to open the Impedance Estimation dialog box
where you can estimate the subtransient reactance (X), transient
reactance (X), zero-sequence reactance (X0) and ratio X/R.

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6.1.1.2

Equivalent Circuit Tab

Model

Five models are available:

Classical Model (type 1)

Salient Pole Transient Effect Only (Type 2)

Salient Pole Transient and Sub-Transient Effect (Type 3)

Round Rotor Transient Effect Only (Type 4)

Round Rotor Transient and Sub-Transient Effect (Type 5).

The number of parameters required will vary with the model


selected.
: For a better understanding of the parameters required for the
selected model, you may display its circuit diagram by
clicking on this button.
Mechanical
Data

These parameters values are required for all models. Enter either
H or J value for the inertia and the other value will be calculated
automatically.
The damping constant (KD) offers a way of introducing damping
torque, which is proportional to speed. A value of 1 to 3 p.u. is
sometimes used. However, if KD 0, and the speed of the machine
fall below its initial speed, then the active electrical power of the
machine will appear to be higher than the input mechanical power
from the prime mover. A value of KD = 0 is recommended.

Synchronous
Reactances

CHAPTER 6 GENERATORS

Xd and Xq are the synchronous reactances in the direct and


quadrature axes.

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Transient /
Subtransient
Data

Xd and Xq are the transient reactances in the direct and


quadrature axes.
Tdo and Tqo are the transient direct-axis and quadrature-axis
open-circuit time constants.
Xd and Xq are the sub transient reactances in the direct and
quadrature axes.
Tdo and Tqo are the sub transient direct-axis and quadratureaxis open-circuit time constants.

Saturation Data

EU and EL are two values of per-unit terminal voltage found on the


open-circuit saturation curve for the synchronous machine.
Typically, EU = 1.2 p.u. and EL = 1.0 p.u. See diagram below.
SGU and SGL are saturation coefficients defined in the figure
below.

Open-circuit Saturation curve

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6.1.2

Synchronous Generator Settings

You may alter all of the settings for a generator, including its status (Connected /
Disconnected).
If the generator is Connected, it produces active power equal to the amount specified in
the Active Generation field.
Control Type

Three possible values: Voltage Controlled, Fixed Generation,


Swing.

With Voltage Controlled, the machine will adjust its reactive


power to maintain the Desired Voltage at its terminals (subject
to the reactive power limits MAX and MIN).

If it is Fixed Generation then the reactive power generated


during a voltage drop calculation is a fixed amount determined
by the stated active power and power factor:

kVAR = kW

1
1
PF

A Fixed Generation type generator does not control the


voltage at any node/bus.

If it is Swing, the generator will operate as an infinite power


source.

Hint: Use the Swing option to simulate the loss of a substation.


Feeders will be supplied by generators only (no substation).
At Node

CHAPTER 6 GENERATORS

Node/Bus whose voltage is controlled by the generator. It will apply


only when the control type selected is Voltage Controlled.

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Desired Voltage

A Voltage Controlled type generator will produce the active power


specified and vary its reactive power to maintain the Desired
Voltage at the node/bus selected in field At Node.
A Swing type generator will produce (or absorb) excess power not
accounted for by other generators. It always controls the Desired
Voltage at the node/bus where it is connected.

Initial Angle

Enabled only for Swing generators, it defines the initial voltage


angle for all node/bus in an analysis but it is fixed for Swing
generators. Optional, its value may be set to 0.
Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays, if available, the consumption profile of the customer which
Id is shown.

Model as a
power system
unit

This option refers to short-circuit analysis based on IEC 60909-0


Standard. It means that the generator will be considered as a power
system unit as far as there is one step-up transformer connected to
its terminal bus and also the option Apply impedance correction
factors to Power station units (PSU) located in the IEC
Parameters tab of the IEC Short Circuit Analysis Dialog is
checked.

If you have the Transient Stability module and the Harmonic module installed, you will
notice that the Synchronous Generator item in the Devices tree list can be expanded to reveal
the Stability and Harmonic models. These models are discussed respectively in the Transient
Stability Analysis Users Guide and Harmonic Analysis Users Guide.

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6.2

Induction Generator

6.2.1

Induction Generator Properties

6.2.1.1

General Tab

Notes:

1. 1-phase, 2-phase and 3-phase induction generators are allowed.


2. With the induction generator, only subtransient impedance will be
involved and it will be used in short-circuit and fault flow analyses when
the generator impedance setting is subtransient.

Rated Voltage

Rated Voltage is the generator nameplate voltage, in kV.

Active
Generation

This is only a default value. The value that will be used is defined in
the Induction Generator Settings.

Power factor

It could be positive or negative. A positive power factor will indicate


that the generator generates both active and reactive power. A
negative power factor will imply that the generator generates active
power and consumes reactive power.

ANSI Motor
Group

Select Automatic to let CYME estimate the group according to other


motor parameters or select one group from 2, 3, 4, or 5.

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Compute from
the Equivalent
Circuit / User
Defined

If you select the User Defined option, you may either type directly
the R and the X values in their respective data field or use the
Estimate function to estimate the subtransient impedance.

R, X

Subtransient impedance may be given in per-unit on the generators


kVA base or in Ohms. These values can be estimated with the
appropriate estimation function.

If you select the alternative option, R and X values will be calculated


according to the values you set for the parameters found in the
Equivalent Circuit tab. If you dont know the values then you can
use the Estimate function.

Click on this button to open the Impedance Estimation dialog box


where you can estimate the subtransient impedance (R, X).

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6.2.1.2

Equivalent Circuit Tab

Rotor Type

Three types are available: Single circuit, Double circuit and Deep
bar. The equivalent circuit diagram is shown for each selected type.

Estimation
Method

Locked Rotor / Full Load Test

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Locked Rotor / No Load Test

Nominal Conditions Known

Starting Conditions Known

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Stator /
Magnetizing /
Rotor
Impedance

If these parameters values are known, you may type them directly in
the fields provided. Otherwise, use the estimation function. Select
the estimation method for which you have data, and click on the
Estimate button. These values may be given in per-unit on the
generators kVA base or in Ohms.

Cage Factor

Cage factor CFr and Cage factor CFx allows taking into account
skin and proximity effects. See the appropriate equivalent circuit
diagram.

Inertia of all
rotating mass

Enter either H or J value and the other will be calculated


automatically.
Click on this button to open the dialog box where you can estimate
the impedances.

The dialog box displayed will vary depending on the estimation


method selected (See Estimation Method above).

6.2.2

Induction Generator Settings

Status

The generator status (Connected, Disconnected)

Active
Generation

The active power produced by the generator.

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Power factor

It could be positive or negative. A positive power factor will indicate


that the generator generates both active and reactive power. A
negative power factor will imply that the generator generates active
power and consumes reactive power.
Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and displays
the generator profile.

If you have the Harmonic module installed, you will notice that the Induction Generator
item in the Devices tree list can be expanded to reveal the Harmonic model. This model is
discussed in the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide.
Note:

Induction generator cannot have voltage control.

6.3

Electronically Coupled Generator

6.3.1

Electronically Coupled Generator Properties

Electronically coupled generators are units that are not directly connected to the system.
They are connected via inverter-based units such as HVDC links. For electronically coupled
generator, the inverter control mode is set such that, during short circuits, the source will continue to
contribute a percentage of its rated current.

60

Rated Voltage

Rated Voltage is the generator nameplate voltage, in kV.

Active
Generation

This is only a default value. The value that will be used is defined in
the Electronically Coupled Generator Settings.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

6.3.2

Power factor

It could be positive or negative. A positive power factor will indicate


that the generator generates both active and reactive power. A
negative power factor will imply that the generator generates active
power and consumes reactive power.

Fault
Contribution

Percentage of rated current the generator would contribute if a fault


occurred in the system. This is only a default value. The value that
will be used is defined in the Electronically Coupled Generator
Settings.

ANSI Motor
Group

Select Automatic to let CYME estimate the group according to other


motor parameters or select one item from 2, 3, 4, or 5.

Converter

The inverter-based unit that connects the generator to the system


(HVDC, Others).

Electronically Coupled Generator Settings

Status

The generator status (Connected, Disconnected)

Active
Generation

The active power produced by the generator.

Power factor

It could be positive or negative. A positive power factor will indicate


that the generator generates both active and reactive power. A
negative power factor will imply that the generator generates active
power and consumes reactive power.
Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and displays
the generator profile.

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Chapter 7

Motors

With CYME, you can simulate the effects of induction or synchronous motors starting in
distribution electric power systems (networks) and estimate the maximum motor size that can be
started on a given section.

7.1

Induction Motor

7.1.1

Induction Motor Properties

7.1.1.1

General Tab

Rated Power

This value may be entered as kVA, Horsepower or kW. Enter one


value and the other two will be calculated, using the power factor
and efficiency.

Rated Voltage

It is the motor nameplate voltage, in kV.

ANSI Group

Select Automatic to let CYME estimate the group according to


other motor parameters or select one item from 2, 3, 4, or 5.

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Compute from
the Locked
Rotor Data /
Compute from
the Equivalent
Circuit / User
Defined

If you select the User Defined option, you may either type directly
the R and X values in their respective data field or use the Estimate
function to estimate the subtransient impedance.
If you select the Compute from the Equivalent Circuit option, R
and X values will be calculated according to the values you set for
the parameters found in the Equivalent Circuit tab. If you dont
know the values then you can use the Estimate function.
If you select Compute from the Locked Rotor Data option, R and
X values will be calculated according to the values you set for the
parameters in group zone Locked Rotor Data.
: Click on this button to select appropriate NEMA code.
: Click on this button to load default power factor value.

R, X

They represent the subtransient impedance and they are given in


per-unit on the motors own base power. They can be expressed in
Ohms if you select this option.
This button is enabled only when you select the User Defined
option. Click on it to estimate the subtransient impedance (R, X)
from the NEMA code letter and other (American) nameplate data.
(The NEMA letter identifies the ratio of inrush starting current to
rated full-load current.)

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Locked Rotor
Data
group box

The Locked Rotor data determines the


model for the motor when it is starting.
The Starting power factor may
be estimated by clicking on this
button to load default power
factor value if necessary.
Click on this button to select
appropriate NEMA code from
the List of NEMA Codes dialog
box.

The NEMA code (from the motor nameplate) represents a range of


values of the starting kVA/HP ratio. It is for information, since only
the value entered for kVA/HP ratio will be used. A second option
is to define the locked rotor current (typically about 6 times the fullload current).
7.1.1.2

Equivalent Circuit Tab

Rotor Type

CHAPTER 7 MOTORS

Three types are available: Single circuit, Double circuit and Deep
bar. The equivalent circuit diagram is shown for each selected type.

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Estimation
Method

Locked Rotor / Full Load Test

Locked Rotor / No Load Test

Nominal Conditions Known

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Starting Conditions Known

Stator /
Magnetizing /
Rotor
Impedance

If these parameters values are known, you may type them directly in
the fields provided. Otherwise, use the estimation function. Select
the estimation method for which you have data, and click on the
Estimate button. These values may be given in per-unit on the
motors kVA base or in Ohms.

Cage Factor

Cage factor CFr and Cage factor CFx taking into account skin and
proximity effects. See the appropriate equivalent circuit diagram.

Inertia of all
rotating mass

Enter either H or J value and the other will be calculated


automatically.
Click on this button to open the dialog box where you can estimate
the impedances.

The dialog box displayed will vary depending on the estimation


method selected (See Estimation Method).

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7.1.2

7.1.3

68

Induction Motor Settings

Status

Choose the motor Status (OFF, RUNNING, or LOCKED ROTOR), and


the number of starts per day.

Starts

When RUNNING is selected, the normal motor load will be present at


the motor location. When motors are declared as running, the
contribution of these motors to the short circuit currents is neglected
because it decays quickly to zero.

Enable Load
Factor

Mark check this option so you can enter the desired load factor,
otherwise CYME will assume 100% of full load.

Loading

Percentage of full load.

Power
Factor

The load power factor of the motor when it is operating at less than full
load.

Induction Motor Starting Assistance (LRA)

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Six types of starting assistance are available. Depending on your choice, you may have
to define other parameters required by the model.
No Assistance
(Across the
Line)

Means the motor starts direct across the line (full circuit voltage is
applied to its terminals). This is the usual method.

Resistor and/or
Inductor
assistance

Places a resistor in series with the motor, to decrease the voltage


available at the motor terminals, so that the motor impedance will
draw less current. (In reality, the resistor is short-circuited after some
time delay, but this is not simulated.)
Resistance (R) and reactance (X) values are required for this type.

Capacitor
Assistance

Places a capacitor in parallel with the motor, to supply some of the


VARs drawn by the motor, and hence reduce the voltage drop.
The capacitor rating is required for this type.

AutoTransformer
Assistance

An auto-transformer steps the voltage down. (The auto-transformer


is not explicitly modeled, only its voltage ratio.) This method is used
to reduce the motors starting current, and is used to start very large
motors on weak systems. (In reality, the auto-transformer tap is
changed to 100% after some time delay, but this is not simulated.)
The Tap Position parameter is required.
If you want to take the transformer impedance into account by
checking the option Consider Auto Transformer impedance, you
will have to define:

Star-Delta
Assistance
Variable
Frequency
Starter

The Nominal Rating in kVA


The Primary Voltage in kVLL
The Nominal Z in %
The X/R Ratio .
To switch from a Delta to a Wye connection in order to reduce the
starting current.
To specify the starting current as a percentage of the nominal current
or as a percentage of the motor locked rotor current. The basic idea
is that the induction motor is fed by a variable frequency source
controlled by a Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) inverter.
System Bus

Rectifier

PWM Inverter
Istart

IM

Motor fed by PWM inverter with constant V/F control

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If you have the Harmonic Analysis, the Transient Stability Analysis or the Dynamic Motor
Starting modules installed, you will notice that the Induction Motor item in the Devices tree list
expansion reveals the Starting Assistance (MSA), the Load Characteristics, the Dynamic Model,
and the Harmonic model. These models are discussed in the Transient Analysis Users Guide
and the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide. See also the Dynamic Motor Starting Users Guide for
additional information about the motors models.

7.2

Synchronous Motor

7.2.1

Synchronous Motor Properties

This chapter covers the General tab and the Equivalent Circuit tab of the dialog box.
Information about the Harmonic tab can be found in the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide.
7.2.1.1

70

General Tab

Rated Power

This value may be entered as kVA, Horsepower or kW. Enter one


value and the other two will be calculated, using the power factor and
efficiency.

Rated Voltage

Rated Voltage is the motor nameplate voltage, in kV.

Z, Z0, Z

The subtransient impedance (Z), zero-sequence impedance (Z0)


and internal impedance (saturated value Xd) can be expressed in
Ohms or in per-unit on the motors base power

Zg

The grounding impedance is always given in Ohms.

CHAPTER 7 MOTORS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Click on this button to open the Impedance Estimation dialog box


where you can estimate the subtransient impedance (R, X) and the
zero-sequence impedance (R0, X0).

7.2.1.2

Equivalent Circuit Tab

Model

CHAPTER 7 MOTORS

Five models are available:


Classical Model (type 1)
Salient Pole Transient Effect Only (Type 2)
Salient Pole Transient and Sub-Transient Effect (Type 3)
Round Rotor Transient Effect Only (Type 4)
Round Rotor Transient and Sub-Transient Effect (Type 5).
The number of parameters required will vary with the model
selected.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

For a better understanding of the parameters required for the


selected model, you may access its circuit diagram by
clicking on this button.
Mechanical
Data

These parameters values are required for all models. Enter either H
or J value for the inertia and the other will be calculated
automatically.
The damping constant (KD) offers a way of introducing damping
torque, which is proportional to speed. A value of 1 to 3 p.u. is
sometimes used to represent damping due to turbine windage and
load effects. However, if KD 0, and the speed of the machine fall
below its initial speed, then the active electrical power of the
machine will appear to be higher than the input mechanical power
from the prime mover. A value of KD = 0 is recommended.

Synchronous
Reactances

Xd and Xq are the synchronous reactances in the direct and


quadrature axes.

Transient /
Subtransient
Data

Xd and Xq are the transient reactances in the direct and


quadrature axes.
Tdo and Tqo are the transient direct-axis and quadrature-axis
open-circuit time constants
Xd and Xq are the sub transient reactances in the direct and
quadrature axes.
Tdo and Tqo are the sub transient direct-axis and quadratureaxis open-circuit time constants.

Saturation Data

EU and EL are two values of per-unit terminal voltage found on the


open-circuit saturation curve for the synchronous machine.
Typically, EU = 1.2 p.u. and EL = 1.0 p.u. See the diagram below.
SGU and SGL are saturation coefficients defined in the figure
below.

Open-circuit Saturation curve

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Allows to estimate the synchronous reactances, transient and


subtransient data in function of the stator armature impedances,
mutual reactances and leakage impedances.

7.2.2

Synchronous Motor Settings

Status

Choose the motor Status (OFF, RUNNING, or LOCKED ROTOR), and


the number of starts per day.

Starts

When RUNNING is selected, the normal motor load will be present at


the motor location. When motors are declared as running, the
contribution of these motors to the short circuit currents is neglected
because it decays quickly to zero.

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7.2.3

Rg and Xg

Represents the grounding impedance.

Enable Load
Factor

Mark check this option so you can enter the desired load factor,
otherwise CYME will assume 100% of full load.

Loading

Percentage of full load.

Power Factor

The load power factor of the motor when it is operating at less than full
load.

Synchronous Motor Starting Assistance (LRA) Settings

Six types of starting assistance are available. Depending on your choice, you may have
to define other parameters required by the model.
No Assistance
(Across the
Line)

Means the motor starts directly across the line (full circuit voltage is
applied to its terminals). This is the usual method.

Resistor and/or
Inductor
assistance

Places a resistor in series with the motor, to decrease the voltage


available at the motor terminals, so that the motor impedance will
draw less current. (In reality, the resistor is short-circuited after some
time delay, but this is not simulated.)
Resistance (R) and reactance (X) values are required for this type.

Capacitor
Assistance

Places a capacitor in parallel with the motor, to supply some of the


VARs drawn by the motor, and hence reduce the voltage drop.
The capacitor rating is required for this type.

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AutoTransformer
Assistance

An auto-transformer steps the voltage down. (The auto-transformer


is not explicitly modeled, only its voltage ratio.) This method is used
to reduce the motors starting current, and is used to start very large
motors on weak systems. (In reality, the auto-transformer tap is
changed to 100% after some time delay, but this is not simulated.)
The Tap Position parameter is required.
If you want to take the transformer impedance into account by
checking the option Consider Auto Transformer impedance, you
will have to define:

Star-Delta
Assistance

The Nominal Rating in kVA

The Primary Voltage in kVLL

The Nominal Z in %

The X/R Ratio.

To switch from a Delta to a Wye connection in order to reduce the


starting current.

If you have the Harmonic Analysis, the Transient Stability Analysis or the Dynamic Motor
Starting modules installed, you will notice that the Synchronous Motor item in the Devices tree
list expansion reveals the Starting Assistance (MSA), the Load Characteristics, the Dynamic
Model, and the Harmonic model. These models are discussed in the Transient Analysis Users
Guide and the Harmonic Analysis Users Guide. See also the Dynamic Motor Starting Users
Guide for additional information about the motors models.

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Chapter 8

Static Var Compensators (SVC)

Static Var Compensators are shunt capacitors and/or reactors which are controlled by
power electronic circuits so that the reactive power they absorb or furnish is continuously
adjustable over a given range [Qmin,Qmax]. They are used for voltage control where the
reactive power demand varies considerably.

8.1

SVC Properties

Number of
Pulse

Must be a multiple of 6.

Rated Voltage

Nominal voltage in kilovolts.

Minimum /
Maximum
Reactive Power

Lower and upper limits of VAR injection. Qmin can be negative,


so that the SVC can absorb VARs.

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8.2

78

SVC Settings

Control Type

It may be either Voltage Controlled or Fixed Shunt.

At Node

To select the node/bus controlled by the SVC.

Desired Voltage

When the control type is Voltage Controlled, it is the voltage the


SVC will try to maintain by adjusting the reactive power.

Reactive Power

When the control type is Fixed Shunt, this value will be


maintained regardless of the voltage at the node/bus selected.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 9

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

The Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) dialog box allows the modeling of four
types of wind-turbine generation systems:

WECS-IG: Induction generator directly connected with an ac grid.

WECS-HVDC: Using Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) based dc-link to couple induction


generator to an ac grid.

WECS-DFIG: Using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG).

WECS-PMSG: Full Converter Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator.

9.1

Wind Energy Conversion Systems Properties

9.1.1

Wind Turbine Tab

This tab allows entering the Wind Turbine Operating, Rotor and Drive Train data common
to all WECS models.

Rated Power

Wind turbine rated power.

Maximum
Power

Maximum power that the wind turbine can produce.

Rated Wind
Speed

Wind speed that corresponds to the wind turbine rated power.

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9.1.2

Cut-In Wind
Speed

Speed at which the wind turbine begins to produce power.

Cut-Out Wind
Speed

Highest speed at which the wind turbine stops producing power.

Number of
Blades

Number of blades, usually three. If this data is not entered, the


software will assume three.

Rotor Radius

Radius of the wind turbine blades.

Rated Speed

Wind turbine rated rotation speed.

Minimum Speed

Wind turbine minimum rotation speed.

Maximum Speed

Wind turbine maximum rotation speed.

Turbine Inertia

Wind turbine moment of inertia.

Gearbox Ratio

Ratio of generator rated synchronous speed over wind turbine


rated speed.

Spring Constant

Stiffness of the shaft linking the wind turbine to the generator.

Damping
Constant

Absorption of the shaft linking the wind turbine to the generator.

Generator Tab

This tab allows you to select the type of generator coupled to the wind turbine and to
enter the generator data common to all WECS models.

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Generator Type

9.1.3

Four types of wind turbine models are included in the library


namely:

Directly coupled constant speed induction generator.

Full converter variable speed induction generator.

Doubly fed variable speed induction generator.

Full converter variable


synchronous generator.

speed

Rated Capacity

Generator rated apparent power.

Rated Voltage

Generator nominal voltage in kilovolts.

Rated Power

Generator rated active power.

Rated Speed

Generator synchronous speed.

permanent

magnet

Generator Equivalent Circuit Tab

This tab may present two different sets of parameters. The generator type selected in
Generator tab will determine which one will be displayed.
9.1.3.1

Induction Generator Data Entry Parameters


The following interface will be displayed if you select either one of the following types:

Induction Generator Constant Speed

Full Converter Induction Generator Variable Speed

Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Variable Speed

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Rotor Type

Generator equivalent circuit. The diagram corresponding to the


selection made here will be displayed in the Equivalent Circuit
Schema group box.

Impedances

Generator equivalent circuit impedances. If these values are


known, you may type them directly in the fields provided.
Otherwise, select an estimation method for which you have data
and then click on the Estimate button (
) to open
the corresponding dialog box that will allow you to estimate the
impedances.
Cage Factors CFr and CFx provide a means to approximate
skin and proximity effects in deep-bar and double-cage
generators. The rotor resistance may be allowed to increase
linearly with slip. The rotor reactance may be allowed to
decrease slightly in the same way

Generator
Inertia
9.1.3.2

Inertia constant (H) or moment of inertia (J) of the generator.

Synchronous Generator Data Entry Parameters

The following interface will be displayed if you select the following type: Full Converter
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable Speed.

82

Xd

Synchronous reactance in the direct axis.

Xq

Synchronous reactance in the quadrature axis.

Xl

The leakage (or Potier) reactance.

Xd

Transient reactance in the direct axis.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

9.2

Xq

Transient reactances in the quadrature axis.

Td0

Transient direct axis open-circuit time constant expressed in


seconds.

Tq0

Transient quadrature axis open-circuit time constant expressed in


seconds.

Xd

Subtransient reactance in the direct axes.

Xq

Subtransient reactance in the quadrature axe.

Td0

Subtransient direct axis open-circuit time constant expressed in


seconds.

Tq0

Subtransient quadrature
expressed in seconds.

Generator
Inertia

The generator inertia is also required. It will be added to the


turbine inertia so that the sum of all rotating mass is considered
in the analysis.

axis

open-circuit

time

constant.

Wind Energy Conversion System Settings

Rated Power

Generator rated active power.

Active
Generation

Initial wind turbine generator active production.

Power Factor

Initial wind turbine generator power factor.

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9.3

Blade Pitch Control Settings

Enable Active
Blade Pitch
Control

To activate the blades pitch control in the simulation.

Bmin

Minimum blades pitch angle.

Bopt

Optimal blades pitch angle.

Bmax

Maximum blades pitch angle.

Bratemax

Maximum rate of change of the blades pitch angle.

Actuator time constant.

Proportional gain.

Power
Coefficient
Curve

Power coefficient versus tip speed ratio curve.


You have the option to use the curve equation, which will apply
the blades pitch angle coefficients and parameters T and K
entered on the left hand side of the dialog box to calculate the
curve.
You can also input the curve points corresponding to the
minimum, maximum and optimal pitch angles parameters as well
as the tip speed ratio ().
Refer to the Transient Stability Analysis Users Guide for more
details about the wind turbine network settings.

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9.4

Voltage Source Converter Settings

VSC Rating

Voltage Source Converter kVA or MVA rating.

DC capacitor

DC capacitor capacitance value.

Rated DC
Voltage

Voltage Source Converter rated DC voltage.

Grid-Side
Coupling
Resistance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer resistance.

Grid-Side
Coupling
Inductance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer inductance.

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9.4.1

Full Converter Control Settings

The following dialog is displayed if the WECS generator type is either Full converter
variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generator or Full converter variable speed
induction generator.

Enable Converter
Control

Activate grid-side converter control in the simulation.

References
Setting

Reactive power output and DC voltage references settings.

Gains in Control
of GSC

Proportional and integral gains of the grid-side converter


control.
: To display the inverter diagram.

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9.4.2

Doubly-Fed Converter Control Settings

The following dialog is displayed if the WECS generator type is Doubly fed variable
speed induction generator.

Enable Converter
Control

Activate grid-side converter control in the simulation.

References Setting

Reactive power output and DC voltage references settings.

Gains in Control of
GSC

Proportional and integral gains of the grid-side converter


control.
: To display the inverter diagram.

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9.5

Wind Model Settings

Wind Model

You can select a constant speed over time wind model or select
from the drop down list a model among the ones available from
the Wind Model Library. Click on
model selected in the drop down list.

to view the details of the

Refer to the Transient Stability Analysis Users Guide for all


information about creating, deleting, renaming and editing wind
speeds patterns in the Wind Model Library.
The Cut-in and the Cut-out wind speeds are properties
pertaining to the wind turbine and are set in the Equipment >
Wind Energy Conversion Systems dialog box (see 9.1.1 Wind
Energy Conversion Systems Properties ).
Overwrite Wind
Speed at T=0

88

This option applies to the wind model selected from the Wind
Model Library. Enabling it overwrites the wind speed at T=0 and
replaces it with the initial value as computed from the electrical
power.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 10

Micro-turbines

The Micro-Turbine co-generation consists of a single rotating shaft, with the generator,
air compressor, and turbine mounted on air bearings. The shaft operates at high speed without
any lubrication and it rotates between 15000 and 90000 RPM.
The generator provides a high frequency AC voltage source (angular frequencies up to
10000 rad/sec).
This high frequency can only be provided by permanent magnet synchronous generators
(PMSG). The connection of this PMSG to the grid requires a power electronic interface. This
interface consists of an AC to DC rectifier, a DC bus with a capacitor and a DC to AC inverter.

The generator and the rectifier can be modeled as a 3-phase, full-wave diode bridge
rectifier with the AC source being the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The
equivalent circuit of the generator is represented by an AC source with 3-phase balanced field
voltages

behind a synchronous reactance


G e n e ra to r
e q u iv a le n t c irc u it

ea

Rs , Ls

AC

eb

um1 2

vm a
Rs , Ls

AC

ec

vm b
Rs , Ls

im

i sa
D 11

D 21

D 31

isb

u m23

isc

D 12

D 22

D 32

AC

vm c

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

10.1 Micro-turbine Properties

Governor &
Turbine Data

Lets you specify governor proportional control gain (Kp),


governor integral control gain (KI) and turbine time constant.
: Click this button to see the Governor and Turbine block
Diagram

90

Turbine &
Generator
Inertia

Inertia constant (H) or moment of inertia (J) of


generator.

Permanent
Magnet
Generator Data

Recommended value and value range for the parameters.

Rated Capacity: 30 to 400 KVA;

Rated Voltage: 480 V;

Rated Power: 30 to 400 KW;

Rated Speed: 15,000 to 90,000 r.p.m;

Synchronous reactance: 0.1 to 0.2 p.u;

turbine and

CHAPTER 10 MICRO-TURBINES

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

10.2 Micro-turbine Settings

Rated Power

Indicated only as a reminder to help you specify active generation


value

Active
Generation

Active Generation should be inferior or equal to the Rated Power.

10.3 Voltage Source Converter Settings

VSC Rating

Voltage Source Converter kVA rating.

DC Capacitor

DC capacitor capacitance value.

Rated DC Voltage

Voltage Source Converter rated DC voltage.

Grid-side Coupling
Resistance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer resistance.

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Grid-side Coupling
Inductance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer inductance

10.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings

Enable Converter
Control

Activate grid-side converter control in the simulation.

Reference Setting

Reactive power output and DC voltage references settings.

Gains in Control of
GSC

Proportional and integral gains of the grid-side converter


control.
: To display the inverter diagram.

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Chapter 11

Photovoltaic

The Photovoltaic (PV Generation) technology uses semiconductor cells (wafers), each
of which is basically a large area p-n diode with the junction positioned close to the top surface.
The PV effect results in the generation of direct voltage and current from the solar light being
captured by the cell.
A simple structure of a PV system can be considered as PV cells connected directly to
the DC bus. Therefore, the only remaining control available is the DC bus voltage.

i pv = i m

PV Cell

imr

us

Cdc

DC Bus

Inverter

Network Filter

The data required for the representation of PV Generation systems and their dynamics
are as follows:

Database as per manufacturers specification

Number of cells per Row and the number of parallel rows since cells are assembled
in arrays to generate sufficient voltage and current for the desired Power generation.

Grid side converter rating and controls.

Insolation model to represent the solar energy.

CHAPTER 11 - PHOTOVOLTAIC

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11.1 Photovoltaic Properties

A few words about the basics should provide a better understanding of the parameters
found in this dialog box.
Manufacturers provide the values of Impp, Vmpp, Isc, Voc and I vs V characteristic
parameters at Standard Test Conditions (TSTC = 250C and GSTC = 1 000 W/m).
A typical I vs V characteristic of a PV cell is shown in the following figure.

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The cell temperature (Tc ) will vary with the ambient temperature Ta and the insolation G
according to the following linear equation:

Tc = Ta +

G
(NOCT Ta,ref
800

Where NOCT is the Normal Operating Cell Temperature and

Ta , ref the

Reference Ambient Temperature.


When the temperature and the insolation change for example to

Tc and G respectively,

the new values of current and voltage for the PV cell are calculated as follows:

i pv = i pv ,STC + i
u pv = u pv , STC + u
Variations in current ( i ), voltage ( u ) and temperature ( Tc ) are derived as
follows:

G
i = scT
GSTC

Tc +
1 I SC ,STC

GSTC

u = ocT Tc R s i
Tc = Tc TSTC
The short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage will vary with temperature as follows:

Isc = I sc (1 + T )
Voc = Voc (1 + T )
Where I sc and Voc represent respectively the short-circuit current and
open-circuit voltage at Standard Test Conditions. Note that both values
are given by the manufacturer.
Since the theoretical maximum power (Pmax ) is given by the equation:

Pmax = Isc Voc


Replacing Isc and Voc by their values shows that Pmax will also vary with the
temperature according to the following equation:

Pmax = I sc (1 + T ) Voc (1 + T )

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After regrouping terms and factoring out I scVoc , the equation becomes:

Pmax = I scVoc 1 + ( + )T + T 2

Considering the order of magnitude of the values and involved (typical values are
shown in the table below), the quadratic term

( ) can be neglected. Thus


2

Pmax can be

expressed as:

Pmax = I scVoc (1 + ( + )T )

Typical and values for PV cell

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11.2 Photovoltaic Settings

Number of
seriesconnected PV
panels

The following example shows 4 panels connected in series.

Number of
Parallel strings

The following example shows 3 parallel strings of seriesconnected PV panels.

PV Array Rated
Power

The maximum output power from the PV array is calculated as


follows:
Pmax = Ns x Np x Impp x Vmpp
A given solar module will have an I-V curve representing a range
of possible operating points.

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The inverter is the device that decides which operating point will
provide the most power output based on that I-V curve, and
controls the output from the array accordingly. This operating
point is called the Maximum Power Point (MPP).
Initial Active
Generation

Initial output power delivered at grid-side

Ambient
Temperature

Ambient temperature is one among a variety of changing and


uncertain conditions that can affect the I-V curve and therefore
the power output of PV systems.

11.3 Voltage Source Converter Settings

98

VSC rating

Voltage Source Converter kVA or MVA rating.

DC Capacitor

DC capacitor capacitance value.

Rated DC
Voltage

Voltage Source Converter rated DC voltage.

CHAPTER 11 - PHOTOVOLTAIC

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Grid-side
Coupling
Resistance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer resistance.

Grid-side
Coupling
Inductance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer inductance.

11.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings

Enable
Converter
Control

Activate grid-side converter control in the simulation.

References
Setting

Reactive power output and DC voltage references settings.

Gains in Control
of GSC

Proportional and integral gains of the grid-side converter control.


: To display the inverter diagram.

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11.4 Insolation Model Settings

Insolation Model

You can select a constant insolation over time model or select


from the drop down list a model among the ones available from
the Insolation Model Library. Click on
the model selected in the drop down list.

to view the details of

Refer to the Transient Stability Analysis Users Guide for all


information about creating, deleting, renaming and editing
Insolation patterns in the Insolation Model Library.
Overwrite
insolation at
T=0

100

This option applies to the insolation model selected from the


Insolation Model Library. Enabling it overwrites the insolation
value at T=0 and replaces it with the initial value as computed
from the electrical power.

CHAPTER 11 - PHOTOVOLTAIC

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 12

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a gaseous
fuel directly into electricity and are widely regarded as a potential alternative to stationary power
source.
The benefits of energy production from Fuel Cells are the high efficiency and their
environmentally friendly by-products. The chemical reaction takes place to convert hydrogen and
oxygen into water, releasing electrons (current) in the process. In other words, the hydrogen fuel
is burnt in a simple reaction to produce water and an electric current.

2H2 + O2 2H2O + 2eA typical fuel cell consists of two electrodes (anode and cathode) where the reactions
take place. The electrodes are also the mediums that the current flows between. Sandwiched
between the electrodes is an electrolyte material which the ions flow through to keep the reaction
continuous.
There are several types of fuel cells being studied at present such as alkaline, proton
exchange membrane, phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid oxide.
The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the one that is modeled in the program. SOFCs
operate at extremely high temperatures-of the order of 700 to 1000 degrees Celsius. As a result,
they can tolerate relative impure fuels, such as those obtained from the gasification of coal.
Typical representation of a SOFC is shown below.

q Hin 2

irfc

im

imr

V fc

us

Cdc

qOin2

SOFC Stack

Chopper

DC Bus

Inverter

Network Filter

The following are the assumptions in developing the dynamic model of the SOFC:
The gases are ideal.
The fuel cell is fed with hydrogen and air.
The electrode channels are small enough that the pressure drop across them is
negligible.
The ratio of pressures between the inside and outside of the electrode channels is
large enough to assume choked flow.
The fuel cell temperature is stable.
The Nernst equation will be used to determine the fuel cell output voltage.
Only the ohmic losses are considered, activation and mass transport losses are
neglected.

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Most fuel cells produce less than the application required voltage. Therefore, multiple
cells must be assembled into a fuel cell stack to boost the voltage.
r

The stack output voltage v fc is described by the Nerst equation. The ri fc term is the
ohmic loss. This is the loss due to the resistance of the electrodes and to the resistance of the
flow of O2 ions through the electrolyte.

RT p H 2 pO2
ln
V fc = N 0 E0 +
2F
PH 2O

12.1

102

ri r
fc

Symbol

Description

N0

Number of cells in series in the stack

E0

Ideal standard potential which the open cell voltage in the standard
operating conditions (temperature = 25 0C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere)

Ohm losses in the stack

R [J/kmol-K]

Universal gas constant

T [K]

Absolute temperature

F [C/mol]

Faradays constant

PH2

Partial pressure of Hydrogen

PO2

Partial pressure of Oxygen

PH2O

Partial pressure of Water

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Properties

CHAPTER 12 SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

The model takes into account all other parameters such as the molecular properties of
Hydrogen, Oxygen and chemical reaction constants so that only SOFC rated power and number
of cells in the stack are required. The potential power generated by a fuel cell stack will depend
on the number and size of the individual fuel cells that comprise the stack and the surface area of
the electrolyte membrane.

12.2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Settings

Rated Power

Indicated only as a reminder to help you specify active generation


value.

Active
Generation

Active Generation should be inferior or equal to the Rated Power.

12.3 Voltage Source Converter Settings

CHAPTER 12 SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

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VSC rating

Voltage Source Converter kVA or MVA rating.

DC Capacitor

DC capacitor capacitance value.

Rated DC
Voltage

Voltage Source Converter rated DC voltage.

Grid-side
Coupling
Resistance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer resistance.

Grid-side
Coupling
Inductance

Grid-side coupling filter or transformer inductance.

12.3.1 Full Converter Control Settings

Enable
Converter
Control

Activate grid-side converter control in the simulation.

References
Setting

Reactive power output and DC voltage references settings.

Gains in Control
of GSC

Proportional and integral gains of the grid-side converter control.


: To display the inverter diagram.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 13

Protective Devices

The Equipment menu provides for the definition of seven types of protective devices:
Fuse (section 13.1.1), LVCB (section 13.1.2), Recloser (section 13.1.3), Sectionalizer (section
13.1.4), Switch (section 13.1.5), Breaker (section 13.1.6) and Network Protector (section 13.1.7).

13.1 Protective Devices Properties


The parameters that can be set include the following ones. Some of the protective
devices may not include all characteristics listed below; see the specific sections. This chapter
covers the General tab of the dialog box. Information about the Reliability tab can be found in the
Reliability Analysis Users Guide.
General group box
Rated current

In Amps. Different Summer and Winter rated currents may be


defined for equipment in the Loading Limits tab.

Rated Voltage

In kV.

Interrupting
rating

In the short-circuit results, CYME will check the Withstand Rating


for the following cases:
y

3-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/Z1

3-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/(Z1 +Zf)

2-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL/(2*Z1 +Zf)

2-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL * Y


where Y =

a 2 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) a * Z 0 Z1
, a = e j 2 / 3
Z1 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) + Z1 * Z 0

1-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * (3*VLN)/(2*Z1 +


Z0+3*Zf)

If one of the above values is negative, the device is said to present


interrupting rating abnormal condition. However, you must enter
non-zero value for interrupting rating. If this value is zero no check
will be made.

Operation mode group box


The list of Operation modes that are available for each device will vary depending on
the type. Many of these options are data that is used by the CAM, the RAM or the
SRM modules. See the specific Users Guides for more information.

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13.1.1 Fuse
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the desired
command.

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Manufacturer

List of fuse manufacturer names available in the TCC Database.

Model

List of fuse models for the selected manufacturer. This list is not
populated if the manufacturer is Undefined.

Rating

List of rating for the selected manufacturer and model. This list is
not populated if the model is Undefined. The rating value of the
selected model is automatically copied into the rated current
fields of Nominal Rating group box.

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13.1.2 LVCB
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant
command.

Type

List of available LVCB types in the TCC database.

Manufacturer

List of LVCB manufacturer names available in the TCC Database


for the selected LVCB type.

Model

List of LVCB models for the selected type and manufacturer. This
list is not populated if the manufacturer is Undefined.

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13.1.3 Recloser
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant
command.

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Type

List of available Recloser types in the TCC database.

Control Type

List of Recloser control types available in the TCC Database for


the selected LVCB type.

Model

List of Recloser models for the selected type and control type.
This list is not populated if the manufacturer is Undefined.

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13.1.4 Sectionalizer
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant
command.

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13.1.5 Switch
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant
command.

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13.1.6 Breaker
These devices allow you to (dis)connect sections. To manipulate these devices, use the
menu command Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant
command.

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13.1.7 Network Protector


These devices are mostly used in underground secondary networks mainly grid systems
or spot networks. Typically network protectors will open on reverse power flow out of the network
and if the relay senses backward flowing current. They will close when power flows into the
secondary grid or network. To manipulate these devices, use the menu command
Edit > Open/Close, or right click on the device and select the relevant command.

Note that network protectors are handled differently in CYME depending on the analysis
involved.

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Load Flow

Network protectors are seen as relays that, on one hand, will trip
open the protector when there is a net three-phase power flow
from the network to the primary (reverse power). On the other
hand, they must ensure automatic closure of the protector when
there is a potential for a forward flow of power into the secondary
network.

Short-circuit

Network protectors have zero impedance.

Contingency

Network protectors associated with involved feeders must be


opened. To accelerate the analysis, it is recommended that, at
the beginning, you open these network protectors even if the
Secondary Load Flow method has built-in capacity to address
this restriction.

Protection &
Coordination

Network protectors are seen as Definite Time Relay with


Operating Mode set to primary. That means you will have to
provide the primary pick-up current which is the minimum current
which will cause the relay to act. NOTE: Not implemented yet.

Other Analysis

Network protectors are seen as a protective device such as a


recloser.

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13.2 State Settings


The settings available for each of the Protective Devices equipment types are as follows:

Normal Infeed

Identifies / defines the node normally feeding this device. This


value will be used to determine if the device is reversed or not.
Use Undefined to ignore this validation.

Open / Close
buttons

Open or close all phases at once. Use the radio buttons to open or
close the desired phases.

Locked

If you enable the Locked check box, you will not be able to open
(or close) the fuse with the Edit > Open/Close command.

Restoration
group box

The Strategic check box allows filtering the switching devices. A


strategic device is a protective device that is identified as strategic
on the basis of its role in a pick up scenario. This attribute is also
used by the optional Contingency Analysis module for N-1
analyses.
The attribute Strategic can only be applied individually to devices
using this check box.
Note that there are keywords that can be used to identify the
devices specified as strategic. You can use these keywords, for
example, to prepare a display layer that will highlight them (see
Customize > Device View; explanations in the Customize
chapter of the CYME Reference Manual).

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13.3 Operation Settings


The operation settings available related to the operation of the protective devices vary
depending on the device. The Reliability Assessment Module (RAM) uses this data. See the
Reliability Analysis Users Guide.

13.4 Meter Settings


For the purpose of Load Allocation, you can optionally attach meter readings to any
protective devices; you can also indicate the utilization factors for this location.

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

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Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

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To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for


information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer
type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the
different consumer categories.
See also Analysis > Load Allocation.
Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays, if available, the consumption profile of the customer
which Id is shown.

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13.5 TCC Settings


A TCC setting describes the adjustments made to an individual protective device (fuse,
LVCB or recloser) that is connected to a section of your network. Options will be enabled or
disabled depending on the equipment type.

Information
Group Box

These parameters are given only as a reminder.


They
characterize the protective device selected in the drop down list
Id:.

Settings

For reclosers; if you have CYMTCC installed; along with the


nominal settings, you may select among ten alternate pickups.
Will open the TCC protection coordination dialog box for the
selected device with its settings, so that you may inspect and
adjust its settings as well as create a new standard setting.
Note:

You do not need to have CYMTCC installed in order to


use this command. However, with CYMTCC, you will be
able to perform more extensive protection analyses.

See also Analysis > Protective Device Coordination > Reach


and Load Criteria.
The field below the Settings field and button will display a
description coming from the TCC database that corresponds to
the protective device identified.

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Pickup

Use Alternate
Pickups

To enter the pickup current.

Short Circuit can identify downstream sections where the


fault level is insufficient to activate the device. See Report >
On calculation, Protection Minimum Fault Summary
report.

Voltage Drop will use the Phase Pick-up value in place of the
rated current when detecting overload conditions. (See
Analysis > Load Flow, Loading/Voltage Limits Tab (see the
CYME Basic Analysis Users Guide)

Pickup currents different than the ones defined in TCC can be


used for reclosers. Option available only if CYMTCC is not
installed.

13.6 Relay Settings


This setting applies only to network protector devices.

Trip Mode

Four modes are available:


Remote: The network protector tripping is controlled from a
remote location. No parameter is required
Sensitive: This is the normal functioning mode for Load Flow
Analysis. Any reverse power flow from the network to the primary
that causes a current greater than the Reverse trip value will trip
open the network protector relay. Otherwise, the network protector
status will be determined by the parameters values specified in the
Close functions group zone when selecting Normal Reclose as
the closing mode.
Time Delay: Tripping is based on the duration of reclosing
condition. If you are not using the Stability module, this mode is

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equivalent to choosing the Sensitive mode since the parameter


Time Delay becomes irrelevant.
Insensitive: This mode applies to Protection and Coordination.
The network protector will behave like a definite time relay with
operating mode set to primary. The parameter Over Current is
required to establish the relay pick up current. NOTE: Not
implemented yet.
CT Ratio

Current transformer ratio (Primary value : Secondary value). In the


illustration the primary value is set to 800 and the secondary value
to 5.

Reverse Trip

Set point in % of the current transformer primary rating. The


network protector will open if reverse current above this threshold
is detected. In the illustration above, the threshold will be set at 1.6
Amp.

Time Delay

Trip condition must remain for this period before tripping is issued.
This parameter will be used in stability analysis.

Over Current

Primary pick-up current which is the minimum current which will


cause the relay to trip.

Closing Mode

Two modes are available: Remote Block and Normal Reclose.


Remote block: the network protector reclosing is controlled from
a remote location. No parameter is required.
Normal Reclose: It is based on straight closing curve method. In
this mode, the close contact will close only in the quadrant or zone
defined by the two lines termed master and phasing as
determined by their offset and angle values. The values DV
(representing the difference between the voltage from the
transformer side and the voltage from the secondary network side)
and P (representing the intersection point in (x,y) coordinates) are
calculated. Then a translation DV = DV P is applied to get a
new DV vector: DV in the (0,0) coordinates. If the angle of DV
lies between the phasing angle and the master angle, then the
initial DV is in the Must Close zone.

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Phasing Offset

Offset of the phasing line in Volts.

Phasing Angle

Angle of the phasing line in degrees.

Master Offset

Offset of the master line in Volts.

Master Angle

Angle of the master line in degrees.

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Chapter 14

Miscellaneous Equipment

14.1 Miscellaneous Equipment Properties


If you have unknown or unique equipments, you can mark their location on the network
by using Miscellaneous equipment markers. You can give each instance a meaningful ID and a
description. This type of device has only basic electrical characteristics. CYME does not consider
that they can operate to protect the system against failures neither that they can open nor close
the circuit. Use this function to create your own database of specialized equipments markers.

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14.2 Miscellaneous Equipment Settings


The available settings options for the Miscellaneous Equipment are its Status
(Connected, Disconnected, Bypassed) and the Fault indicator (No, Visual, Remote), along with
a Description field. The Reliability Assessment Module (RAM) uses the parameter Fault
indicator. See the Reliability Analysis Users Guide for details.

14.3 Miscellaneous Equipment Meter Settings

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

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Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

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To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for


information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer
type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the
different consumer categories.
See also Analysis > Load Allocation.
Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays, if available, the consumption profile of the customer
which Id is shown.

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Chapter 15

Lines and Cables

15.1 Overhead Line


For the balanced lines, CYME needs only the impedances (Z1 and Z0), susceptances (B1
and B0), and the ampacities (summer and winter) to associate to each Line ID. For the
unbalanced lines, CYME needs the phase impedances and susceptances and the ampacities.
Enter these values directly if you know them. If you do not, CYME can calculate them
from the conductor types and spacing arrangement on the pole.

Phase
conductor

Select from the list of available conductors (see section 15.3


Conductor)

Neutral
conductor

Choose none if there is no neutral conductor.

Spacing

Select from list of available arrangements. (see section 15.4


Spacing)

Ampacity

By default, the ampacity assigned to the phase conductor. The


categories are the ones defined at the Simulation tab in the File >
Preferences dialog box.

Equivalent
Impedances

For a balanced line, positive-sequence Z1 and zero-sequence Z0.


These values may be calculated using the chosen conductors and
spacing. (Click Calculate).
For an unbalanced line, impedance of each phase and mutual
impedance. All these values can be calculated (Calculate button)
based on the conductors selected. The susceptance (B) value may
be calculated using the conductors and spacing selected (Click
Calculate).
To consult the default parameters.
Calculates the Positive and the Zero-sequence impedances of all
types in the database.
Calculates the Positive Sequence impedances of the type selected.

You have the option to re-calculate for All Lines or just the Selected Line. You would
re-calculate for all lines if you have changed the earth resistivity.
Note:

You have to remove the safeguard ("Block Impedance Update") before you
can calculate the impedances. It should be checked by default to protect any
impedance values, which you type in directly, from being replaced by
calculated values.

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15.1.1 Overhead Line Balanced

15.1.2 Overhead Line Unbalanced

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15.2 Cable
CYME allows you to specify the parameters, the impedance and the susceptance of
three types of cables: multi-wire concentric neutral, shielded and unshielded.
15.2.1 General Tab

Z1

Positive-sequence impedance Z1 ( / km or / ft).

Z0

Zero-sequence impedance Z0 ( / km or / ft).

Susceptance

S / km or S / ft 1 S = 1 mho.

Nominal
Ampacity

Admissible current in Amps.

Withstand
Rating

In the short-circuit results, CYME will check the Withstand Rating for
the following cases:
y 3-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/Z1
y 3-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/(Z1 +Zf)
y 2-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL/(2*Z1 +Zf)
y 2-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL * Y
where Y =
y

a 2 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) a * Z 0 Z1
, a = e j 2 / 3
Z1 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) + Z1 * Z 0

1-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * (3*VLN)/(2*Z1 + Z0+3*Zf)

If one of the above values is negative, the device is said to present


withstand rating abnormal condition. However, you must enter nonzero value for withstand rating. If this value is zero no check will be
made.

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Displays the Cable Impedance Calculator dialog box where you can
specify the type of cable you are defining and to calculate the
impedance and susceptance values based on the parameters you
will enter in this dialog box.
The contents of this dialog box will vary depending on the three
choices available:
y

Multi-wire concentric neutral cable (section 15.2.2)

Shielded cable (section 15.2.3)

Unshielded cable (section 15.2.4)

15.2.2 Multi-wire concentric neutral cable

Select Circuit
Type

Options available include: 3-phases, 2-phases and 1-phase. Upon


selection of the option, its typical diagram is displayed below the
selection field to further assist in filling out the related parameter
fields. Note that the fields of parameters that you cannot edit will
be grayed out.
Indicate below the diagram the distances between the phases.
This distance is calculated from center to center.

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Insulation
Characteristics

Select the type of insulation from the drop down list. Upon
selection, its dielectric constant will be displayed. Indicate the
diameter over the insulation.
Continuous temperature rating: The maximum continuous
temperature that the cable can withstand during its lifetime.
Sc current temperature rating: The highest temperature that the
cable can withstand during an electrical short-circuit lasting up to
about half a second.
Both temperature values will be used by CYMTCC to plot the
conductors curve.

Phase
Conductor
Characteristics

Select the conductor type for the phases. Upon selection, its
characteristics will be displayed.

Neutral
Conductor
Characteristics

Select the conductor type for neutral. Upon selection, its


characteristics will be displayed.

Equivalent
Impedances

Once the cable parameters have been specified, click on the


Calculate button to calculate and display the computed
impedance and susceptance values.
If these values are
satisfactory, Click OK and CYME will copy the values back to the
original dialog box. Note that the OK button will be disabled until
you click on the Calculate button.

Note: The resistance (R) temperature value displayed for the


phase and the neutral conductor can be selected at File >
Preferences, System parameters tab. It is expressed in
Celsius (10C = 18F).

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15.2.3 Shielded cable

Select Circuit
Type

Options available include: 3-core and 3 single-core. Upon


selection of the option, its typical diagram is displayed below the
selection field to further assist in filling out the related parameter
fields. Note that the fields of parameters that you cannot edit will
be grayed out.
Indicate below the diagram the distances between the phases.
This distance is calculated from center to center.

Insulation
Characteristics

Select the type of insulation from the drop down list. Upon
selection, its dielectric constant will be displayed.
Continuous temperature rating: The maximum continuous
temperature that the cable can withstand during its lifetime.
Sc current temperature rating: The highest temperature that
the cable can withstand during an electrical short-circuit lasting
up to about half a second.
Both temperature values will be used by CYMTCC to plot the
conductors curve.

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Phase Conductor
Characteristics

Select the conductor type for the phases. Upon selection, its
characteristics will be displayed.
Note:

Sheath Bonding

The resistance (R) temperature value displayed for the


phase conductor can be selected at File > Preferences,
System parameters tab. It is expressed in Celsius (10C
= 18F).

Enabled only when the circuit type is set to 3 single core


cables. Two choices are available.
y Single point (open): The sheaths are grounded at one
location, interrupting the current path, but giving potentially
high sheath voltages.
y Two points (shorted): The sheaths are bonded to each other
and to ground at both ends of the line. Circulating currents
will flow in them, producing additional losses. Sheath currents
reduce ampacity, but the sheath voltage with respect to
ground is negligible.
From an ampacity point of view, single point bonded installations
are preferred. However, they need sheath voltage limiters to be
placed at the open end, and a ground continuity conductor is
required end-to-end.

Sheath
Characteristics

Indicate the inner radius and the outer radius of the cable. Its
geometric factor will be displayed.
The insulation thickness is enabled only when the circuit type is
set to 3-core cable. The value entered will be used to calculate
the cable impedance.

Equivalent
Impedances

CHAPTER 15 LINES AND CABLES

Once the cable parameters have been specified, click on the


Calculate button to calculate and display the computed
impedance and susceptance values.
If these values are
satisfactory, Click OK and CYME will copy the values back to the
original dialog box. Note that the OK button will be disabled until
you click on the Calculate button.

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15.2.4 Unshielded cable

Select Cable
Arrangement

Options available include: 3-conductor triangular grouping, 3conductor cradled grouping, 6-conductor bunched grouping and
generic 1-conductor. Upon selection of the option, its typical
diagram is displayed below the selection field to further assist in
filling out the related parameter fields. Note that the fields of
parameters that you cannot edit will be grayed out.
Indicate the number of neutral cables; these will be automatically
represented on the typical diagram.
Indicate below the diagram the x,y coordinates of the phases and
of the neutral. The coordinates are calculated from center to
center.

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Phase Conductor
Characteristics

Select the conductor type for the phases. Upon selection, its
characteristics will be displayed.

Neutral
Conductor
Characteristics

Select the conductor type for neutral. Upon selection, its


characteristics will be displayed.
Note: The resistance (R) temperature value displayed for the
phase and the neutral conductor can be selected at File
> Preferences, System Parameters tab. It is expressed
in Celsius (10C = 18F).

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Once the cable parameters have been specified, click on the


Calculate button to calculate and display the computed
impedance and susceptance values.
If these values are
satisfactory, Click OK and CYME will copy the values back to the
original dialog box. Note that the OK button will be disabled until
you click on the Calculate button.

Equivalent
Impedances

15.3 Conductor
The conductor types used in the specification of the lines and cables parameters are
defined here.
15.3.1 General Tab

kCMIL

Cross-sectional area of the conductor in kCMIL.

Outside
diameter

Overall diameter of the conductor.

GMR

(Geometric Mean Radius) may


usually be found in many2 reference
2
books. It is defined as the N root of the product of the N distances
between the N sub-conductors (strands) of the conductor if the
strands are identical. (Not applicable to ACSR.)

GMR = N

D
k =1 m =1

km

If k =m, Dkm = e-1/4 radius = 0.7788 radius for a cylindrical strand.

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R 25C
and
R 50C

R 25C and R 50C are two different values for the resistance at
arbitrary temperatures (most commonly 25C and 50C). If the values
of the resistances that you have available do not correspond to 25C
and 50C, then you can enter your values to be used further in the
CYME calculations. (Note that the resistances of copper and aluminum
both increase with temperature at the rate of about 4% for every 10C
rise. Recall that 10C = 18F.)
Note:

The resistance (R@ temperature) value that is displayed in the


Cables dialog boxes is selected in the File > Preferences,
System parameters tab dialog box.
In that same dialog box, appears an Outside Temperature field
that is NOT used by CYME for the R calculation. It does not
calculate based on other temperatures than 25C and 50C. It
is up to you to select which one.

Hint:

You would use the lower resistance value (that at lower


temperature) when calculating maximum short circuit current,
and the higher resistance value when calculating the worstcase voltage drop.

Nominal
Rating

Summer and winter ratings in Amps.

Withstand
Rating

In the short-circuit results, CYME will check the Withstand Rating for
the following cases:
y

3-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/Z1

3-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLN/(Z1 +Zf)

2-phase fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL/(2*Z1 +Zf)

2-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * VLL * Y


where Y =

a 2 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) a * Z 0 Z1
, a = e j 2 / 3
Z1 * ( Z1 + Z 0 ) + Z1 * Z 0

1-phase grounded fault: IWithstand Kmax * (3*VLN)/(2*Z1 + Z0+3*Zf)

If one of the above values is negative, the device is said to present


withstand rating abnormal condition. However, you must enter non-zero
value for withstand rating. If this value is zero no check will be made.

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15.4 Spacing
This dialog box is used to specify arrangements of conductors on a pole.

GMD

(Geometric Mean Distance) between phase conductors and between


phase and neutral conductors, in meters or feet.

Average
Height

Of conductors above ground, in meters or feet.

Positions
of
conductors

CYME can compute the GMD and Average Height for you if you enter
the conductor positions with respect to an arbitrary reference point
(such as the foot of the Pole). Give the horizontal and vertical
distances in meters or feet and click on "GMD Calculation".

Note:

Effect of Average Height on Voltage Drop results


If conductor spans have significant sag, you must decide whether to give the
conductor height at the pole (highest) or at the mid-point of the conductor
span (lowest). You may also use some value in between these extremes.
The lower the height, the higher is the line-to-neutral capacitance, and hence
the susceptance B0 = C.
The phase capacitance and the positive sequence B1 are increased by 1-2%
for a 10% reduction in Phase GMD (and decreased by 1-2% if the conductors
are spaced 10% further apart). Height has negligible effect on phase
capacitance.
The more capacitance in the circuit, the more kVAR support the lines give,
and the voltage will be slightly higher.

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15.5 Lines and Cables Settings


The fields in the Properties group box will change depending on the Type selected.
There are four Types of line configuration you can select.

Overhead line balanced

Overhead line unbalanced

Cable

By phase configuration (see following section 15.6 By Phase Configuration Settings).

Type

Applies the standard / global settings as defined in the Equipment


menu for each line or cable type. You may select the exact type you
need from the drop-down list.

Number

Enter a (or change the) unique identifier for the individual line or
cable (optional). Once the related window is opened, you may also
consult the other default devices part of that device type.
To display the Failure History report related to the component
selected.

Length

This field is displayed when selecting a line, a cable or a line


configuration from the Devices List.
Enter the electrical length of the section. The units of measure
may be changed via the Files > Preferences menu command,
System Parameters tab.

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Alternatively, you may compute the length from the X and Y


coordinates of the upstream and downstream nodes by clicking on
the Calculate button.
Note:

You may change the X and Y coordinates, either by typing


in the fields or by moving the node graphically (via menu
commands: Move or Rotate, or by dragging the node with
the mouse), without changing the sections electrical
length. This feature allows you to draw not-to-scale if you
prefer.
To make the electrical length match the graphical length,
click on the Calculate button. The scaling factor will be
taken into account.

ID

Select the Line ID from the pull-down list of available choices.


Hint:

Click on

to view detail information on the selected line.

Equivalent
impedance

Describes the impedance values for the line, or for the cable(s) of
the section in the case of cables.

Ampacity

For Cables only. Summer and Winter ratings; enable the relevant
User Defined checkbox to enter a different current rating for this
particular section.

15.6 By Phase Configuration Settings


When the Line Configuration Type selection is By Phase Configuration, you can select
the conductors and spacing arrangement for the section without necessarily having to use a
predefined type from the equipment database.
Click on
Spacing (see 15.4).

to view detail information on the selected Conductor (see 15.3) and or

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Check the Display Equivalent Sequence Impedances checkbox to view the calculated
impedance in sequence, uncheck the check box to view it by phase.

15.7 Spot Load and Distributed Load Settings


The use of spot/distributed is determined by your own policies and what you need to
represent. For example, some utilities model all the customers transformers individually as spot
loads, where other customers would represent a series of small identical transformers on a group
of section as one section with an equivalent distributed load.
Distributed
load
Source end
= From node

From
node

Load end
= To node
From
Equipment

To
Equipment

Conductor

To
node

Distributed loads are evenly distributed on the whole section. Spot loads can be located
at the beginning, the middle or the end of the section.
Source end
= From node

From
node

Load end
= To node
From
Equipment

To
Equipment

Spot load
at
From
node

Capacitor

Spot load

Spot load

or

at
Middle

To
node

or

at
To
Node

Capacitor

Spot Loads and Distributed Loads are added after a section has been created. This
function is only available through the Properties dialog box of the section, and both options are
selected from the drop down menu of the Add button.

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Once you have made your selection, the appropriate load parameters appear to the right
of the dialog box.
You can switch from by phase to three phase by
right clicking on the spot load item in the Devices tree list.
The fields are the same for both options, with only the
relevant ones being active, as indicated below.

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Number

The unique identification label for the load. The label can contain up
to 31 alphanumeric characters, but no blank spaces.
To display the Failure History report related to the component
selected.

Status

Connected: To indicate that the load will be taken into account.


Disconnected: Select this option to temporarily remove the load.
(All the settings will be kept).

Location

Grayed out for the Distributed Load option. Three locations for Spot
loads (At From Node, At Middle or At To Node).

Load Model

Select your Load Model from the models available. These were
created using the Load Model Manager. The customer types part of
the load model are created using the Manage Customer Type
button
. This data is saved with the self-contained study See
Network > Load Model Manager).

Customer
Type

Select from four categories (Residential, Commercial, Industrial,


Other). Used in Load Growth, Load Allocation and in Voltage Drop.
to display the
Click on the Manage Customer Type button
Customer Types dialog box where you can edit the existing
customer types and create new ones. You can also access this
function by clicking on the Customer Type Manager button in the
Load Model toolbar.

138

Year

Used in the Load Growth analysis, this the calendar year for which
the load indicated is applicable. Used in the Load Growth analysis.

Configuration

To select the appropriate connection symbol. Three types of


connection are available: GY, Y, and Delta.

Priority

Used in the Contingency Analysis and Service Restoration Modules.


You can set a Normal priority and an Emergency priority.

Load
Allocation

Three statuses are available:

Locked: If you use Load Allocation, but want to preserve the


known loads you have entered.

Unlocked: allows load to be allocated. This is the normal/default


status.

Initially Locked: load is locked at the start of Load Allocation


but can be unlocked if there are convergence problems for
example.

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Actual Load

For Spot Load - This type of load is concentrated in one location.


Enter the known load (kW and kVAR) in the top two rows for each
phase.
For Distributed Load - This kind of load is spread uniformly along
the section. Enter the known load in the top two rows for each
phase.
Note: Load Allocation
The command Analysis > Load Allocation allows you to
estimate the known load as a portion of the metered
demand, based on the connected kVA or kW-h
consumption or number of consumers.
This data serves only for Load Allocation (i.e., to obtain the
known load). The known load (kW-kVAR, kVA-PF, kW-PF) is
necessary for the analyses.

Consumption

Energy consumption in kW-h.

Connected
Capacity

kVA provided by supplier.

Customers

Number of customers.
Displays the Customer Load summary dialog box where you can
specify the load per type of customers at the same load point.

Center Tap

The percentage of the load connected on transformer center tap.


Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and displays,
if available, the consumption profile of the customer which Id is
shown, or of the customer type selected.

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Chapter 16

Shunt Capacitors

16.1 Shunt Capacitor Properties


CYME allows you to define standard sizes and voltage classes of capacitor banks.
Capacitor banks may be chosen from two types: single-phase or three-phase.
When you connect a new capacitor bank on a section you do not have to select a model
from the equipment database; the USERDEFINED type can be used to enter directly the desired
kVAR/phase, voltage rating and losses.

The cost of fixed and switched banks can be used by the Optimal Capacitor
Placement analysis module. Refer to the CYMDIST Basic Analysis Users Guide for details.
To turn off capacitors according to their type of control, select Analysis > Load Flow,
Control tab (see the CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide).

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16.2 Shunt Capacitor Settings

ID

Choose a capacitor from the Equipment Database, or select


USERDEFINED and enter your own kVAR and kV ratings.

Number

The unique identification label for the load. The label can contain up
to 31 alphanumeric characters, but no blank spaces.

Location

Select from three positions: At From Node, At Middle or At To


Node - same as for Spot Loads (see 15.7 Spot Load and Distributed
Load Settings).

Phase

Click in the desired box or boxes to connect a capacitor to the


corresponding phase(s).

Rated power

Enter the rated kVAR per phase.

kVAR/phase
Losses

Enter the losses, in kW per phase.

Rated voltage

Enter the rated voltage, in kV. The program indicates if the value
must be entered Line-to-Line or Line-to-Neutral based on the
connection.

Configuration

To select the appropriate connection symbol. Three types of


connection are available: GY, Y, and Delta.

Control Type

Click on the pull-down menu to view the types of capacitor control


available. For fixed capacitor banks, select Manual.
For switched capacitors, select one of these criteria for connecting
and disconnecting the capacitor: Voltage (in terms of base voltage),
Current (Amps), Reactive Current (Amps), Power Factor (%),
Temperature, Time or kVAR flow. This will enable the following
fields and checkboxes.

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Status

Click on the pull-down menu to view the options corresponding to the


control type selected above. E.g. For fixed (Manual) capacitors, you
may select either Disconnected or Connected.
Switched
capacitors may be Disconnected, initially On, or initially Off.

Switch ON at

Value at which the capacitor bank is switched ON during a Voltage


Drop calculation. CYME will compare it to the average of the values
on the controlling phases at the capacitor location.

Switch OFF at

Value at which the capacitor bank is switched OFF during a Voltage


Drop calculation. CYME will compare it to the average of the values
on the controlling phases at the capacitor location.

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Chapter 17

Shunt Reactors

17.1 Shunt Reactor Properties


CYME allows you to define standard sizes and voltage classes of reactor banks. Reactor
banks may be chosen from two types: single-phase or three-phase. (You can still enter any rating
and losses you like when you edit a section) See Settings below.

Note:

The value for Rated Power must be positive.

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17.2 Shunt Reactor Settings


When connecting on a section you do not have to select a model from the equipment
database; the user-defined type can be used to enter directly the desired kVAR and voltage
rating.

ID

Choose a reactor from the Equipment Database, or select


USERDEFINED and enter your own kVAR and kV ratings.

Number

The unique identification label for the load. The label can contain up
to 31 alphanumeric characters, but no blank spaces.

Location

Select from three positions: At From Node, At Middle or At To


Node - same as for Spot Loads (see 15.7 Spot Load and Distributed
Load Settings).

Phase

Click in the desired box or boxes to connect a reactor to the


corresponding phase(s).

Rated power

Enter the rated kVAR per phase.

kVAR/phase

146

Rated voltage

Enter the rated voltage, in kV. The program indicates if the value
must be entered Line-to-Line or Line-to-Neutral based on the
connection.

Losses

Enter the losses, in kW per phase.

Configuration

To select the appropriate connection symbol. Three types of


connection are available: GY, Y, and Delta.

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Chapter 18

Series Capacitors

18.1 Series Capacitor Properties


Series capacitors are installed to reduce the line reactance, to aid power flow.

Rated current

Current that the capacitor can sustain. This data allows CYME to
detect overload conditions; this data is used in result reporting.
In this example, Summer and Winter are labels that are used to
describe the rating values of these fields. To enter the labels in
question, go to File > Preferences, Simulation tab.

Capacitance
Note:

The electric size of the capacitor in Ohms.

The values for Rated currents must be positive.

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18.2 Series Capacitor Settings

The available settings options for the Series Capacitor are its Status and the Fault
indicator. A comments field allows entering a description or significant comments.

18.3 Series Capacitor Meter Settings

148

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

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To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the different


consumer categories.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for
information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.

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Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and


displays the meter profile.
If you have the Transient Stability module installed, you will notice that the Series
Capacitor item in the Devices tree list can be expanded to reveal the Stability Model settings
group box. This element is discussed in the Transient Stability Analysis Users Guide.

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Chapter 19

Series Reactors

19.1 Series Reactor Properties


Series reactors are installed to limit short-circuit current.

Rated current

Current that the reactor can sustain. This data allows CYME to
detect overload conditions; this data is used in result reporting.
In this example, Summer and Winter are labels that are used to
describe the rating values of these fields. To enter the labels in
question, go to File > Preferences, Simulation tab.

Reactance

Note:

The electric size of the reactor in Ohms.

The values for Rated currents must be positive.

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19.2 Series Reactor Settings


The available settings options for the Series Reactor are its Status and the Fault
indicator, along with a Comments field.

19.3 Series Reactor Meter Settings

152

New

To enable the meter settings input.

Delete

To dismiss the meter settings input.

Connected

To deactivate or activate the meter.

Type

Available options are: kVA-PF, AMP-PF, kW-PF, kW-kVAR. The


demand data fields (kW, kVAR in the illustration above) will vary
depending on the type you select.
In a PF(%) data field, you may enter a leading power factor by
typing a negative value (e.g., -98.0).

Total

To allow entering combined demand for all three phases. Instead


of having to enter values for all phases as indicated in the above
illustration, you will enter only one (Total) value.

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To assign Allocation Factors and Power Factors for the


different consumer categories.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


To display a summary of downstream load and capacitors, for
information. Use this information to help you enter relevant meter
data. You may filter the downstream information by customer type.

See also Analysis > Load Allocation.


Accesses the optional Energy Profile Manager module and
displays the meter profile.

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Chapter 20

Network Equivalent

The Network Equivalent can be used to model any part or zone of a network. It is
composed of an equivalent impedance to represent the conductors and devices in-line and a load
equivalent to represent the generation and the loads connected in that zone. It is a device used in
the Network Reduction calculation (Network > Network Reduction menu command).

20.1 Network Equivalent Settings

The full impedance matrix can be used to define the phase impedance and the mutual
impedances. The load equivalents can be defined at the From Node and/or at the To Node.

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20.2 Cumulated Information Settings

The Cumulated Information is used to define the customers that were included in this
Network Equivalent. It is a sum of all the individual customers represented by spot and distributed
loads. When using the Network Reduction tool this information is populated automatically based
on the customer information in the zone being reduced.

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Chapter 21

Harmonic Devices

21.1 Frequency Source


Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > Frequency Source to display the
corresponding dialog box.

This model is the general method to model any harmonic generating device. It requires
the current/voltage magnitudes in Amps/kV or in % of the current/voltage magnitude at the
fundamental frequency. You may enter currents comprising up to 100 frequencies. Click with the
mouse or use the <Tab> key to move to a field and type the number in. Press <Enter> to register
the number.
Source Type

Current Source or Voltage Source

Harmonic Order

Represents the vector of frequencies in per-unit of fundamental.

Current/Voltage
Magnitude [%] or
(Amps)/(kV)

Is the vector of current magnitudes (in Amp or in % of the


fundamental current magnitude).

Current/Voltage
Magnitude Units

To enter the current magnitude in % of the fundamental current


or in Amps, select the appropriate option in this group box.

Current Phase
Angle (o)

Is the vector of phase angles (in degrees).

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Hint:

Except for special cases, you will not enter a current at the fundamental
frequency (Fpu = 1.0). Fundamental frequency currents and voltages are
obtained directly from the power flow solution.

21.1.1 Shunt Frequency Source Settings


When connected to the network, the shunt frequency source can be connected between
a bus and the ground.
Note that in the power flow analysis, the shunt multi frequency current source is treated
as a constant kW/kVAR industrial spot load and will be ignored in short-circuit analysis.

158

Phase

Shunt frequency source can be installed on single-phase, two-phase


and three-phase sections.

Reactive
Power

The reactive power absorbed by the harmonic current source (i.e.


distorting load) at the fundamental frequency (in kVAR).

Real Power

The active power absorbed by the harmonic current source in kW.

Fundamental
Frequency
current

Instead of P and Q powers, the user may specify the current


(magnitude in Amps and phase angle in degrees) absorbed by the
harmonic current source at the fundamental frequency. These values
will be used for harmonic model if the harmonic currents are based
on % of fundamental current magnitude.

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21.2 Ideal Converter


Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > Ideal Converter to display the
corresponding dialog box. You need to specify the 3-Phase kVA rating of the Converter along
with the pulse number.
This model injects current at each of the characteristic harmonic frequencies of a diode
bridge rectifier, neglecting the effect of commutation overlap.
Each harmonic current magnitude is inversely proportional to the harmonic order:

h = NP k 1

for k = 1,2,...

( h 50)

21.2.1 Ideal Converter Settings


The Ideal Converters must be installed on three-phase sections. Note that in the Power
Flow the ideal converter will be treated as a constant P/S industrial Yg spot load where S (kVA) is
entered in the equipment database and P (kW) is specified in the equipment settings. The
converter is ignored in short circuit analysis.
When you install an ideal converter on the network, you will need to specify the active
power P that is being absorbed by the converter at the fundamental frequency. P will be used in
the power flow analysis.

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21.3 Non-Ideal Converter


Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > Non-Ideal Converter to display the
corresponding dialog box. You need to specify the 3-Phase kVA and the rated voltage of the
Non-Ideal Converter along with the pulse number.
This model injects current at each of the characteristic harmonic frequencies of a
thyristor bridge rectifier. Harmonic current magnitudes are reduced due to commutation overlap.
Note that the Pulse Number must be at least six or a multiple of six.

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21.3.1 Non-Ideal Converter Settings


Non-Ideal Converters must be installed on 3-phase sections. Note that in the power flow
analysis the non-ideal converter will be treated as a constant kW/kVA industrial Yg spot load and
is ignored in short-circuit analysis.

When you install a non-ideal converter in the network, you need to specify the Output
Power P which is being absorbed by the converter in kW, the three-phase fault level FL at the
location of the converter section in kVA or MVA, and the Transformer Data is also required.
P is used to determine the firing angle for the thyristors and to determine the power factor
angle of shunt impedance, which represents the converter at fundamental frequency.
The 3-phase short-circuit fault level value is used to compute the commutating reactance.
Lower fault levels mean higher reactance; more overlap and lower harmonic current magnitudes.
Click on Estimate to calculate the total commutating reactance Xc, given the transformer
and converter data.

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21.4 Arc Furnace


This model requires the current magnitudes in percent of the fundamental current drawn
by the load. It is convenient to use this model for any harmonic source for which the harmonic
spectrum of currents is known in percent.

Click with the mouse or use the <Tab> key to move to a field and type the number in.
Press <Enter> to register the number.
Harmonic
Order

Represents the frequency in per-unit of fundamental.

Current
Magnitude

Is the current magnitude in % of the fundamental current drawn by the


load. You may enter currents for up to 100 frequencies.

Note:

162

Do not include the fundamental (Fpu = 1) in the table. The fundamental


current is established by the power, given when you connect the source into
the network.

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21.4.1 Arc Furnace Settings


The Arc furnace must be installed on 3-phase sections. Note that in the power flow
analysis the Arc Furnace will be treated as a constant kW / kVA industrial Yg spot load and is
ignored in short-circuit analysis.

Rated Power

Represents the three-phase fundamental power in MVA.

Power Factor

Is the fundamental power factor in %.

If the arc furnace is Balanced, the arc furnace model for harmonic analysis in all three
phases, taking into account the proper phase angles. If, on the other hand, you opt for an
Unbalanced source, you will be able to enter a source of your choice for each phase.

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21.5 Filters
Filters are composed of resistances R, inductances L and capacitances C selected such
that the circuit they form absorbs current at selected harmonic frequencies. This current is
thereby prevented from propagating into the network.
Four standard types of Filters are included.
21.5.1 Single-Tuned Filter
This filter is a series RLC circuit in which the L and C resonate at a specific frequency. At
the resonant frequency, the filters impedance is minimum, equal to R alone.

Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > Single Tuned Filter to display the
corresponding dialog box. You need to specify the following:

164

Filter resistance in Ohms.

Filter inductance in mH.

Filter capacitance in uF.

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Compute

Opens the Single Tuned Filter Parameters dialog box where you
can enter the capacitor rated power and voltage, the tuned
frequency and quality factor. By default, the fundamental frequency
will be the system frequency (the value entered in the System
Parameters tab of the Preferences dialog box). Click on Compute
to calculate the parameters R, L, C from the previous dialog box.

Note: The quality factor is equal to the ratio of the reactance of the
inductance at the tuned frequency to the resistance.
Tuned
Frequency

The tuned frequency in harmonic order.

Configuration

To select the appropriate connection symbol. Three types of


connection are available: GY, Y, and Delta.

21.5.2 Single Tuned Filter Settings


You can install single tuned filter on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections.
Note that in short-circuit analysis the single-tuned filter is ignored and will be treated as a
constant kVA Load for the power flow analysis.

Z = R + jX = R + j (L

1
)
C

R2 + X 2
r=
R
x=

R2 + X 2
X

Vbase 2
P=
r
Q=

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Vbase 2
x

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The Connection field will be disabled when the single tuned filter is installed on a 1phase or a 2-phase section. For a 3-phase section, the connection can be GY, Y, or D. If the
connection is GY, you may define a grounding impedance (Rg and Xg) connected between the
neutral of the Star and ground. Otherwise, these fields are disabled.
If the single-tuned filter is balanced, the equipment parameters R, L, and C will be used for
each phase. If the single-tuned filter is unbalanced, you may indicate the unbalanced factor for R, L,
and C for each phase, as a percentage of the nominal value. This factor can be positive or negative.
The final R, L, and C for each phase will be calculated as (1+ UnbalancedFactor / 100) *
nominalValue.
21.5.3 Double-Tuned Filter
Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > Double Tuned Filter to display the
corresponding dialog box. Near the resonant frequencies, the double-tuned filter behaves like
two single-tuned filters.

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The R-L-C connections of the double-tuned filter are displayed in the diagram to the right
of the dialog box.
R1, R2, R3

Filter resistances in Ohm.

L1, L2

Filter inductances in mH.

C1, C2

Filter capacitances in uF.

Tuned Freq #1
and
Tuned Freq #2

Filter tuned frequencies in harmonic order. All these parameters can


be obtained with the aid of Compute function.

Compute

Opens the following dialog box where you can enter the capacitors
powers and voltage ratings, the tuned frequencies and quality
factors. By default, the fundamental frequency will be the system
frequency (the value entered in the System Parameters tab of the
Preferences dialog box). Click on Compute to calculate the
parameters R1, L1, C1, R2, L2, C2, and R3 from the previous dialog
box. Each tuned frequency has its dedicated group box.

Note: The quality factor is equal to the ratio of the reactance of the
inductance at the tuned frequency to the resistance.

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21.5.4 Double Tuned Filter Settings


When you connect a double tuned filter into the network, you may choose to connect one
single-phase filter from one phase of the bus to ground, or to connect three such filters to ground,
in a Star-grounded connection (3 phases).

Note that in short-circuit analysis the double-tuned filter is ignored and will be treated as
a constant kVA Load for the power flow analysis.

Z1 = R1 + jX 1 = R1 + j (L1

1
)
C1

Z 2 = R 2 + jX 2 = R 2 + j (L 2)
Z 3 = R3 + jX 3 = R3 + j (
Z = R + jX = Z1 +

168

1
)
C 3

Z 2* Z3
Z 2 + Z3

r=

R2 + X 2
R

x=

R2 + X 2
X

P=

Vbase 2
r

Q=

Vbase 2
x

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21.5.5 High-Pass Filter


Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > High-Pass Filter to display the
corresponding dialog box. You need to specify the following:
The high-pass filter is designed to absorb harmonic currents of high frequencies. It is
often used in parallel with a single-tuned filter at the same bus.

The R-L-C connections of the high pass filter are displayed in the diagram shown on the
right of the dialog box.
21.5.6 High Pass Filter Settings
When you connect a high-pass filter into the network, you may choose to install it on
single-phase, two-phase, or to connect three such filters to ground, in a Star-grounded
connection (3 phases).

Note that in short-circuit analysis the high-pass filter is ignored and will be treated as a
constant kVA Load for the power flow analysis.

1
)
C
Z 2 = jX 2 = j (L)

Z1 = jX 1 = j (

Z3 = R
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Z = R + jX = Z1 +
r=

Z 2* Z3
Z 2 + Z3

R2 + X 2
R

R2 + X 2
x=
X
P=

Vbase 2
r

Vbase 2
Q=
x
21.5.7 C-Type Filter
Select the menu option Equipment > Harmonic > C-Type Filter to display the
corresponding dialog box. You need to specify the following:
The C-type filter is designed to have lower losses at fundamental frequency than other
types, especially when the tuned frequency is low.

The R-L-C connections of the C-Type Filter are displayed in the diagram shown on the
right of the dialog box.

170

R1, R2, R3

Filter resistances in Ohm

L1, L2, L3

Filter inductances in mH

C1, C2, C3

Filter capacitances in uF

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21.5.8 C-Type Filter Settings


You can install C-Type filter on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections.

Note that in short-circuit analysis the C-Type filter is ignored and will be treated as a
constant kVA Load for the power flow analysis.

Z1 = R1 + jX 1 = R1 + j (L1

Z 2 = R 2 + jX 2 = R 2 + j (L 2

1
)
C 2

Z 3 = R3 + jX 3 = R3 + j (L3

1
)
C 3

Z = R + jX = Z1 +

CHAPTER 21 HARMONIC DEVICES

1
)
C1

Z 2* Z3
Z 2 + Z3

r=

R2 + X 2
R

x=

R2 + X 2
X

P=

Vbase 2
r

Q=

Vbase 2
x

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21.6 Branches
Branches are generalized circuits consisting of resistance, inductance and capacitance.
They may be connected to the network as single-phase or three-phase models to represent
anything that is not represented by a standard equipment type. For example, stray capacitances
may be modeled using either the series RLC or parallel RC branches.
21.6.1 Shunt RLC Branch Settings
This component is a series connection of resistance R, inductance L and capacitance C.
You can install it on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections. For three-phase
sections, it may be connected in GY, Y, and D. Also, it is possible to apply a mathematical model
of skin effect on the resistance.
Two possible uses of the RLC branch are as a small capacitance to ground and as a
large resistance to ground, either of which could be connected to a bus which is otherwise not
connected to ground (for example, on the Delta side of a transformer).

21.6.2 Shunt Parallel RLC Branch Settings


This component is a parallel connection of resistance R, inductance L and capacitance
C. You can install it on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections. For three-phase
sections, it may be connected in GY, Y, and D. Also, it is possible to apply a mathematical model
of skin effect on the resistance.
A possible use of the RLC branch to ground is as a small capacitance to ground. In that
case, the resistance value should be very high.

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21.6.3 Shunt Frequency Dependent Branch Settings


For this component, the impedance is defined by magnitude and phase angle at up to
100 different harmonic orders. Linear interpolation is used to find the impedance at harmonic
orders between defined harmonic orders.
The impedance at frequencies below the lowest defined frequency will remain equal to
the impedance given for the lowest defined frequency. Similarly, the impedance for frequencies
above the highest defined frequency will remain equal to the impedance given at the highest
defined frequency.
Click on a field or use the <Tab> key (or Up, Down, Left and Right arrows keys ) to move
to a field and then type a number in it. Press <Enter> to register the value.

You can install it on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections. For three-phase
sections, it may be connected in GY, Y, and D.

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21.6.4 Shunt Mutually Coupled Three-phase Branch Settings


This component is a series connection of resistance R and inductance L, in which the
phase are mutually coupled. You can install it only on three-phase section.

21.6.5 Series RLC Branch Settings


This component is a series connection of resistance R, inductance L and capacitance C.
You can install it on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections. Also, it is possible to
apply a mathematical model of skin effect on the resistance.

21.6.6 Series Parallel RLC Branch Settings


This component is a parallel connection of resistance R, inductance L and capacitance
C. You can install it on single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase sections. Also, it is possible to
apply a mathematical model of skin effect on the resistance.

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21.6.7 Series Frequency Dependent Branch Settings


For this component, the impedance is defined by magnitude and phase angle at up to
100 different harmonic orders. Linear interpolation is used to find the impedance at harmonic
orders between defined harmonic orders.
The impedance at frequencies below the lowest defined frequency will remain equal to
the impedance given for the lowest defined frequency. Similarly, the impedance for frequencies
above the highest defined frequency will remain equal to the impedance given at the highest
defined frequency.
Click on a field or use the <Tab> key (or Up, Down, Left and Right arrows Keys ) to move
to a field and then type a number in it. Press <Enter> to register the value.

21.6.8 Series Mutually Coupled Three-phase Branch Settings


This component is a series connection of resistance R and inductance L, in which the
phase are mutually coupled. You can install it only on three-phase section.

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Chapter 22

Model Libraries

22.1 Control Model Library


CYME comes with many turbines, exciters and stabilizers models. They are all listed with
the model diagram along with descriptions and values of the parameters model. It is also possible
to create new models or modify existing ones. Please refer to the Transient Stability Analysis
Users Guide for all information about creating and editing control models.

22.2 Wind Model Library


Provides an interface to manage wind speed curves. Please refer to the Transient
Stability Analysis Users Guide for all information about creating, deleting, renaming and editing
wind models.

22.3 Insolation Model Library


Provides an interface to manage insolation curves. Please refer to the Transient Stability
Analysis Users Guide for all information about creating, deleting, renaming and editing insolation
models.

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Chapter 23

Symbol Library

CYME comes with a library of equipment symbols. For each equipment type, you have
many predefined symbols you may choose from to meet your needs. You may also create your
own symbols with the help of the Symbol Editor that you can easily add to the library. You may
refer to the File Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual for details on using the Symbol
Editor.

Whenever you create an equipment, it is being associated with the default symbol
defined for its type.
Equipment
Type

Provides the name of all equipment types available. When you select
an equipment type from this list, the names of all database records
available for that equipment type are listed along with their
associated Symbols and Use Default indicators.

Equipment ID

Each name or equipment ID is hyperlinked. When you click on a


name, the Equipment Properties dialog box will open allowing you
to visualize its parameters values.

Symbol

Click on the symbol icon to open the Symbol Selection dialog box.
The equipment type of the associated equipment is automatically
selected and all its available symbols are listed. If you have created
new symbols of this type with the Symbol Editor they will also be
listed here. If it is so desired, you may even change the equipment
type selected for something else thus providing the capability to use
any of the symbols available in the library.

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To replace the previous symbol, click on one of the available symbols


to select it and then click on OK. The new symbol icon is being
displayed while the Use Default item is shown unchecked to reflect
the modification.

Note: Switching and protecting devices have two symbols to


represent them. One when they are opened and the other
when they are closed.
Use Default

180

Checkmark this option to replace any equipment symbol by the


default symbol defined for this equipment type.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Chapter 24

Instruments

Unlike the other equipment, instruments are not accessible from the CYME Equipment
menu. Instead, they are available in the Switching and Protection group from the Explorers
Symbol Bar tab. You must use drag and drop to add an instrument from the list into the network.
Some instruments can be placed on nodes and others on sections. If a node or a section is
highlighted while you are dragging an instrument symbol on the network, it is an indication that
you can drop the selected instrument on that node or section. Here is the list of available
instruments:

Current transformer

Over current relay

Motor relay

Potential transformer

Voltage relay

Frequency relay

Load shedding relay control model

Generic control model

The following icon


in the Display toolbar allows you to display or hide the
instruments on the network. If the instruments should be visible and they are not, you should try
to adjust their symbol parameters in the Symbols Default Symbols dialog box under the
Instrument category. Refer to the chapter Display Options in CYME Reference Manual.

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24.1 Instruments Settings


Dragging and dropping an instrument from the Switching and Protection group list of
the Explorers Symbol Bar will display the appropriate instrument dialog box, where you can set
the parameters. The following parameters are common to all instruments.
Number

By default, this is the same as the device number the instrument is


connected to. However, You may type in any valid ID.

Status

The instrument is either Connected or Disconnected.

24.1.1 Current Transformer


A current transformer is a type of instrument that is designed to provide a current in its
secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. It measures
power flow and provides electrical inputs to power transformers and instruments.
Current transformers are applied in many applications among others to measure current
and voltage, to sense current overloads, detect ground faults, and isolate current feedback
signals.

182

Location

Is either at To node or at From node of a section.

Phase
Connection

Mark check this option to indicate that phase line will be


measured.

Delta
connection

By default, the current transformer is Y connected. Mark check


this option to indicate a Delta connection.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Neutral
connection

Mark check this option to indicate that neutral line will be


measured.

Primary Rating

Primary current rating of the current transformer in Amps


(Phase/Neutral).

Secondary
Rating

Secondary current rating of the current transformer in Amps


(Phase/Neutral).

24.1.2 Over Current Relay


This instrument is a type of protective relay which operates when the load current
exceeds a preset value.
In a typical application, the over current relay is connected to a current transformer and
calibrated to operate at or above a specific current level. When the relay operates, one or more
contact will operate and energize to trip (open) a circuit breaker.
24.1.2.1 General Tab

Symbol Text

The text that appear within the relay symbol. In the example
above, 50 is used for an instantaneous over current (IOC),
51 for a time over current (TOC).

Protection Type

Phase protection only.

Type

Electromechanical, Electronic, Definite Time

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Manufacturer

List of over current relay manufacturer names available in TCC


Database.

Model

List of over current relay models for the selected manufacturer.


This list is not populated if the manufacturer is Undefined.
Click on this button to open the TCC protection coordination
dialog box for the relay, so that you may inspect and adjust its
settings as well as create a new standard setting.
Note:

You do not need to have TCC installed in order to use


this command. However, with CYMTCC, you will be
able to perform more extensive protection analyses.

The description field next to the TCC Settings button will


display key parameters information coming from the TCC
database that corresponds to the relay identified.
Pickup

You may enter the pickup current directly or you may use the
settings provided by TCC. Select the desired option.

24.1.2.2 Controlled Breakers Tab


This tab is used to specify the breakers controlled by the relay identified in the
general tab.

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Add

Click on this button to add breakers that will be controlled by the


relay. Click on the down arrow (
) to see the breakers
available in the network and select one. Click on the selected
breaker corresponding check box (
effective control by the relay.

) to enable

Remove

Click on this button to remove the selected breaker from the list.

Current
Transformer

Information on the associated default current transformer


installed. To modify default values, double-click on the current
transformer symbol (inside the dotted circle) to open its dialog
box.

24.1.3 Motor Relay


24.1.3.1 General Tab

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Symbol Text

The text that will be written down within the relay symbol.

Protection Type

Phase protection only.

Manufacturer

List of motor relay manufacturer names available in the TCC


Database.

Model

List of motor relay models for the selected manufacturer. This


list is not populated if the manufacturer is Undefined.
Click on this button to open the TCC protection coordination
dialog box for the relay, so that you may inspect and adjust its
settings as well as create a new standard setting.
Note: You do not need to have CYMTCC installed in order to
use this command. However, with CYMTCC, you will be
able to perform more extensive protection analyses.
The description field next to the TCC Settings button will
display key parameters information coming from the TCC
database that corresponds to the relay identified.

Pickup

You may enter the pickup current directly or you may use the
settings provided by TCC. Select the desired option.

24.1.3.2 Controlled Breakers Tab

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Add

Click on this button to add the breakers that will be controlled by


the relay. Click on the down arrow ( ) to see the breakers
available in the network and select one. Click on the selected
breaker corresponding check box (
control by the relay.

) to enable effective

Remove

Click on this button to remove the selected breaker from the list.

Current
Transformer

Information on the associated default current transformer installed.


To modify default values, double-click on the current transformer
symbol (inside the dotted circle) to open its dialog box.

24.1.4 Potential Transformer


This instrument allows meters to take readings from electrical service connections with
higher voltage (potential) than the meter is normally capable of handling. Therefore, their main role is
to step down the voltage to be measured to levels suitable for the measuring instrument. It is
designed to have an accurately known transformation ratio in both magnitude and phase, over a
range of measuring circuit impedances so as to present a negligible load to the supply being
measured.

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Node / Bus ID

ID of node or bus where the potential transformer is installed.

Primary Rating

Primary voltage rating of the potential transformer in kV.

Secondary
Rating

Secondary voltage rating of the potential transformer in kV.

24.1.5 Voltage Relay


Voltage relays respond to a decrease or increase in the voltage at a control point in a
network.
24.1.5.1 General Tab

188

Symbol Text

The text that will appear in the relay symbol.

Operating Time

Minimum approximate time delay for the relay to operate.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

24.1.5.2 Controlled Breakers Tab


Breakers data may be entered for under voltage and overvoltage conditions.
Under voltage relays trip when the voltage drops below a set point. Overvoltage relays
trip when a voltage rises above a set point.

Add

Click on this button to add the breakers that will be controlled by the
relay. Click on the down arrow ( ) in the Breaker Number column to
see the breakers available in the network and select one. Select the
cell in the Voltage Threshold column and type in the voltage value (set
point) that will cause the breaker to operate. Click on the down arrow
( ) in the Operation column to choose either operation Close or
Open for the selected breaker. Click on the selected breaker check
box (

) to enable effective control by the relay.

Remove

Click on this button to remove the selected breaker from the list.

Potential
Transformer

Information on the associated default potential transformer installed.


To modify default values, double-click on the potential transformer
symbol (inside the dotted circle) to open its dialog box.

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24.1.6 Frequency Relay


Frequency relays respond to a decrease or increase in the frequency of an alternating
electrical quantity.
24.1.6.1 General Tab

190

Symbol Text

The text that will appear in the relay symbol.

Operating Time

Minimum approximate time delay for the relay to operate.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

24.1.6.2 Controlled Breakers Tab


Breakers data may be entered for under frequency and over frequency
conditions. Under frequency relays trip when the frequency drops below a set point. Over
frequency relays trip when a frequency rises above a set point.

Add

Click on this button to add breakers that will be controlled by the


relay. Click on the down arrow ( ) in the Breaker Number
column to see the breakers available in the network and select
one. Select the cell in the Voltage Threshold column and type in
the voltage value (set point) that will cause the breaker to
operate. Click on the down arrow ( ) in the Operation column to
choose either operation Close or Open for the selected breaker.
Click on
the selected breaker corresponding check box
(

) to enable effective control by the relay.

Remove

Click on this button to remove the selected breaker from the list.

Potential
Transformer

Information on the associated default potential transformer


installed. To modify default values, double-click on the potential
transformer symbol (inside the dotted circle) to open its dialog
box.

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24.1.7 Load Shedding Relay Control

192

Node / Bus ID

ID of node or bus where the load shedding relay control is


installed.

Control Model
Type

List of relay types available through the menu command


Equipment > Library > Control Model.

Control Model
ID

List of relay IDs available for the selected relay type. Click on

P/Q

Load connected at node/bus.

Description

You may type in any comment you feel relevant for this particular
relay control.

Name /
Description /
Value/ Unit
columns

This table shows the default parameters values for the relay ID
selected. You may change any parameter value. Select a
parameter cell in the Value column and then type the new value.
You may also double-click in a Value cell to position the cursor in
that cell and then use the normal editing functions to enter the
new value. Note that Value is the only column you can modify.

Name /
Description / ID

Use this table to indicate the bus controlled by the relay. Select
the desired bus ID in the drop-down list under The ID column.

to consult the default parameters of the selected relay ID.

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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

24.1.8 Generic Control

Node / Bus ID

Id of node or bus where the generic control is installed.

Control Model ID

List of control model IDs available for the generic control type.
Click on
ID.

to consult the default parameters of the selected

Description

You may type in any comment you feel relevant for this particular
generic control.

Name /
Description /
Value/ Unit
columns

This table shows the default parameters values for the control
model ID selected. You may change any parameter value. Select
a parameter cell in the Value column and then type the new
value. You may also double-click in a Value cell to position the
cursor in that cell and then use the normal editing functions to
enter the new value. Note that Value is the only column you can
modify.

Name /
Description / ID

Use this table to indicate the bus controlled by the relay. Select
the desired bus ID in the drop-down list under the ID column.

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INDEX
Auto-transformer Two-winding ...............34
Branches..................................................172
Cable - Multi-wire concentric neutral .......126
Cable - Shielded ......................................128
Cable - Unshielded ..................................130
Calculate using short-circuit power ...........12
Calculate using source details...................13
Control
Regulator ...............................................17
Control Model Library ..............................177
Controlled Breakers Tab. 184, 186, 189, 191
Cumulated Information Settings ..............156
Equivalent Circuit Tab .............51, 57, 65, 71
Filters .......................................................164
General Tab... 24, 34, 39, 43, 49, 55, 63, 70,
125, 131, 183, 185, 188, 190
Generator Electronically Coupled...........60
Generator - Induction.................................55
Generator - Synchronous ..........................49
Generator Equivalent Circuit Tab ..............81
Generator Tab ...........................................80
Generators.................................................49
Grounding Transformer .............................47
Harmonic Devices ...................................157
Lines and Cables.....................................123
Load Tap Changer (LTC) Tab .............25, 35
Load Tap Changers Tabs....................40, 44
Micro-turbines............................................89
Miscellaneous Equipment........................119
Model Libraries ........................................177
Motor - Induction........................................63
Motor - Synchronous .................................70
Motors........................................................63
Network Equivalent..................................155
Network Equivalent Settings....................155
Parameters
Synchronous Generator Data
Entry ...................................................82
WECS Induction Generator Data
Entry ...................................................81
Photovoltaic ...............................................93
Properties
Arc Furnace .........................................162
Breaker.................................................111
Cable....................................................125
Common Window Elements.....................3
Conductor ............................................131
C-Type Filter ........................................170
Double-Tuned Filter .............................166

INDEX

Frequency Source............................... 157


Fuse .................................................... 106
Generator - Electronically Coupled ....... 60
Generator - Induction ............................ 55
Grounding Transformer......................... 47
High-Pass Filter................................... 169
Ideal Converter.................................... 159
Induction Motor ..................................... 63
LVCB ................................................... 107
Micro-turbine ......................................... 90
Miscellaneous Equipment ................... 119
Network Protector ............................... 112
Non-Ideal Converter............................ 160
Overhead Line..................................... 123
Overhead Line - Balanced .................. 124
Overhead Line - Unbalanced .............. 124
Overview ................................................. 3
Photovoltaic........................................... 94
Protective Devices .............................. 105
Recloser .............................................. 108
Regulator............................................... 15
Sectionalizer........................................ 109
Series Capacitor.................................. 147
Series Reactor .................................... 151
Series RLC Branch ............................. 174
Shunt Capacitor .................................. 141
Shunt Reactor ..................................... 145
Single-Tuned Filter.............................. 164
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell........................... 102
Source ................................................... 11
Spacing ............................................... 133
SVC ....................................................... 77
Switch.................................................. 110
Synchronous Generator........................ 49
Three-winding Auto-transformer ........... 43
Three-winding Transformer................... 39
Two-winding Auto-transformer.............. 34
Two-winding Transformer ..................... 24
Wind Energy Conversion Systems ....... 79
Properties and Settings .............................. 3
Protective Devices .................................. 105
Regulators................................................. 15
Series Capacitors ................................... 147
Series Reactors ...................................... 151
Settings
Arc Furnace......................................... 163
Blade Pitch Control ............................... 84
By Phase Configuration ...................... 135
Common Window Elements.................... 8
C-Type Filter ....................................... 171
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CYME 5.02 Equipment Reference Manual

Current Transformer ............................182


Double Tuned Filter .............................168
Doubly-Fed Converter Control...............87
First / Second Load Tap Changer....42, 46
Frequency Relay..................................190
Full Converter Control....... 86, 92, 99, 104
Generator Electronically Coupled .......61
Generator - Induction .............................59
Generator - Synchronous ......................53
Generic Control....................................193
Grounding Transformer .........................48
High Pass Filter....................................169
Ideal Converter ....................................160
Induction Motor ......................................68
Induction Motor Starting
Assistance (LRA) ...............................68
Insolation Model...................................100
Instruments ..........................................182
Lines and Cables .................................134
Load Shedding Relay Control..............192
Micro-turbine ..........................................91
Miscellaneous Equipment ....................120
Miscellaneous Equipment Meter..........120
Motor Relay..........................................185
Non-Ideal Converter.............................161
Over Current Relay ..............................183
Overview ..................................................8
Photovoltaic ...........................................97
Potential Transformer ..........................187
Protective Devices Meter.....................114
Protective Devices Operation ..............114
Protective Devices State......................113
Protective Devices TCC.......................116
Regulator ...............................................16
Regulator Meter .....................................19
Relay ....................................................117
Series Capacitor ..................................148
Series Capacitor Meter ........................148
Series Frequency Dependent
Branch ..............................................175
Series Mutually Coupled Threephase Branch ...................................176
Series Parallel RLC Branch .................175
Series Reactor .....................................152
Series Reactor Meter ...........................152
Shunt Capacitor ...................................142
Shunt Frequency Dependent
Branch ..............................................173

196

Shunt Frequency Source .................... 158


Shunt Mutually Coupled Threephase Branch .................................. 174
Shunt Parallel RLC Branch ................. 172
Shunt Reactor ..................................... 146
Shunt RLC Branch .............................. 172
Single Tuned Filter .............................. 165
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell........................... 103
Spot Load and Distributed Load ......... 136
SVC ....................................................... 78
Synchronous Motor ............................... 73
Synchronous Motor Starting
Assistance (LRA)............................... 74
Three-winding Auto-transformer ........... 45
Three-winding Transformer................... 41
Transformer by Phase........................... 30
Two-winding Auto-transformer.............. 36
Two-winding Auto-transformer
Meter.................................................. 37
Two-winding Transformer ..................... 26
Two-winding Transformer Load
Tap Changer...................................... 27
Two-winding Transformer Meter ........... 28
Voltage Relay...................................... 188
Voltage Source Converter. 85, 91, 98, 103
Wind Energy Conversion System ......... 83
Wind Model ........................................... 88
Shunt Capacitors .................................... 141
Shunt Reactors ....................................... 145
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ............................ 101
Source Equivalent Impedances................ 12
Sources..................................................... 11
Static Var Compensators (SVC)............... 77
Symbol Library ........................................ 179
Three-winding Auto-transformer............... 43
Transformer Three-winding ................... 39
Transformer Two Winding ..................... 24
Transformer, Common Configurations ..... 32
Transformer, Other Configurations........... 33
Transformer, Single-phase Two-wire
Configurations ....................................... 30
Transformer, Three-phase Configurations 32
Transformers ............................................ 23
Wind Energy Conversion Systems ........... 79
Wind Model Library................................. 177
Wind Turbine Tab ..................................... 79

INDEX