POEC 7330

Survey of Public Affairs
Dr. Douglas J. Watson Office GR 2.531 Douglas.watson@utdallas.edu Thursdays 7-9:45 PM Class Location: GR 3.204 Introduction: PA (POEC) 7330 serves as the introductory course to the Ph.D. program in Public Affairs. It is a survey of major issues in public affairs arranged by the five major categories of study contained in the Ph.D. curriculum. As your cohort proceeds through the program, you will study in more depth each of the major categories, so this course is designed to give you an introduction to each of the topics. This is a seminar, which means that you will play a major role in researching and presenting information and opinions both as an individual and as a group member. All of you have solid educational backgrounds and professional standing in your careers in public affairs and are expected to contribute to the success of the class. During the semester, faculty members will speak to the class on their research interests. This accomplishes two objectives: 1) you will have a chance to meet faculty members and understand something about his or her research agenda; and 2) they will share specific knowledge in the field of Public Affairs. Faculty members’ schedules did not permit a perfect match with the topic of each session, but we believe it is important for you to meet the faculty in this introductory course. Course Objective: This course will provide students with an overview and understanding of the broad field of public affairs. As part of that objective, we will discuss the dynamic nature of public and non-profit organizations in today’s quickly changing environment and explore the challenges of organization, leadership, and management in these organizations. In addition, we will recognize the constraints that public managers and policy- makers face in dealing with the complex social issues that face American society. The literature that we will read and discuss includes both classics in the field of public affairs and recent publications. Expectations: To maximize the opportunities for a productive class, each student is expected to do the following: Ø Attend all classes and be on time. If you cannot attend class or are going to be late, please let me know by e- mail or phone in advance. Ø Complete all assignments on time. Ø Make an active contribution to the class discussions. Ø Submit work of doctoral- level quality.

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Discussion Group Member: You will be a member of a five or six person group. The group to which you are assigned is listed at the end of the syllabus. There are two functions of the groups- weekly short papers/discussions and book reviews. Ø Weekly Assignments- There are weekly assignments for the groups listed on the syllabus by group number. Each group will have ten separate assignments from the assigned books and journal articles. As a group member, you are expected to come to class with a short written summary (two to three pages) of the assigned work and be prepared to discuss the assignment as a group member. You will turn in the assignments at the end of the discussion. You will receive a grade of one to five points for each one, along with feedback from the professor. Of course, you are responsible for reading all of the assignments on the syllabus and should be prepared to ask questions or offer opinions on the readings other than the ones that your group is responsible for that class period. Ø Book Reviews as Group Projects: Each group is assigned two books to review during the semester. The assignments are listed later on the syllabus. Please note the date on the syllabus when your group’s presentations are due. Your group’s assignment is to read each book carefully and develop a high quality Power Point presentation for the class, including handouts of the presentations. Since there are at least five members on the team, you should meet to discuss a fair division of the work. In your presentation, please include a summary of the main points in the book and your group’s determination of its contribution to the field of public affairs. For Power Point presentations, you will be expected to use the protocol for Power Point included at the end of the syllabus. The presentations should appear as one work and not the compilation of four or five different ones. Individual Work Products: There are two assignments that you will do on your own. One is a series of four short papers (not more than three to five pages) of peerreviewed journal articles. The second assignment is for the research paper. Ø Journal articles: You will select from peer-reviewed journals four outstanding articles that have been published within the past decade on the subject of the modules. You will be expected to write a thorough review of not more than five pages of the journal articles you select, including your opinion of the author’s arguments and research, as well as the article’s relevance to the module under study. Note the deadlines listed below for each of the four journal reviews. On occasion as time permits, you will be called upon to present your reports to the class. All the journals that you use must be peer-reviewed and at least one review must come from Public Administration Review. Due Dates for Journal Article Reviews: 1st- September 8 (Module 1) 2nd- October 6 (Module 2) 3rd- October 27 (Module 3) 4th - November 17 (Module 4 or Module 5)

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Ø Research Paper: A major requirement of the course is the development of a high-quality research paper. The paper will be approximately 5000 words on a topic covered in the course. You will write a several hundred word proposal on your topic and submit it to me by September 15. In the proposal, explain why you have chosen this topic and how you plan to research the topic. The topic must address a major issue in Public Affairs, such as the ones that are included in the course. The paper should be carefully written following very closely the requirements for style listed at the end of the syllabus. Once your topic has been approved, you may begin your research. In the second part of the semester, you will develop a presentation for the class on your topic. The dates of the presentations are listed on the syllabus. I will attempt to group the presentations that have common themes so that your report will be part of a three or four person panel similar to those conducted at conferences for scholars. You will have a maximum of 20 minutes to make your presentation for which you may use Power Point or other A/V aids. However, you should not read your presentation to the rest of the class under any circumstances. The paper will be due to me no later than November 17. If you desire feedback on your paper during the semester, please present segments to me for review and feedback. These reviews will not be graded and will serve only as advice to you in completing a high quality paper. Your goal will be to produce a paper considered worthy enough to be submitted to a scholarly journal for peer review. Grading: Your grade will be calculated based on your ability to earn a maximum of 200 total points. There are no exams in this seminar, so your individual work products and your participation in group discussions /presentations will constitute your grade. I will ask each student to evaluate the contributions of the other members of his/her group at the end of the semester. If group members identify you as a “free rider,” your grade will be affected. In order to earn an A in the course, you will need to have at least 180 points; for a B, you will need 160 points. You will not be eligible for full credit for assignments that are turned in late. Individual Work: Research Paper/Presentation Journal Article Reviews (4) Group Work: Weekly Assignments/Discussion Group Participation (10) 50 points Group Book Reviews (2) 30 points Required Books: There are four required books and a course packet: 80 points 40 points

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Schmerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, Core Concepts of Organizational Behavior Shriberg, Shriberg, and Kumari, Practicing Leadership, 3rd edition Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes, Classics of Public Administration, 5th edition Goodsell, The Case for Bureaucracy Course Packet available at Off-Campus Books

Course Schedule
Introduction to the Course August 18 Module 1 Issues in Governance Assigned Readings: August 25 Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes (SHP) Wilson, Ch. 2 Goodnow, Ch. 3 Weber, Ch. 7 White, Ch. 8 Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes Merton, Ch. 13 Appleby, Ch. 16 Selznick, Ch. 19 Lindblom, Ch. 22 Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes Moe, Ch. 45 Savas, Ch. 7- Course Packet Savas, Ch. 11- Course Packet Goldsmith and Eggers, Ch. 1- Course Packet Book Review: Group 1 September 15 In the Course Packet: Ammons, “Productivity Barriers…” Group 3 Van Wart, “Public Sector Values…” Group 4 Koenig, “Free Speech” Group 5 Cramton, “Judicial Lawmaking & Administration” Group 1 Hartman, Homer, and Reff, “Human Resource Management Legal Issues” Group 2 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Scott Robinson

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4

September 1

Group 5 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 1 Group 2

September 8

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Book Reviews: Groups 2 and 3 Research Paper Proposals Due September 22 Goodsell, The Case for Bureaucracy Chapter 1 Group 3 Chapters 2-3 Group 4 Chapter 4 Group 5 Chapter 5 Group 1 Chapter 6 Group 2 Chapter 7 Everyone read; no reports Faculty Speaker: Dr. Larry Terry Book Review: Group 4 Module 2 Leadership in Public and Non-profit Organizations Assigned Readings: September 29 Schmerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (SHO), Ch. 14 SHO, Ch. 15 SHO, Ch. 18 Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes, Mosher, et al., Ch. 36 McGregor, Ch. 21 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Doug Kiel Book Review: Group 5 October 6 Shriberg, Shriberg, and Kumari (SSK), Ch. 2 SSK, Ch. 9 SSK, Ch. 10 SSK, Ch. 11 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Floun’say Caver Book Review: Group 1 October 13 Shriberg, Shriberg, and Kumari, Ch. 12 SSK, Ch. 13 SSK, Ch. 14 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Susan McElroy Book Reviews: Group 2 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 1 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 1 Group 2

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Module 3 Management and Organizational Analysis Assigned Readings: October 20 Schmerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, Ch. 2 SHO, Ch. 9 SHO, Ch. 10 SHO, Ch. 11 SHO, Ch. 12 SHO, Ch. 13 Book Reviews: Groups 3 and 4 October 27 Shafritz, Hyde, and Parkes, Chs. 30 Krislov, Ch. 37 Levine, Ch. 38 Allison, Ch. 39 Lipsky, Ch. 40 Book Review: Group 5 Module 4 Decision-making Assigned Readings: November 3 Schmerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, Ch. 17 SHO, Ch. 19 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Euel Elliott Research Paper Presentations /Panels Group 1 Group 2 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 5 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5

Module 5 Social Policy and Development Assigned Reading: November 10 Scotch, Chs. 1 and 2 Jargowsky, “Studying Neighborhood Poverty” Faculty Speaker: Dr. Richard Scotch Research Paper Presentations /Panels Groups 3 & 4 Group 5

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Course Wrap-up November 17 Faculty Speaker: Dr. Simon Fass Research Paper Presentations /Panels Final Research Papers Due

Groups:
Group 1 Dionne Abramsom Britt Berrett Karabi Bezboruah Tom Browning Doric Earle Group 2 Torry Edwards Augustine Ene Raul Hinojosa Leigh Horns by Brian James Group 3 Karen Jarrell Linda Johnson Geraldine Kepler Charlotte Lusk Eric Metcalf Gerel Oyun Group 4 Kyle Pewitt Ilker Pekgozlu Suzanne Rivera Shirley Rowe Clint Shipp Group 5 Ron Smith David Stephens Kelley Stone Adrian Valazquez Habib Ozdemir

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Assigned Books to Review: Ostrom, Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration Rohr, To Run a Constitution Waldo, The Enterprise of Public Administration Mosher, Democracy and the Public Service Donald Kettl, The Transformation of Government Cooper, Governing by Contract Singer, Corporate Warriors Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 1 Group 2

Goleman, Boyatzsis, and McKee, Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence Group 3 Dobel, Public Integrity Adam and Balfour, Unmasking Administrative Evil, Revised Ed. Group 4 Group 5

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Information on Manuscript Formatting*
Papers should follow the style guidelines in the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition. Papers should be no less than 25 pages nor longer than 35 pages, including the abstract, bio statement, endnotes, reference list, tables, figures, charts, and appendices. The pagesize guideline is based on the U.S. standard 8.5x11 inch paper. All material should be 12-point type, double-spaced on one side of the page with margins of one inch. Please do not use the autoformat feature in your word processing program and do not embed endnotes. An abstract of no more than 150 words should appear on a separate page, preceding the first page of the manuscript. The abstract should include the central question addressed by the article and the author’s findings and conclusions.

Tables, Figures, Charts, Appendices Please keep tables, figures, charts, and appendices to a minimum. Your text may highlight and summarize the main points in a table but it should not duplicate the details. Each table or figure should be on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Indicate placement of tables, figures, etc. in the text as follows: leave two double spaces after the last line of preceding text; insert the sentence, [Table (Figure) N here], and leave two double spaces before beginning the next line of text. Note that the words “table,” “figure,” “appendix,” etc. should be lowercase when referred to in the text. Zeros should be omitted before decimal points in tables. Please do not use heavy borders or shading. If the table, figure, or chart requires fill effects please USE PATTERNS instead of shading. Article Title and Section Headings The guidelines for article titles and section headings are as follows (please do not underline): Article title and principal subheads: 14-point roman type, title case, bold, and set on a line separate from the text. Secondary sub heads: 12-point roman type, title case, bold, and set on a line separate from the text. Sub-subheads (run-in subheads): 12-point roman type, title case, bold and italic, run- in at the beginning of a paragraph, and followed by a period. Numbers Numerals or words: Spell out only single-digit numbers (1–9) and use numerals for all others. Use numerals for percentages and spell out percent (for instance, 9 percent). Centuries should be spelled out and lowercased. Decimal fractions: In the text, when a quantity equals less than 1.00, a zero appears before the decimal. (for example, 0.25). If the quantity is always less than 1.00, as in

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probabilities, correlation coefficients, and the like, a zero is typically omitted before the decimal point (p < .05, R = .10) Inclusive numbers: For information on inclusive numbers, see page 395–97 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition. Quotations Quoted matter that runs six or more typed lines or that involves two or more paragraphs should be set off as a block quotation; the quotation should start a new line, be set without quotation marks, and be set in 11-point type. Shorter quotations are run into the text and enclosed in quotation marks. Be sure to include page number(s) where quotation appeared. Quotation marks should be used to set off a word of unusual meaning or an unfamiliar, excessively slangy, or coined word the first time it is used. Quotation marks are unnecessary thereafter. Commonly known facts and proverbial, biblical, and well-known literary expressions do not need to be enclosed in quotation marks. Capitalization When in doubt, do not capitalize. Only acronyms and the word PAR should appear in all capital letters (after one spelled-out use). Civil, military, religious, and professional titles and titles of nobility are capitalized only when they immediately precede a personal name and are thus used as part of the name. Article and section titles of any kind should be capitalized in title case. Italics Italicize names of books, newspapers, and journals; please do not underline them. Italicize the names of plaintiff and defendant in the citation of legal cases. Italics are used for isolated words and phrases in a foreign language if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers. Foreign words or phrases familiar to most readers and listed in MerriamWebster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition (for example, laissez faire) are not italicized if used in an English context. Italicize a word on its first occurrence; thereafter they are best set in roman. Italics may be used for emphasis and on the first occurrence. Citing Works within the Text To cite the works you used in developing your article, use the author-date system. For each work to which you refer, supply the author’s last (family) name, date of publication of the work cited, and a page number(s) if needed. There should be a reference list entry for every text citation. (**Please note, no punctuation is used between author name and date). For example: (Smith 1993, 24) or (Jones 1992, 37–40) If you refer to an author in the text, the publication date and page numbers are a sufficient reference. For example: As Johnson argues (1994, 17)… If a work has more than three authors, use the name of the first author followed by et al. For example: (Davidson et al. 1990, 27)

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If you cite more than one work by the same author produced in the same year, distinguish among the works with an alphabetical identifier after the date. For example: (Lowi 1985a, 13; Lowi 1985b, 18). Assign letters to the dates of each work according to the alphabetical order of the titles of the works. For example: If you cite The City and Urban Policy by Smith and both were published in 1987, cite The City as (Smith 1987a) and Urban Policy as (Smith 1987b). If you cite an electronic source, include the author’s last name (or file name if author’s name is not available [for example, cgos.html]) and the date of publication or last revision (or date accessed if publication date is not available). Notes Please DO NOT use footnotes. Use endnotes to elaborate or comment on material in the text and place them at the end of the text under the subhead “Notes.” Notes should not be created by use of the footnote or endnote feature of the word processor. PAR’s typesetting process cannot use endnotes prepared in this way. Endnote reference numbers in the text are set as superscript numbers—use the superscript feature under “Fonts” to insert endnote numbers. In the notes themselves, the numbers are full size (12-point roman type) and followed by a period. References (For general information, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, Documentation I: Basic Patterns—The Author–Date System: Reference Lists and Text Citations. For more specific content, see Documentation II: Specific Content) Prepare a list of all the works you cite in the text and arrange them alphabetically by author’s last name (please include only the works that are cited in the text). If you cite more than one work by the same author, a 3-em dash replaces the name after the first appearance and the entries are arranged by the year of publication in ascending order (earliest to latest). If you cite more than one work by the same author published in the same year, arrange them alphabetically by title and distinguish them by putting an a, b, c, and so forth, following the year of publication. Titles and subtitles of books and articles in the references are capitalized headline style. Please include author’s full given name, instead of using initials. Examples of some of the more common reference list entries are as follows: Book, single author: Goodsell, Charles T. 1994. The Case for Bureaucracy: A Public Administration Polemic. 3d ed. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House. Book, multiple authors: (only the first author’s name is inverted) Keehley, Patricia, Steven Medlin, Laura Longmire, and Sue A. MacBride. 1997. Benchmarking for Best Practices in the Public Sector: Achieving Performance Breakthroughs in Federal, State, and Local Agencies. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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Book, edited: Halachmi, Arie, and Geert Bouckaert, eds. 1995. The Enduring Challenges in Public Management: Surviving and Excelling in a Changing World. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass. Chapter or selection in an edited book: (Please note: no quotation marks around chapter title. Please include page numbers.) Ingraham, Patricia W., and David H. Rosenbloom. 1992. The State of Merit in the Federal Government. In Agenda for Excellence: Public Service in America, edited by Patricia W. Ingraham and Donald F. Kettl, 274 - 96. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House. Journal Article: (Please note: no quotation marks around article title) Roberts, Alasdair. 1995. Civic Discovery as Rhetorical Strategy. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 14(2): 291 - 307. ("14" is the volume number, "2" is the issue number, and "291 - 307" is the page range. If possible, please use issue number and not month.) Newspaper Article: (please note: page numbers are best omitted, section number or name may be included) Walker, Robert. 1995. Reality Strikes Mission to Planet Earth. Space News, August 28 September 3, A1. Non- English Titles: Title of works in languages other than English are treated the same as English titles except that capitalization follows the conventions of the language of the work. An English translation should be provided for all titles (book titles, journal titles, journal article titles, newspapers, etc.). The translation should follow the title, enclosed in brackets without italics or quotation marks, and only the first word (of title and subtitle) and proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized. Mayntz, Renate, and Fritz W. Scharpf. 1973. Planungsorganisation: die Diskussion um die Reform von Regierung und Verwaltung des Bundes (Planning organization: A debate on the reform of government and administration of Germany). München: Piper. Papers Presented at Meetings, Conferences, etc.: (Please include month and days, as well as the city and state) Baker, George. 1999. Distortion, Noise, and Incentive Provision with Imperfect Performance Measures. Paper presented at the National Academy of Sciences conference on Devising Incentives to Promote Human Capital, December 17 - 18, Irvine, California. Public Documents/Reports and Documents: U.S. House. 1993. Committee of the Budget. Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act of 1993: Report on the Budget. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Report no. 103-111.

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Hearings: U.S. House. 1994. Committee on Public Works and Transportation. 1993 Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Program: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Development. 103rd Cong., 2nd sess. February 7. Court Decisions/Legal Cases: The names of legal cases are italicized when mentioned in the text and the abbreviation v. should also be italicized. These should be cited in the text and are NOT listed separately in the reference list. Examples of citations in running text follow: In 1941, Bridges v. California (314 U.S. 252) United States v. Katzwallader (183 F.2d 210 [1950]) Electronic Sources (please see section 17.15 for a listing of specific examples of source types): Electronic Books: Full facts of publication should be noted, including author’s last and first name, date of publication, title, chapters or other titled parts of a boo, edition, multivolume works, etc. (if applicable), a URL or address, including the path or directories necessary to access the document. Since some books are published in printed and electronic forms, always cite the source consulted. Burka, L.P. 1993. A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions. MUD History. http://www.utopia.com/talent/lpb/muddex/essay. Electronic Journals: Follow the example for the printed form of a journal article and add the URL (address) at the end of the citation. Online Newspapers, News Services and other News Sites: These are identical to their print counterparts, with the addition of a URL. Informally Published Electronic Material: Include as much of the following information as can be determined: author of the content, title of the page, title or owner of the site, and the URL. When there is no clear indication of authorship, title, publisher, or date, it is still necessary to include the URL and what the source is (descriptive phrases may be used). If a site ceases to exist before publication, include such information parenthetically at the end of the citation. *Based on requirements for submission of manuscripts to Public Administration Review.

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Using Power Point for Presentations* PRESENTER
The presenter is the most important element of any presentation. A good public speaker can give an effective presentation without the use of the other visual aids or handouts. Good presenters have a few things in common.

• They know the material • They know the room o Location of light switches o How the podium is set up and if it can be changed o Location of power cords (avoid tripping) o Location of whiteboards, chalkboards, flip charts, etc… • They are comfortable with their choice of media • They make good eye contact with the audience • They project the right image (appearance, dress, etc…) • They can “work” the room o Eye contact with many audience members o Move comfortable from one area to another o Don’t neglect any section of the room • They can project their voice • They focus on the message not the media • Prior Proper Practice Prevents Poor Performance

MEDIA Is PowerPoint the Tool of Choice?
Not every presentation is enhanced with PowerPoint. In some cases PowerPoint detracts from the objective or from the quality of the presentation. Will your objective be better met through some other media? PowerPoint is great if you need to… • Enhance a presentation with charts or other graphics • Disseminate information • Organize information and stay on point
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PowerPoint is not great if you… • Are simply complying with social norms • Are using it as a crutch

Common Problems
One of the most common mistakes when using PowerPoint is for the presenter to rely on the software instead of their own presentation skills. PowerPoint is a tool that can be very effective if wielded correctly. If it is used improperly the result is the same as trying to use a hammer to saw a board, you may complete the task but the end result isn’t very good. Common Mistakes • Reading the material from the slides instead of using the bullets as talking points • Slides that are difficult to read or lack contrast • Too much information on a single slide

Using PowerPoint to Organize Your Presentation
Most presentations, like many other forms of communication, should be broken into three parts, the introduction, the body and the conclusion. The introduction could include a Title slide and an Agenda slide. The conclusion could contain a Review slide and a final Title slide. The body of the presentation will use multiple slide types, and should have new each section introduced with a Title slide. Title Slides Title slides should be used to introduce the presentation as well as to introduce sections within the presentation. Backgrounds and formatting should be consistent on Title slides throughout the presentation. In order to differentiate between them, Title slides should have different backgrounds and formatting than Content slides.

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Content Slides Content slides are used to help the presenter dispense information. This can be done through bullet points, graphics, flow charts, tables, audio and video. As with Title slides, Content slides should have consistent backgrounds and formatting. VIP Slides If the content of a particular slide is especially vital to the presentation, that slide could be differentiated from the other slides through backgrounds and/or formatting. Animations and Transitions Animations and slide transitions should be used to control the dissemination of information and/or to add emphasis to certain information. Adding sounds to animations and/or slide transitions is not recommended in most cases. Sounds tend to detract more than emphasize.

Readability
A common mistake among presenters is to create presentations that are pleasing to their individual eye, but may be difficult for others to read. Readability is affected by contrast between text and backgrounds, font types, font styles, font formatting, and font shadows. A presentation should be easy to read from any position in the room and by all of the participants. Backgrounds Background colors are of particularly importance when improving readability of slides. Background colors should be considered as they contrast with the text and also as the blend in with the environment. The objective with backgrounds is for them to go unnoticed so that the text will pop out. If the venue is dark, using a dark color for the background allows it to blend into the environment, in turn making the text easier to see. The converse is also true; a bright room requires a light colored background to achieve the best levels of readability. Contrast Higher levels of readability are achieved by creating contrast. Contrast can be created between the background and the text or by adding text shadows. Often it is best to provide contrasting colors using both methods.

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Font Types/Styles Fonts come primarily in two styles, serif and sans serif. Serif fonts have small finishing strokes, called serifs, which help direct the eye as it moves from character to another. On extremely small fonts and extremely large fonts, the serifs can become distracting instead of helpful. As a rule of thumb use serif fonts for average sized text and use sans serif fonts for larger and smaller fonts.
Examples

Serif fonts: Sans Serif fonts:

Times New Roman, Elephant, Courier New Arial, Verdana, Tahoma

Other Font Styles

Script fonts are difficult to read, use them sparingly.
Typewriter fonts are easy to read, but are not aesthetically pleasing.

Text
Often a presentation will be given in a large room. Large rooms can create problems for readability. Many people have poor vision, which creates the same issues with readability. There are a few simple rules that will help the readability of your presentation. Arrangement People often get make the mistake of putting too much information on a slide. Remember that PowerPoint is a presentation tool; it is not a tool for making handouts. Put detailed information in handouts; put talking points on slides. Simple Rules: • Left align key points (bullets) • No more than six bullets per slide • No more than seven words per bullet Font Formatting Simple Rules: • Font sizes should be as large as possible

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• Bold formatting is easier to read in most font styles • Italicized text is difficult to read • When choosing between making the font bold or increasing the font size, choose bold • Text shadows create contrast making text easier to read and should be used when possible
Source is Greg Carpenter, “Enhancing Presentations with PowerPoint.”

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Essay and Discussion Questions August 25, 2005 In your essay and in the class discussion, consider the following questions. Of course, you are invited and expected to explore the importance of each of these writers and their works in more detail and from other perspectives. Group 1: Woodrow Wilson, The Study of Administration, 1887 1. Wilson is generally thought of as the father of American Public Administration because of this essay. What were the major changes in the United States that led Wilson and other reformers to call for professional management in government in the late 1800s? 2. Wilson concluded in his essay that “it is getting harder to run a Constitution than to frame one. What did he mean by that? 3. What is the significance of the politics-administration dichotomy and what was Wilson’s contribution to this concept that is still being debated today? 4. What role did civil service reform and a “technically schooled civil service” see in removing administration from the “hurry and strife of politics?” 5. How did Wilson justify a professional civil service with democratic principles? 6. Does Wilson’s essay have any applicability today? Explain your answer. Group 2: Frank Goodnow, Politics and Administration, 1900 1. Who was Frank Goodnow? Did he have any practical impact in changing government during his lifetime? 2. How do we normally define separation of powers as found in the Constitution? How does Goodnow define it? Do you agree with his “two functions of government?” 3. Why does he argue that separation of powers, “an attractive political theory in its nebulous form,” became “an unworkable and unapplicable rule of law?” 4. What does Goodnow say is the “function of politics?” Do you agree that “in order that this harmony between the expression and the execution of

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the state may be obtained, the independence either of the body which expresses the state will or of the body which executes it must be sacrificed.” 5. What do you think of his argument that politics controls administration in the US through the party system? Is this true today? 6. What are some present day examples that either support or refute Goodnow’s arguments? Group 3: Max Weber, Bureaucracy, 1922 1. Who was Max Weber? Why is he considered a major thinker in organizational theory, sociology, and public affairs? 2. What are the elements of a bureaucracy, according to Weber? Do these elements apply only to governmental agencies? Does he take a position that bureaucracy is good or bad? 3. What significance do you ascribe to his discussion of the independence of the “office holder?” Does it have significance today? To whom or to what is the office holder beholden if not to the ruler? 4. Does this essay help in determining the “good and bad effects of bureaucratic structures” (Shafri tz, 7)? 5. Does Weber’s description of bureaucracy fit an organization either that you work in or one with which you are very familiar?

Group 4: Leonard White, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, 1926 1. Who was Leonard White? Why was this section from his 1926 book reprinted in Shafritz, et al.? 2. What are the four assumptions on which the book is based? Do you feel they are adequate or not from our perspective almost 80 years later? Why or why not? 3. What commonalities does White see in administration at all levels of government? Do you agree? 4. Does White agree with Goodnow on the question of separation of powers? If so, how. If not, how does he differ?

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5. He says of administrators: “They are the government.” On what basis does White make this claim? 6. Is White consistent with Wilson’s argument about the role of administration in juxtaposition with politics? What does he say about Wilson?

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