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Instrument Engineer's Handbook

for
DURCO Quarter-turn Control Valves

Flowserve Corporation
Flow Control Division
1978 Foreman Drive
Cookeville, TN 38501
FCD AXAMS0045-00
(AUTO-45)

Revision October 2011


Flowserve Corporation, Flow Control Division, Cookeville, Tennessee, extends its appreciation to
the Instrument Society of America for its permission to adapt Standard S75.01, Instrument
Society of America, 1985 and Control Valve Sizing by L.R. Driskell, Instrument Society of
America, 1976.
A valuable reference for further study of control valves is the ISA Handbook of Control Valves,
Second Edition, 1976.

Instrument Engineers Handbook


for
Durco Control Valves
Preface
This manual on control valve sizing brings together the mathematical tools required to select Durco
valves properly for control valve applications. The equations presented for liquids, gases, and steam are
based on the ISA standard S75.01 and are divided into sections to simplify manual calculation for the
more common sizing problems. Examples of each type are presented for further comprehension. The
selection of a correct valve size as mathematically determined depends on accurate knowledge of the
actual flowing data. Frequently, one or more of the operating conditions are arbitrarily assumed. Most
errors in control valve sizing are due to incorrect assumptions. Generally speaking, the tendency is to
make the valve too large to be on the "safe side". Combining these so called "safety factors" can result in
a valve which is oversized and one which contributes to poor control and system instability. There is no
substitute for good engineering judgment. Only good common sense combined with experience can bring
forth an acceptable solution in valve sizing. Control valve applications vary in degree from simple to
complex. On occasion, guidance and assistance in selecting the proper control valve may be required.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic

Page

SECTION 1 How to Size Valves


Liquid Sizing
Gas Sizing
Steam Sizing
Frequently Used Formula Conversions

5
6
14
17
20

SECTION 2 Noise Abatement


Hydrodynamic noise

21
22

SECTION 3 Cv and Torque Tables for Valve and Actuator Sizing

26
28
29
29
30
31
32
32
32
33
34
35
36
37
37

Sleeved Plug Valve -- G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z (standard port only)
Cv
Sleeved Plug Valve -- G4, G4B Marathon (use for standard and V-port)
Sizing Torque
Triple Sealed Sleeved Plug Valve --TSG4, TSG4Z (use for standard and V-port)
Sizing Torque
Sleeved Plug Valves (V-port only) -- G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z
Cv
MG4 Sleeveline Plug Valves -- Multi-Port Plug
Cv
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve V-Port
Cv
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve Standard Port
Cv
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve
Sizing Torque
Fluorocarbon Lined Plug Valves (standard port only) -- T4E
Cv
Fluorocarbon Lined Plug Valves -- T4E (use for standard port and V-port plugs)
Sizing Torque
Fluorocarbon Lined Plug Valves (V-port only) -- T4E
Cv
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
Cv
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series Standard PFA/Viton Seat
Sizing Torque
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
Firesealed, Standard PFA/Inconel & UHMWPE Seats only
Sizing Torque
BX2001-- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (70F) Sizing Torque
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (800F) Sizing Torque
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (1000F)
Sizing
Torque
BTV Valve -- Fluorocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
Cv
BTV Valve -- Fluorocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
Sizing Torque
BUV Valve -- UHMWPE Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
Sizing Torque
Atomac AKH3 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Lined
Cv
Atomac AKH3E Valve -- V- Port Ball Valve -- Lined
Cv
Atomac CAKH3V Valve C-Ball Standard Port Ball Valve Lined
Cv
Atomac AKH3 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Clean / Clear Service Sizing
Torque
Atomac AKH3 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Slurry Service Sizing
Torque
Atomac CAKH3V Valve C-Ball Standard Port Ball Valve Lined
Sizing Torque
Atomac AKH2 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Lined
Cv
Atomac AKH2 Valve -- Full Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
Sizing Torque
Atomac AKH2 Valve -- Full Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Slurry Service
Sizing Torque
Atomac AKH5 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined
Cv
Atomac AKH5 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball)
Clean / Clear Service
Sizing Torque
Atomac AKH5 Valve -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball) -- Slurry Service
Sizing Torque
3

38
38
38
39
40
40
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
44
44
45
45
45

Atomac AKH2A Valve -- Full Port Ball Valve -- Lined


Atomac AKH2A Valve -- Full Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
Atomac AKH2A Valve -- Full Port Ball Valve -- Lined -- Slurry Service
Atomac AKH6 Valve -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- Lined
Atomac AKH6 Valve -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
Atomac AKH6 Valve -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- Lined -- Slurry Service
Atomac AMP3 Valve -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- Lined
Atomac AMP3 Valve -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- Clean / Clear Service
Atomac AMP3 Valve -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- Slurry Service

SECTION 4 Reference Data


Pressure concepts and types
Useful equivalents
Mass rate
Mass rate liquids
Vacuum equivalents
Temperature conversions
Physical constants of common industrial substances
Liquid velocity determination
Steam recommendations
Saturated and superheated steam tables
Values of K
Specific weight vs. temperature
Compressibility charts
ISA control valve sizing terminology, formulas and nomenclature

Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque

46
46
46
47
47
47
48
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
52
53
56
57
58
60
61
62
65

Section One

LIQUID SIZING
Liquid flow through Durco valves may be predicted by using the thermodynamic laws of fluid flow and
the standards established in this manual by the Flowserve Corporation. There are two basic requirements
that must be determined to properly size Durco control valves; first is the Cv required and second is the
allowable pressure drop for a given service and valve.
Proper selection of any control valve requires some basic information that may or may not be readily
available. Ideally, we would like to:
1) Get a general description of what is to be accomplished or a data sheet if possible.
2) Have the following data provided.
a) Inlet pressure.
b) Temperature maximum and minimum.
c) Process fluid.
d) Flow rates - maximum, normal and minimum.
e) Vapor pressure.
f) Pipeline size - schedule and material.
g) Pressure drop - minimum, normal and maximum.
h) Specific gravity.
i) Critical pressure.
The following formulae shall be used in sizing Durco Valves.
1-1.0

Cv=

P
S .G.
Where:

Cv = Flow coefficient required.


Q = Flow in gpm.
S.G. = Specific gravity
P = Pressure drop in psi.

Definition: Cv, is numerically equal to the number of U.S. gallons of water that will flow through a valve
in one minute with water at 60OF and a one psi differential pressure across the valve.
1-1.1

Pallow = FL 2(P1-rcPV)

Where:

Pallow = allowable pressure drop in psi.


FL2 = Recovery coefficient from CV chart.
rc = Critical pressure ratio from rc chart.
PV = Vapor pressure in psia.

1-1.2

CV = Q

Pallow
S .G.

(for choked flow)

Note: This formula should be used when Pactual Pallow , where: Pactual = P1-P2
6

DETERMINING THE REQUIRED Cv


Formula 1-1.0 is the general-purpose equation for most liquid sizing applications. This formula utilizes
the actual pressure drop or the inlet pressure minus the outlet pressure, to calculate the required Cv.
Examination of the formula indicates that "if the pressure drop increased, the flow should also increase."
There is, however, a point where further decreases in P2 results in no change in flow rate and is referred to
as "Choked Flow." Therefore, the actual P no longer applies and a maximum Pallow must be substituted
to calculate the required Cv,(equation 1.1.2). Choked flow results from flashing or cavitation and could
cause damage to the valve and/or piping. When solving a liquid sizing application, consider some or all of
the following points to determine if Pallow should be used.
1) If the inlet pressure (P1) is relatively close to the vapor pressure.
2) If the outlet pressure (P2) is relatively close to the vapor pressure.
3) If the actual pressure drop is large when compared to the inlet pressure.
This means that if there is any doubt that the liquid service is in close proximity to choked flow, the
Pallow must be calculated and compared to Pactual (see section on cavitation and flashing beginning on
page 10).
Using a valve smaller than line size will contribute to errors in the required Cv, due to losses caused by
the expanders and reducers. Flowserve has calculated this effect on CV, and printed the results for your
convenience (see Section 2). Should the need arise to calculate the corrected CV, for various
combinations we have supplied a catalog of formulae from ISA Standards.
When an incompressible fluid has a high viscosity and/or low velocity, laminar flow may exist. The CV
previously discussed assumed turbulent flow and must be multiplied by a correction factor (FR) to obtain the
actual flow coefficient. Generally speaking, if the viscosity is less than SAE 10 motor oil (~30cp), this
factor may be neglected.
CV CALCULATIONS PROCEDURE
1) Using the given flow conditions, calculate the CV, using equation 1-1.0.
2) Select a nominal valve size from the sizing charts based on the calculated CV. This CV, value should
generally fall between 20-80% of port opening.
3) Read FL2 value from sizing chart based on the percent of opening at which the valve will operate.
4) Using the FL2 value, calculate the Pallow from equation 1-1.1. The rc value is determined from the
critical pressure ratio charts on page 13.
5) Compare the Pallow to the Pactual if Pallow is greater than the actual pressure drop equation 1-1.0 is
valid. If Pallow is less than actual pressure drop, equation 1-1.2 must be used and flashing exists (see
section on cavitation and flashing beginning on page 10).
6) If viscosity correction is required, use the FR correction procedure.
VISCOSITY CORRECTION
When it is determined that the viscosity is greater than SAE 10 motor oil (30 cp @ 70F), the following
correction should be made (Figure 1).
7

Based on the type of valve selected (plug or butterfly) calculate the Reynolds number using the following
formulae and correct for the effects of laminar flow.
Re = 17,300

Q
v

where:

(for plug valves)

CV

Re = Reynolds number
Q = Flow rate, gpm
v = Viscosity, centistokes*
CV = Flow coefficient

Re = 12,283

Q
v

(for butterfly valves)

CV

*(centistokes = centipoise/S.G.)
The correction factor may be obtained from Figure 1.0 the Viscosity Correction Factor chart. Use the
value (FR) and calculate the corrected Cv. Cv (corrected) = FR Cv

EXAMPLES FOR LIQUID SIZING


Example 1
Given information:
Fluid = water
P1 = 150 psig = 14.7 = 164.7 psia
P = 10 psi
8

Q = 50 gpm
T = 193O
PV = 10 psia
S.G. = 1.0
Line size = 1
1) Use equation 1-1.0.
Q

Cv Q

P
S .G.

50
=

10
1 .0

= 15.8

2) Select a nominal valve size from the sizing chart for V-ported valves on page 29.
3) For V-port plug valves, a 1" valve and a 1" line has a maximum Cv of 29.9. The calculated Cv of 15.8
falls in at about 72% of port opening.
4) The FL2 value at 72% opening is approximately 0.65.
5) Calculate Pallow from equation 1-1.1.
Pallow = FL2 (P1 - rC PV)
Where: FL2= 0.65
P1 = 164.7 psia
PV = 10 psia
rC = 0.95 (from rC charts)
Pallow = 0.59 [164.7 - (0.95) (10)] = 100.91 psi
6) Compare the actual pressure drop to the allowable pressure drop.
Pactual = 10 psi
Pallow = 100.91 psi
The actual pressure drop is less than the maximum allowable pressure drop. Therefore, equation 1-1.0 is
valid.
7) Water is less viscous than SAE 10 weight motor oil and the FR factor may be neglected.
Conclusion:

The 1" V-port plug valve would operate at about 72% of full open and
would be a good selection in this example.

Example 2
Given information:
Fluid = Liquid chlorine
P1 = 125 psig + 14.7 = 139.7 psia
P = 75 psi
Q = 150 gpm
T = 60OF
PV = 100 psia
S.G. = 1.42
Line size = 3"
9

1) Use equation 1-1.0.


Q

Cv Q

P
=
S .G.

150

75
1.42

= 20.6

2) Select a nominal valve size from the sizing charts. For V-port plug valves, a 2" valve in a 3" line has a
maximum CV of 52.2. The calculated CV of 20.7 fans in about 60% of port opening.
3) The FL2 value at 60% is approximately .86.
4) Calculate the Pallow from equation 1-1.1.
Pallow = FL2 (P1 - rC PV)
Where: FL2 = .86
P1 = 139.7 psia
PV = 100 psia
rC = 0.87
Note: rC was found by looking up the critical pressure PC and
dividing that value into PV.
PC = 1119 psia
PV = 100 psia
PV/PC = 100/1119 = 0.089
Enter value into graph on page 13, figure 1.3.
Reading vertically rC = 0.87.
Pallow = 0.86 [139.7 - 0.87 (100)] = 45.32 psi
5) Compare the actual pressure drop to the allowable pressure drop.
Pactual = 75 psi
Pallow = 45.32 psi
The allowable pressure drop is less than the actual pressure drop. Therefore, equation 1-1.2 must be used
to calculate the required CV.
Q

Cv Q

Pallow
=
S .G.

150

45.32
1.42

= 26.56

Because the allowable pressure drop is less than the actual pressure drop, the required CV increased. The
CV of 26.56 falls in at about 75% of opening indicating that our first selection has enough capacity to
control the process.
Referring to the cavitation and flashing section, the outlet pressure is less than the vapor pressure and
flashing exists. Proper material selection should handle this type of problem, however, if cavitation exists
in a different application consult the Cookeville Valve Operation.
CAVITATION AND FLASHING
We previously stated that there are two basic requirements that must be determined to properly size
control valves. Accuracy has been improved with the introduction of the factor, rC and is called the
10

critical pressure ratio. We can now calculate the point where a liquid will result in choked flow and
calculation of the allowable pressure drop is the technique used for this prediction.
Pallow = FL2 (P1-rCPV)
As a liquid flows through the control valve orifice it restricts the flow and causes the fluid to pick up
velocity. The point where the fluid reaches maximum velocity results in an energy exchange that lowers
the pressure. This point of lowest pressure and highest velocity is referred to as the vena contracta.

FIGURE 1.1

Figure 1.1 shows the flow pattern of the fluid passing through a restriction and depicts what actually
happens to the pressure at the vena contracta. If the vena contracta pressure (PVC) falls below the vapor
pressure, vapor bubbles start to form. When the fluid passes the vena contracta the fluid velocity slows,
thus raising the liquid pressure to some point (P2) less than the inlet pressure. If the outlet pressure (P2)
recovers below the vapor pressure, flashing takes place. If the outlet pressure (P2) recovers above the
vapor pressure, the vapor bubbles will implode and cavitation is present. Cavitation produces noise,
vibration and physical damage to the valve and/or down stream piping.
Therefore, calculation of the allowable pressure drop (Pallow) predicts whether or not the vena contracta
pressure (PVC) will be below the vapor pressure. Avoiding cavitation or flashing means keeping the vena
contracta pressure above the vapor pressure. We have included a flow chart to simplify determination of
the fluid state for your convenience.

11

CAVITATION DETERMINATION

12

CONTROL VALVE SIZING CAVITATING AND FLASHING LIQUIDS

FIGURE 1.2 - CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIOS FOR WATER


1

0.9

Critical
Pressure
Ratio
rc

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Pv = Vapor Pressure (psia)


Enter the water vapor pressure value at inlet temperature on the abscissa. Proceed vertically to intersect
the
curve. Read the critical pressure ratio rC on the ordinate by moving horizontally to the left.
FIGURE 1.3 CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIOS FOR OTHER LIQUIDS
1

0.9

Critical
Pressure
Ratio
rc

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Pv/Pc Where Pv = Vapor Pressure (psia) and Pc = Critical Pressure (psia)

13

Determine the vapor pressure/critical pressure ratio by dividing the liquid vapor pressure at the valve inlet
(noting liquid temperature), by the critical pressure of the liquid. Enter this ratio on the abscissa and
proceed vertically to intersect the curve. Read the critical pressure ratio rC on the ordinate by moving
horizontally to the left.
GAS SIZING
Ideal gases and vapors are compressible fluids and require a similar approach to liquid sizing while taking
into account such terms as the compressibility factor (Z), the expansion factor (Y) and the terminal
pressure ratio (Xt). The flow rate (Q) has units of standard cubic feet per hour and care should be taken to
convert your required flow from the compressibility charts in the reference data section beginning on
page 67.
The following formulae will be used to calculate the required flow coefficient for Durco valves.
1-2.0
CV =
QSCFH
1360 P1 Y
1-2.1

Y=1-

1-2.2

CV=

X
GTZ

X
3FkXt
QSCFH

1360 P1 (0.667)

Xt
GTZ

Where: X, Y, G, CV, and Z are dimensionless


CV = Flow coefficient
Q = Flow rate in SCFH
P1 = Inlet pressure in psia
Y = Expansion factor
X = Pressure drop ratio P/P1
G = Specific gravity
T = temperature, oR
Fk = Specific heat ratio
Xt = Terminal pressure drop ratio
Z = Compressibility factor
DETERMINING THE REQUIRED Cv
Formula 1-2.0 is the general purpose equation for most gas sizing applications. However, when gases
flow through a restriction they will expand and contract. We stated earlier that gas sizing includes both
expansion and compressibility factors and careful examination of the fluid characteristics is required to
accurately predict flow for gases and vapors.
Formula 1-2.0 is based on the same premise that, as the pressure drop increases so will the flow increase.
There is a point where the flow will choke off. Therefore, the value of Y has been limited 0.667. When Y
can be calculated to be less than 0.667 the gas is at "Choked Flow" and equation 1-2.2 must be used to
determine the required CV.
The compressiblility factor (Z) is a correction factor for gases that deviate from the laws of perfect gases
and effect the accuracy of the CV coefficient. Values of Z may be approximated using the compressibility
charts in the reference data section beginning on page 67.
14

CV CALCULATION PROCEDURE
1) Convert flow units to SCFH
2) Calculate the expansion factor.
Y=1

X
(limit 0.667)
3FkXt

Where: X = P/P1 (P1 in psia)

Fk

k
Specific heat ratio of gas

1.4 Specific heat ratio of air

Xt = From sizing charts (start at Xt = 0.5)


3) If Y is greater than 0.667 calculate the C, using formula 1-2.0. Based on the degree of opening from the
sizing charts, recheck Y using the actual Xt, and recalculate the Cv.
4) If Y is less than O.667 calculate the CV using formula 1-2.2. Based on the degree of opening from the
sizing charts, recheck Y using the actual Xt and recalculate the CV.
EXAMPLES FOR GAS SIZING
Example 1
Given information:
Fluid = Air
P1 = 100 psig + 14.7 = 114.7 psia
P = 30psi
T = 90oF + + 460 = 550oR
Q = 50,000 SCFH
G = 1.0
Line size = 2

X
3FkXt
0.26
Y=1 3(1.0)(0.5)

1) Y = 1 -

Y = 0.83
Where:

X = 30/114.7 = 0.26
Fk = 1.4/1.4 = 1.0 (k is found in the reference data section)
Xt = 0.5(starting point)

2) Y is greater than 0.667, therefore, formula 1-2.0 should be used. The value of Z for air is 1.0 found in
the reference data section.

15

CV

QSCFH

Xt
GTZ
50,000 SCFH

1360 P1 (0.667)

1360 (114.7) (0.83)

0.26
1.0(550)(1.0)

CV 17.8
3) The given information showed that the line size was 2". Referring to the sizing chart for the 2" V-port
it is found that the valve would operate at about 67% of full open. The respective Xt, is about 0.53 and
therefore the Cv, would not be affected.
Example 2
Given Information:
Fluid = Ethane
P1 = 150 psig = 14.7 = 164.7 psia
P = 95 psi
T = 100oF + 460 = 560oF
Q = 165,000 SCFH
G = 1.05
k = 1.18 (from reference data section)
Line size = 3

X
(lim 0.667)
3FkXt
0.58
Y 1
3(0.84)(0.5)

1) Y

Y 0.54 (choked flow) therefore, Y = 0.667


Where:

X=95/164.7=0.58
Fk = 1.18/1.4 = 0.84
Xt = 0.5

2) The calculated value for Y is less than O.667, therefore use formula 1-2-2. Ethane is not an ideal gas
under the stated pressures and temperatures and Z should be determined using the compressibility charts
in the reference data section.
Critical temperature and critical pressure, T, and P, respectively, were looked up for Ethane in the
physical constants section of reference data.
PC = 708 psia
TC = 550oR
Examining the first Z Graph, P, and T, must be calculated.
Pr =

16

P1 164.7

0.23
PC
708

Tr =

T 1 560

1.02
TC 550

Referring to the graph and enter the values above for Tr and Pr, a value for Z may be found. In this case it
turns out to be 0.92.
3) We now have all of the unknown values and may calculate the CV.

QSCFH

CV

1360P1(0.667)

Xt
GTZ

165,000 SCFH

CV

1360 (164.7)(0.667)

0.5
1.05(560)(0.92)

CV = 36.8
4) It was given that the line size is 3" and referring to the 3" V-port sizing table on page 29, it is found
that the valve will operate about 60-62% open. The corresponding Xt is about 0.64. Therefore,
rechecking Y and CV, Y is less than 0.667 or at choked flow.

165,000 SCFH

CV

1360 (164.7)(0.667)

0.64
1.05(560)(0.92)

CV = 32.5
The proper selection is a 3" EG411 with a maximum available CV of 121.
STEAM SIZING
The effects of steam are similar to the previous discussion on gas sizing inasmuch as it also is a
compressible fluid. The flow rate (W), however, is expressed as pounds per hour (lbs/hr) and care should
be taken to convert your required flow to these units. Also see Steam Recommendations, page 62.
The following formulae should be used to calculate the required CV for Durco valves.

1 3.0 CV

W lbs./hr.
63.3 Y XP1 W1

1 3.1 Y 1 -

1 3.2 CV

17

X
(lim 0.667)
3FkXt

W lbs./hr.
63.3 (0.667) XtP1 W1

Where: Y, X CV are dimensionless


W = Flow rate in lbs./hr.
CV = Flow coefficient
P1 = Inlet pressure in psia
Y = Expansion coefficient
X = Pressure drop ratio, P/P1
w1 = Specific weight, lbs./ft.3
Fk = Specific heat ratio factor
Xt = Terminal pressure drop ratio
DETERMINING CV FOR STEAM
1) Convert flow to lbs./hr.
2) Calculate the expansion factor.

Y 1-

X
(lim 0.667)
3FkXt

Where: X = P/P1
Fk = k/1.4 (k from steam chart in reference data section)
Xt = from sizing charts beginning on page 29 (start at Xt = 0.5)
2) If Y is greater than 0.667 calculate the CV using formula 1-3.0. Based on the degree of opening from
the sizing charts beginning on page 29, recheck Y using actual X, and recalculate the CV.
4) If Y is less than 0.667, calculate the CV using formula 1-3.2. Based on the degree of opening, recheck
Y using the actual Xt and recalculate the CV.
EXAMPLES FOR STEAM SIZING
Example1
Given information:
Fluid = Dry saturated steam
P1 = 90 psig + 14.7 = 104.7 psia
P = 20 psi
T = 331oF
W = 10,000 lbs./hr.
k = 1.31
(from Table 5.1 under Reference Data)
w1 = 0.236
(from Table 5.2 under Reference Data)

X
3FkXt
0.191
Y 13 (0.936) (0.5)
Y 0.86

1) Y 1 -

Where:

18

X = 20/104.7 = 0.191
Fk = k/1.4 = 1.3/1.4 = 0.936
Xt = 0.5 (starting point)

2) Y is greater than 0.667, therefore, use formula

CV

1-3.0

Wlbs / hr
63.3 Y XP1w1

10,000lbs/hr
84.7
63.6 (0.86) 0.19 (104.7) (0.236)

3) Assuming a 2" line and referring to the 2" standard Sleeveline sizing chart on page 29, it is found that
the valve would operate at about 72% open. The corresponding Xt, is 0.5 indicating that the CV is correct.
Example 2
Given information:
Fluid = Superheated Steam
P1 = 60 + 14.7 = 74.7 psia
P = 50 psi
T = 350oF
W = 12,000 lbs/hr
k = 1.31
(from Table 5.1 under Reference Data)
w1 = 0.16
(from Table 5.2 under Reference Data)
Line size = 4"

X
(lim 0.667)
3FkXt
0.669
Y 13(0.936) (0.5)

1) Y 1 -

Y 0.524 (choked flow) therefore, Y = 0.667


Where:

X = 50/74.7 = 0.669
Fk = 1.31/1.4 = 0.936
Xt = 0.5 (starting point)

2) Y is less than 0.667, therefore, use formula 1-3.2.

CV

Wlbs / hr
63.6 (0.667) Xt P1 w1
12,000lbs/hr
63.6 (0.667) 0.5 (74.7) (0.16)

CV = 116
3) It was given that the line size was 4" and referring to the 3" Standard Sleeveline sizing chart on page
29, it is found that the valve would operate at about 65% open. The corresponding Xt, is about 0.58
and rechecking Y and CV.

19

Y is less than 0.667 (choked flow)

12,000lbs/hr
63.6 (0.667) 0.5 (74.7) (0.16)

108

The proper selection is a 3" G411 in a 4" line with a maximum available CV of 277.
FREQUENTLY USED FORMULA CONVERSIONS

Q
P S.G.
LIQUID
CV

LIQUID

Q S.G.T
963 C

P P1 - P1 2 -
GAS

P P1 - P1 2
STEAM

w (1 .0007 s)
-

2.12
C

Q=GPM
Q=SCFH
W = lbs. per hour

20

Section Two

21

HYDRODYNAMIC NOISE
In reducing hydrodynamic noise, it is necessary to go to the source (the valve). In order to lower the
sound pressure level, cavitation must be reduced. Cavitation is the result of a liquid being forced
through an orifice, creating a pressure drop which falls below the vapor pressure of the incoming fluid.
The point of lowest pressure is known as the Vena Contracta (see Figure 1). If the Vena Contracta is
below the vapor pressure (the pressure at which a liquid will boil at ambient 62F temperature), flashing
will occur causing the formation of vapor bubbles. As the pressure recovers the atmosphere inside, the
bubble is at a lower pressure than the external liquid surrounding the bubble. This causes the vapor bubble
to collapse. Usually. along the side, in an elbow or nearest fitting in the pipe, depending on the
conditions and type of valve. As the bubble collapses, it usually will remove some material, leaving a
small cavity.

To reduce hydrodynamic noise, flashing/cavitation must be reduced. To reduce noise levels in a fluidic
process, it has to be determined whether or not cavitation exists. This is accomplished by the
following calculations:
Ui - Valve inlet velocity which will create incipient cavitation.
Uc - Valve inlet velocity which will create critical cavitation.
d - Valve inlet diameter, use inside pipe diameter of equivalent schedule 40 pipe. (See
tableA)
Cd - Required Cv/d2
P1 - Inlet Pressure in psia
Pv - Vapor pressure in psia
Ui = Jo x Ji x Jn x Jd
Uc =Jo x Jc x Jn x Jd
22

6 x (S.G. x Ui) 2
Delta P Incipient =
Pressure drop at which cavitation starts.
Cd 2

6 x (S.G. x Uc) 2
Pressure drop at which heavy damage will occur.
Cd 2

Delta P Critical =

TABLE A
COMMERCIAL WROUGHT STEEL PIPE DATA
SCHEDULE 40
INCH
NOMINAL
SIZE
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12(STD)

OUSIDE
DIAMETER

WALL
THICKNESS

INSIDE
DIAMETER

WEIGHT
#/FT.

1.315
1.900
2.375
3.500
4.500
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750

.133
.145
.154
.216
.237
.280
.322
.365
.375

1.049
1.610
2.067
3.068
4.026
6.065
7.981
10.020
12.000

1.68
2.72
3.65
7.58
10.79
18.97
28.66
40.48
49.56

BASIC CALCULATIONS FOR J

log x (12/d)
Jd = 1
10(.329 - .615 x log Jk)

.5
890 1
Jk =
2

cd

P1 - Pv
Jn =
71.5

.39

Jo 1.06 for d 12
1.00 for d 12
0.94 for d 12

Ji = 60.4 x Jk for Jk < 0.1 ; or


36.2 x Jk+2.42 for Jk > 0.1
Jc = 71.0 x Jk for Jk < 0.1 ; or
43.0 x Jk + 2.80 for Jk > 0.1
Depending on the process, piping, and valve, if the differential pressure indicates incipient cavitation or
greater, steps may be taken to reduce cavitation, noise, and permanent damage to the process equipment.

23

Figure 4
PRESSURE RECOVERY
COMPARE

24

25

Section Three

26

Contents
Table
SLEEVED PLUG VALVE -- G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z (standard port only)
SLEEVED PLUG VALVE -- G4, G4B Marathon (use for standard and V-port plugs)
Triple sealed SLEEVED PLUG VALVE --TSG4, TSG4Z (use for standard, V-port and soundtrim plugs)
SLEEVED PLUG VALVES (V-port only) -- G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z
MG4Sleevline Plug Valves -- Multi-Port Plug
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve V-Port
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve Standard Port
Port-Seal/Sleeved Mach 1 Valve
Fluorocarbon LINED PLUG VALVES (standard port only) T4E
Fluorocarbon LINED PLUG VALVES -- T4E (use for standard port and V-port plugs)
Fluorocarbon LINED PLUG VALVES (V-port only) -- T4E
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series STANDARD PFA/VITON SEAT ONLY
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
FIRESEALED, STANDARD PFA/INCONEL & UHMWPE SEATS ONLY
BX2001-- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (70F)
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (800F)
BX2001 -- Big Max Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series -- TriFlex Metal Seat (1000F)
BTV VALVE -- Flurocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
BTV VALVE -- Flurocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
BUV VALVE -- UHMWPE Lined Butterfly Valves -- ANSI Class 150# Series
ATOMAC AKH3 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH3E VALVE -- V- Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC CAKH3V VALVE C-Ball Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH3 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AKH3 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Slurry Service
ATOMAC CAKH3V VALVE C-Ball Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH2 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH2 VALVE -- Full Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AKH2 VALVE -- Full Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Slurry Service
ATOMAC AKH5 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined
ATOMAC AKH5 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball)
Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AKH5 VALVE -- Standard Port Ball Valve -- Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball) -- Slurry Service
ATOMAC AKH2A VALVE -- Full Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH2A VALVE -- Full Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AKH2A VALVE -- Full Port Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Slurry Service
ATOMAC AKH6 VALVE -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AKH6 VALVE -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AKH6 VALVE -- Tank Drain Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Slurry Service
ATOMAC AMP3 VALVE -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined
ATOMAC AMP3 VALVE -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Clean / Clear Service
ATOMAC AMP3 VALVE -- 3-Way Ball Valve -- FEP & PFA Lined -- Slurry Service

27

Page
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Cv
Cv
Cv
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Cv
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque

28
29
29
30
31
32
32
32
33
34
35
36
37
37

Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Cv
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque

38
38
38
39
40
40
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
44
44
45
45

Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque
Cv
Sizing Torque
Sizing Torque

45
46
46
46
47
47
47
48
48
48

Sleeved Plug Valves (standard port only)


G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z

Cv
Valve
Size
.5
.75
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
FL2
Xt

Pipe
Size
.5
.75
2
1.5
1
3
2
1.5
4
3
2
6
4
3
8
6
4
10
8
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

10
NA
NA
.4
.5
.61
.7
.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.9
3
4
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
24
30
43
44
89
89
0.94
0.16

20
N/A
N/A
1.48
1.85
2.28
2.8
3.5
3.9
4.8
5.9
7.2
10
13
16
17
20
26
37
39
45
88
112
161
163
332
332
0.94
0.64

30
NA
NA
3.19
3.99
4.91
6.1
7.6
8.5
10.3
12.9
15.6
22
28
33
37
44
57
80
85
98
190
241
348
351
715
715
0.92
0.64

% Of Rotation Live zero to fully open


40
50
60
70
NA
N/A
NA
N/A
N/A
NA
N/A
NA
5.50
8.39
11.9
15.9
6.88
10.5
14.8
19.9
8.46
12.9
18.2
24.4
10.4
16
22
30
13.1
20
28
38
14.7
22
32
42
17.8
27
38
51
22.2
34
48
66
27.0
41
58
78
38
58
82
110
49
74
105
141
57
87
122
164
64
97
137
184
76
116
165
220
98
149
211
282
138
211
298
398
146
224
316
423
168
257
363
486
477
500
707
946
606
635
897
1202
872
915
1292
1730
880
923
1304
1746
1795
1884
2661
3562
1795
1884
2661
3562
0.88
0.82
0.79
0.75
0.72
0.79
0.61
0.51
* Estimated Values

80
NA
N/A
20.4
25.6
31.5
39
49
55
66
87
100
142
182
211
237
284
364
513
544
626
1219
1548
2229
2248
4588
4588
0.67
0.37

90
N/A
NA
25.6
32.0
39.3
49
61
68
84
107
125
177
227
264
296
355
455
641
681
782
1522
1933
2784
2809
5732
5732
0.57
0.24

100
7.4
19.6
31.2
39.0
48.0
59
74
83
101
126
153
216
277
322
361
433
555
783
831
955
1859
2361
3400*
3430*
7000*
7000*
0.50
0.61

Cv values are based valves being used in conjunction with concentric reducers
The range of rotation starts from the live zero position of the valve
Use appropriate torque tables on next page for:
G4 and G4B Marathon Plug Valve
TSG4 TSG4Z Plug Valve

28

Sleeved Plug Valve


G4, G4B Marathon
(use for standard and V-port plugs)
VALVE
SIZE

SIZING TORQUES (Inch-lbs.)


PTFE

UHMWPE

DURLON II

C/C
SLY
ALKY
C/C
SLY
C/C
<1
300
405
450
380
475
300
1
335
452
565
660
720
450
1.5
497
671
838
680
740
540
2
675
911
1138
1200
1620
750
2.5
1180
1458
1822
1800
2430
1300
3
1180
1458
1822
1800
2430
1300
4&5
2400
3240
4050
3750
5063
2500
6
6000
8100
10125
9900
12500
7500
8*
9300
12555 15693
15000 17500
11200
8**
6960
9396
N/A
CF
CF
8352
10*
29400
39690 49612
40000 42500
35200
10**
22020
29300
N/A
CF
CF
26222
12*F
39900
42000 50000
40000 42500
40000
12**
29926
40403
N/A
CF
CF
30000
14
39900
42000 50000
40000 42500
42000
16
60000
N/A
65000
N/A
N/A
70000
18
60000
N/A
65000
N/A
N/A
70000
*150# DCI & 300# Alloy Body
**150# Alloy Body G4N Style
Note: For dry services, use slurry torque requirements
CF= Consult Factory
C/C= Clean Clear
SLY= Slurry
For Zirconium and CZ100 Nickel Plugs, consult factory for torque values
Consult factory for other sleeve materials.

SLY
405
608
729
1013
1755
1755
3375
10165
15300
11300
42000
32000
42000
35000
44000
75000
75000

Triple Sealed Sleeved Plug Valve


TSG4, TSG4Z
(use for standard and V-port plugs)
SIZING TORQUES (Inch-lbs.)
VALVE
SIZE
<1
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
4&5
6
8*
8**
10*
10**
12*F
12**
14
16
18
29

TSG4 PTFE
C/C
345
518
621
1035
1380
1380
2760
7256
15000
N/A
40000
N/A
40000
N/A
40000
N/A
N/A

SLY
450
699
740
1397
1863
1863
3726
9798
17000
N/A
42000
N/A
42000
N/A
42000
N/A
N/A

ALKY
475
838
940
1676
2235
2235
4471
11757
21000
N/A
50000
N/A
50000
N/A
50000
N/A
N/A

TSG4Z - PTFE
C/C
414
621
710
1207
2070
2070
3969
10350
15500
N/A
42000
N/A
42000
N/A
42000
N/A
N/A

SLY
500
740
765
1630
2600
2600
5356
12500
17500
N/A
44000
N/A
44000
N/A
44000
N/A
N/A

ALKY
570
900
940
1956
3150
3150
6427
14500
22000
N/A
52000
N/A
52000
N/A
52000
N/A
N/A

Sleeved Plug Valves (V-port only)


Cv
Valve
Size
1
1
1
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
FL2
Xt

Pipe
Size
1
1
1
2
1.5
1
3
2
1.5
4
3
2
6
4
3
8
6
4
10
8
6

10
0.03
0.05
0.10
0.31
0.35
0.38
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.7
1.4
1.5
1.5
2.3
2.3
2.4
4.9
4.9
5.1
0.96
0.23

20
0.14
0.18
0.38
1.15
1.29
1.42
1.4
1.4
1.5
2.4
2.5
2.5
5.3
5.6
5.7
8.4
8.7
9.01
18.2
18.4
19.0
0.96
0.39

30
0.31
0.42
0.82
2.47
2.78
3.06
3.0
3.1
3.2
5.1
5.3
5.5
11.4
12.1
12.4
18.1
18.8
19.4
39.3
39.7
40.9
0.95
0.64

G4, G4B Marathon, TSG4, TSG4Z

% Of Rotation Live zero to fully open


40
50
60
70
0.53
0.81
1.14
1.52
0.71
1.08
1.52
2.05
1.41
2.15
3.04
4.07
4.27
6.51
9.20
12.3
4.80
7.32
10.3
13.8
5.27
8.04
11.4
15.2
5.2
8
11
15
5.4
8
12
16
5.5
8
12
16
8.8
13
19
25
9.2
14
20
27
9.5
14
20
27
19.8
30
43
57
20.8
32
45
60
21.3
33
46
62
31.2
48
67
90
32.4
49
70
94
33.5
51
72
97
67.7
103
146
195
68.4
104
147
197
70.5
107
152
204
0.94
0.93
0.86
0.73
0.75
0.73
0.64
0.49

80
1.96
2.62
5.24
15.7
17.8
19.6
19
20
20
33
34
35
73
77
79
116
121
124
252
254
262
0.64
0.33

90
2.46
3.28
6.55
19.8
22.3
24.5
24
25
26
41
43
44
92
97
99
145
151
156
315
318
328
0.56
0.28

Cv values are based valves being used in conjunction with concentric reducers
The range of rotation starts from the live zero position of the valve
Use appropriate torque tables on PREVIOUS page for:
G4 and G4B Marathon Plug Valve
TSG4 TSG4Z Plug Valve

30

100
3.00
4.00
8.00
24.2
27.2
29.9
29
31
31
50
52
54
112
118
121
177
184
190
384
388
400
0.45
0.28

MG4
Cv
#1
Valve
A<->C
Size
B<->C
.5
5.4
.75
15.8
1
23.5
1.5
30.8
2
61.6
3
109
4
169
6
365*
8
525*
10
770*
12
872*
FL2
0.43
Xt
0.28
*Estimated Value

#3
#5
B<->C C<->A&B A<->B B<->C
MAX
5.4
7.4
2.4
2.4
15.8
19.6
7.0
7.0
23.5
48.8
15.9
18.0
30.8
83.5
22.9
21.6
61.6
153
45.9
35.6
109
322
78
64
169
555
152
130
365*
955*
272*
250*
525*
1410*
500*
370*
770*
2130*
720*
670*
NA
NA
815*
758*
0.43
NA
0.47
0.47
0.28
NA
0.30
0.30

Sleeveline Plug Valves


Multi-Port Plug
#7
#8
A<->C C<->A&B A<->C A<->B
B<->C
MAX
B<->C
5.4
7.4
2.4
2.4
15.8
19.6
7.0
7.0
23.5
48.8
18.0
15.9
30.8
83.5
21.6
22.9
61.6
153
35.6
45.9
108
322
64
78
169
555
130
152
365*
955*
250*
272
525*
1410*
370*
500*
770*
2130*
670*
720*
NA
NA
758*
815*
0.43
NA
0.47
0.47
0.28
NA
0.30
0.30

Characteristic Curve for MG Valve with Transflow Plug


For Typical Arrangement Numbers See Bulletin V-24

31

#13
A<->C
B<->C
5.4
19.4
22.7
33.9
56.1
94
171
333*
525*
770*
872*
0.43
0.28

Mach 1 Sleeved Plug Valves

Mach 1 Sizing torque (in-lb)


(Port-seal)
Size
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8

C-C
260
370
550
860
2000
4320
N/A

Slurry
351
500
743
1161
2700
5832
N/A

(Sleeve)
ALKY
439
624
928
1451
3375
7290
N/A

C-C
310
430
600
1020
2200
5200
7600

Slurry
419
581
810
1377
2970
7020
10260

ALKY
523
726
1013
1721
3713
8775
12827

-Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied to
these values
-Torques values apply to Class 150, 300, 600 valves
-Torques values apply to both standard and V-port valves
- Torques of this table apply to valves having seats in PFA. For torques of
valves with seats in UHMWPE, Tefzel and other materials please consult factory
-For torques of valves with severe service bonnet, please consult factory
- For Zirconium and CZ100 Nickel Plugs, consult factory for torque values

-On Cv

tables the range of rotation starts from the live zero position of the valve

Flow Coefficient (Cv) for Mach 1, V-Port valves, Port-Seal or Sleeved


Percent of rotation Live zero to fully open

Valve
Size

Pipe
Size

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
6
6
6

1
1.5
2
1
1.5
2
1
1.5
2
1.5
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
6
4
6
8
6
8
10

0.16
0.15
0.13
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.57
0.55
0.53
1.14
1.11
1.06
2.08
2.02
1.94
3.87
3.75
3.71

0.61
0.56
0.5
0.33
0.3
0.27
0.19
0.17
0.15
1.46
1.41
1.37
2.17
2.09
2.01
4.33
4.23
4.01
7.91
7.66
7.37
14.7
14.3
14.1

1.33
1.21
1.08
0.72
0.65
0.58
0.41
0.37
0.33
3.18
3.07
2.97
4.71
4.54
4.36
9.43
9.19
8.73
17.2
16.7
16.0
32.0
31.0
30.7

2.29
2.08
1.85
1.23
1.12
1.0
0.7
0.64
0.57
5.46
5.28
5.1
8.1
7.8
7.5
16.2
15.8
15.0
29.6
28.6
27.6
54.9
53.3
52.7

3.55
3.23
2.87
1.91
1.74
1.55
1.09
0.99
0.88
8.45
8.18
7.91
12.6
12.1
11.6
25.1
24.5
23.2
45.8
44.4
42.7
85.1
82.5
81.7

4.94
4.5
4
2.66
2.42
2.15
1.52
1.38
1.23
11.8
11.4
11.0
17.5
16.8
16.2
35.0
34.1
32.4
63.9
61.9
59.5
119
115
114

6.66
6.06
5.39
3.59
3.26
2.9
2.05
1.86
1.66
15.9
15.4
14.9
23.6
22.7
21.8
47.1
46.0
43.6
86.1
83.4
80.2
160
155
153

8.49
7.72
6.87
4.57
4.16
3.7
2.61
2.38
2.11
20.2
19.6
18.9
30.0
28.9
27.8
60.1
58.6
55.6
110
106
102
204
198
196

10.64
9.68
8.61
5.73
5.21
4.64
3.27
2.98
2.65
25.4
24.6
23.7
37.6
36.2
34.9
75.3
73.4
69.7
137
133
128
255
248
245

13
11.83
10.52
7
6.37
5.67
4
3.64
3.24
31
30
29
46
44.3
42.6
92
89.7
85.2
168
163
157
312
303
300

1.5

5.7

12.4

21.3

33

46

62

79

99

121

Flow Coefficient (Cv) for Mach 1, Standard Port valves, Port-Seal or Sleeved
Percent of rotation Live zero to fully open

Valve
Size

Pipe
Size

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
6
6
6
8

1
1.5
2
1.5
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
6
4
6
8
6
8
10
8

0.52
0.47
0.42
1
0.97
0.94
2
1.92
1.85
3.31
3.23
3.06
6.79
6.58
6.3
12.4
12.0
11.9
24

1.93
1.76
1.56
3.82
3.69
3.57
7.58
7.3
7.02
12.6
12.3
11.6
25.8
25.0
24.1
47.2
45.7
45.3
88

4.21
3.83
3.41
8.3
8.03
7.77
16.5
15.9
15.3
27.4
26.7
25.3
56.2
54.4
52.3
102.6
99.5
98.5
190

7.21
6.56
5.84
14.26
13.8
13.34
28.34
27.3
26.2
47.0
45.8
43.5
96.5
93.4
89.9
176
171
169
477

11.0
10.0
8.9
22.1
21.4
20.7
43.9
42.3
40.7
72.8
71.0
67.4
149
145
139
273
265
262
500

15.6
14.2
12.6
30.8
29.8
28.8
61.2
58.9
56.7
102
99
94.0
208
202
194
381
369
365
707

20.9
19.0
16.9
41.5
40.2
38.8
82.5
79.4
76.4
137
133
127
281
272
262
513
498
492
946

26.9
24.5
21.8
52.9
51.2
49.5
105
101
97
174
170
161
358
346
333
654
634
627
1219

33.6
30.5
27.2
66.3
64.1
62.0
132
127
122
218
213
202
448
434
418
819
794
786
1522

41.0
37.3
33.2
81.0
78.4
75.8
161
155
149
267
260
247
548
531
511
1001
971
961
1859

Reduced capacities are calculated for installation with concentric reducers

32

T4E- Cv Values of Standard Plug Valves

Size

10

20

30

Percentage of Opening
40
50
60
70

80

90

100

015

"

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.6

1.4

2.7

6.3

13.0

14.6

020

"

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.3

2.8

5.0

8.4

13.1

16.2

17.8

025

1"

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.4

3.6

5.7

8.8

18

25

30

040

1"

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.6

8.0

11.9

21

35

58

78

050

2"

0.0

0.0

1.7

5.9

15

26

47

73

137

181

080

3"

0.0

0.0

2.9

13

26

44

63

115

192

273

100

4"

0.0

0.0

17

38

60

98

142

215

345

470

150

6"

0.0

13.4

46

85

139

219

273

392

575

775

200

8"

0.0

13.5

84

186

256

447

604

941

1418

1818

250

10"

0.0

8.7

60

164

355

575

709

1186

1953

2464

300

12"

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

T4E- Kv Values of T4E Standard Plug Valves

10

20

30

Percentage of Opening
40
50
60
70

80

90

100

015

"

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.2

2.3

5.4

11.2

12.6

020

"

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.1

2.4

4.3

7.2

11.3

13.9

15.3

025

1"

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.2

3.1

4.9

7.6

15

22

26

040

1"

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.2

6.9

10

18

30

50

67

050

2"

0.0

0.0

1.5

5.1

13

23

40

63

118

156

080

3"

0.0

0.0

2.5

11.2

22.4

38

54

99

165

235

100

4"

0.0

0.0

14.6

33

52

84

122

185

297

404

150

6"

0.0

11.5

40

73

120

188

235

337

495

667

200

8"

0.0

11.6

72

160

220

385

520

810

1220

1564

250

10"

7.5

52

141

305

495

610

1020

1680

2120

300

12"

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

C/F

Size

C/F -Contact Factory

The above figures apply to both T4E1and T4E3 valves

For Cv information regarding T41 and T43 valves, please contact factory

See torque table on next page.

33

T4E - Actuator Sizing Torques


For standard and V-port plug
For T4E1 and T4E3
For clean and clear application
Size
015
020
025
040
050
080
100
150
200
250
300

Nm

"
"
1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"

in-lbs

45
45
45
57
90
125
237
645
1685
2640
3300

398
398
398
504
797
1106
2098
5709
14914
23366
29207

For dry and slurry application


Size
015
020
025
040
050
080
100
150
200
250
300

"
"
1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"

Nm

in-lbs

61
61
61
77
122
169
320
871
2205
3459
4315

538
538
538
681
1075
1494
2832
7707
19516
30615
38191

-Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques.
-The use of V-Plugs does not result in change in sizing torques.
-Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing torques.
-Please note the service conditions of the pressure-temperature diagrams:

For torque information regarding T41 and T43 valves, please contact factory

34

T4E- Cv Values of V-Port Plug Valves


Percentage of Opening
Size

Port

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

025

1"

slotted

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.17

0.40

0.52

0.62

0.72

0.76

025

1"

slotted

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.23

0.59

1.14

1.74

2.44

2.91

3.02

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.12

0.52

1.57

2.27

4.65

7.55

8.31

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.23

1.10

2.03

4.07

6.63

10.6

13.3

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.12

0.70

2.44

5.00

9.18

15.1

24.9

040

1.5"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.12

0.76

2.79

6.16

10.8

20.3

29.6

050

2"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.29

2.44

6.16

12.1

19.8

33.7

53.6

080

3"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.35

2.79

8.48

18.6

34.9

61.6

88.7

100

4"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.12

1.74

9.41

23.2

40

64

109

187

T4E- Kv Values of V-port Plug Valves


Percentage of Opening
Size

Port

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

025

1"

slotted

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.05

0.15

0.34

0.45

0.53

0.62

0.65

025

1"

slotted

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.20

0.51

0.98

1.50

2.1

2.5

2.6

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.45

1.35

1.95

6.5

7.15

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.95

1.75

3.5

5.7

9.1

11.4

025

1"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.6

2.1

4.3

7.9

13.0

21.4

040

1.5"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.65

2.4

5.3

9.3

17.5

25.5

050

2"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.25

2.1

5.3

10.4

17.0

29.0

46.1

080

3"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

2.4

7.3

16

30.0

53.0

76.3

100

4"

V-port

0.0

0.0

0.1

1.50

8.10

20.0

34

55

94

161

See torque table on previous page.

The above figures apply to both T4E1 and T4E3 V-port valves

For Cv information regarding T41 and T43 V-port valves, please contact factory

35

BX2001 Valve
Big Max Butterfly Valves
ANSI Class 150# Series

Cv
Valve
Size
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
FL2
Xt
14
16
18
20
24
30
36
FL2
Xt

10
2
3
7
11
20
54
99
180
0.74
0.46
231
305
345
420
615
930
1340
0.6
0.42

20
9
15
37
62
100
158
277
386
0.72
0.41
544
704
805
1120
1640
2480
3570
0.6
0.42

30
19
33
75
117
195
269
437
635
0.7
0.39
884
1144
1380
1820
2665
4030
5800
0.57
0.42

40
38
63
120
164
275
396
650
1011
0.67
0.37
1428
1848
2300
2940
4305
6510
9370
0.56
0.42

% Of Rotation 0-90 Degrees


50
60
70
49
59
62
87
102
110
160
185
225
223
256
336
350
415
505
560
747
948
950
1351
1808
1477
2070
2710
0.64
0.63
0.6
0.34
0.29
0.27
2108
3060
4080
2728
3960
5280
3450
5175
6900
4340
6300
8400
6355
9225
12300
9610
13950
18600
13840
20090
26780
0.54
0.53
0.49
0.39
0.38
0.34

80
65
115
260
363
615
1153
2182
3582
0.57
0.24
5100
6600
8625
10500
15375
23250
33480
0.43
0.25

90
68
120
295
382
782
1409
2686
4534
0.55
0.23
6120
7920
10350
12600
18450
27900
40180
0.35
0.2

100
68
120
305
527
900
1516
3503
4859
0.54
0.21
6800
8800
11500
14000
20500
31000
44640
0.25
0.16

See torque tables on pages 37 and 38.

36

BX2001 Valve
BIG MAX Butterfly Valves
ANSI Class 150# Series and 300# Series
BX2001 Valve Sizing Torque (inch pounds)
Torques Are Based On Closing Upstream - max flow 10 ft/sec
for flows greater than 10 ft/sec use max delta P on chart.
BX2001
Size
2
3
4
5* & 6
8
10
12

Standard PFA/Viton Seat Only


50
150
210
315
720
900
1800
2200

100
190
250
475
840
950
2,650
3,200

150
210
345
545
1,020
1,350
2,900
3,850

200
230
410
624
1,200
1,600
3,300
4,620

Shut Off Pressure


250
285
300
250
262
270
465
525
545
684
744
749
1,284
1,440
1,491
1,900
2,000
2,080
3,960
4,560
4,659
5,280
5,950
6,130

400
315
660
780
1,780
2,535
5,220
7,150

500
360
780
860
2,040
3,225
5,940
8,000

600
700
740
410
450
480
850
960
980
1,032 1,260 1,320
2,260 2,480 2,560
3,825 4,375 4,550
6,470 7,460 7,850
8,975 10,150 11,000

2" - 12"

(1) 2" -12" Triple Seal-use standard seat values times 1.5.
(2) For BX series valves (standard seat), use Firesealed BX2001
NOTES: values.
Size
14
16
18
20
24
30
36

25
5,400
6,300
7,452
8,640
11,880
18,900
26,037

50
6,200
7,100
8,400
9,840
13,200
21,600
30,240

75
6,700
7,200
8,520
10,320
13,200
21,840
31,140

100
6,820
7,200
9,120
10,800
13,440
22,800
32,040

125
7,000
7,320
9,600
11,400
14,280
24,000
33,595

Shut Off Pressure


150
200
285
300
400
500
7,200
7,500
9,000 9,288 10,920 12,546
7,800
8,640 11,040 11,364 13,200 14,286
10,200 11,880 15,000 15,225 16,500 17,858
12,000 14,640 19,800 20,730 26,000 30,300
15,000 16,800 23,760
25,800 27,420 43,440
35,150 41,520 63,745

600
14,172
15,372
19,215
34,600

700
14,988
16,724
20,905
37,200

740
15,396
17,400
21,750
39,100

700
14980
16710
20888
46500

740
15396
17400
21750
48875

* 5" available in 150# only


BX2001

Apex, Firesealed, Std. PFA/Inconel and UHMWPE seats Only

Size
2
3
4
5* & 6
8
10
12

50
200
280
420
960
1195
2395
2926

100
253
335
630
1120
1265
3525
4256

150
279
460
725
1360
1795
3860
5121

200
306
545
830
1595
2130
4390
6145

Shut Off Pressure (psig)


250
285
300
333
359
389
620
700
710
910
990
1005
1710
1915
1947
2530
2660
2726
5265
6065
6197
7022
7914
8153

Size
14
16
18
20
24
30
36

25
6000
7000
8280
9600
13200
21000
28930

50
6200
7100
8400
9840
13200
21600
30240

75
6700
7200
8520
10320
13200
21840
31140

100
6820
7200
9120
10800
13440
22800
32040

125
7000
7320
9600
11400
14280
24000
33595

* 5" available in 150# only

37

400
419
760
1080
2125
3100
6943
9510

Shut Off Pressure


150
200
285
7200
7500
9000
7800
8640
11040
10200
11880
15000
12000
14640
19800
15000
16800
23760
25800
27420
43440
35150
41520
63745

500
479
820
1190
2420
3560
7900
10640

600
545
880
1310
2700
4000
8605
11937

700
599
960
1410
3400
4475
9922
13500

740
638
1000
1470
3750
4800
10441
14630

300
9288
11364
15225
23570

400
10920
13200
16500
32500

500
12546
14251
17858
37875

600
14172
15372
19215
43250

BX2001 Butterfly Valve


ANSI Class 150# and 300# Series
Triflex Metal Seat (70F)

BX2001 Valve Sizing Torque (inch pounds)


Torques Are Based On Closing Upstream - max flow 10 ft/sec
for flows greater than 10 ft/sec use max delta P on chart.
BX2001

BX2001 - TriFlex Metal Seat (70 Deg. F)


Shut Off Pressure (psig)

SIZE

50

100

150

200

250

285

300

400

500

600

700

308

345

390

435

480

623

684

792

900

963

981

740
981

410

460

520

580

640

830

912

1056

1200

1284

1308

1308

765

855

970

1200

1430

1605

1680

1956

2184

2258

2292

2292

1410

1570

1735

1920

2100

2472

2904

3276

3540

3732

3780

3780

2630

2930

3305

3670

4030

5115

5580

6300

6840

7104

7200

7200

10

4590

4995

5510

6070

6630

8373

9120

10320

11160

11168

12000

12000

12

7140

8060

9080

10100

11120

13836

15000

16800

18240

18250

19200

19200

Shut Off Pressure


Size

50

100

150

200

250

285

300

400

500

600

700

740

14

10320

11520

12840

14340

15600

17160

18630

19260

23780

29350

36240

44740

48720

16

13800

15300

17040

18900

20880

22800

24000

25210

30450

36770

44400

53620

57860

18

15600

17400

19560

21600

24000

26280

27600

28980

34100

42260

51040

61630

66510

20

17400

19800

21840

24000

27000

29400

30600

32600

38363

47543

57420

69334

74824

24

19560

22260

24540

27000

30300

32930

34660

30

23854

27270

30032

32898

37240

40403

42025

BX2001

BX2001 Butterfly Valve

BX2001 - TriFlex Metal Seat (800 Deg. F)


Shut Off Pressure (psig)

Size

20

40

60

80

100

200

300

338

368

399

430

461

576

729

864

981

450

491

532

573

614

768

972

1152

1308

715

782

849

916

983

1236

1560

1848

2040

1430

1558

1686

1814

1942

2436

3036

3480

3780

2755

3000

3245

3490

3735

4680

5820

6660

7200

10

5100

5465

5834

6200

6586

8160

9840

11280

12000

12

8160

8731

9302

9873

10444

12960

15840

17880

19200

14

16800

17100

17400

17700

18000

18370

20320

22480

25120

16

22200

22656

23100

23556

24000

24490

27060

29970

33500

18

25800

26256

26700

27156

27600

28160

31160

34470

38520

20

44400

45300

46200

47100

48000

49280

54530

60323

67410

24

76560

78120

79655

81216

82800

30

130,181

132,446

134,682

136,954

139,263

BX2001

BX2001 - TriFlex Metal Seat (1000 Deg. F)

Size

10

20

50

445

623

741

495

692

823

870

915

1580

8
10

100

200

300

355

780

913

1170

1397

1490

867

1014

1300

1552

1656

945

1020

1193

1530

1826

1948

1658

1710

1836

2111

2621

3060

3213

3010

3163

3265

3519

4029

4998

5814

6120

5510

5756

5920

6324

7140

8670

9792

10200

12

8160

8619

8925

9690

11118

13668

13804

15470

14

16800

17400

18000

20030

23100

30560

43640

55303

16

22200

23100

24000

26710

30800

33160

48850

63700

18

25800

26700

27600

30620

35160

49700

70230

87950

20

44400

46200

48000

52054

59772

84490

1.00E+05

1.00E+05

24

76560

79655

82800

30

134,707

135,238

140,715

ANSI Class 150# and 300# Series


Triflex Metal Seat (800F)

BX2001 Butterfly Valve

Shut Off Pressure (psig)

38

410

ANSI Class 150# and 300# Series


Triflex Metal Seat (1000F)

BTV Valve
Flurocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves
150 psi

Cv
Valve
Size
2
3
4
6
8
FL2
Xt
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
FL2
Xt

Pipe
Size
2-3
3-6
4-8
6 - 10
8 - 12
10 - 14
12 - 16
14 - 18
16 - 20
18 - 22
20 - 24
24 - 30

30deg.
3
9
16
42
92
0.74
0.51
152
233
282
372
474
586
655
0.65
0.51

40deg.
50deg.
45deg.=50%Open
8
16
28
55
47
94
122
243
268
535
0.75
0.75
0.53
0.54
443
885
676
1353
820
1639
1080
2160
1379
2757
1703
3406
1926
3852
0.66
0.67
0.53
0.54

Degrees Open
60deg.
70deg.
25
85
146
376
827
0.76
0.53
1368
2091
2533
3338
4261
5263
6642
0.70
0.53

43
148
253
653
1435
0.69
0.48
2373
3628
4395
5792
7393
9132
11452
0.47
0.48

80deg.
69
234
399
1033
2269
0.59
0.44
3754
5739
6953
9163
11695
14446
18177
0.39
0.44

90deg.
100% open
93
316
540
1396
3068
0.51
0.40
5075
7758
9400
12387
15810
19530
24564
0.30
0.40

See torque tables on next page.

39

BTV Valve
Fluorocarbon Lined Butterfly Valves
150 psi Series
Clean / Clear Service*
SIZING TORQUES (Inch - lbs.)
VALVE
SIZE
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

O-100
360
420
720
1440
1800
3600
4800
6900
9000
10920
12500
20270

SHUT OFF PRESSURE (psi)


125
360
420
720
1440
1800
3600
4800
7560
9960
11400
12960
21280

150
360
420
720
1440
1800
3600
4800
8160
10920
12000
13440
21800

*For slurry service, multiply torque values above by 1.35.

BUV Valve
UHMWPE Lined Butterfly Valves
150 psi Series
Clean / Clear Service*
SIZING TORQUES (Inch - lbs.)
VALVE
SIZE
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

0 100
648
756
1296
3110
3888
6480
8640
13200
19200
24000
30000
48385

SHUT OFF PRESSURE (psi)


125
648
756
1296
3110
3888
6480
8640
14040
21960
30000
38400
59030

150
648
756
1296
3110
3888
6480
8640
14880
24000
39600
45600
68475

*For slurry service, multiply torque values above by 1.35.

40

Atomac AKH3 Valve


Standard Port Ball Valve
FEP & PFA Lined

Cv
% Of Rotation, 0-100%
50
60
2.9
4.7
4.0
6.6
14.3
23.8
16.1
26.7
52
87
71
118
148
245
330
548
252
419

Valve
Size
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12

10
0.3
0.5
1.7
1.9
6.3
8.6
17.7
39.6
30.3

20
0.6
0.9
3.1
3.5
11.5
15.7
32.5
72.6
55.5

30
1.0
1.4
5.2
5.8
18.9
25.7
53.2
118.8
90.9

40
1.7
2.4
8.6
9.7
31.5
42.8
88.7
198.0
151.5

Fl2

0.94

0.94

0.92

0.88

0.82

Xt

0.16

0.64

0.64

0.72

0.79

70
7.9
11.1
39.8
44.7
146
198
411
918
702

80
12.2
17.0
61.0
68.6
223
304
630
1406
1075

90
22.0
30.7
110
124
404
549
1139
2542
1944

100
36.7
51.3
184.1
206
675
917
1902
4245
3246

0.79

0.75

0.67

0.57

0.5

0.61

0.51

0.37

0.24

0.16

Atomac AKH3V Valve


V-Port Ball Valve
FEP & PFA Lined

See torque tables next page.

Atomac CAKH3 Valve


C-Ball Standard Port Ball Valve
FEP & PFA Lined
Valve
Size
1
1.5
2
3
4
FL2
Xt

10
0.29
0
0
0
0
0.96
0.23

20
0.47
0
3.2
2.2
7.3
0.96
0.39

Cv
30
0.79
0.87
8.8
9.6
25.3
0.95
0.64

40
1.4
3.5
19.3
21.2
60.6
0.94
0.75

% Of Rotation 0-100%
50
60
70
2.4
4
6.7
8.75
13.5
21.1
28.0
45.2
70.6
36.8
51.8
79.6
107.6
170.5
269
0.93
0.86
0.73
0.73
0.64
0.49

80
11.2
34.3
107
107
373
0.64
0.33

90
18.7
46.5
151
168
652
0.56
0.28

100
31.2
46.5
151
168
652
0.45
0.28

See torque tables next page.


41

Atomac AKH3 - Actuator Sizing Torques


Packing material:

Chevron PTFE or PTFE-graphite

For clean and clear application


Size
1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"

0 bar p
Nm
7
7
20
27
59
79
210
480
480
600

0 psi p
in-lbs
62
62
177
239
522
699
1859
4248
4248
5310

10 bar p
Nm
7
8
27
34
85
119
300
700
700
1430

150 psi p
in-lbs
62
71
239
301
752
1053
2655
6196
6196
12657

19 bar p
Nm
8
8
34
45
108
158
360
900
900
1760

275 psi p
in-lbs
71
71
301
398
956
1398
3186
7966
7966
15577

MAST
Nm

in-lbs

40
40
115
130
420
420
1107
2180
2180
8355

354
354
1018
1151
3717
3717
9798
19295
19295
73948

For dry and slurry application


Size

0 bar p
Nm

1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"

9
9
26
35
77
103
273
624
624
780

42

0 psi p
in-lbs
81
81
230
311
679
909
2416
5523
5523
6904

10 bar p
Nm
9
10
35
44
111
155
390
910
910
1859

150 psi p
in-lbs
81
92
311
391
978
1369
3452
8054
8054
16454

19 bar p
Nm
10
10
44
59
140
205
468
1170
1170
2288

275 psi p
in-lbs
92
92
391
518
1243
1818
4142
10355
10355
20251

MAST
Nm
40
40
115
130
420
420
1107
2180
2180
8355

in-lbs
354
354
1018
1151
3717
3717
9798
19295
19295
73948

The use of ceramic balls in lined valves will result in 15% higher sizing torques
Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques
Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing torques
The stated "MAST value is the Maximum Allowable Stem Torque. Beyond this value permanent deformation / destruction of liner is
to be expected.
Please note the service condition of the pressure-temperature diagram

Atomac AKH2* Valve


Full Port Ball Valve
FEP & PFA Lined

Cv
Valve Size
.5
.75
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8RP
8FP
10
12
FL2
Xt

Cv At Full Open
19.6
28.4
44.9
141
232
611
1093
2480
1745
4581
6074
8823
.14
.30
See torque tables next page.

*See page 46 for AKH2A data.


Note: Some documents refer to Atomac capacities in Kv
To convert:
Kv = 0.86 x Cv
Cv = 1.16 x Kv

43

Atomac AKH2 - Actuator Sizing Torques


Packing material:

Chevron PTFE or PTFE-graphite

For clean and clear application


Size
015
020
025
032
040
050
065
080
100
150
200RP
200FP
250
300
350

"
"
1"
1
1"
2"
2.5
3"
4"
6"
8"RP
8"FP
10"
12"
14"

0 bar p
Nm
7
7
7
20
20
27
51
59
79
210
210
480
600
1150
2200

0 psi p
in-lbs
62
62
62
177
177
239
451
522
699
1859
1859
4248
5310
10178
19472

10 bar p
Nm

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

275 psi p
in-lbs

7
7
8
27
27
34
73
85
119
300
300
700
1430
2400
3300

62
62
71
239
239
301
646
752
1053
2655
2655
6196
12657
21242
29207

8
8
8
34
34
45
93
108
158
360
360
900
1760
2900
4200

71
71
71
301
301
398
426
956
1398
3186
3186
7966
15577
25667
37173

10 bar p
Nm

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

275 psi p
in-lbs

9
9
10
35
35
44
95
111
155
390
390
910
1859
3120
4290

81
81
92
311
311
391
840
978
1369
3452
3452
8054
16454
27614
37970

10
10
10
44
44
59
121
140
205
468
468
1170
2288
3770
5460

92
92
92
391
391
518
1070
1243
1818
4142
4142
10355
20251
33367
48325

MAST
Nm

in-lbs

40
40
40
115
115
130
420
420
420
1107
1107
2180
8355
13250
13250

354
354
354
1018
1018
1151
3717
3717
3717
9798
9798
19295
73948
117272
117272

For dry and slurry application


Size
015
020
025
032
040
050
065
080
100
150
200RP
200FP
250
300
350

"
"
1"
1
1"
2"
2.5
3"
4"
6"
8"RP
8"FP
10"
12"
14"

0 bar p
Nm
9
9
9
26
26
35
66
77
103
273
273
624
780
1495
2860

0 psi p
in-lbs
81
81
81
230
230
311
587
679
909
2416
2416
5523
6904
13232
25313

Nm

in-lbs

40
40
40
115
115
130
420
420
420
1107
1107
2180
8355
13250
13250

354
354
354
1018
1018
1151
3717
3717
3717
9798
9798
19295
73948
117272
117272

Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques.

The use of ceramic balls in lined valves will result in 15% higher sizing torques.

The use of C-Balls or V-Balls does not result in change in sizing torques.

Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing torques.

The stated "MAST value is the Maximum Allowable Stem Torque. Beyond this value permanent deformation / destruction of
liner is to be expected.

44

MAST

Please note the service conditions of the pressure- temperature diagrams

RP=Reduced Port FP=Full Port

Atomac AKH5 Valve


Full Port Ball Valve
Ceramic Lined

Cv
Valve Size
1
1.5
2
3
4
FL2
Xt

Cv At Full Open
50.4
137
227
597
948
.14
.30

Atomac AKH5 Valve


Full Port Ball Valve
Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball)*
Clean / Clear Service
Valve
Size
1
1.5
2
3
4

SIZING TORQUES (Inch - lbs.)


Shut-Off Pressure (psig)
0
150
275
27
31
44
53
84
93
97
186
221
443
841
1106
487
1106
1460
*For metal stems only, contact factory for ceramic stem torques.

Atomac AKH5 Valve


Full Port Ball Valve
Ceramic Lined (Liner & Ball)*
Slurry Service
SIZING TORQUES (Inch - lbs.)
Shut-Off Pressure (PSIG)
Valve
Size
0
150
275
1
50
81
134
1.5
100
175
306
2
181
412
750
3
825
2062
3650
4
925
2625
3937

45

Atomac AKH2A Valve


Full Port Ball Valve
FEP & PFA Lined

Cv
Valve Size
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
FL2
Xt

Cv At Full Open
54.1
148
235
590
1108
1834
.14
.30

Atomac AKH2A - Actuator Sizing Torques


Packing material:

Chevron PTFE or PTFE-graphite

For clean and clear application


Size
1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"

0 bar p
Nm

0 psi p
in-lbs

7
20
27
54
63
160

62
177
239
478
558
1416

10 bar p
Nm
8
27
34
67
97
240

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

71
239
301
593
859
2124

8
34
45
89
124
310

275 psi p
in-lbs
71
301
398
788
1097
2744

MAST
Nm

in-lbs

40
115
130
420
420
1107

354
1018
1151
3717
3717
9798

For dry and slurry application


Size
1"
1"
2"
3"
4"
6"

0 bar p
Nm

0 psi p
in-lbs

9
26
35
70
82
208

81
230
311
621
725
1841

10 bar p
Nm
10
35
44
87
126
312

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

92
311
391
771
1116
2761

92
391
518
1024
1427
3567

MAST
Nm

in-lbs

40
115
130
420
420
1107

354
1018
1151
3717
3717
9798

Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques.

The use of ceramic balls in lined valves will result in 15% higher sizing torques.

The use of C-Balls or V-Balls does not result in change in sizing torques.

Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing torques.

The stated "MAST value is the Maximum Allowable Stem Torque. Beyond this value permanent deformation / destruction of
liner is to be expected.

46

10
44
59
116
161
403

275 psi p
in-lbs

Please note the service conditions of the pressure- temperature diagrams

Atomac AKH6 Valve


Tank Drain Ball Valve FEP & PFA Lined

Valve Size
1x2
1.5 x 3
2x3
2 x4
2x6
3x4
4x6
6x8
FL2
Xt

Cv At Full Open
37.3
135
80.7
77.5
70.3*
668
334
1389*
0.5
0.16
*estimated value

AKH6 - Actuator Sizing Torques


Packing material:
For clean and clear application
Size
025/050
025/100
040/080
050/080
050/100
050/150
080/100
080/150
100/150
150/200
150/250

1"/2"
1"/4"
1"/3"
2"/3"
2"/4"
2"/6"
3"/4"
3'/6"
4"/6"
6"/8"
6"/10"

0 bar p
Nm

0 psi p
in-lbs

7
7
20
27
27
27
59
59
79
210
210

62
62
177
239
239
239
522
522
699
1859
1859

Chevron PTFE or PTFE-graphite

10 bar p
Nm

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

275 psi p
in-lbs

8
8
27
34
34
34
85
85
119
300
300

71
71
239
301
301
301
752
752
1053
2655
2655

8
8
34
45
45
45
108
108
158
360
360

71
71
301
398
398
398
956
956
1398
3186
3186

10 bar p
Nm

150 psi p
in-lbs

19 bar p
Nm

275 psi p
in-lbs

10
10
35
44
44
44
111
111
155
390
390

92
92
311
391
391
391
978
978
1369
3452
3452

10
10
44
59
59
59
140
140
205
468
468

92
92
391
518
518
518
1243
1243
1818
4142
4142

MAST
Nm

in-lbs

40
40
115
130
130
130
420
420
420
1107
1107

354
354
1018
1151
1151
1151
3717
3717
3717
9798
9798

For dry and slurry application


Size
025/050
025/100
040/080
050/080
050/100
050/150
080/100
080/150
100/150
150/200
150/250
-

47

1"/2"
1"/4"
1"/3"
2"/3"
2"/4"
2"/6"
3"/4"
3'/6"
4"/6"
6"/8"
6"/10"

0 bar p
Nm
9
9
26
35
35
35
77
77
103
273
273

0 psi p
in-lbs
81
81
230
311
311
311
679
679
909
2416
2416

MAST
Nm
40
40
115
130
130
130
420
420
420
1107
1107

in-lbs
354
354
1018
1151
1151
1151
3717
3717
3717
9798
9798

Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques.
The use of ceramic balls in lined valves will result in 15% higher sizing torques.
The use of C-Balls or V-Balls does not result in change in sizing torques.
Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing torques
Please note the service condition of the pressure-temperature diagram.
The stated "MAST value is the Maximum Allowable Stem Torque. Beyond this value permanent deformation / destruction
of liner is to be expected.

Atomac AMP3 Valve


3-Way Ball Valve

Cv values
Valve Size

AMP3 L

AMP3 T 0

AMP3 T 90

Cv At Full Open

Cv At Full Open

Cv At Full Open

13.8
35.5
60
124
222
0.47
0.3

28.9
93.2
150
340
665

10.9
37.3
62.2
126
206

1
1.5
2
3
4
FL2
Xt

Atomac AMP3-Actuator Sizing torques


Packing material: Chevron PTFE or PTFE-graphite

FEP & PFA Lined

Stated torques are sizing torques. No further safety factors are to be applied against these torques.

Stated sizing torques are "Break-Open and "Re-Seating torques. Running torques are typically 35% below sizing
torques

Please note the service condition of the pressure-temperature diagram.

The stated "MAST value is the Maximum Allowable Stem Torque. Beyond this value permanent deformation /
destruction of liner is to be expected

All AMP3 Sizing Torques are for the Following Flow Arrangements:
L Arrangement - Ports A or B to C
T Arrangement - Port A to B & C or Port B to A & C Only. For all Others, Consult Factory.
AMP3 PORT
ARRANGEMENT
A

48

Section Four

49

PRESSURE
To accurately size control valves, we must fully understand the various pressure terms used in the instrument
world. The pressure measurement identifications most frequently encountered in valve applications are: absolute
pressure, gauge pressure, vacuum, and differential pressure.
DEFINITIONS:
a) ABSOLUTE PRESSURE -expressed "pounds per square inch absolute," or psia.
b) GAUGE PRESSURE -expressed "pounds per square inch gauge," or psig.
c) VACUUM -is a special case of gauge pressure; i.e., vacuum is negative gauge pressure or any pressure less
than atmospheric pressure.
d) DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE-is the difference between two pressure points in a system and is expressed as
P .
Here are some basic relationships between gauge pressure, absolute pressure and vacuum.
a) absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure.
b) absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure - vacuum.
c) gauge pressure= -vacuum.
EXAMPLES:
1. Convert 100 psig to absolute
a) Pabs 100 14.7 114.7 at sea level
b) Pabs 100 12.7 112.7 at 4,000 feet
2. Convert 20.36 in Hg Vacuum to psia
a) Pgauge

in Hg 20.36
psig
2.036 2.036 10

Pgauge = -vacuum = -10 psig vacuum


b) Pabs = Patmos vacuum
Pabs = 14.7 10 psig = 4.7 psia at sea level
Pabs = 12.7 10 psig = 2.7 psia at 4,000 feet
3. Convert 100 psia to psig
a) Pabs = Patmos + Pgauge
b) Pgauge = Pabs Patmos
Pgauge = 100 psi 14.7 psia = 85.3 psig at sea level

USEFUL EQUIVALENTS
1 US Gallon of Water = 8.33 pounds @ 60 0 F
1 Cubic Foot of Water = 62.34 pounds @ 60 0 F
50

1 Cubic Foot of Air = .076 pounds (Std. Pressure and temperature)


1 Pound of Air = 13.1 Cubic Feet (Std. pressure and temperature)
Gas Molecular Weight =Specific gravity of that gas
29
Molecular Weight of Air = 29
Density = Specific Weight
1 Nautical Mile = Dist. Subtended By One Min. at Equator.
1 Light Band = 0.0000118
1 Micron = 0.001 Millimeter
1 Micron = One Millionth of A Meter
Big Calorie = 1 Kilogram: 1C.
Little Calorie = 1 Gram: 1C.

. xHt .inFeet
Visibility in Miles = 15
1 Part Per Million = 0.0001 per cent
1 mil (Corrosion) = 0.001
Dia.( Inches) xRPM
229
321,000 xHP
Torsional Shaft Stress (Pds/Sq. in.) =
RPMxDia 3 ( Inches)
Surface Speed (Rotating Shaft) In Feet/Sec. =

MASS RATE
Where:
Standard conditions (scfh) are 14.7 psia and 60 0 F
Normal conditions (norm) are 760 mm Hg and 0 0 C
SG1 Water = 1 at 60 0 F
SG2 Water = 1 at 4 0 C
M = Molecular weight
W 1 = Specific weight lb/ ft 3 (std.)

W 2 = Specific weight kg/ m 3 (norm)


G1 = Specific gravity air = 1 at (std.
G 2 = Specific gravity air = 1 at (norm)
GASES

scfh

(lb / hr ) x379
M

scfh lb / hr
W

scfh

51

(lb / hr ) x131
.
G1

m3 / hr (norm)

( kg / hr ) x22.40
M

m3 / hr (norm)

kg / hr
W

m3 / hr (norm)

( kg / hr ) x0.82
G

LIQUID

USgal / min lb / hr
500 xSG1

m3 / hr

0.001kg / hr
SG 2

VACUUM EQUIVALENTS
MILLIMETERS OF
MERCURY
INCHES IN
(Torr)*
PSIA MERCURY
14.7
29.92
760.0
1.0
2.04
51.7
0.49
1.0
25.4
0.0193
0.0394
1.0
0.000386 0.000787
0.020
0.0000193 0.000039
0.001

MICRONS
760,000
51,700
25,400
1,000
20
1

* Torr is another term that is the same as Millimeters of Mercury.

TEMPERATURE
Rapid Conversion of oC to oF: Degrees Celsius
Kelvin
1-Double oC
o
2-Deduct 10%
C
K
o
3-Add 32
C
K-273.15
o
Rapid Conversion of oF to oC:
C + 273.15
K
o
1-Deduct 32
9/5 C + 32
9/5K-459.67
2-Divide by 1.8
9/5 oC + 491.67
9/5K

52

Degrees
Fahrenheit
o
F
o
5/9 ( F-32)
5/9 (oF+ 459.67)
o
F
o
F + 459.67

Degrees
Rankine
o
R
o
5/9 ( R-491.67)
5/9 oR
o
R -459.67
o
R

TABLE 5.1

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Ratio
Liquid/Gas
Name

Acetaldehyde
Acetic Acid
Acetone
Acetylene
Air
Alcohol, Ethyl
Alcohol, Methyl
Ammonia
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Sulfate
Aniline
Argon
Arsene
Beer
Benzene
Bromine
Butane
Butylene
Butyric Acid
Calcium Chloride
Camphor
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Disulfide
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chlorine
Chloroform
Chromic Acid
Cis-2-Butene
Citric Acid
Copper Sulfate
Cyanogen
Cydohexame
Cyclopentane
DichloromethaneDi-Isobutyl
Ethane
Ether
Ethyl Chloride
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene
Ferric Chloride
Fluorine
Formaldehyde
Formic Acid
Furfural
53

Formula
CH3CHO
HC2H302
C3H60
C2H2
N202
C2H60
CH40
NH3
NH4CL
NH4OH
(NH4)SO4
C6H7N
A
AsH3
C6H6
Br2
C4H1o
C4H8

Specific
Gravity
0.78
1.05
0.79 2.01
0.61 0.90
0.86 1.00
0.794 1.59
0.796 1.11
0.62 0.59
1.07
0.91
1.15
1.02
1.65 1.38
2.69
1.01
0.88 2.70
2.93 5.52
2.07
1.90

psia
Critical
Pressure
840
691
890
547
925
1,174
1,636

Critical Viscosity
Temp.
Centistokes
R
830
0.295
1,069
1.17
915
0.41
555
239
930
1.52
923
0.74
730
0.30

770
705

1258
272

4.37

710
1,485
529
583

1012
1035

0.744
0.34

Specific
Heats
K

psia
Vapor
Pressure
Ambient
Temp.

1.13
1.26
1.40
1.15
1.24
1.29

5.50
12.30
19.63
129.00

1.67

756

3.20
2.90
39.60
1.11

1.61
CaCl2
C10H160
C02
CS2
CO
C Cl4
Cl2
CHCI3
H2CrO4
C4H8
C6H807
CuS04
(CN)x
C5H12
C5H1o
CH2CI2
C8H18
C2H6
(CaH5) 20
C2H5CI
C8H1o
C2H4
FeCI3
F2
H2CO
C6H12O2
C5H402

1.23
0.801
1.29
0.80
1.59
1.42
1.49
1.21
0.63
1.54
1.17

1.52
2.63
0.97
5.31
2.45
1.94

0.75 2.42
0.70
0.36
0.74
0.90
0.87

3.94
1.05
2.55
3.67
0.97

1.23
1.11 1.31
0.82 1.08
1.23
1.16

1,072
1,071
507
661
1,119
793

548
994
240
1002
751
965

610

784

839

722

654
882
361
708
505
740
524
730

922
990
550
841
829
1111
509

809

260

501

1036

0.005
854.00
8.40
5338
2.70
100.00
4.80

1.30
0.298
0.612
1.35
0.38
1.11

46.00

9.9
1.18
0.668
1.23
1.25

1.10
800.00
12.50
27.10
0.37
765
300.00

1.48

TABLE 5.1
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (Continued)
Ratio

54

Name

Formula

Glycerin
Glycol
Helium
Hexane
Hexylene
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen Sulfide
Iodine
Iso-Butane
[so-Butene
Iso-Octane
Iso-Prene
Iso-Pentane
Iso-Propyl-Alcohol
Iso-Propyl-Benzene
Krypton
m-Xylene
Magnesium Chloride
Mercury
Methane
Methyl Cyclohexane
Methyl Cyclopentane
Methyl Bromide
Methyl Chloride
Milk
n-Octane
n-Butane
n-Decane
n-Heptane
n-Hexane
n-Nonane
n-Pentane
Napthalene
Natural Gas
Neohexane
Neon
Neopentane
Nitric Acid
Nitric Oxide
Nitrobenzene
Nitrogen
Nitrogyl Chloride
Nitrous Oxide

C3H803
C2H602
He
C6H14
C6H12
HCI
HF
H2
HCI
H2S
I2
C4H10
C4H8
C8H18
C5H8
C5H12
C3H8O
C9H12
Kr
C8H10
MgCI2
Hg
CH4
C7H14
C6H12
CH3Br
CH3Cl

Liquid/Gas
Specific
Gravity
1.26
1.11
0.18 0.14
0.65
0.67
1.64
0.92
0.07 0.07
0.86 1.26
0.79 1.17
2.40
0.56 2.00
0.60 1.94
0.70 3.94
0.69 2.35
0.62 2.49
0.78 2.08
0.87 4.15
2.87
0.87 3.67
1.22
13.60 6.93
0.30 0.55
0.77 3.40
0.75 2.90
1.73 3.27
0.99 1.74

psia
Critical
Pressure

Critical
Temp.
R

970
1,117
33
433
447
1,205
940
188
1,198
1,307
1,690
529
580
372
558
490
779
465
797
514

1,307
1,161
10
913
920
584
906
60
585
673
1,487
735
753
979
872
829
915
1,136
378
1,111

23,326
668
504
549

3,120
343
1,030
959
836
750

969

C8H18
C4H1o
C10H22
C7H16
C6H14
CgH20
C5H12
C10H8

0.71
0.58
0.73
0.69
0.66
0.72
0.63
1.14

3.94
2.00
4.90
3.46
2.98
4.43
2.49
4.43

361
551
304
397
437
332
489

1,024
776
1,112
973
914
1,071
846
1,347
326
880
80
781

C6H14
Ne
C5H12
HN03
NO

0.65 2.98
0.70
0.60 2.49
1.50
1.04

447
384
464
925

323

N2
NOCI
N20

0.81 0.97
2.31
1.53

493

227

Viscosit
y
Centistokes
17.80

1.90

Specific
Heats
K
1.08
1.09
1.66
1.06
1.07
1.40
1.40
1.41
1.29
1.11
1.12

1.31
1.32

0.77
1.10
1.24
0.60
0.49
0.97
0.37
0.90

1.05
1.06
1.08
1.06
1.07

psia
Vapor
Pressure
Ambient
Temp.
0.0001
0.01
2651
2.03
2.63
559
15.90
628.00
267.00
0.01
72.20
63.40
1.70
17.00
20.40
743
0.19
2676
0.33
5,000
1.60
4.50
28.00
74.00
0.54
51.60
0.06
1.62
4.96
0.18
15.60
0.15
9.90
11,736
35.90

1.87
35,679
1.67
1,048

1.40

7,499

1.30

539

TABLE 5.1

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (Continued)

55

Name

Formula

Liquid/Gas
Specific
Gravity

o-Xylene
Oil, Olive
Oil, Vegetable
Oxygen
p-Xylene
Phenol
Phosgene
Phosphine
Phosphoric Acid
Potassium Carbonate
Potassium Chloride
Potassium Hydroxide
Propane
Propene
Propionic Acid
Raden
Refrigerant 1 1
Refrigerant 12
Refrigerent 13
Refrigerant 21
Refrigerant 22
Refrigerant 23
Silicon Tetrafluoride
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Thiosulfate
Starch
Styrene
Sulfuric Acid
Sulfur Dioxide
SulfurTrioxide
Toluene
Trans-2- Butene
Triptane
Turpentine
Xenon
Xyolene-o
Water
Zinc Chloride
Zinc Sulfate
1 -Butene
1 -Pentene
1, 2-Butadiene
1. 3-Butadiene
2-Methylhexane
2-Methylpentane
2, 2-Dimethylpentane
2, 3-Dimethylbutane
3 -Eythlpentane

C8H10

0.88

3.67

psia
Critical
Pressure
541

Critical
Temp.
R

Viscosity
Centistokes

1,135

Ratio
Specific
Heats
K
1.07

93.00
O2
C8H10
C6H50H
COCl2
PH3
H3PO4
K2CO3
KCI
KO4
C3H8
C3H6

0.92
1.14
0.87
1.08
1.39
1.83
1.24
1.16
1.24
0.51
0.52

1.11
3.67

279
1,110

3.42
1.18

737
509
889
823
948

1.52
1.45

616
669

666
657

912
635
597
561
750
716
691

679
848
694
544
813
665
551

580

1,166

1.40
1.07

psia
Vapor
Pressure at
Ambient
Temp.
0.26
0.34
0.34

11.83
820
583

25.70

1.13
1.15

190.00
226.00

1.13
CCl3F
CCl2F2
CCIF3
CHCl2F
CHCIF
CHF3
SiF4
NaCl
NAOH
Na2SO4
Na2S203
(C6H10O5 ) X
C8H8
H2SO4
S02
S03
C7H8
C4H8
C7H16

5.04
4.20
3.82

28.40
85.20
473.70
23.40
137.50
650.00

0.27

3.62
1.19
1.27
1.24
1.23
1.50
0.91
1.83
1.39
0.87
0.61
0.69
0.87

Xe
H20
ZnCI2
ZnSO4
C5H8
C5H10
C4H6
C4H6
C7H16
C6H14
C7H16
C6H14
C7H16

0.32
0.21

1.00
1.24
1.31
0.60
0.65
0.66
0.63
0.68
0.66
0.68
0.67
0.70

3.60

0.24
14.60

2.21

1,145

776

1.25

49.40

3.18
1.94
3.46

596
595
428

1,066
772
956

1.09
1.10
1.05

1.00
50.00
3.40

4.53

853

523

0.62

3,206

1,166

1.94
2.42
1.87
1.87
3.46
2.98
3.46
2.98
3.46

583
590
653
628
397
437
402
454
419

756
837
799
766
955
896
937
900
973

1.83
93.0
1.1

0.95
1.10
1.08
1.12
1.12
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

63.00
19.00
20.00
60.00
2.30
6.80
3.5
7.4
2.00

LIQUID VELOCITY DETERMINATION


FIGURE 5.0

*Multiply velocity head value from chart by liquid specific gravity if specific gravity is other than one.
NOTE: The internal diameter of the various pipe schedules may be found by noting the intersection of the
diagonal line representing the nominal size of pipe with the vertical line representing the pipe schedule, then projecting
horizontally to the D-scale.

56

Durco Teflon Seated Valves for Steam Service


Many Durco Teflon seated valves are suitable for a wide variety of steam services. It is important, however, that
modifications be made to some valve types.
1.

Manual On / Off Service clean saturated steam up to 100 PSIG inlet (337 F).

2.

Automated On / Off Service clean saturated steam up to 150 PSIG inlet (366 F).

3.
Automated Throttling Service clean saturated steam up to 150 PSIG inlet (366 F with a maximum P of 100
PSIG and the valve operating in the 40% to 60% open position.)

Big Max Valves


All Big Max valves can be applied as outlined above without any modifications.

G4 and SG4 Valves


All G4 and SG4 valves for use on any steam service must have the plug vented to the bottom cavity and have a
glass filled sleeve. Modulating / throttling service valves should also utilize a V-port (EG / SEG) plug with the V-port
installed upstream.

Atomac, T4, BL and BTV Valves


All Teflon lined valves are NOT recommended for steam service.

Mach 1 Valves
Mach 1 valves on steam have the same restrictions as the G4 and should use the full SLEEVE and NOT Port Seals.

57

TABLE 5.2
SATURATED STEAM PROPERTIES
Vapor Pressure
Absolute
Vacuum
psia
psig

Temp.

Specific
Wieight
Lbs.cu ft

Water
Specific
Gravity

29.51
29.41
29.31
29.21
29.11
29
28.9
28.7
28.49
28.29
28.09
27.88
27.48
27.07
26.66
26.26
25.85
25.44
25.03
24.63
24.22
23.81
22.79
21.78
20.76
19.74
18.72
17.7
16.69
15.67
14.65
13.63
12.61
11.6
10.58
9.56
7.52
5.49
3.45
1.42

53.14
59.3
64.47
68.93
72.86
76.38
79.58
85.21
90.08
94.38
98.24
101.74
107.92
113.26
117.99
122.23
126.08
129.62
132.89
135.94
138.79
141.48
147.57
152.97
157.83
162.24
166.3
170.06
173.56
176.85
179.94
182.86
185.64
188.28
190.8
193.21
19775
20196
205.88
209.56

0.000655
0.00081
0.000962
0.00111
0.00126
0.00141
0.00156
0.00185
0.00214
0.00243
0.00271
0.003
0.00356
0.00412
0.00467
0.00521
0.00576
0.0063
0.00683
0.00737
0.0079
0.00842
0.00974
0.011
0.0123
0.0136
0.0149
0.0161
0.0174
0.0186
0.0199
0.0211
0.0224
0.0236
0.0248
0.026
0.0285
0.0309
0.0333
0.0357

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.96

Vapor Pressure
Absolute
Guage
psia
psig
14.696
0
15
0.3
16
1.3
17
2.3
18
3.3
19
4.3
20
5.3
21
6.3
22
7.3
23
8.3
24
9.3
25
10.3
26
11.3
27
12.3
28
13.3
29
14.3
30
15.3
31
16.3
32
17.3
33
18.3
34
19.3
35
20.3
36
21.3
37
22.3
38
23.3

Temp.

212
213.03
216.32
219.44
222.41
225.24
227.96
230.57
233.07
235.49
237.82
240.07
242.25
244.36
246.41
248.4
250.33
252.22
254.05
255.84
257.58
259.28
260.95
262.57
264.16

Specific
Wieight
Lbs.cu ft
0.0373
0.038
0.0404
0.0428
0.0451
0.0474
0.0498
0.0521
0.0544
0.0567
0.059
0.0613
0.0636
0.0659
0.0682
0.0705
0.0727
0.075
0.0773
0.0795
0.0818
0.094
0.0863
0.0885
0.0908

Water
Specific
Gravity
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94

0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
11
12
13
14

58

Vapor Pressure
Absolute
Guage
psia
psig
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

24.3
25.3
26.3
27.3
28.3
29.3
30.3
31.3
32.3
33.3
34.3
35.3
36.3
37.3
38.3
39.3
40.3
41.3
42.3
43.3
44.3
45.3
46.3
47.3
48.3
49.3
50.3
51.3
52.3
53.3
54.3
55.3
56.3
57.3
58.3
59.3
60.3
61.3
62.3
63.3
64.3
65.3
66.3
67.3
68.3
69.3
70.3
71.3
72.3
73.3
74.3
75.3
76.3
77.3
78.3
79.3
80.3
81.3
82.3
83.3
84.3
85.3
86.3
87.3
88.3
89
90.3
91.3
92.3
93.3
94.3

Temp.

Specific
Wieight
Lbs.cu ft

Water
Specific
Gravity

265.72
267.25
268.74
270.21
271.64
273.05
274.44
275.8
277.13
278.45
279.74
281.01
282.26
283.49
284.7
285.9
287.07
288.23
289.37
290.5
291.61
292.71
293.79
294.85
295.9
296.94
297.97
298.99
299.99
300.98
301.96
302.92
303.88
304.83
305.76
306.68
307.6
308.5
309.4
310.29
311.16
312.03
312.89
313.74
314.59
315.42
316.25
317.07
317.88
318.68
319.48
320.27
321.06
321.83
322.6
323.36
324.12
324.87
325.61
326.35
327.08
327.81
328.53
329.25
329.96
330.66
331.36
332.05
332.74
333.42
334.1

0.093
0.0953
0.0975
0.0997
0.102
0.104
0.106
0.109
0.111
0.113
0.115
0.117
0.12
0.122
0.124
0.126
0.128
0.131
0.133
0.135
0.137
0.139
0.142
0.144
0.146
0.148
0.15
0.152
0.155
0.157
0.159
0.161
0.163
0.165
0.168
0.17
0.172
0.174
0.176
0.178
0.181
0.183
0.185
0.187
0.189
0.191
0.193
0.196
0.198
0.2
0.202
0.204
0.206
0.209
0.211
0.213
0.215
0.217
0.219
0.221
0.224
0.226
0.228
0.23
0.232
0.234
0.236
0.238
0.241
0.243
0.245

0.94
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

Vapor Pressure
psia
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245

59

psig
95.3
96.3
97.3
98.3
99.3
100.3
101.3
102.3
103.3
104.3
105.3
106.3
107.3
108.3
109.3
110.3
111.3
112.3
113.3
114.3
115.3
116.3
117.3
118.3
119.3
120.3
121.3
122.3
123.3
124.3
125.3
126.3
127.3
128.3
129.3
130.3
131.3
132.3
133.3
134.3
135.3
137.3
139.3
141.3
143.3
145.3
147.3
149.3
151.3
153.3
155.3
157.3
159.3
161.3
163.3
165.3
167.3
169.3
171.3
173.3
175.3
177.3
179.3
181.3
183.3
185.3
190.3
195.3
200.3
205.3
210.3
215.3
220.3
225.3
230.3

Temp.
F
334.77
335.44
336.11
336.77
337.42
338.07
338.72
339.36
339.99
340.62
341.25
341.88
342.5
343.11
343.72
344.33
344.94
345.54
346.13
346.73
347.32
347.9
348.48
349.06
349.64
350.21
350.78
351.35
351.91
352.47
353.02
353.57
254.12
354.67
355.21
355.76
356.29
356.83
357.36
357.89
358.42
359.46
360.49
361.52
362.53
363.53
364.53
365.51
366.48
367.45
368.41
369.35
370.29
371.22
372.14
373.06
373.96
374.86
375.75
376.64
377.51
378.38
379.24
380.1
380.95
381.79
383.86
385.9
387.89
389.86
391.79
393.68
395.54
397.37
399.18

Specific
Weight
Lbs/cu ft
0.247
0.249
0.251
0.253
0.255
0.258
0.26
0.262
0.264
0.266
0.268
0.27
0.272
0.275
0.277
0.279
0.281
0.283
0.285
0.287
0.289
0.292
0.294
0.296
0.298
0.3
0.302
0.304
0.306
0.308
0.311
0.313
0.315
0.317
0.319
0.321
0.323
0.325
0.327
0.33
0.332
0.336
0.34
0.344
0.349
0.353
0.357
0.361
0.365
0.37
0.374
0.378
0.382
0.387
0.391
0.395
0.399
0.403
0.407
0.412
0.416
0.42
0.424
0.429
0.433
0.437
0.448
0.458
0.469
0.479
0.49
0.5
0.511
0.522
0.532

Water
Specific
Gravity
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.86
0.86
0.86

Vapor Pressure
psia
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
460
480
500
520
540
560
580
600
620
640
660
680
700
720
740
760
780
800
820
840
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3206.2

psig
235.3
240.3
245.3
250.3
255.3
260.3
265.3
270.3
275.3
280.3
285.3
305.3
325.3
345.3
365.3
385.3
405.3
425.3
445.3
465.3
485.3
505.3
525.3
545.3
565.3
585.3
605.3
625.3
645.3
665.3
685.3
705.3
725.3
745.3
765.3
785.3
805.3
825.3
845.3
865.3
885.3
905.3
925.3
945.3
965.3
985.3
1035.3
1085.3
1135.3
1185.3
1235.3
1285.3
1335.3
1385.3
1435.3
1485.3
1585.3
1685.3
1785.3
1885.3
1985.3
2085.3
2185.3
2285.3
2385.3
2485.3
2585.3
2685.3
2785.3
2885.3
2985.3
3085.3
3185.3
3191.5

Temp.
F
400.95
402.7
404.42
406.11
407.78
409.43
411.05
412.65
414.23
415.79
417.33
423.29
428.97
434.4
439.6
444.59
449.39
454.02
458.5
462.82
467.01
471.07
475.01
478.85
482.58
486.21
489.75
493.21
496.58
499.88
503.1
506.25
509.34
512.36
515.33
518.23
521.08
523.88
526.63
529.33
531.98
534.59
537.16
539.68
542.17
544.61
550.57
556.31
561.86
567.22
572.42
577.46
582.35
587.1
591.73
596.23
604.9
613.15
621.03
628.58
635.82
642.77
649.46
655.91
662.12
668.13
673.94
679.55
684.99
690.26
695.36
700.31
705.11
705.4

Specific
Weight
Lbs/cu ft
0.542
0.553
0.563
0.574
0.585
0.595
0.606
0.616
0.627
0.637
0.648
0.69
0.733
0.775
0.818
0.861
0.904
0.947
0.991
1.03
1.08
1.12
1.17
1.21
1.25
1.3
1.34
1.39
1.43
1.48
1.53
1.57
1.62
1.66
1.71
1.76
1.81
1.85
1.9
1.95
2
2.05
2.1
2.14
2.19
2.24
2.37
2.5
2.63
2.76
2.9
3.04
3.18
3.32
3.47
3.62
3.92
4.25
4.59
4.95
5.32
5.73
6.15
6.61
7.11
7.65
8.24
8.9
9.66
10.6
11.7
13.3
17.2
19.9

Water
Specific
Gravity
0.86
0.86
0.86
0.86
0.86
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.84
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.83
0.82
0.82
0.81
0.81
0.81
0.81
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.78
0.78
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.74
0.74
0.73
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.71
0.7
0.69
0.69
0.68
0.67
0.66
0.65
0.64
0.62
0.61
0.6
0.59
0.57
0.56
0.54
0.53
0.51
0.49
0.46
0.43
0.36
0.32

TEAM-VALUES OF "K"
FIGURE 5.2

RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT PRESSURE


TO SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT VOLUME
K = Sp/Sv

60

FIGURE 5.1
SATURATED AND SUPERHEATED STEAM
SPECIFIC WEIGHT vs. TEMPERATURE

61

COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS
FIGURE 5.3

COMPRESSIBILITY CHART NO. 1

Pr = P1/Pc
Tr = T1/Tc

62

63

64

The following material is taken from :


CONTROL VALVE SIZING
Topic 3
BY L. R. Driskell
Chemical Plants Division
Dravo Corporation
INSTUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA
400 Stanwix Street, Pittsburgh, PA. 15222

TERMINOLOGY
BERNOULLI COEFFICIENT - In any stream, if the area is changed, as by a reducer, there is a
corresponding change in the static pressure, or "head". This pressure change is measured in units of "velocity
head". The dimensionless coefficient used for this purpose is the Bernoulli Coefficient KB.
CHOKED FLOW - The condition which exists when, with the upstream pressure remaining constant, the flow
through a valve cannot be further increased by lowering the downstream pressure.
COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE - The ratio of actual flow to theoretical flow. It includes the effects of jet
contraction and turbulence.
COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR - A factor used to compensate for deviation from the laws of perfect gases. If
the gas laws are used to compute the specific weight of a gas, the computed value must be adjusted by the
compressibility factor (Z) to obtain the true specific weight.
COMPRESSIBLE - Capable of being compressed. Gas and vapor are compressible fluids.
CRITICAL FLOW - This is a somewhat ambiguous term which signifies a point where the characteristics of flow
suffer a finite change. In the case of a liquid, critical flow could mean the point where the flow regime changes
from laminar to transitional. It is more often used to mean choked flow. In the case of a gas, critical flow
may mean the point where the velocity at the vena contracts attains the velocity of sound, or it may mean the
point where the flow is fully choked.
CRITICAL PRESSURE - The equilibrium pressure of a fluid which is at its critical temperature.
CRITICAL TEMPERATURE - The temperature of a fluid above which the fluid cannot be liquefied by
pressure.
INCOMPRESSIBLE - Liquids are referred to as being incompressible since their change in volume due
to pressure is negligible.
INCREASER - A pipe fitting identical to a reducer except specifically referred to for enlargements in the
direction of flow.
LAMINAR FLOW - Also known as viscous or streamline flow. A non-turbulent flow regime in which
the stream filaments glide along the pipe axially with essentially no transverse mixing. This occurs at low
Reynolds numbers, is usually associated with viscous liquids, and rarely occurs with gas flows in valves. Flow
rate varies linearly with 6P.
RANGEABILITY - Installed rangeability may be defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum flow
within which the deviation from a desired installed flow characteristic does not exceed some stated limits.
Inherent rangeability, a property of the valve alone, may be defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum
flow coefficients between which the gain of the valve does not deviate from a specified gain by some stated
tolerance.
REDUCER - A pipe fitting which is used to couple a pipe of one size to a pipe of a different size.
REYNOLDS NUMBER - A dimensionless criterion of the nature of flow pipes. It is proportional to the
ratio of dynamic forces to viscous forces: The product of diameter, velocity and density, divided by absolute
viscosity.
65

SPECIFIC HEAT - The ratio of the thermal capacity of a substance to that of water. The specific heat at
constant pressure of a gas is designated cp. The specific heat at constant volume of a gas is designated cv. The
ratio of the two (cp/cv = k) is called the Ratio of Specific Heats.
STREAMLINE FLOW - See "Laminar Flow".
TRANSITIONAL FLOW - A flow regime which lies between turbulent flow and laminar flow.
TRANSITIONAL FLOW - A flow regime characterized by random motion of the fluid particles in the tranverse
direction, as well as motion in the axial direction. This occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is the type of flow
most common in industrial fluid systems. Flow varies as the square root of P.
TURNDOWN - The ratio of the maximum plant design flow rate to the minimum plant design flow rate.
VAPOR PRESSURE - The equilibrium pressure which would exist in a confined space over a liquid.
VELOCITY OF APPROACH - A factor(F) determined by the ratio (m) of the valve orifice area to the inlet pipe
area.
VELOCITY HEAD - The pressure, measured in height of fluid column, needed to create a fluid velocity.
Numerically velocity head is the square of the velocity divided by twice the acceleration of gravity (Ul/2g).
VENA CONTRACTA - The place along the axis of flow, just beyond the orifice, where the jet stream contracts
to its minimum cross-sectional area.
VISCOUS FLOW See Laminar Flow

CATALOG OF EQUATIONS
LIQUID
(1)

REMARKS

q FPCV P
G

Turbulent and

non-cavitating.
w 63.3FPCV P
(2)

P KC( PI PV )

________________________________________________________________________
(3)

q FLPCV P1 PVC
G

w 63.3FLPCV ( P1 PVC)
(4)
Choked
(5)
PVC FFPV
(6)

V
FF 0.96 0.28 P
PC

(7)

iCd 2
FLP 1 K890

FL2

(8)

q 52 P ( FSFPCV ) 2

1
2

P FL2 ( PI FFPV )

(See Eq. 25 for Ki )

Laminar
66

(9)

(10)

PFd 2
FS FF
LP

1
3

( FLPCD)2 1 6

890

q FRFPCV P
G

Transitional(See Table III for FR )

GAS OR VAPOR (ALL EQUATIONS: X FkXT )


(11)

w 63.3FPCVY XP1 1

Using: Lb./Hr., Sp. Wt.

(12)

q 1360 FPCVP1Y GTX1Z

Using: SCFH, Sp. G.

(13)

XM
w 19.3FPCVP1Y T
1Z

Using: Lb./Hr., Molecular Weight

(14)

X
q 7320 FPCVP1Y MT
1Z

Using: SCFH, Molecular Weight

(15)

Y 1 3FXKXT

Expansion factor, lower limit =0.67

(16)

FK k / 140
.

Sp. Ht. Ratio factor

(17)

XT

C1 2
0.84Cf 2
1600

Manufacturers Sizing Factors in


current use.

(18)

XT
XTP 2
Fp

XTKiCd 2

1000 1

STEAM (DRY-SATURATED)
(19)

XT with reducers
Error 5% for p1=20 to 1600 psia.

w FPCVP1 3
X

XTP

For X<XTP

w 2 FPCVP1 XTP

For X>XTP (Choked Flow)

PIPING GEOMETRY FACTOR

(20)

KCd 2

FP
1
890

(21)

K K

(22)

KB1 or KB2 = 1

67

1/ 2

See FLP for liquid choked flow(Eq.7)

K 2 KB1 KB 2
d

Sum of velocity head coefficients

Bernoulli coefficient

(23)

d 2
K 1 0.51
D

d 2
K 2 10
. 1
D

Resistance coefficients for abrupt


transitions

(24)

Resistance coefficients for abrupt


transitions

(25)

Ki K1 KB1

Inlet fitting coefficients (For FLP Eq.7


and XTP Eq. 18)

REFERENCE FORMULAS

(26)

17300 Fdq FLPCD


Re v
1

v FLPCV 890

(27)

2
FL' ( FL')2
FL
(Cd ) 1

FP 890

1/ 4

Valve Reynolds Number

FL of valve/fitting assembly when


FL of valve alone is FL'

(28)

q FPFyFRCV P
G

Composite liquid sizing equation

(29)

Fy FL P1 FFPV
P

Liquid choked flow factor

VELOCITY-Feet/Second
(30)Liquid

q
2.45D2

Lined Products

Alloy Products

5 8 Normal
10 12 Max.

5 10 Normal
20 40 Max.

(31)Gas

qT
694 PD2

All products 250 400 Typical

(32)Vapor

w
19.6D2

See STEAM Recommendations, page 62

(33)Steam

U 23w2
pD

68

0-25 psig

70-100

>25 psig
>200 psig
Superheated

100-170
115-330

ACOUSTIC VELOCITY-(Mach 1.0)


(34)Gas

Ua 223 kT
M

Recommend <0.3 Mach

(35)Air

Ua 49 T

Recommend <0.3 Mach

(36)Steam, Superheated

Ua 60 T

Recommend <0.15 Mach

(37)Steam, Dry Saturated

Ua 1650

Recommend <0.10 Mach

(38)Vapor

69

Ua 681
. kpv

Recommend <0.10 Mach

NOMENCLATURE
(Based on U.S. Units)

SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

a
Area
c
Coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
Cd
Unit capacity of valve, Cv/d2
CD
Unit capacity of valve assembly, Cv/D2
Cf
Gas sizing factor used by some manufacturers
Cv
Valve sizing coefficient (See ISA-S39.2 and S39.4)
C1
Gas sizing factor used by some manufacturers
d
Valve inlet diameter, inches
D
Pipe diameter, inches
F
Velocity of approach factor, 1/ 1 m2 , dimensionless
Fd
Valve style modifier, dimensionless
FF
Liquid critical pressure ratio factor, dimensionless
Fk
Ratio of specific heats factor, dimensionless
FL
Liquid pressure recovery factor, dimensionless
FLP
Combined FL and FP factors for valve with reducers, dimensionless
Fp
Piping geometry factor, dimensionless
FR
Reynolds number factor, dimensionless
Fs
Laminar, or streamline, flow factor
Fy
Liquid choked flow factor, dimensionless
g
Acceleration of gravity
G
Specific gravity (ratio of densities). For a liquid, G is taken at flowing temperature referred
to water at standard condition (60F.). For a gas, G is referred to air, with both gases at standard conditions (14.73
psia and 60F.), dimensionless.
k
Ratio of specific heats of gas
K
Velocity head coefficient, dimensionless
KB
Bernoulli coefficient, I - (d/D )4 , dimensionless
Kc
Coefficient of incipient cavitation. [Actually the ratio p/(p1 - pv) at which cavitation measurably
affects the coefficient Cv ], dimensionless
KI
Inlet velocity head coefficient (K1 + KB1 ), dimensionless
K1
Resistance coefficient for inlet fitting, dimensionless
K2
Resistance coefficient for outlet fitting, dimensionless
M
Molecular weight
m
Ratio of orifice area to pipe area, dimensionless
p
Absoulte static pressure, psia
Thermodynamic critical pressure, psia
pc
Reduced pressure, p/ pc , dimensionless
pr
Vapor pressure of liquid at inlet temperature, psia
pv
q
Volumetric flow rate, gpm or scfh
Rev
Valve Reynolds number, dimensionless
T
Absolute temperature( o F + 460 = o R)
70

Thermodynamic critical temperature, o R


Reduced temperature, T/ Tc , dimensionless
v
Specific volume, ft 3 /lb.
U
Average velocity, ft./sec.
W
Weight rate of flow, lb./hr.
X
Ratio of pressure drop to absolute inlet static pressure, p / p1 ,dimensionless
Pressure drop ratio factor, dimensionless
XT
Value of XT for valve/fitting assembly, dimensionless
XTP
Y
Expansion factor. Ratio of flow coefficient for a gas to that for a liquid at the same Reynolds
number, dimensionless
Z
Compressibility factor, dimensionless
(gamma)
Specific weight(weight per unit volume)lb./ ft 3

Difference(e.g. p = p1 - p2 )
(delta)
(mu)
Absolute viscosity, centipoise
(nu)
Kinematic viscosity, centistokes( /G)
Summation
(sigma)
Tc
Tr

SUBSCRIPTS
1
2
A
Vc

71

Upstream
Downstream
Acoustic
Vena contracta

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