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Week 4 Questions

35 points
16.1 Name three wireless PAN technologies, and give a short description of each.
Ans: PAN: Personal area Networks facilitates a single user to communicate over a short distance. The three wireless
PAN technologies are:

Bluetooth: Communication over a short distance between a computer or a phone and a small device
peripheral device such as a mouse or a headset.
Infrared: It is a line of sight communication between a small hand controlled device and a system such as
a computer or entertainment center.
ISM wireless: Communication using frequencies set aside for Industrial, Scientific and Medical devices,
an environment where electromagnetic interference may be present.

16.2 What are the three blocks of frequencies used by wireless LANs and PANs?
Ans: The three blocks of frequencies used by wireless LANs and PANs are:
902MHz-928MHz 26MHz bandwidth
2.4GHz-2.484GHz 83.6MHz bandwidth
5.725GHz-5.850GHz 125MHz bandwidth
16.3 What is the Wi-Fi Alliance?
Ans: Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit organization that tests and certifies wireless equipment using the 802.11
standards. It was formed in 1999 by a group of vendors who build wireless equipment.
16.4 Give the numeric prefix IEEE standards use for Wi-Fi networks.
Ans: 802.11is the number prefix IEEE Standards use for Wi-Fi networks.
16.7 List the IEEE standards that have been proposed or created for wireless LANs.
Ans: The IEEE standards proposed for wireless LANs are:
802.11
802.11a
802.11b
802.11g
802.11e
802.11h
802.11i
802.11k
802.11n
802.11p
802.11r
802.11s
16.8 Why do most wireless LANs use an infrastructure approach rather than an ad hoc approach?
Ans: Most of the wireless LANs uses an infrastructure approach rather than an ad hoc approach because in
infrastructure approach a wireless computer communicates with an access point which relays all the packets where
as in an Ad hoc approach the hosts communicate among themselves without a base station.
16.9 Why must a wireless computer associate with a specific base station?
Ans: A wireless computer must associate with a specific base station because, if a pair of access points is too close
together, an overlap will exist in which a wireless host can reach both access points. To overcome the overlap,
802.11 networks need a wireless host to associate with only a single access point.

16.10 An 802.11 header contains two destination addresses. Explain the purpose of each.
Ans: The first destination Address contains the AP or wireless computers MAC address and the second destination
address contains the routers MACs address.
16.11 What are SIFS and DIFS, and why are they needed?
Ans: SIFS stands for Short Inter-Frame Space of 10 sec and DIFS stands for Distributed Inter-Frame Space of 50
sec. the SIFS parameter defines how long a receiving station waits before sending an ACK or other response and
the DIFS parameter, which is equal to SIFS plus two Slot Times, defines how long a channel must be idle before a
station can attempt transmission.
16.16 What is RFID, and where is it used?
Ans: RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification. It uses a wireless form of technology where a mechanism is
created in which a tag contains the information regarding to the identification through which a receiver can pull
from the tag. It is used in Inventory control, sensors, passports and other applications.
16.17 To what does a cell tower connect?
Ans: A cell tower connects to a Mobile Switching Center.
16.18 What is a cell cluster, and how does a designer use clusters?
Ans: To reduce interference we do not use the same set of frequency in adjacent cells .To the implement this
principle cellular planners use clusters in which a pattern of the cells are repeated. Designers use clusters of the size
3, 4, 7 and 12. Clusters are designed in such a way that no two adjacent cells have the same frequency.
16.20 What is GSM, and what standards does it comprise?
Ans: GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications .The European Conference of Postal and
Telecommunications Administrators created a system which was meant to be a standard across the world. GSM
comprises of standards like GPRS, EDGE, EDGE evolution and HSCSD.
16.21 What are the third-generation cellular technologies that use code-division multiplexing?
Ans: WCDMA and CDMA 2000 are the third generation cellular technologies which use code-division
multiplexing.
16.22 What is a VSAT satellite?
Ans: VSAT or very small aperture terminal uses a dish which is small and has a diameter less than three meters. A
normal VSAT antenna has a diameter which is less than one meter. VSAT operates in three frequency ranges which
defer on the strength of the signal, the sensitivity to rain and other atmospheric conditions, and the area of the earths
surface covered.
16.24 Name the three chief frequency bands used by communication satellites, and give the effect of weather on
each.
Ans: The three chief frequency bands used by communication satellites are:
C Band
Ku
Ka
16.25 How many satellite are used in GPS, and how accurate is a GPS system?
Ans: GPS Global Positioning System gives accurate information in regards to time and information. The key
features of GPS systems is that it uses 24 orbital satellites over earth and its accuracy is between 2 and 20 meters
and accuracy is even more in military versions for obvious reasons. Normally three satellites are used to determine a
unique location on earth.