COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AUTHOR
SECTION
: 08
GROUP
: 5
INSTRUCTOR
Performed Date
26/11/2014
Due Date*
3/11/2014
Submitted Date
2/11/2014
*Late submission penalty: Late 1 day: 10%, Late 2 days: 20%, Late 3 days: 30%, More than 3 days: 50%
Table of Content
TITLE
PAGE
I.
Abstract
II.
Objective
III.
Data/Observation/Results
58
IV.
V.
Conclusions
VI.
References
Abstract
In hydraulic engineering practice, it is frequently necessary to estimate the head loss
incurred by a fluid as it flows along a pipeline. For example, it may be desired to predict the
rate of flow along a proposed pipe connecting two reservoirs at different levels. Or it may be
necessary to calculate what additional head would be required to double the rate of flow
along an existing pipeline. As water flows through a pipeline, energy is lost due to friction
along pipe walls and flow separation at fittings. This energy loss is termed headloss. The
headloss due to pipe friction is commonly estimated using the DarcyWeisbach equation: HL
= f LV2/2gD. The required friction factor (f) is obtained from the Moody Diagram as a
function of Reynolds number (Re = VD/) and the roughness of the pipe (or pipe material).
The headloss at bends and fittings, also termed minor losses, are computed as: HM = K
V2/2g. Values of the minor loss coefficient (K) are tabulated for a number of fittings and
transitions
Objective

To verify that DarcyWeisbach equation can be used to predict the head loss due to
friction with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.
To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for
flow of water through smooth bore pipes and to confirm the head loss friction factor f.
Data/Observations/Results
Pipe No.1
Diameter = 0.006m
Volume
,V(L)
Time,T(s
)
Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)
Velocity,u
(m/s)
Reynolds
Number,Re
Friction
Factor,f
Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)
Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
7.300
99.99
12.915
3.87x104
0.082
490
0.033
7.54x103
13.875
3.60x104
0.076
454.18
0.035
6.87x103
6.300
99.89
15.025
3.33x10
4
0.070
418.32
0.038
6.33x10
3
5.300
99.88
16.165
3.09x104
0.066
394.42
0.041
6.07x103
4.412
99.86
19.295
2.59x10
4
0.055
328.68
0.049
5.04x10
3
3.395
99.85
25.865
1.93x104
0.041
254.02
0.063
3.60x103
2.307
99.84
0.033
0.035
0.038
0.041
0.049
0.063
490
Pipe No.2
Diameter = 0.010
Volume
,V(L)
Time,T(s
)
Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)
Velocity,u
(m/s)
Reynolds
Number,Re
Friction
Factor,f
Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)
7.92
6.31x104
8.03
79.98x103
2.00x104
0.263
8.70
5.75x104
7.32
72.91x103
2.19x104
0.288
4.805
94.00
10.79
4.63x104
5.90
58.76x103
2.70x104
0.355
3.802
90.66
12.77
3.92x104
5.00
49.80x103
3.21x104
0.422
2.730
84.54
3.92
4.10x10
4
0.539
1.700
68.29
6.89x10
3
0.906
0.712
27.24
5
5
16.25
27.37
3.08x104
1.83x104
2.33
39.04x10
23.21x10
Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
5.830
95.49
72910
58760
49800
39040
23210
Pipe No.3
Diameter = 0.017
Volume
,V(L)
Time,T(s
)
Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)
Velocity,u
(m/s)
Reynolds
Number,Re
Friction
Factor,f
Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)
Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
1.570
96.31
4.26
1.17x103
5.16
87.37x103
1.83x104
0.058
4.38
1.14x103
5.02
85.00x103
1.88x104
0.056
1.377
95.93
4.57
1.09x103
4.80
81.27x103
1.97x104
0.054
1.175
95.40
5.38
9.29x104
4.09
69.25x103
2.31x104
0.046
0.970
95.26
6.48
7.72x104
3.40
57.57x103
2.78x104
0.039
0.770
94.94
7.65
6.54x104
2.88
48.76x103
3.28x104
0.030
0.570
94.74
0.0001830.0001880.0001970.0002310.0002780.000328
85000
81270
69250
57570
48760
Conclusions
Based on the calculation done, the result clearly shows that the value we obtained
represents the head loss due to friction of water through the piping system. The head loss we
obtained from the calculation is close to the theoretical value of head loss, proving that
DarcyWeisbach equation can actually be used to predict the head loss due to friction with
flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.
Moreover, it is shown that the higher the flow rate of fluid, the larger the head loss in
the piping system. It is found that the size of the pipe is inversely proportional to the head
loss in a flowing system. This is because the larger the diameter of pipe, the smaller the head
loss in the piping system. This is because the bigger the pipe diameter, the higher the
Reynolds Number, the more turbulent the water flow, the smaller the head loss experienced.
From the graph plotted, the friction factor is inversely proportional to the Reynolds
Number. This corresponds to the Moody diagram whereby the larger the Reynolds Number,
the lower the friction factor. This proves that the result obtained from the experiment is
accurate as it corresponds to the Moody diagram
In short, we have verified that the DarcyWeisbach equation can be used to predict
head loss. The head loss of a system is inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe. The
objectives of the experiment were achieved while observing safe lab procedures.
References
a.
Book
b.
Internet
Engineers Edge. (20012). Fluid Flow Head Loss Darcy Weisback Equation. Retrieved from
http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/head_loss.htm
Szubynski, H. (2012). Reynolds Number in Pipe Friction. Quest Scifireality. Retrieved
from http://benabb.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/spaceshipmotor2/
Queens University. (n. d.). Losses in Pipes. Retrieved from
http://me.queensu.ca/People/Sellens/LossesinPipes.html
c.
Video