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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MEHB221 - FLUIDS MECHANICS LAB


EXP 5: HEAD LOSS DUE TO FRICTION

AUTHOR

: TRUSHAL JITENDRA VORA(ME092642), WEE MENG


CHUAN(ME092644), THEEBAN A/L MUNIANDY(ME092641),
WAN MOHD NAZAR BIN WAN MOHD IDRUS(ME093715), WAN
HARIZ ISKANDAR BIN WAN IZHAN(ME092708)

SECTION

: 08

GROUP

: 5

INSTRUCTOR

: MISS CONSTANCE LINDA

Performed Date
26/11/2014

Due Date*
3/11/2014

Submitted Date
2/11/2014

*Late submission penalty: Late 1 day: 10%, Late 2 days: 20%, Late 3 days: 30%, More than 3 days: 50%

Table of Content

TITLE

PAGE

I.

Abstract

II.

Objective

III.

Data/Observation/Results

5-8

IV.

Analysis and Discussion

V.

Conclusions

VI.

References

Abstract
In hydraulic engineering practice, it is frequently necessary to estimate the head loss
incurred by a fluid as it flows along a pipeline. For example, it may be desired to predict the
rate of flow along a proposed pipe connecting two reservoirs at different levels. Or it may be
necessary to calculate what additional head would be required to double the rate of flow
along an existing pipeline. As water flows through a pipeline, energy is lost due to friction
along pipe walls and flow separation at fittings. This energy loss is termed headloss. The
headloss due to pipe friction is commonly estimated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation: HL
= f LV2/2gD. The required friction factor (f) is obtained from the Moody Diagram as a
function of Reynolds number (Re = VD/) and the roughness of the pipe (or pipe material).
The headloss at bends and fittings, also termed minor losses, are computed as: HM = K
V2/2g. Values of the minor loss coefficient (K) are tabulated for a number of fittings and
transitions

Objective
-

To verify that Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to predict the head loss due to
friction with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.

To verify minor loss coefficients for fittings.

To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for
flow of water through smooth bore pipes and to confirm the head loss friction factor f.

Data/Observations/Results
Pipe No.1

Diameter = 0.006m

Volume
,V(L)

Time,T(s
)

Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)

Velocity,u
(m/s)

Reynolds
Number,Re

Friction
Factor,f

Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)

Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
7.300
99.99

12.915

3.87x10-4

0.082

490

0.033

7.54x10-3

13.875

3.60x10-4

0.076

454.18

0.035

6.87x10-3

6.300

99.89

15.025

3.33x10

-4

0.070

418.32

0.038

6.33x10

-3

5.300

99.88

16.165

3.09x10-4

0.066

394.42

0.041

6.07x10-3

4.412

99.86

19.295

2.59x10

-4

0.055

328.68

0.049

5.04x10

-3

3.395

99.85

25.865

1.93x10-4

0.041

254.02

0.063

3.60x10-3

2.307

99.84

Friction Factor, f vs Reynolds Number,


Re
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Friction Factor,f
Reynolds Number,Re

0.033

0.035

0.038

0.041

0.049

0.063

490

454.18 418.32 394.42 328.68 254.02

Pipe No.2

Diameter = 0.010

Volume
,V(L)

Time,T(s
)

Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)

Velocity,u
(m/s)

Reynolds
Number,Re

Friction
Factor,f

Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)

7.92

6.31x10-4

8.03

79.98x103

2.00x10-4

0.263

8.70

5.75x10-4

7.32

72.91x103

2.19x10-4

0.288

4.805

94.00

10.79

4.63x10-4

5.90

58.76x103

2.70x10-4

0.355

3.802

90.66

12.77

3.92x10-4

5.00

49.80x103

3.21x10-4

0.422

2.730

84.54

3.92

4.10x10

-4

0.539

1.700

68.29

6.89x10

-3

0.906

0.712

27.24

5
5

16.25
27.37

3.08x10-4
1.83x10-4

2.33

39.04x10

23.21x10

Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
5.830
95.49

Friction Factor, f vs Reynolds Number,


Re
90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
Friction Factor,f

0.0002 0.000219 0.00027 0.000321 0.00041 0.00689

Reynolds Number,Re 79980

72910

58760

49800

39040

23210

Pipe No.3

Diameter = 0.017

Volume
,V(L)

Time,T(s
)

Flow
Rate,Q
(m2/s)

Velocity,u
(m/s)

Reynolds
Number,Re

Friction
Factor,f

Theoretica
l Head(hth)
(mHsO)

Exp.
Percentag
Head
e Error(%)
Loss(hex
p)(mH2O
)
1.570
96.31

4.26

1.17x10-3

5.16

87.37x103

1.83x10-4

0.058

4.38

1.14x10-3

5.02

85.00x103

1.88x10-4

0.056

1.377

95.93

4.57

1.09x10-3

4.80

81.27x103

1.97x10-4

0.054

1.175

95.40

5.38

9.29x10-4

4.09

69.25x103

2.31x10-4

0.046

0.970

95.26

6.48

7.72x10-4

3.40

57.57x103

2.78x10-4

0.039

0.770

94.94

7.65

6.54x10-4

2.88

48.76x103

3.28x10-4

0.030

0.570

94.74

Friction Factor, f vs Reynolds Number,


Re
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
Friction Factor,f

0.0001830.0001880.0001970.0002310.0002780.000328

Reynolds Number,Re 87370

85000

81270

69250

57570

48760

Conclusions
Based on the calculation done, the result clearly shows that the value we obtained
represents the head loss due to friction of water through the piping system. The head loss we
obtained from the calculation is close to the theoretical value of head loss, proving that
Darcy-Weisbach equation can actually be used to predict the head loss due to friction with
flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.

Moreover, it is shown that the higher the flow rate of fluid, the larger the head loss in
the piping system. It is found that the size of the pipe is inversely proportional to the head
loss in a flowing system. This is because the larger the diameter of pipe, the smaller the head
loss in the piping system. This is because the bigger the pipe diameter, the higher the
Reynolds Number, the more turbulent the water flow, the smaller the head loss experienced.

From the graph plotted, the friction factor is inversely proportional to the Reynolds
Number. This corresponds to the Moody diagram whereby the larger the Reynolds Number,
the lower the friction factor. This proves that the result obtained from the experiment is
accurate as it corresponds to the Moody diagram

In short, we have verified that the Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to predict
head loss. The head loss of a system is inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe. The
objectives of the experiment were achieved while observing safe lab procedures.

References
a.

Book

Munson, B. R. (2010). Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. 6th Ed.Reading: Wiley. p233.

b.

Internet

Engineers Edge. (20012). Fluid Flow Head Loss Darcy Weisback Equation. Retrieved from
http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/head_loss.htm
Szubynski, H. (2012). Reynolds Number in Pipe Friction. Quest Scifireality. Retrieved
from http://benabb.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/spaceship-motor-2/
Queens University. (n. d.). Losses in Pipes. Retrieved from
http://me.queensu.ca/People/Sellens/LossesinPipes.html

c.

Video

Riefler, G. (2011, July 25). 19 Major Head Losses. Retrieved from


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EARkiHQAuU8