Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

1.1 Introduction Leeds City Museum will reopen in summer of 2008 after a £20m move. The project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, Leeds City Council, the Single Regeneration Budget and Yorkshire Forward has seen the Grade II-listed Civic Institute building off Millennium Square transformed into a state-of-the-art museum. The exhibitions will include Ancient Worlds, Living Planet, World View, the Leeds Collectors and The Leeds Story. The museum’s collection had previously been housed on one floor of the Civic Buildings until 1999 when it was forced to close for major fire safety work. Since then, the collections have been at Leeds Museum Resource Centre in Yeadon, approximately 10 miles from the city centre. Leeds City Council has nine museums and galleries; Abbey House, Armley Mills, Discovery Centre, Kirkstall Abbey, Leeds City Museum, Lotherton Hall, Temple Newsam House and Thwaite Mills. Leeds City Museum will be the city’s flagship museum and allied to the increasing investment from government via the Renaissance in the Regions programme, the council view this as a unique opportunity to reform museum and gallery provision and build a challenging, dynamic and sustainable customer focused service. Leeds City Council aims to establish Leeds amongst the UK’s premier museums and gallery services, allowing the service to meet its full potential in the educational, cultural, social inclusion and urban renewal goals of the council. 2.1 Marketing Activity from the year 2007/2008 Leeds City Council has a central marketing team which undertakes all the marketing for Leeds Museums and Galleries. The Leeds City Museum marketing plan is based upon the two strategic theories; product diversification and product development. It has been created following the tripartite audience, product and organisational marketing model (see appendix 1). The new museum will offer an ‘experience’ which Leeds City Council will seek to diversify and the museum as a potential hire venue will be developed. 2.2 Aim To position Leeds City Museum within Leeds Cultural sector, become a key landmark destination, and to attract, understand and maintain a relationship with a wide range of audiences to create a memorable visitor attraction that places the customer at the heart of the experience.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

2.3 Marketing Objectives 1. Use marketing techniques to position Leeds City Museum within the Leeds Cultural Sector to ensure stakeholder support and understanding. 2. Raise awareness of the museum to the people of Leeds and regionally and nationally. 3. Ensure the new museum experience reflects the people of Leeds and its cultural heritage. 4. Become a flagship landmark site of the museum and gallery service which helps to cross market visitors to our other sites. 5. Ensure conference centre, hire facilities and café realise their full income potential. 2.4 Target Audiences Leeds City Museum identified key target audiences (see appendix 2 and 3) for 2007/2008’s marketing activity. These groups are the people who will be use the museum and its facilities. They are as follows: • • • • • • • People living and working in Leeds Young people Older people Ethnic minorities Children Schools Colleges


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

2.5 Key Stakeholders Leeds City Museum identified several groups of key stakeholders for 2007/2008’s marketing activity. The stakeholders were identified in order to raise the profile of the museums opening and generate goodwill towards the project. Various Leeds City Council departments (internal), local and regional government agencies as well as other interest groups (external) were identified. They are as follows:

External Stakeholders • • • Leeds Infinitive cultural partnership Yorkshire and Humberside Federation of Museums and Galleries The Four Societies Group (Leeds Philosophical & Literacy Society, Leeds Civic Trust, Friends of Leeds Museums & Galleries and the Thoresby Society Heritage Lottery fund Yorkshire Forward Renaissance in the Regions (The Hub) Museums, Libraries & Archives Council Department for Media, Culture & Sport Leeds community groups involved in consultation Leeds Access forum Teachers and Schools MP’s and MEP’s Royal Armouries, Henry Moore Institute, Thackray Medical Museum Marketing Leeds, Tourism and City Centre events staff Leeds Cultural partnership

Internal Stakeholders Leeds City Council department and staff Leeds City Council elected members Leeds City Centre management team Leeds City Council Scrutiny Board

• • • • • • • • • • • •

2.6 Marketing Strategy Leeds City Museum had ten key strategic action points to successfully market the opening of the new museum.
Marketing Strategy City presence Editorial in Leeds publications Outcome Leeds City Museum included in plans and maps of the city. Leeds Card, Breeze magazine, About Leeds, Leeds Guide, community newsletters, local media e.g. YP, YEP, Evening Post, Radio Leeds all featured the new museum. Media launch and preview, media partner to support and cover the event, news on Leeds Big screen, create a partnership with YP/YEP to generate regular coverage and exclusives in the build up to the opening, angling specialist stories to key, high readership publications such as Media Relations Exhibitions Outreach BBC History, WI magazine etc New museum' exhibition boards placed around Leeds, banner signs erected in museum building Exhibition boards and material at libraries, induction talks at Town Hall and Civic Hall, leaflets distributed by Audiences Yorkshire


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

Web presence Learning Education Direct mail Nearby buildings

Dedicated website Outreach plan devised by the education team Strong networks with nearby educational institutions built by involving them in the pre-opening plans, arranging tours, previews and talks Included in the About Leeds newspaper and council tax bills Relationships built with nearby public buildings

2.7 Marketing Tactics Leeds City Museum used a variety of tactics to achieve the key strategic action points and marketing objectives.
Marketing Tools Breakfast briefing presentation and tours Newsletter Email bulletin Target Groups All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders Leeds City Council staff All of the above Web presence stakeholders LCC elected members, Councillors and Intranet staff LCC staff and Museums and Internal Comms Executive Board and Members briefing Specialised press Media plan Ambassador Scheme Leeds Cultural partnership Hard hat' tours and development previews Museum previews and launch Galleries staff LCC members and senior staff All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders All of the above stakeholders An update area was created for internal staff to learn about the new museum Regular updates and news items about the new museum are included on LCC portal page, intranet, internet, LCC wage slips, Team Talkers and email distribution lists Key milestones or progress on the project were flagged up at Executive Board meetings. Coverage in specialist media relevant to stakeholders e.g. Leeds City Council department newsletters, community websites etc PR plan gained coverage of major landmarks and achievements in the run up to the opening of the new museum. Members involved from all stakeholder groups to become part of a working group for the Leeds City Museum. Leeds City Museum was championed from senior council staff downwards through the Leeds Cultural partnership and other senior level meetings. 'Hard hat' tours were given so stakeholders felt a sense of privilege and connection to the museum Previews and invites were given out for special events and launches Outcome Early morning presentations to key stakeholders about the development and progress. Regular update mailing on progress, interesting facts about the exhibits, café, shop and conference venue etc. Progress on building. Developments such as staffing, marketing plan, press coverage, tours undertaken, community consultation work etc. A website with specific UR was set up. http://www.leeds.gov.uk/citymuseum/

3.1 Analysis of Marketing Activity 2007/2008


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

In order to critically analyse Leeds City Museum’s marketing activity it is necessary to understand the process of devising the original marketing strategy. Figure 1 shows a flow diagram which demonstrates the planning of a marketing strategy.






FIGURE 1: Planning of Marketing Communications (Source: Brassington and Pettitt, 2003; p577)

3.1 The Marketing Environment 3.1.1 SWOT Analysis Figure 2 shows the SWOT analysis which was conducted by Leeds City Museum. It shows the position at which the museum currently stands and potential position it could achieve in the future.

FIXURE 2: SWOT Analysis of Leeds City Museum
Strengths • • • • City centre location • 20m investment in city culture Located in regional capital Extensive museum collections of significant important and quality • • Weaknesses • Street parking and car parks nearby, but no dedicated car park Limited size of temporary exhibition space Lack of web presence Historically low audience development budgets in Leeds City


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

• • • Iconic buildings • The collection reflects the local environment and enables the visitor to learn about the locality • • • Collections from around the world New approach to interpretation - making the collections come alive • • Hard-working, committed staff • The museum will appeal to family audiences Conference facilities Dedicated, learning area, facilities and activities, including a full time education officer Collections on public display for the first time in over ten years - most of them for the first time in • • • • • • • half a century Easily accessible Access by public transport Free public access to an iconic building Free entry Proximity to cultural institutions, Leeds Universities, The Carriageworks etc Museum to offer a wide range of events and activities Good visitor facilities including a shop and café which extends out on to a terrace into • • Millennium Square No other museum in Leeds like it First major investment in Leeds city centre museum and galleries since Royal Armouries • • • • • • • • and Thackray Museum High footfall of passing visitors around Millennium Square area Temporary exhibition space Changing World Cultures displays Interesting build layout - arena Professional and committed staff and curators New interactive displays Active exhibition programme for permanent and temporary displays Access to a range of community groups

Council Lack of public awareness of collections No full time dedicated marketing staff on Museums and Galleries structure Not in main area of Leeds city centre, away from tourists and visitors Some Museums and Galleries staff resistance to restructure and ethos Threat of no ongoing investment in museum service No commitment yet to a realistic annual marketing budget for the site

• • • •


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

Evidence of loyal visitor groups across Leeds Museums and Galleries service

Opportunities • Signpost current visitors to our existing sites who visit the new museum

Threats • Hub funding stops - left with a • major site to fund Olympic pressure - less money to arts and culture • • Cuts in revenue funding Competitor activity - bigger promotional budgets, major exhibitions, refurbishments, new • openings Increasing demands on leisure time e.g. gyms and physical activity, • PSP and interactive games Possibility of unmanageable crowds during opening affecting • visitor experience and perception Anti-social behaviour - people 'hanging around' in free city centre • venue Hire contracts affecting access exclusive access for venue hire • • • • Change in political priorities Delay's in implementing Museums and Galleries restructure Millenium Square events impact on access to the City Museum Museum does not move with changing technologies - out of date • soon due to budget situation Civic Arts Guild resistance and negative press

• •

To provide the best museum in Leeds Evidence of loyal visitor patterns in Leeds Museums and Galleries sites

Brand new museum as a cultural resource for the people of Leeds, enabled by Leeds City Council

• •

Develop Millenium Square areas as a 'cultural hub' Provide qualitative and relevant experiences to the wealth of communities and backgrounds all over Leeds and beyond

Potential to offer a more informal, interactive and inspiring experience

• • • •

Attract new visitors through the shop and café Hub founded roles provides the opportunity to connect with new audiences Consultation with Leeds' very different communities Stakeholder involvement enables us to spread the word

• • •

Investment in new interpretation methods and media Contribute to economic competitiveness as a visitor destination Enhance and promote the city's national and international image as a creative, cosmopolitan city and a centre for cultural excellence

In the future, in order to fulfil its aims and objectives, Leeds City Museum must work to overcome the threats and weaknesses that are identified. To do this they must minimise the risk of these factors and maximise their already implemented strengths and emphasising the potential opportunities for growth in the sector. Some of the strength and weaknesses are of a


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

political nature and Leeds City Council may deem it appropriate to lobby or raise awareness of the issues, for instance campaign against funds being diverted from the arts to the 2012 Olympics. 3.2 The Target Market As Leeds City Museum is funded by various public bodies it is bound by its charter to make the museum and its exhibits available to as many people as possible. It has specifically targeted: • • • • • • • People living and working in Leeds Young people Older people Ethnic minorities Children Schools Colleges

It is essential that Leeds City Museum target the right audience for the entirety of its marketing activity, otherwise it will not be effective. The target audience are those individuals that should be targeted in order to match the company’s overall objectives. Diffusion Theory (Rogers, 1962) is a key concept in understanding how the potential audiences first enter the market, depending on their attitude to innovation and new products and their willingness to take risks, in this case on an exhibition. Customers can then be classified as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards (Brassington and Pettitt, 2005). The marketer can use these concepts to consider the factors when developing products and their marketing mixes. Market research can help to define the compatibility and to determine the most attractive relative advantage.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

It is important that the early majority and the late majority are effectively communicated to about the museum ‘experience’ and the museum venue. The diffusion process is related to the product lifecycle of the exhibitions and it is a necessity to continually change the marketing activities to match the product lifecycle and its related audience. If this is followed then the exhibitions and museum facilities are more likely to attract new visitors and in turn raise the profile of Leeds City Museum.

3.3 Customer Behaviour
It is important for the marketing team to understand the way consumers react to messages. Leeds City Museum follow the theory outlined by Strong’s (1925) AIDA model shown in figure 3. As a new museum hosting new exhibitions with new facilities, the raising awareness stage is integral to the success of the museum. The cognitive stage of the Strong Theory is linked to the promotion stage of the marketing mix. As stated above Leeds City Museum used several marketing tools to raise awareness of the museum and its facilities such as a newsletter, internal communications plan and breakfast briefings. The affective stage of the process arises when an interest is seen and attitude change is developed. It is important to maintain communication with the audiences in this stage to increase the desire to attend the museum or book its facilities.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing



Interest Affective Desire



FIGURE 3: Strong’s Theory (1925) 3.4 The Marketing Mix (McCarthy, 1994) 3.4.1 Product As mentioned above Leeds City Museum primarily offers an intangible product in the form of the museum ‘experience’ that people get when they visit. Its secondary function is a venue that people can hire and Leeds City Council is keen to see this revenue stream exploited. Figure 4 shows Leeds City Museum product mix.

Leeds City Museum

Museum ‘experience’

Museum venue

FIGURE 4: Leeds City Museum Product Mix

Museum ‘experience’ When Leeds City Museum opens, its primary product will be the museum ‘experience’, which is the culmination of exhibition, staff and facilities The modern day museum


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

‘experience’ has evolved from the traditional model and people know come expecting an interactive learning experience. It is worth noting that museums are virtually unique in that they deal in ideas, objects and satisfactions not found elsewhere and Leeds City Museum is no different. Museums have traditionally been defined by function rather than by purpose (Thompson, 1998, Weill 1990). However, this has changed and purposive definitions now relate to the intent, vision or mission of the museum where the focus is on leadership and visitor services: to serve society and its development by means of study, education and enjoyment (Besterman, 1998). Leeds City Museum follows this trend and it contains four floors of exhibitions and a large central arena where people can study, learn and enjoy the museum. Museum venue As a secondary function, Leeds City Museum will be looking to maximise its potential as a venue for hire and private functions. Leeds City Council feels it is possible to grow this income stream, whilst remaining a public facility. By increasing this non-traditional revenue, it will lessen the burden on council funding and philanthropists. Positioning Leeds City Museum has been positioned differently from the other Leeds City Council museums and galleries as it is the flagship museum in the regions capital. The fact it is positioned as the flagship museum means it is in an ideal situation to maximise its brand and be seen as the leader. Leeds City Museum has many competitors both locally (Leeds) and regionally (West Yorkshire), which are council and trust owned. The majority compete on price as they do not charge admission. It must be noted that the admission fees are somewhat nominal and cover maintenance and upkeep as opposed to generating profits. However, price is still a big consideration when attempting to increase more C2DE visitiors. Although, the internal competitors are council operated there is strong competition within this internal market as they are competing for resources allocated by Leeds City Council. The external competitors are operated by other councils in the West Yorkshire region or charitable trusts and they are competing for visitor numbers and in some cases venue hire. Figure 5 shows Leeds City Museum’s competitors.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

External Competitors Bradford Industrial Museum Bronte Pasonage Museum Cartwright Hall Art Gallery Cliffe Castle Museum Harewood House Henry Moore Institute Horsforth Village Museum Huddersfield Art Gallery Impressions Gallery Middleton Railway National Coal Mining Museum National Media Museum Royal Armouries Pontefract Museum Red House Salts Mill Thackray Medical Museum Tolson Memorial Museum Wakefield Art Gallery Wakefield Museum

Internal Competitors Abbey House Museum Kirkstall Abbey Armley Mills Leeds Art Gallery Lotherton Hall Temple Newsam Thwaites Mill Discovery Centre

FIGURE 5: Leeds City Museum’s internal and external competitors


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

3.4.2 Pricing Strategies Price has a great influence on buyer perception and positioning of a brand (Vignali, 2001). It used to be a potential barrier for many people, however art and cultural events are frequently subsidised by local councils. Most of the time visitors do not pay an admission fee and when they are required to, it is to cover costs or maintenance and crucially not to make profit. The arts are seen as something that should be made available to the masses and many receive generous central funding to enable this. Figures 6 and 7 below show Leeds City Museum’s local and regional competitors, their ownership and if they charge admission. Even though many do not charge admission, the museums and galleries are still competing on price as those museums which do not charge force down the price of those that do, to what is considered an ‘acceptable’ amount. Most museums have a tripartite income structure and Leeds is no different, with income derived from government, audience activities and philanthropy. This business model shifts the burden of raising money by charging admission to other areas of the business, requiring museums to have ever more creative fund raising ideas.

Free admission
A I C J E L D H G K F A- Bradford Industrial Museum B- Bronte Pasonage Museum C- Cartwright Hall Art Gallery D- Cliffe Castle Museum E- Huddersfield Art Gallery F- Impressions Gallery G- National Coal Mining Museum H- National Media Museum I- Pontefract Museum J- Red House K- Salts Mill L- Tolson Memorial Museum M- Wakefield Art Gallery N- Wakefield Museum


Council owned

Trust owned


Charges admission FIGURE 6: Leeds City Museum’s regional competitors


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

Free admission
B D H M J A- Abbey House Museum B- Kirkstall Abbey C- Armley Mills D- Leeds Art Gallery E- Lotherton Hall F- Temple Newsam G- Thwaites Mills H- Discovery Centre I- Harewood House J- Henry Moore Institute K- Horsforth Village Museum L- Middleton Railway M- Royal Armouries N- Thackray Medical Museum

Council owned

Trust owned










Charges admission FIGURE 7: Leeds City Museum’s local competitors

In keeping with Leeds City Council policy Leeds City Museum will not charge an entrance fee. Whilst this is common practice by museums and galleries, it is uncommon in other sport and cultural events, especially where a performance takes place. Other social activities may be competing with the museum for visitors, however the fact Leeds City Museum does not charge an entrance fee means it does not directly compete with other leisure activities, for instance going for to the cinema which costs considerably more.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

3.4.3 Promotion The promotion stage of the marketing mix is essentially the creative section of the whole marketing campaign and is derived after the marketer has a sound understanding of their publics, messages and overall objectives.

Sales Promotion


Personal Selling

The Promotional Mix Direct Marketing Public Relations


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

Figure 8 highlights the areas of Leeds City Museum’s marketing activity which are deemed most useful based upon their effectiveness and the ability to control the messages which are being sent to the audiences.

High Breakfast briefing presentation and tours • Newsletter • Email bulletin • Executive Board and Members briefing 3.4.4 Place • ‘Hard hat’ tours and development preview Ability to control the • Museum 3.5 Competitor Mapping previews and launch message • Ambassador scheme • • • • Web presence Intranet Internal comms

It is important to note that the council owned museums and galleries share the same
• objectives. WhilstLeeds Cultural partnership those that charge admission normally do•at aSpecialised press upkeep of the nominal rate for • Media relations

property etc as they are not council funded. There are few commercial museums and galleries.

3.6 Evaluation Leeds City Museum has tried to position itself away from potential competitors in the market place meaning they have a distinct competitive advantage over other museums and galleries. Leeds City Council have positoning it as their flagship museum in the regions capital. effectiveness 4.1 Recommendations forActivity Map FIGURE 8: Promotional the Future New exhibitions are needed in order to attract visitors, create brand loyalty and get repeat 3.4.4 Place Leeds City Museum as its name suggests is based in the heart of the city’s cultural quarter in an iconic building. It is easily accessible by public transport with some nearby, although not specific car parking. There are also facilities for the blind and disabled. There is optimum access to the facilities. 3.5 Evaluation It is difficult to evaluate the success of the 2007/2008 marketing activity for Leeds City Museum as it is yet to open and the marketing is still ongoing. When it does open it will enable the marketers to draw firm conclusions with statistical data. However, at present it is clear Leeds City Council have put considerable resources into the marketing of the new flagship museum and there has been a comprehensive and sustained marketing plan which has
Low Ability to measure High


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

seen great consideration given to the promotion, development and market segmentation of the museum. Everything is in place for the museum to be a success. 4.1 Recommendations for the Future As Leeds City Museum is yet to open, it is difficult to propose recommendations for the future. However, the following will enable Leeds City Museum to maintain competitive advantage: • • • • • Full programme of exhibitions Re-launch and re-branding of Friends of Leeds Museums and Galleries society Increase marketing budget Develop new revenue streams Investigate possible international collaborations

4.2 Full programme of exhibitions Central to the museums success will be the ability to host exhibitions which generate large numbers of visitors time and time again. The museum will need to recognise when an exhibition reaches the maturity stage of the product life cycle and have a full programme to replace exhibitions before they reach the decline stage.

Once an exhibition has reached the maturity stage of the product life cycle it is vital that it is replaced with an entertaining exhibition which can be introduced and with the right marketing reach the growth and maturity stages of the cycle.

4.3 Re-launch of FoLMG society
To coincide with the museums first anniversary I propose that the Friends of Leeds Museums and Galleries society is re-launched and re-branded. The scheme currently operates, however a re-launch would help galvanise the society and generate interest in the museums.


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

4.4 Increase marketing budget
Marketing budgets for the arts are historically low and Leeds City Council is no different. I propose that the marketing budget should be increased so that Leeds City Museum has its own Marketing Officer. This de-centralisation would enable the museum to receive the resources befitting of a flagship museum resulting in a more sustained and consistent marketing activity. 4.5 Develop new revenue streams In order to ease the problem of funding Leeds City Museum needs to take a proactive approach and develop new revenue streams. This could be done by improving the facilities available to be hired out at the museum or hosting regular events. The museum has many resources such as a historic building in a prime, city centre location and should it seek to maximise these revenue generating opportunities. Other competitor museums have an array of fundraising initiatives ranging from sponsoring events to ‘buy a brick’ campaigns. 4.6 International Collaboration Leeds is twinned with eight cities and therefore the opportunity for international collaboration is great. It is recommended that Leeds City Museum conducts a feasibility study into a possible strategic or cultural collaboration with a museum in one of the twinned cities. For instance, the museums could share exhibits or conduct research which would in turn enhance the museum’s global standing, possibly leading to increased tourists numbers. The twinned cities are as follows: • • • • • • • • Brno, Czech Republic Colombo, Sri Lanka Dortmund, Germany Durban, South Africa Hangzhou, China Lille, France Louisville, Kentucky, USA Siegen, Germany


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing



Audiences Enrich and deepen -Identify and reward -Educate -Excite and stimulate Diversity -Entertain -Remove perceptual barriers -Remove practical barriers

Portfolio product Enrich and deepen -Scholarly exhibitions -Learning orientation -Excellence Diversity -Access and participation -Distinctiveness -Diversity

Organisational marketing culture Enrich and deepen -Object focused - Economic responsibility Diversity -Experience focused -Social responsibility

Tripartite audience, product and organisational marketing model (Source: Kerrigan et al, 2004; p150)


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing


Social needs



Frequency of attendance

Outreach, education



Types of audiences by needs served and frequ (Source: Kerrigan et al, 2004; p152)


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing



Management and Staff


Arts Organisation
Arts Organisation’s Publics (Source: Kotler and Scheff; 1997)

Trade unions


Government agencies


Leeds Metropolitan University BA (Hons) Public Relations, Arts Marketing

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Kerrigan et al, (2004). Arts Marketing. Elsevier. Lancaster, G and Reynolds, P (1998). Marketing. Macmillan Business Masters. Lancaster, G and Massington, L (1996). Strategic Marketing Planning and Evaluation. Biddles Ltd. Perreault, W et al (2000). Basic Marketing. McGraw Hill. Tench R and Yeomans, L (2006). Exploring Pubic Relations. Prentice Hall.

Reports Webb, M (2008). Leeds City Museum – Audience Development Plan 2007-2008. Leeds Museums and Galleries.

Websites www.quickmba.com http://www.leeds.gov.uk/museumsandgalleries/ http://www.leeds.gov.uk/Leisure_and_culture/Museums_and_galleries/Local_museums.aspx


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