Gases and their Properties

April 23, 2007 • • • • • • • • • Airbags are filled with N2 gas in an accident. Gas is generated by the decomposition of Sodium Azide, NaN3. 2NaN3  2Na + 3N2 NaN3 is very stable gas when wet but when it dries out it is an instant explosive. There is a lot of “free” space in a gas Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gasses occupy completely and uniformly. Gasses diffuse and mix rapidly. Gasses can be molded – o V-Volume (measure in liters or L). o T-Temperature (measure in degrees Kelvin or °K). o N-amount (measured in moles). o P-Pressure (measure in atmospheres). 32 feet under water is 1 atmosphere. 1 standard atm.(atmosphere)= o 760 mm(mercury) o 29.9 inches Hg o About 34 feet of water SI unit of pressure is Pascal(Pa), where 1 atm= 101.325 kPa April 25, 2007

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Ideal gas law: PV=nRT
• • • Brings together gas properties. Can be derived from experiment and theory. Boyle’s Law o If n and T are constants, then

PV= (nRT)==k
o This means, for example, if P goes up then V goes down.

o Robert Boyle lived from 1629-1691. He was the son of Earl of Cork, Ireland o If you compress a gas it heats up, If you release it, it cools very fast.

Charles law:
- If P and n are constant then:

V= (n R/P)T=KT
• • • •

V and T are directly related. Jacques Charles loved from the year 1746 through the year 1823. Isolated boron and studied gases. Balloonist.

V is proportional to 1/p V is proportional to T V is proportional to n V is proportional to nT/P

• V= 22.4 L for 1 mil when T = 273K and P=1.00 atm
How much N2 is required to fill a small room with a volume of 960 cubic feet (27,000L) to P= 745 mm Hg at 25°K.

R= 0.082057 L x atm / k x mol
V=27,000 T=25°C + 273° =298°K P= 745 mm Hg (1 atm / 760 mm Hg) =0.98 atm PV=nRT Therefore n= PV / RT N= (0.98 atm) (2.7 x 104) / (0.0821 L x atm / k x m) (298°K) = 1.1 x 103 mol or about 30kg of gas

Decompose 1.1g of H2O2 in a flask with a volume of 2.50 L. What is the pressure of O2 at 25° C? of H2O? n H2O2 = 1.1g H2O2 x 1 mol/24,0 g = 0.032 mol n O2 = 0.032 mol H2O2 x 1 mol O2 / 2 mol H2O2 = 0.016 mol O2 P of O2 = nRT/V = (0.015 mol)(0.0821 L x atm/ K x mol)(298°K) / 2.50 L = 0.16 atm P of O2 = 0.16 atm

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Interesting Fact: You can pour bromine vapor from one container to another Lake Nyos is Cameroon was a volcanic Lake. o CO2 build up in the lake and was released explosively on August 21, 1986 o 1700 people and hundreds of animals and trees died

Review of PH, H+, Molarity, and Electron Configuration
June 4, 2007

pH = -log[H+]
H+ = molarity If H+ = 1.587 x 1011 pH = -log[1.587 x 1011] pH= 10.79

molarity = H+
H+ = 10-pH If pH= 6.7542 H+ = 10-6.7542 = 1.76 x 10-7 • HI – Hydroiodic Acid –strong acid H2SO4 – Sulfuric Acid – strong acid NH3 – Ammonia – weak base

• Molarity = moles/L
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If you have 13.754g NaCl in 1250 ml, what is the molarity?

Molarity = moles/L Moles= x-g x 1 mol/x-grams
molarity = 12.754g NaCl x 1 mol/ 58 grams x 1/1.25 L = 0.1897M

Electron Configurations: K- Atomic number is 19. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 Cu- Atomic number is 29. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 W- Atomic number is 74. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d4 Ti- Atomic number is 81. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p1

Rn-Atomic number is 86.1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p6

Before Chapter 5 notes (review)
• June 7, 2007 Moles-Mass(grams) Mole x Atomic mass/1 mole= grams • Mass(grams)-Moles

Grams (g) x 1mole/Atomic mass = moles • • • • • • • 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms Ions- Ions are atoms with either extra or missing electrons Cation-Ion carrying a positive ion Anion-Ion carrying a negative ion Ionic Compound- Substance composed of oppositely charges ions. Molecular Formula – Formula indicating the actual number of atoms of each element. Structural Formula – A representation of a molecule, radical or ion o Co3-2 + Ca+2  CaCO3 o Ca+2 + 2F-1  CaF2 o Ca+2 + SO4  CaSO4 o Fe2O3  2Fe+3 + 3O-2 o 2 As+3 + 3S-2 As2S3

• •

Shorter the distance, stronger the attraction between ions When bonds are broken energy is released as heat, x-ray radiation or light.

Balancing:
C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O= C6H12O6 + O2  6CO2 + H2O= C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O= C6H12O6 + 6O2 CO2 + H2O

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

-Atomic Number (#) = Number (#) of neutrons + Number (#) of protons
-Number (#) of Protons = Number (#) of Electrons -Number (#) of Neutrons= Atomic Number (#) - Number (#) of protons.

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