11 views

Uploaded by Anonymous cXOu9TDVl

DG Sizing Ecmweb

- DC Machines and Synchronous Machines_U. a. Bakshi and M. v. Bakshi
- Design of Marine Generators for Alternative Diesel-electric Power System.
- Gen Set- Config- Mon
- Briggs Stratton 2007 VoEd Book
- DaRin Raffin Sulligoi
- Hydro Generator Brochure
- PERKIN 4016
- Technical Manual Lsc Alternators
- Kohler
- KATO Generator
- Alternador Delco Remy 1G-287
- electrical motor
- Alternatoer Lvsi804s Wdg 12 v9 Tds
- Cap02 Maquinas sincronicas
- Question Bank
- Transformers
- Mtu6r1600ds275 275kw Standby
- Electrical Interview Question
- DCM _VI_sem V Good
- Main Project

You are on page 1of 10

NEC

Design

Contractor

Subscribe

About Us

Safety

Magazine Issues

Power Quality

Trainin

Products

HOME > BASICS > SIZING GENGEN-SETS FOR LARGE MOTOR STARTING

Larry A. Bey, Cummins Onan Corp. | Electrical Construction and Maintenance

TWEET

Recommend

EC&M Le

Feb 1, 2000

COMMENTS 3

Remember, an on-site engine-generator set is a limited source of power, both in horsepower available

from the engine, and kVA available from the generator. As such, it must be large enough to start as well as

run connected motor loads. You've lost normal power. Your engine-generator set (gen-set) starts up and

reaches speed. Now, you want to start some large motors key to your operation. Suddenly,

Library

Don't let the scale of the

to speed on the most

Advertisement

Starting

Feb 1, 2008 12:00 PM, By Larry A. Bey, Cummins Onan

Corp.

intimidate you, this book

Demystified

Written in a step-

source of power, both in horsepower available from the

engine, and kVA available from the generator. As such, it

must be large enough to start as well as run connected motor loads.

You've lost normal power. Your engine-generator set (gen-set) starts up and reaches

speed. Now, you want to start some large motors key to your operation. Suddenly, starter

holding coils drop out, starter contacts chatter, and a few motors stall due to insufficient

torque for acceleration. Can this happen to you? It sure can, if you haven't sized your genset properly.

licensing process, which

region, and...

BROWS

Advertisement

We all know that motors draw a high inrush current during starting:typically six times full

load current. But, inrush currents for the high-efficient motors specified today are almost

double that amount. Motors with high inertia loads can also require up to three times

rated power during starting.

Yes, it's common for motor starting kVA requirements to determine the size of the set.

However, the following factors also play a key role in sizing gen-sets:

Harmonics caused by variable frequency drives.

Use of high-efficiency motors.

Sequential starting of motors.

What's involved. When starting motors, large voltage and frequency dips may occur if

the generator set isn't sized properly. Other loads connected to the generator output may

be more sensitive to voltage and frequency dips than the motor or motor starter, and this

may cause problems. For example, a rate of change greater than 1 Hz/sec in generator

frequency may cause some static UPS units to malfunction.

If the load on the generator set is a single large motor, particularly one requiring high

starting torque, a number of problems can occur. They include: sustained low-voltage

operation that can cause overheating; extended load acceleration times; opening of circuit

breakers or motor protective devices; engine-generator protection shutdowns; and more.

EC&M Webinars

2014

VIEW MO

Your gen-set's ability to start large motors without excessive voltage and frequency dip is

a function of the complete system. This includes:

Advertisement

The generator's capacity;

The response of the generator excitation system;

The energy stored in the rotating inertia of the gen-set; and

The acceleration of the motor and its load.

You must consider all these factors for proper gen-set sizing. Here's a simple rule for

estimating the size of an engine-generator set for motor starting: 1kW of generator set

rating per each 3/4 to 1 hp of motor nameplate.

Let's look more closely at a motor start. Induction motors have typical starting

characteristics. The curve of motor current versus speed shows that during starting, the

motor draws approximately six times its full load current; this current remains high until

the motor reaches about 80% of speed. This high inrush current causes a dip in generator

voltage. The electric power initially required by the motor (with the motor at standstill) is

about 150% of rated power. The power required by the motor peaks at about 300% of

rated power and 80% of speed with full voltage applied. But, the generator set supplies

less than 300% power because starting voltage is lower than full voltage during

EC&M TV

acceleration, and because the generator set's rotating inertia transfers energy to the

motor.

You Covered....

BROWSE

The motor must develop greater torque than required by the load. The motor's torque

curve at full voltage is above the load's torque curve. The difference between the torque

developed by motor and the torque required by the load determines the rate of

acceleration. Since torque is proportional to voltage, any reduction in voltage means a

proportional reduction in torque.

A properly sized generator set will support the high starting kVA requirements of the

motor, and maintain sufficient output voltage for the motor, so it can develop adequate

torque to accelerate the load to rated speed.

Newsle

Sign-up to receiv

E-MAIL:

COUNTRY:

All standby gen-sets use synchronous generators with exciters. Many are available with

permanent magnet generator (PMG) excitation systems. The PMG provides excitation

power independent of the generator terminal voltage. As such, it can maintain full

excitation:even during transient loading, such as motor starting. Full excitation power

results in a less extensive voltage dip and improved recovery times.

Using reduced-voltage starting. Though a voltage dip often causes various problems,

a controlled reduction in voltage at motor terminals can be beneficial, but only when

reduction in motor torque is acceptable. Reducing motor starting kVA can reduce the

required size of the gen-set, reduce the voltage dip, and provide a softer start for the

motor loads. When sizing gen-sets, you must first determine the acceptable level of motor

torque required during starting, or the loads will accelerate slowly, or even fail to reach

full speed:ultimately causing motor damage.

Using solid-state starters. Solid-state starters can adjust the starting torque,

acceleration ramp time, and current limit for controlled acceleration of a motor when it

starts. For the purpose of sizing a gen-set, the current limit adjustment reduces the inrush

current and may be used to reduce the starting kW and kVA requirement on the

generator. The range of available current limit settings is typically from 150% to 600% of

full-load current. A 600% current limit setting on the solid-state starter results in a genset sizing that's the same as an across-the-line starting. A 300% current limit setting

reduces starting kVA by 50%.

Use of the current limit setting also reduces motor torque available to the load. From a

gen-set sizing perspective, an extended acceleration ramp time and low current limit

setting (if appropriate for the motor and the mechanical load) would result in the least

voltage and frequency excursions.

One downside to using solid-state motor starters is their integral SCRs (silicon-controlled

rectifiers) will cause voltage distortion. To compensate, you'll have to oversize the

generator. The recommendation: two times the running kW load, except where you're

using an automatic bypass. If the solid-state starter does have an automatic bypass, the

SCRs are only in the circuit during starting. Once the motor is running, the bypass

By clicking below, I

Terms of Service

information to communi

its third-party partners' p

research opportunities. P

provide will be consisten

Conne

contactor closes and shunts the SCRs. In this case, you can ignore the voltage distortion

during starting, and you don't have to add generator capacity.

VFDs require larger generators. All versions of variable frequency drives (VFDs) are

current limiting and reduce starting kW and kVA. The current drawn by these drives is

nonlinear (having harmonics), which causes a distorted voltage drop across the reactance

of the generator. Since VFDs are nonlinear, you must include an additional generator

capacity sizing factor to keep voltage distortion to a reasonable level of approximately 15%

total harmonic distortion (THD) or less. The larger the generator, the greater the

reduction in impedance of the power source (generator), which in turn, reduces the

effects caused by harmonic current distortion.

For six-pulse VFDs, a typical generator sizing factor would be twice the running kW of the

drive. This offsets any reduction in starting kW and kVA. If it is the pulse width

modulated (PWM) type (or includes an input filter to limit current distortion to less than

10%), then you can reduce the sizing factor down to 1.4 times the running kW of the drive.

Using a step starting sequence. The starting sequence of loads can have a significant

effect on the size of a gen-set. One commonly used approach is to assume all connected

loads will start in a single step. This results in the largest gen-set selection. Unless you do

something to add load incrementally (such as multiple transfer switches with staggered

time delays, or a step load controller), then you should use a single-step load for sizing

purposes.

In multiple step applications, you start the largest motor first, to minimize the gen-set

size. Once placing all loads on line with the gen-set, you can stop and start load

equipment with automatic controls. Here, you'll have to size the gen-set by assuming the

largest motor starts last, with all other connected loads already on line.

Examples of sizing gen-sets. You can size a gen-set with manual calculations (using a

worksheet) or with PC software available from most major gen-set manufacturers. The

basic process is the same. It's always best to use actual data (if known).

If this information isn't available, using PC software is the best option, since much of the

required information on typical load characteristics is available as default information. If

you use the manual sizing procedure, it should result in a recovery voltage of at least 90%

of rated voltage and a starting instantaneous voltage dip of approximately 20% to 40%.

The instantaneous voltage dip and frequency dip will likely vary from manufacturer to

manufacturer, based on equal ratings of gen-sets. For a closer estimation of transient

(starting instantaneous voltage) performance, use the manufacturer's sizing software.

Using the manual sizing procedure.

Step 1: Gather information. You'll need to know the following for each motor load:

Nameplate hp,

Running kilovolt-amperes (RkVA),

Running motor power factor (PF),

Starting motor PF, and

Locked rotor kVA/hp.

You can use the following equation to calculate RkW and RkVA for motors: RkW =

[(Nameplate hp) x (0.746kW/hp)] / Efficiency (eq. 1)

RkVA = RkW / Running motor PF (eq. 2)

To calculate starting kilovolt-amperes (SkVA) and starting kilowatts (SkW) for motors,

use these equations:

SkVA = (Nameplate hp) x (Locked rotor kVA/hp) (eq. 3)

SkW = (SkVA) x (Starting motor PF) (eq. 4)

Step 2: Total the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA numbers for all the loads.

Step 3: Select the gen-set by comparing the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA to the ratings on

the manufacturer's specification sheets (after appropriate derating for ambient

temperature and altitude).

Example One calculation. Determine gen-set size for three loads started across-theline in a single step. Here's pertinent information:

Two 200 hp motors, Code G, 92% running efficiency, 0.25 starting PF, 0.91 running PF.

Total 100kVA of fluorescent lighting, starting PF of 0.95, and running PF of 0.95 (Note:

We're using the terms starting and running PF for the lighting load here for clarification

when adding the motor loads. Actually, the ballast for the lighting load has a constant PF

of 0.95.)

RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW

RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA

SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp41180kVA

SkW = 1180kVA x 0.25 PF = 295kW

Florescent Lighting:

RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW

RkVA = 100kVA

SkVA = 100kVA

SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW

Step 2: Totals.

Load.......... | RkW | RkVA | SkW | SkVA

200hp Motor | 162.2 | 178.2 | 295 | 1180

200hp Motor | 162.2 | 178.2 | 295 | 1180

Lighting....... | 95.... | 100... | 95. | 100

Totals (kVA). | 420... | 457.. | 685 | 2460

Step 3: Selection. At a minimum, you'll have to size the gen-set to supply the maximum

starting (surge) demands and the steady-state running loads of the connected load

equipment. In this example (using one manufacturer's published data), you would select a

750kW generator set with 2944 SkVA available at 90% recovery voltage to supply the total

load SkVA of 2460. The load totals for RkW, RkVA, and SkW are well within the rating of

the 750kW (938kVA) gen-set you selected. The running kilowatt load of 420kW is 56% of

the 750kW gen-set standby rating.

Example Two calculation. Assume you have the same three loads as in Example One,

but now you're using an autotransformer type reduced voltage starter that is set at the

65% starting voltage to start the two motors. This tap setting will reduce the starting kVA

by the square of the voltage (0.65)squared, or 0.42 times the starting kVA.

Step 1: Calculations

200 HP motor:

RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW

RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA

SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp = 1180 x (0.65)squared = 495kVA

SkW = 495kVA x 0.25 PF = 124kW

Florescent Lighting:

RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW

RkVA = 100kVA

SkVA = 100kVA

SkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW

Step 2: Totals

Load.......... | RkW.. | RkVA | SkW | SkVA

200hp Motor | 162.2 | 178.2. | 124. | 495

200hp Motor | 162.2 | 178.2. | 124. | 495

Lighting...... | 95..... | 100... | 95... | 100

Totals (kVA) | 420... | 457... | 343. | 1090

Step 3: Selection. Using one manufacturer's published data, you would select a 450kW

gen-set to supply the required starting kVA. The running kilowatt load of 420kW is 93%

of the gen-set's standby rating. So, if you want a margin for future load additions, you

would select a 500kW gen-set running at 84% of rated standby power.

When you start a motor across-the-line with a gen-set, the motor represents a low

impedance load while at locked rotor or stalled condition. This causes a high inrush

current. The high motor inrush current (I ms) flows through the generator armature

windings and is affected by the reactance. This causes a drop in generator voltage.

Impedance controls the flow of current in AC circuits. But, the generator armature

reactance is such a large part of its total impedance that resistance is ignored.

The generator terminal voltage drops instantaneously when the motor starter contacts

close at time t40, as a function of the subtransient reactance (X"d). Generally, the larger

the generator, the lower its reactance. So, one way to minimize the instantaneous voltage

dip is to increase the generator size.

The generator terminal voltage may drop further, depending on response of the

generator's automatic voltage regulator and the power capability of the excitation system.

(Most gen-set automatic voltage regulators include underfrequency protection.)

During momentary overloads, the engine speed may also dip. If it does, the automatic

voltage regulator reduces excitation power to the main field, which lowers the generator

terminal voltage. This, in turn, reduces the load on the engine, allowing it to recover to

rated speed. Typically, a maximum generator terminal voltage dip of 30% will not cause

coils to drop out. (This allows for approximately 5% additional voltage drop in the

conductors between the generator and the motor).

Although the voltage dip, due to under frequency protection, may extend the voltage

recovery time, it also allows the engine to be sized closer to the steady-state running load

rather than starting load. This is particularly important with diesel engines, which should

not run for an extended duration at less than 30% of rated load. (Extended light-load

operation of a diesel engine can result in the accumulation of unburned fuel in the

exhaust system, due to incomplete combustion from low combustion temperatures, called

wet stacking. Light load operation can also result in engine damage from fuel and water

contaminating lubricating oil.)

After the initial voltage dip, it's important the generator restore voltage to a minimum of

90%-rated value while supplying the motor starting kVA. At least 90% recovery voltage is

necessary for the motor to develop adequate torque to accelerate its load to rated speed.

A motor starting a high starting torque load, such as a loaded compressor, requires higher

recovery voltage than one starting an unloaded compressor. As the motor comes up to

speed, the voltage will rise, as the starting kVA input decreases. Once the motor is up to

speed, the voltage should return to rated value, if the gen-set is sized properly.

The moment of inertia of a rotating mass offers resistance to acceleration. The load

connected to the motor shaft has its moment of inertia, and in practical situations for

specific equipment, this may or may not be available information.

Fortunately, for the purpose of sizing a gen-set, or more specifically to determine the

engine power needed to start and accelerate a rotating motor load, the motor load's

moment of inertia need only be broadly categorized as low or high inertia.

High inertia loads are characterized by high breakaway torque requiring prolonged

acceleration. Low inertia loads are characterized by low starting torque at standstill, with

increasing torque as motor speed increases resulting in rapid acceleration to rated speed.

Starting low inertia loads will reduce the normal starting kW needed. Look for more

information on this is in the sample calculations within this article.

High inertia loads include:

Single- and multi-cylinder pumps

Single -and multi-cylinder compressors without unloading valves

Crushers

Fans, centrifugal and blower

Compressors starting unloaded

Centrifugal pumps

Motor-generator elevators

Note: Pumps starting into high head pressure and large diameter fans or fans starting

into high restriction areas should be classified as high inertia loads.

TWEET

Recommend

on Jul 4, 2012

suitable genset size for an exercise as follows:- What would be the right size of genset for

starting a 220KW water pump motor by auto-trans method with a voltage dip limitation of not

more than 15%. Thank you for assisting. Best regards / Lee Chee Seng

Log In or Register to post comments

very helpfull Many diesel Generator Sales people are blank about the start up power of motors.

And am battling to select the correct size of generator.

Log In or Register to post comments

Log In or Register to post comments

Related Articles

Gen-Set Article Generates Reader Feedback

The Basics of PF Correction on Single Induction Motors

Critical data for sizing gen-sets

Ensuring Power Quality and Reliability with Gen-Sets

Ecmweb.com

NEC Design Ops & Maintenance Contractor Safety Power Quality Training Basics Products

Site Features

EC&M Corporate

Author Guidelines

Privacy Policy

RSS

Terms of Service

Sitemap

About Us

Site Archive

Advertise

Subscribe

Contact Us

Follow Us

Electrical Wholesaling Electrical Marketing Transmission & Distribution World

Search ecmweb.com

- DC Machines and Synchronous Machines_U. a. Bakshi and M. v. BakshiUploaded byDiego Carpio
- Design of Marine Generators for Alternative Diesel-electric Power System.Uploaded byLC
- Gen Set- Config- MonUploaded byRahul Singania
- Briggs Stratton 2007 VoEd BookUploaded byfogdart
- DaRin Raffin SulligoiUploaded byginamaria10
- Hydro Generator BrochureUploaded byVenkatesh Gangadhar
- PERKIN 4016Uploaded byCesaltino Costa Alegre
- Technical Manual Lsc AlternatorsUploaded byramakantinamdar
- KohlerUploaded byAngga Clevnezt
- KATO GeneratorUploaded bymotiondrill
- Alternador Delco Remy 1G-287Uploaded byKathy Brizuela Montejano
- electrical motorUploaded byHarikrishnan Natarajan
- Alternatoer Lvsi804s Wdg 12 v9 TdsUploaded byCris_eu09
- Cap02 Maquinas sincronicasUploaded byIsidro Santos
- Question BankUploaded byPrakash Chandran C
- TransformersUploaded byRachit Khanna
- Mtu6r1600ds275 275kw StandbyUploaded byÁngel aguilar
- Electrical Interview QuestionUploaded byProsenjit Chatterjee
- DCM _VI_sem V GoodUploaded byGopinath B L Naidu
- Main ProjectUploaded bySatishKotha
- Generator Protection SchemeUploaded bysayan bhowmick
- 307_DATA (1)Uploaded byYuri Da Gama Santos
- Eln questionsUploaded bysuniljp
- 16 Model Parameter Measurement and Load Change.pdfUploaded byAhmed M H Al-Yousif
- A Virtual Synchronous Machine to Support Dynamicfrequency Control in a Mini Grid That Perates in Frequency Droop ModeUploaded bysiraj udin
- Brosur Generators G150 G200 IIIA EnUploaded byRiski Feriansyah
- FireUploaded bytankimsin
- 105_USERUploaded byint4400
- Laser PredistortionUploaded byA. Villa
- Dynamics of StructureUploaded byKurt Cargo

- Web Development With Flask and the Raspberry PiUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Neutral Current Value CalculationsUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- k Factor RefUploaded byNamki Lee
- Intelligent Computing in Smart Grid and Electrical VehiclesUploaded bywvargas926
- Aluminium Pipe BusUploaded byvairam_eee01
- 1MWp grid connected canal top Solar PV Crystalline power projectUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR 33KV ISOLATORSUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Pti Ff en Swpe Shortcirc 1412Uploaded byHusnain Associates
- Raceways Junction Boxes for Underfloor installationUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- PSSE Intro Stabilty Instructions Pes PresentationUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- lab1_PSSEIntroductionUploaded byHerbert Deras
- PSSE Intro Stabilty InstructionsUploaded byQuinn Rhodes
- Symmetrical ComponentsUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- 66KV Switchyard RFQ for BSES Rajdhani PowerUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Ferro Resonance Effect on the Voltage Transformers in Resistance Earthed SystemUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Micro-Grid Power Flow AnalyticsUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Tariff Schedule for Ugvcl, Dgvcl, Mgvcl and PgvclUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Tender Notification for Mandoli Jail Complex Grid-Bypl-090Uploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- rapdrp_Uploaded bymanikanta2235789
- TATA Institute of Fundamental Reasearch 33KV Switchyard TenderUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Tariff Schedule for TPL, SuratUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Data for Lightning Risk AssessmentUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- 62305 Risk Assessment QuestionnaireUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Per Unit CalculationsUploaded byAnonymous ufMAGXcskM
- Tariff Schedule for TPL, AhmedabadUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Project_Plan_Draft Photovoltic Sys Design and ImplementationUploaded bysdmitar
- Voltage DipUploaded bycentralautomacao
- EN-03TankDesign-FW-H56892_tcm432-26443Uploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Dual Purpose PortsUploaded byAnonymous cXOu9TDVl
- Lightning Protection Risk Assessment NEWUploaded byTigrillo

- SI-30 Info.Uploaded byManu Fran
- LubricationUploaded byBranislav Djordjevic
- Bajaj Avenger 220Uploaded byBhargav Lakhani
- Service BulletinUploaded byTimboWest
- 1091 CompleteUploaded byeng_moh04
- Ac Crane ControlUploaded byErc Nunez V
- 07DDECVI12Uploaded byRoberto Gustavo Manitio Arteaga
- 4-0702-00100-1-A (soplador nyb)Uploaded byJorge Jesus Nayhua Gamarra
- IUploaded byJosephine De Castro Panganiban
- Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion EngineUploaded byArturo
- Worm Gear BoxUploaded byaryoblitar
- Electrical Supplies and MaterialsUploaded bypartz2004
- Valve TypesUploaded bydarnama
- Brochure 1[1]Uploaded bykunalshimpi
- 100615_1Uploaded byBruno Rubio
- 100404 EnUploaded byRegistr Registr
- 5HP19FLAUploaded byMichael Segun Johnson
- 1207_7AUploaded byErika Morales
- Denso - Ecd IIUploaded byVASEK
- Starter Clutch InspectionUploaded byr_chulin
- ZD30 Y61 Reference Document - ColourUploaded byEthan Ingram
- 3306 Industrial Engine 64Z05381-UP(SEBP1989 - 33) - Sistemas y ComponentesUploaded byLynda Carroll
- C13, C15, And C18 Engines ARD Fuel Pressure is LowUploaded byRaphael Thorner
- Gas EngineUploaded byMilos Obrenovic
- 1phase MotorsUploaded bysami_asd
- Compressor Dry Gas Seal SystemUploaded byAnonymous KpVxNXs
- G1014_IE1_IE2_IE3_GB_1513Uploaded byaris
- 2. Cep Startup and ShutdownUploaded byAnonymous W9VINoTza
- BW172D-2 NO 109520120xxx Parts BookUploaded byOecox Cah Djadoel
- Cat 789c (Eng)Uploaded byArturo Arellano Alcaide