Outline
Solving Discretized Integral Equations
Using Krylov Subspace Methods
Fast MatrixVector Products
Multipole Algorithms
Multipole Representation.
Basic Hierarchy
Algorithmic Improvements
Local Expansions
Adaptive Algorithms
Computational Results
+
v

2 = 0
Outside
is given on Surface
Dirichelet Problem
x
x
surface
1
424
3 Ch arg e
potential
Green's Density
Function
Resonator
Computed Forces
Bottom View
Discretized Structure
Computed Forces
Top View
3D Laplaces
Equation
Integral Equation: ( x ) =
surface
1
( x ) dS
x x
n
Represent ( x ) i i ( x )
{
i =1
Basis Functions
j ( x ) = 1 if x is on panel j
Panel j ( x ) = 0 otherwise
j
SMAHPC 2003 MIT
3D Laplaces
Equation
Put collocation points at
panel centroids
( )
xci = j
xci Collocation
point
j =1
G(x
panel j
ci
, x dS
14442444
3
Ai , j
M O
M M
= M
M
O M M M
An ,1 L L An ,n n xcn
( )
3D Laplaces
Equation
xci Collocation
point
Ai , j =
panel j
1
dS
xci x
Panel j
One point
quadrature
Approximation
Four point
quadrature
Approximation
SMAHPC 2003 MIT
Panel Area
Ai , j
xci xcentroid j
4
0.25* Area
j =1
xci x po int j
Ai , j
3D Laplaces
Equation
Calculating SelfTerm
xci Collocation
point
Ai ,i =
panel i
1
dS
xci x
Panel i
One point
quadrature
Approximation
Ai ,i =
panel i
SMAHPC 2003 MIT
Ai ,i
Panel Area
xci xci
1
424
3
0
1
dS is an integrable singularity
xci x
3D Laplaces
Equation
Calculating SelfTerm
Tricks of the trade
xci Collocation
point
Panel i
Ai ,i =
panel i
Disk of radius R
surrounding
collocation point
Integrate in two Ai ,i =
disk
pieces
Disk Integral has
singularity but has
analytic formula
SMAHPC 2003 MIT
disk
1
dS
xci x
1
1
dS +
dS
xci x
rest of panel xci x
R 2
1
dS =
xci x
0
1
rdrd = 2 R
r
3D Laplaces
Equation
Calculating SelfTerm
Other Tricks of the trade
xci Collocation
point
Panel i
Ai ,i =
panel i
1
dS
xci x
1
424
3
Integrand is singular
3D Laplaces
Equation
Galerkin (test=basis)
n
( x ) ( x ) dS = ( x ) G ( x, x) ( x) dS dS
144
2443
1444442444443
i
bi
j =1
Ai , j
panel
i
panel
j
x x
243 j =1
14444244443
bi
Ai , j
A1,1 L L A1,n 1 b1
M O
M
M = M
M
O M M M
L
L
A
A
n ,1
n,n
n bn
SMAHPC 2003 MIT
3D Laplaces
Equation
M O
M M
= M
M
O M M M
An ,1 L L An ,n n xcn
( )
Solving Discretized
Integral Equations
compute Apk
( r ) ( Ap )
k T
k =
( Apk )
( Apk )
x k +1 = x k + k pk
Solving Discretized
Integral Equations
( r ) ( Ap )
k T
( Apk ) ( Apk )
x k +1 = x k + k pk
r k +1 = r k k Apk
pk +1 = r
k +1
Ar ) ( Ap )
(
p
( Ap ) ( Ap )
k
j =0
k +1 T
Complexity of GCR
Dense Matrixvector
product costs O(n2)
compute Apk
k =
Solving Discretized
Integral Equations
1/(# panels)
Summary
Solving Discretized Integral Equations
GCR plus Fast MatrixVector Products
Multipole Algorithms
Multipole Representation.
Basic Hierarchy
Algorithmic Improvements
Local Expansions
Adaptive Algorithms
Computational Results
PrecorrectedFFT Algorithms