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Dino Demicheli

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions


de Salone chrtienne, IVe-VIIe sicles / Salona IV, Natpisi
starokranske Salone, IV.-VII. st. (2 sveska)

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions


de Salone chrtienne, IVe-VIIe sicles / Salona IV, Natpisi
starokranske Salone, IV.-VII. st. (2 volumes)

Dino Demicheli

Dino Demicheli

Filozofski fakultet

Faculty of Arts and Letters

Odsjek za arheologiju

Archaeology Department

I. Luia 3

I. Luia 3

HR, 10000 Zagreb

Croatia, 10000 Zagreb

ddemiche@ffzg.hr

ddemiche@ffzg.hr

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions

de Salone chrtienne, IVe-VIIe sicles / Salona IV, Natpisi

de Salone chrtienne, IVe-VIIe sicles / Salona IV, Natpisi

starokranske Salone, IV.-VII. st. (2 sveska). Collection de lcole

starokranske Salone, IV.-VII. st. (2 volumes). Collection de lcole

franaise de Rome, 194/4. Niz Salona Arheolokog Muzeja

franaise de Rome, 194/4. Niz Salona Arheolokog Muzeja

- Split, 12. Rome/Split: cole Franaise de Rome / Arheoloki

- Split, 12. Rome/Split: cole Franaise de Rome/Arheoloki

muzej Split, 2010. xxii+1363 stranica, ISBN 9782728308620.

muzej Split, 2010. xxii+1363 pp., ISBN 9782728308620.


343

Dino Demicheli

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de


N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de

Godine 1983. pokrenuta je francusko-hrvatska suradnja kojoj

In 1983, French-Croatian cooperation was launched with the

je cilj u prvom redu bio izdavanje zbirke natpisa ranokranske

primary objective of publishing a collection of inscriptions from

Salone. Da je to izdanje bilo dugo vremena i s velikim

Early Christian Salona. That this edition had been long and eagerly

nestrpljenjem u znanstvenoj javnosti oekivano, svjedoe najave

anticipated by the scholarly public is shown by announcements of

o izlasku ovog djela iz davne 1988., a potom i 1994. godine

its release as far back as 1988, and then again in 1994 (Marin 1988, p.

(Marin 1988, str. 39; Marin 1994, str. 64), kad je bio poznat tek

39; Marin 1994, p. 64), when only the general number of inscriptions

okvirni broj natpisa. No ova zbirka donosi iscrpnu raspravu i

was known. However, this work provides an exhaustive discussion

katalog natpisa s podrobnim komentarima, koji zahtijevaju

and catalogue of the inscriptions with detailed commentary, which

mnogo vremena i sustavnog rada.

requires a great deal of time and systematic effort.

Projekt objavljivanja zbirke kranskih natpisa pokrenuli su

The project to publish a collection of Early Christian inscriptions

Emilio Marin (Arheoloki muzej u Splitu) i Nol Duval (Sveuilite

was initiated by Emilio Marin (Archaeological Museum in Split) and

Paris IV - Sorbonne i cole Franaise de Rome), a svojim su znanjem

Nol Duval (Paris-Sorbonne University - Paris IV and cole Franaise

u ostvarivanju zamisli pridonijeli i mnogi drugi strunjaci na

de Rome), while the expertise of a number of other scholars in the

podruju ranokranske arheologije i epigrafije, uglavnom iz

fields of Early Christian archaeology and epigraphy, mainly from

Francuske (J.-P. Caillet, D. Feissel, N. Gauthier, F. Prvot i brojni

France, contributed to the realization of this idea (J.-P. Caillet, D.

suradnici).

Feissel, N. Gauthier, F. Prvot and many associates).

Moramo naglasiti da je ovaj tim strunjaka unutar istog

It bears mention that within the same project, this team of experts

projekta ve objavio tri djela koja se bave starokranskom

had previously published three works dealing with Early Christian

Salonom1, a koja su bila svojevrstan uvod u glavni cilj ove

Salona,1 which served as something of an introduction into the

suradnje, zbirku natpisa iz kranske Salone. Ovo je, dakle, etvrti

primary goal of this cooperation, the collection of inscriptions from

svezak tog niza i na neki nain karika koja je nedostajala. On

Christian Salona. This is, therefore, the fourth volume in the series and,

obrauje samu natpisnu grau, bez koje, sloit emo se, ne bi

in a manner of speaking, its missing link. It contains an analysis of the

bilo mogue rekonstruirati ni polovicu dananjeg znanja o tom

inscription materials, without which - on which I believe there is a

vrlo zanimljivom, ali i diskutabilnom razdoblju salonitanske

general consensus - it would not have been possible to reconstruct

povijesti.

even a half of the current knowledge on this exceptionally fascinating

but also controversial period in Salonas history.

Djelo objedinjuje ukupno 1301 natpis, od kojih su njih

825 (742 latinska i 83 grka) obraeni kao kataloke jedinice s

komentarom. Meu njih su ubrojeni cjeloviti, ali i manje cjeloviti

825 (742 Latin and 83 Greek) were covered as catalogue units with

natpisi iz kojih se moe proitati neki konkretan podatak,

commentary. Enumerated among them are complete but also less

bilo specifian izraz ili datacija po konzulima, bilo ime osobe

complete inscriptions whereby readers can ascertain certain specific

spomenute na natpisu. Od svih natpisa 45 je dosad neobjavljenih

information, whether an expression or dating based on a consuls

latinskih, dok su etiri neobjavljena grka natpisa. Preostali natpisi

term in office, or the name of a person mentioned therein. Out of

su fragmenti na kojima nema posebno vanih podataka (451

these inscriptions, 45 of the Latin inscriptions and four of the Greek

latinski i 16 grki) pa nisu uvrteni u prvu skupinu s komentarom,

inscriptions had not been previously published. The remaining

ali pridonose spoznaji o epigrafikoj produkciji salonitanskih

inscriptions are fragments which do not contain important data (451

radionica. Od ovih fragmenata, neobjavljena su 124. Natpisi

Latin and 16 Greek) so they were not included in the first group with

vremenski pokrivaju vrijeme od poetka IV. do VII. stoljea, to

commentary, but they do contribute to knowledge on the epigraphic

obuhvaa razdoblje kasne antike i dio ranog srednjeg vijeka.

production of the Salona workshops. Among these fragments, 124 had

S obzirom da se to razdoblje ne moe svrstati pod zajedniki

not been previously published. The inscriptions cover a chronological

nazivnik, autori su to sretno rijeili naslovivi djelo Natpisi

period from the beginning of the fourth to the seventh century, which

kranske Salone.

encompasses Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. Given that there

is no common designation for this period, the authors fortuitously

U prvom od dva sveska, u uvodnom dijelu, tekstovi uvode

This work brings together a total of 1,301 inscriptions, of which

itatelja u glavne odrednice za razumijevanje salonitanske

chose to give their work the title Inscriptions of Christian Salona.

epigrafije iz razdoblja kranstva. Tako u prvom poglavlju

saznajemo neto vie o povijesti prikupljanja i opisivanja

with the principal guidelines for understanding Salonas epigraphy

natpisa na splitskom podruju, od Dmine Papalia do

during the Early Christian period. Thus, in the first chapter we learn a

danas, kao i o najznaajnijim salonitanskim ranokranskim

little about the history of gathering and describing inscriptions in the

lokalitetima. Meu mnogim imenima ljudi koji su pridonijeli

wider environs of Split, from Dmine Papali to the present, and also

da se ovi natpisi tijekom povijesti pronau, sauvaju i objave,

about the most important Early Christian sites of Salona. Among the

mora se posebno istaknuti don Franu Bulia, koji je zasigurno

many names of people who contributed to the discovery of these

najvanija linost salonitanske epigrafije svih razdoblja antike,

inscriptions over the course of history, Fr. Frane Buli merits special

Salona I (1994), Salona II (1995), Salona III (2000).

In the first volume, the introductory texts familiarize readers

Salona I (1994), Salona II (1995), Salona III (2000).

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VAPD 104, 2011., 343-352

Dino Demicheli

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de


N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de

jer je podjednako iskopavao i objavljivao sve vrste antikih

emphasis, as he was certainly the most important personality involved

spomenik, podaci o duljini trajanja braka, o okolnostima smrti, o

this information is absent in most inscriptions. Among the remaining

natpisa u Saloni. Iako je prije njegova doba Salona ve imala

in the Salona epigraphy of all periods of Antiquity, and he dedicated

cijenama pogreba, kao i vrlo zanimljiva rasprava o nadgrobnim

indicators, there are data on who raised a monument to the deceased

nezanemariv broj natpisa koji su objavljeni godine 1873. u

equal effort to excavating and publishing all manner of Antique

formulama za zatitu grobnice. Primjerice, prijetnje su izricane

and how, data on the duration of marriages, on the circumstances

prvom svesku treeg dijela monumentalnog djela Corpus

inscriptions in Salona. Even though before his time Salona had already

potencijalnim nasilnicima da e, prekrivi zabranu remeenja

surrounding death, the cost of the funerals, and a very interesting

inscriptionum Latinarum, u iduih je nekoliko desetljea taj

had a modest number of inscriptions published in 1873 in the first

vjenog mira pokojnika otvaranjem groba radi micanja kostiju ili

discussion on gravestone formulas for protection of graves and tombs.

broj umnogostruen upravo radom don Frane, koji je vodio

volume of the third part o the monumental Corpus inscriptionum

ukapanja na isto mjesto, morati platiti pozamaan novani iznos,

For example, admonitions are posted to potential desecrators that

istraivanja u Saloni, a iji je neizostavni dio bio pronalazak

Latinarum, in the subsequent several decades this number grew many

najee salonitanskoj Crkvi.

they will have to pay a considerable monetary sum, most often to the

i redovita objava natpisa. Posebna zasluga don Frane Bulia

times over precisely due to the efforts of Fr. Frane, who conducted

Salona church, should they violate the prohibition on disturbing the

je istraivanje ranokranskih nekropola i crkava Salone, koje

research in Salona which regularly involved the discovery and regular

stanovnitvu Salone, njegovom drutvenom ustrojstvu, o nainu

eternal rest of the deceased by opening graves to remove the bones

je uvelike promijenilo dotadanje spoznaje o kranstvu u

publication of inscriptions. Fr. Frane Buli is particularly responsible for

na koji je grad funkcionirao, kao i o poloaju Salone unutar

or conduct interments in the same place.

Saloni. Dakako, on nije bio jedini koji je istraivao to razdoblje,

conducting research into Early Christian necropolises and churches in

Carstva. Salona je, to zbog svog poloaja, to zbog injenice da

ali je bio jedan od najboljih njegovih poznavatelja, to mu

Salona, which largely changed all previous perceptions of Christianity

je bila glavni grad provincije, svakodnevno bila mjesto kretanja

citys functioning and the position of Salona within the Empire are

je, kao znanstveniku, osiguralo i velik ugled u itavoj Europi.

in Salona. To be sure, he was not the only one who studied this period,

velikog broja ljudi, i to ne samo iz Dalmacije. Po tome se ona

discussed in the third chapter. Salona was, either due to its location or

Iz tih je razloga i mogao jo godine 1894. organizirati Prvi

but he was its most knowledgeable expert, which, as a scholar, assured

moe usporediti s nekim od najznaajnijih gradova tog razdoblja,

due to the fact that it was the provincial capital, an everyday place of

meunarodni kongres za starokransku arheologiju, koji je

him a great reputation throughout Europe. This is why already in

primjerice s Kartagom, koja takoer obiluje natpisima iz tog

transit for a large number of people, and not only natives of Dalmatia.

odran upravo u Solinu i Splitu (Acta I CIAC). O stotoj obljetnici

1894 he was able to organize the First International Congress of Early

doba (Kajanto 1963). Podaci s natpisa idu u prilog dokazima o

In this regard, it may be compared to many of the most important

tog dogaaja Split je zajedno s Poreom godine 1994. ponovno

Christian Archaeology which was held in Solin and Split (Acta I CIAC).

mobilnosti njezina puanstva. Saznajemo o Salonitancima koji

cities of this period, such as, for example, Carthage, which also

bio domain Kongresa, i to trinaestog po redu (Acta XIII CIAC),

On the one-hundredth anniversary of this event, Split, together with

su boravili izvan Dalmacije i to su tamo radili, ali i o strancima

abounds in inscriptions from this period (Kajanto 1963). The data from

to dovoljno govori o meunarodnoj recepciji ranog kranstva

Pore, was once more the host of the Thirteenth Congress (Acta XIII

u Saloni, posebice onima iz maloazijskog prostora. To ne udi s

the inscriptions serve to back evidence of the mobility of its populace.

u Saloni, ali i na istonoj jadranskoj obali openito.

CIAC), which says enough about the international reception of Early

obzirom na izvorite kranstva i put njegova irenja. Doseljenici iz

We learn about Salona natives who lived abroad and what they did

Christianity in Salona, and the Eastern Adriatic seaboard in general.

grekofonih provincija tog prostora pridonijeli su poveanju broja

there, and also about foreigners in Salona, particularly those from

mnogi stranci, to je rezultiralo arheolokim kampanjama iji

natpisa na grkom jeziku.

Asia Minor. This is not surprising given the source of Christianity and

su rezultati objavljivani u redovito citiranim monografskim

interested in the site, which resulted in archaeological campaigns

its spread. Settlers from the Graecophone provinces of this territory

djelima. Upravo je u tim istraivanjima ranokranskih nekropola

with results published in well-cited monographic works. It was

s onomastikom stanovnika Salone i konstatirati da, kao i drugdje

contributed to the increase in the number of inscriptions in Greek.

na Manastirinama, Marusincu i Kapljuu pronaen velik dio

precisely during such research that a considerable number of Early

u istom razdoblju, prevladava jednoimenski sustav. Tek je manji

kranskih natpisa, koji se mogu datirati od IV. do VII. stoljea,

Christian inscriptions were found in the Early Christian necropolises

dio osoba nosio kombinaciju gentilicija i kognomena, dok je

residents, and it becomes apparent that, as elsewhere in the same

a koji pokrivaju dobar dio ove zbirke. Ostatak ovog poglavlja

in Manastirine, Marusinac and Kaplju, which can be dated from

veina imala samo kognomen. Osim toga, ovi s dvama imenima

period, the single-name system predominated. Only a smaller portion

obrauje kriterije prema kojima je odreeno koji e natpisi

the fourth to seventh centuries, and which cover a major portion of

javljaju se do sredine V. stoljea, dok kasnije prevladava samo

of persons bore the combination of the gentilicium and cognomen,

biti sastavnice ove zbirke, kao to su datacija konzulima nakon

this collection. The remainder of this chapter deals with the criteria

jedno ime. Od gentilicija su najzastupljeniji Aurelius i Flavius,

while most had only a cognomen. Besides this, those with two names

godine 306. ili indikcijama, tip spomenika, posebni jezini izrazi,

governing which inscriptions became components of the collection,

koji imaju funkciju drutvenog statusa, o emu se na drugim

appeared up to the mid-fifth century, while later the single name

paleografija, ali i mjesto pronalaska spomenika.

such as dating by consuls after 306 AD, or indictions, monument type,

mjestima podrobno pisalo (Keenan 1973, str. 33-63; Keenan

become dominant. Among the gentilicia, the most common were

Nakon Prvog kongresa, za sam su se lokalitet zainteresirali

U drugom se poglavlju raspravlja o vrstama spomenika

After the First Congress, many foreign scholars became


2

U treem se poglavlju raspravlja o kasnoantikom

Odmah na poetku tog poglavlja imamo se prilike upoznati

The population of Salona in Late Antiquity, its social structure, the

This chapter begins with a look at the onomastics of Salonas

particular linguistic expressions, palaeography, and also find-sites.

1974, str. 283-304; Keenan 1983, 250-255). Od kognomina su

Aurelius and Flavius, which served to indicate social status, and which

i tipologiji za svaku vrstu posebno. Kako je i oekivano,

najbrojnija ona latinskog podrijetla (njih 260 razliitih), slijede

has been the subject of detailed analysis elsewhere (Keenan 1973, pp.

prevladavaju nadgrobni natpisi, i to na sarkofazima (njih 597),

monuments and the typology of each separately. As expected, grave

grka (106), zatim ona semitskog podrijetla (32), dok je ostalih,

33-63; Keenan 1974, pp. 283-304; Keenan 1983, pp. 250-255). Among

koji su u to doba, od dosad pronaenih, bili najei oblik

inscriptions predominate, particularly those on sarcophagi (597 of

meu kojima su ilirska, keltska, germanska ili neopredijeljena,

the cognomina, the most numerous are those of Latin origin (260

natpisnog pogrebnog obiljeja. Od ostalih tipova spomenika

them), which in that era were the most frequent form of grave feature

vrlo malen broj.

different ones), followed by Greek (106), and then those of Semitic

s natpisom tu su nadgrobne menze, nadgrobne ploe, stele i

among those thus far found. The remaining types of monuments

origin (32), while the remainder, among which there are Illyrian, Celtic,

mozaici. Slijedi rasprava o formulama na grkom i latinskom

with inscriptions are grave mensae, gravestones, stelae and mosaics.

careva prema ovom gradu, o burnom petom stoljeu, te vrlo

Germanic and indeterminate examples, are very few in number.

jeziku kakve su bile karakteristine na kranskim natpisima,

This is followed by a discussion of the formulas in the Greek and Latin

zanimljivija rasprava o drutvenom statusu Salonitanaca o kojem

to je vrlo bitna odrednica u dataciji. Poglavlje se dotie i

languages that were typical in Christian inscriptions, which is a very

saznajemo iz natpisa. Vidi se tako da je kasnoantika Salona bila

Antiquity, the relationship of the emperors to the city, the tumultuous

demografskih pitanja, pa se tako meu latinskim natpisima

important factor in dating. The chapter also touches on demographic

iznimno ivopisan grad iji su se stanovnici, kao i u prijanjem

fifth century, and the very interesting discussion of the social status

razaznaje 247 mukaraca i 176 ena, dok je na grkim natpisima

questions, so that among the Latin inscriptions 247 men and 176

razdoblju, bavili mnogim zanimanjima. Djelovala su razna

of Salona natives that can be discerned from the inscriptions. It can

35 mukaraca i 14 ena. Ostali natpisi nisu dovoljno sauvani da

women were registered, while in the Greek inscriptions 35 men and 14

udruenja to su okupljala ljude istih zanimanja (collegia); bili

therefore be seen that Late Antique Salona was a very picturesque

bismo odredili spol pokojnika. Za razliku od poganskih natpisa,

women were noted. The remaining inscriptions were not sufficiently

su organizirani kao ceh i na taj su se naini meusobno titili i

city whose residents, as in the preceding period, were involved in

kod kojih je vrlo esto naveden broj godina koliko je neka osoba

preserved to determine the gender of the deceased. In contrast to

pomagali. Kao poseban sluaj izdvaja se kolegij ad Tritones, iji su

many occupations. Various associations (collegia) of persons who

ivjela, na kranskim natpisima to i nije bio sluaj; na velikoj

pagan inscriptions, which very often specify the number of years a

se lanovi nazivali ministri. Od ostalih zanimanja nalazimo klesare,

had the same occupation were active; they were organized as guilds

veini natpisa taj je podatak izostavljen. Od ostalih pokazatelja,

person had lived, on Christian inscriptions this was not the case, for

trgovce, pekare, ivae, majstore staklare, bojae tkanina kao i

and they mutually protected and assisted each other in this manner.

mnoga druga usluna zanimanja, koja se i inae nalaze u svakom

A particular case is the collegium called ad Tritones, whose members

veem gradu. Poglavlje govori i o prisutnosti vojnikih natpisa

were called ministri. Among the other trades, there were masons,

u Saloni, s osvrtom na openiti ustroj kasnoantike vojske na

merchants, bakers, tailors, master glass-makers, fabric dyers and many

podruju Ilirika.

other service occupations, the type found in any larger city.3 This

The second chapter contains a discussion of the types of

tu su podaci o tome tko je kome i na kakav nain podigao

Slijedi rasprava o poloaju Salone u kasnoj antici, odnosa

2
2

346

FS I, koja se bave graevinama otkrivenim u sjeverozapadnome dijelu


Salone; FS II, koja se bave starokranskim grobljem na Manastirinama; FS
III, koja se bave starokranskim grobljem na Marusincu; Recherches I, koja
se bave topografijom Salone i bazilikom petorice muenika u Kapljuu.

FS I, which deals with buildings discovered in the north-west portion of


Salona, FS II, which deals with the Early Christian cemetery in Manastirine;
FS III, which deals with the Early Christian cemetery in Marusinac; Recherches
I, which deals with the topography of Salona and the basilica of the five
marytrs in Kaplju.

Popis i objanjenja svih zanimanja opirno u: Waltzing 1895-1900.

This is followed by a discussion of Salonas position in Late

An extensive list and explanation of all trades can be found in Waltzing 1895-1900.

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Dino Demicheli

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de


N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de

chapter also speaks of the presence of military inscriptions in Salona,

obiljeavanja grobnog mjesta. U drugom dodatku daje popis

about the characteristics of non-Christian sarcophagi which, as

su tako nabrojane titule s natpisa koje nam govore o hijerarhiji

with reference to the general structure of the Late Antique military in

od dvadesetak natpisa koji su u dosadanjim objavama bili

opposed to those of the Christian period, were not the predominant

crkvenih dostojanstvenika: biskupi, sveenici, akoni, podakoni

the territory of Illyricum.

pogreno interpretirani kao kasnoantiki i kojima u ovoj

form of marking a grave site. In the second appendix, there is a list of

i ostale dunosti, koje nisu morali obnaati samo pripadnici klera

zbirci, prema potkrijepljenom miljenu njezinih sastavljaa,

approximately twenty inscriptions that were erroneously interpreted

nego i svjetovnjaci.

organization, so there is a tally of the titles from inscriptions which

nije mjesto. Poglavlje, kao i itava uvodna rasprava, zavrava

in earlier publications as Late Antique, and which do not belong in

sheds light on the hierarchy of church dignitaries: bishops, priests,

usporednim paleografskim kronolokim prikazom znaajka

this collection, based on the well-argued opinions of its compilers.

kranstva, nezaobilazna je tema kult muenika, koji je

deacons, sub-deacons and other functions which were not necessarily

svih latininih slova i njihove uestalosti na salonitanskim

This chapter, like the entire introductory discussion, ends with a

nakon izvora i epigrafiki potvren pronalaskom natpisa o

performed solely by members of the clergy, but also by laypersons.

kasnoantikim natpisima. To je ujedno i vrlo koristan prilog

comparative palaeographic and chronological overview of the

komemoraciji osoba koje su stradale u progonima: Domnion-

pomou kojeg e ubudue epigrafiarima bez sumnje biti

characteristics of all Latin letters and their frequency in Salonas Late

Duje (Domnio), Antiohijan (Antiochianus), Asterije (Asterius),

of Christianity, an inevitable topic is the cult of martyrs which, besides

olakano datiranje spomenika na podruju Salone od IV. do VI.

Antique inscriptions. This is simultaneously a very useful tool that

Gajan (Gaianus), Paulinijan (Paulinianus), Telije (Telius), Septimije

being mentioned in written sources, has also been confirmed by the

stoljea.

future epigraphers will certainly find helpful in dating monuments

(Septimiu), Anastazije (Anastasius). U Saloni su se tovali i apostoli

discovery of an inscription commemorating the persons who died in

from the fourth to seventh centuries in the Salona area.

i sveci koji nisu bili mueni u Saloni.

persecutions: Domnio, Antiochianus, Asterius, Gaianus, Paulinianus,

svezak ovog djela. On je ustrojen vrlo pregledno i sustavno,

Isto poglavlje donosi i raspravu o crkvenoj organizaciji, pa

S obzirom na politiku Carstva prema Saloni prije uspostave

This same chapter also contains a discussion of church

Given the Empires policy toward Salona prior to the establishment

Katalog natpisa obuhvaa vei dio prvog i itav drugi

The catalogue of inscriptions occupies most of the first and the

Telius, Septimius, and Anastasius. Apostles and saints who were not

dosta slino novom izdanju CIL-a, i to na nain da svaka

entire second volume of this publication. It is organized systematically,

natpisa samim kronolokim odrednicama, koje su mogle biti

martyred in Salona were also revered there.

kataloka jedinica obuhvaa jedan natpis koji je reproduciran

in an easy-to-consult manner, very similar to the new edition of CIL,

izreene navoenjem trenutanih konzula ili navoenjem

tekstom, fotografijom, odnosno crteom ili faksimilom iz neke

such that each catalogue entry includes one inscription which is

indikcija, to je mnogo nejasnije od ovog prvog.

the manner of dating the inscriptions by chronological determinants

prijanje objave ako natpis nije sauvan. Nadalje, svaki je tekst

reproduced with text, a photograph or sketch, or a facsimile from any

alone, which may have been indicated by mention of the current consul

natpisa preveden na francuski, a svaki spomenik ima navod

earlier publication insofar as the inscription has not been preserved.

vezano uz pojam kranska Salona, odnosno zato ovo djelo

or based on indictions, which are much less clear than the former.

inventarnog broja, mjesto pronalaska, mjesto uvanja, fiziki

Furthermore, each inscription is translated into French, while each

ne obrauje iskljuivo kranske natpise. Upravo se preko

opis, dimenzije samog spomenika i slova natpisa, popis svih

monument is accompanied by a designation of an inventory number,

ovdje obraenih natpisa moe dobiti dosad najpotpunija

the term Christian Salona, i.e., why does this work not deal exclusively

njegovih prethodnih objava, kao i iscrpan komentar svakog

find-site, storage site, physical description, dimensions of the actual

slika o profilu stanovnitva Salone u kasnoj antici. Salona je,

with Christian inscriptions? It is precisely by means of the inscriptions

retka natpisa, u kojem se nalazi mnotvo korisnih informacija

monument and its letters, a list of its preceding publications, and

uz to to je u njoj jo uvijek na snazi bio poganski panteon,

presented here that one may obtain the most complete picture of the

koje se tiu povijesnih prilika, jezika, analognih primjera i sl. Za

exhaustive commentary on each line of the inscription, in which

od poetka IV. stoljea bila i kranski grad. U toj arolikoj

profile of Salonas population in Late Antiquity. Since the onset of the

svaku se kataloku jedinicu zna tko ju je sastavio, a naveden je i

there is a great deal of useful information on historical circumstances,

urbanoj cjelini nalazimo mnoge etnike skupine s razliitim

fourth century, Salona was, besides the fact that the pagan pantheon

autor svake fotografije (ako je poznat). Fragmenti iz kojih gotovo

analogous examples, etc. The author of each catalogue entry is

uvjerenjima i vjerovanjima i nije uvijek lako potpuno odvojiti

was still in force, also a Christian city. In this vibrant urban milieu, there

nita ne saznajemo reproducirani su slikom i potkrijepljeni samo

credited, as is each photograph (if the photographers identity is

jedne od drugih. Natpisna graa to i potvruje podatkom da

were many ethnic groups with differing convictions and beliefs, and it

osnovnim podacima.

known). The fragments which provide almost no information are

su od 742 latinska natpisa njih 351 (47 %) zasigurno kranski,

was no simple task to distinguish one from the other. The inscription

reproduced by illustration and accompanied by only basic data.

dok je kod grkih situacija gotovo istovjetna: od 83 natpisa, 40

materials confirm this by the fact that out of the 742 Latin inscriptions,

u kojima su sabrani kasnoantiki natpisi salonitanskog podruja.

njih su sigurno kranski. Dio natpisa nedvojbeno je poganski

351 (47%) are certainly Christian, while the Greek situation is almost

Na kraju, drugi svezak prua indeks s bitnim epigrafikim

works in which the Late Antique inscriptions of the Salona area are

jer spominju posvete rimskim bogovima, primjerice Veneri ili

identical: out of 83 inscriptions, 40 of them are certainly Christian. Some

odrednicama, to je i obino prilog svakog ovakvog djela i koji

collected. At the end, the second volume contains an index with

Herkulu. Za veinu ostalih natpisa postoji velika mogunost da

of the inscriptions are doubtlessly pagan, for they mention dedications

uvelike olakava potragu za odreenim natpisom (imena osoba

essential epigraphic determinants, which is in fact customary for

su ih podigli krani, no za to nema dovoljno vrstih elemenata

to Roman gods, such as Venus or Hercules. There is a great possibility

s natpisa, geografski pojmovi, konzuli, vokabular najznaajnijih

works of this type and which greatly eases the search for a specific

poput karakteristinih izraza po kojima se prepoznaju

that most of the remaining inscriptions were raised by Christians, but

latinskih i grkih rijei, popis natpisa prema mjestu pronalaska,

inscription (names of persons from inscriptions, geographic terms,

ranokranski natpisi. Kako se kronoloki odmiemo od IV.

there is not enough solid elements, such as characteristic phrases,

metriki natpisi).

consuls, glossary of the most important Latin and Greek words, list

stoljea, i epigrafika slika Salone postaje sve vie kranska, no

whereby they can be recognized as Early Christian inscriptions. As

of inscriptions based on find-site, metric inscriptions).

tradicija je klasine antike i dalje duboko ukorijenjena u svijesti

one chronologically moves away from the fourth century and the

djelu o kasnoantikim natpisima Dalmacije, moe se uputiti

Salonitanaca, tako da se jo u VI. st. javljaju poganski elementi

epigraphic picture of Salona becomes increasingly Christian, the

samo nekoliko manjih primjedaba, koje nee ni na kakav nain

first synthetic epigraphic work on the Late Antique inscriptions of

na kranskim natpisima (npr. kat. br. 229). To dakako ne mora

tradition of Classical Antiquity still remained deeply embedded in the

zasjeniti njegov izniman budui prinos epigrafiji. Tako bismo

Dalmatia, which will in no way whatsoever diminish its exceptional

znaiti da ti ljudi nisu znali to su, nego se najvjerojatnije radilo

conscious of Salonas natives, so that even in the sixth century pagan

se mogli upitati pripadaju li ovoj zbirci natpisi iz mjesta koja se

contribution to epigraphy. Therefore, we may be justified in asking

o tome da su im epitafi bili inspirirani klasicima rimske i grke

elements would appear in Christian inscriptions (e.g. cat. no. 229). This

razvijaju usporedo sa Salonom, i u njima su postavljeni (npr.

whether this collection should have also included inscriptions from

poezije, kako je to bio est sluaj u razdoblju humanizma i

certainly need not mean that these people did not know what they

na olti, na Brau, u Poljicima). Jasna je injenica da je Salona

places which developed parallel to Salona, and were raised in them

renesanse.

were, rather it is more likely that these epitaphs were inspired by the

kao dalmatinska metropola u itavom razdoblju antike bila

(e.g. on the islands of olta and Bra, in Poljice). The clear fact is that

Iznimno znaajan dio poglavlja je rasprava o nainu datiranja

Ovo poglavlje moda najbolje daje odgovor na pitanje

An exceptionally important part of the chapter is the discussion of

This chapter perhaps provides a response to the question tied to

Sastavljen je i popis konkordancija s najznaajnijim djelima

Ovom monumentalnom i prvom sintetskom epigrafskom

There is also a list of concordances with the most important

I have only a few minor criticisms of this monumental and, indeed,

classics of Roman and Greek poetry, which was often the case in the

gravitacijska toka za sva naselja u okolici i da gotovo nita u

Salona, as the Dalmatian metropolis, was the point of gravitation for

istrauje budue smjerove prouavanja salonitanske epigrafije.

period of humanism and the Renaissance.

svakodnevnom ivotu antike nije potvreno u nekom oblinjem

all surrounding settlements throughout Antiquity, and that almost

Ukratko je dan i osvrt na vulgarni latinitet koji je, pogotovo u

mjestu, a da nije ve postojalo u Saloni. Dakle, bez obzira na

nothing in the everyday life of Antiquity has been confirmed in some

ovom razdoblju, est na natpisima u svim dijelovima Carstva.

and examines future directions in the study of Salona epigraphy. It

stupanj razvijenosti mnogih antikih naselja na prostoru koji

nearby place that did not already exist in Salona. Thus, regardless of

Nain na koji se razvijaju te puke inaice latinskog jezika,

also provides a brief consideration of Vulgar Latin which, particularly

se u literaturi naziva ager Salonitanus (obuhvaa podruje od

the degree of development of many Roman-era settlements in the

izravno je povezan s utjecajem na jezike koji e se tek formirati.

during this period, was frequent in inscriptions in all parts of the

otprilike Bijaa na zapadu do Podgraa u Poljicima i od Klisa

territory referred to in the relevant literature as the ager Salonitanus

Pisac poglavlja u prvom dodatku tabelarnim prikazom

Empire. The manner in which these common variants of Latin

na sjeveru do Jesenica na jugu, a pod salonitansku su upravu

(encompassing the area from roughly Bijai in the west to Podgrae,

prezentira popis sarkofaga sa salonitanskog podruja koji

developed was directly tied to its influence on languages that were

pripadali otoci Bra i olta), sva su ona u mnogoemu ovisila

in Poljice, and Klis in the north to Jesenica in the south, and the islands

su bili izraeni prije IV. stoljea. Na taj se nain upoznajemo

yet to be formed. In the first appendix, the chapters author provides

o Saloni, pa smatramo u veem dijelu opravdanim razlog

of Bra and olta, were under Salonas administrative jurisdiction),

i sa znaajkama nekranskih sarkofaga koji, za razliku od

a table presenting the list of sarcophagi from the Salona area which

zbog kojeg su se svi nali unutar ove zbirke. Nadalje, teko bi

all of them depended on Salona in many ways, so the reason for

onih iz kranskog razdoblja, nisu bili prevladavajui oblik

were made prior to the fourth century. In this manner we also learn

bilo utvrditi koji su natpisi uope doista gradski, salonitanski

their presence in this collection may be deemed largely justified.

348

etvrto poglavlje zaokruuje spoznajnu sliku o natpisima i

The fourth chapter completes the cognitive picture of inscriptions

349

VAPD 104, 2011., 343-352

Dino Demicheli

N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (ur.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de


N. Gauthier, E. Marin, F. Prvot (eds.), Salona IV, Inscriptions de

(spomenimo se primjerice samo Marulieva svjedoenja o

Furthermore, it would be difficult to ascertain which inscriptions

daljnjeg prouavanja salonitanskih natpisa, njihove meusobne

spomenicima dopremljenima iz Solina u Split u njegovo vrijeme).

were truly from the city, i.e., Salona, e.g. only Marulis testimony

usporedbe, i stabilan su temelj za nadogradnju uenog znanja o

high-quality synthetic publications are well worth the wait. The

Moda bi pri svemu ovom naslov koji spominje salonitanski ager,

on monuments brought from Solin to Split in his time need be

Saloni. Nadam se da nas zemlja salonitanskog prostora jo dugo

greatest value of these two volumes is that they are very usable

a ne samo Salonu, jasnije odredio parametre uzete u obzir pri

mentioned. Perhaps, with all of this in mind, a title which mentions

nee prestati ugodno iznenaivati novim natpisima koje krije u

in the sense of further study of the Salona inscriptions and their

uvrtavanju natpisa u zbirku i rijeio nedoumice. Ipak, ono to

the Salona ager, and not just Salona, would more clearly specify the

dugom i sve samo ne jednolinom nizu stoljea!

comparison, and they form a sound foundation to enhance the

olakava pretraivanje po mjestu pronalaska spomenika jest

parameters taken into account when compiling the inscriptions in the

much-desired knowledge on Salona. I hope that the soil of the

popis lokaliteta i katalokih brojeva svih natpisa, tako da je na

collection and resolve any ambiguity. Nonetheless, something that

Salona territory will never cease surprising us with the inscriptions

tom mjestu jasno vidljivo koliko je uee natpisa u katalogu koji

eases the search by find-site is the list of sites and catalogue numbers

it has been concealing for this long and anything-but uniform

nisu pronaeni u samoj Saloni.

of all inscriptions, so that at this place the share of inscriptions in the

march of centuries!

catalogue which were not found in Salona itself is clear.

to se tie prikupljanja grae, u katalogu se nalaze svi

natpisi koji su objavljeni u literaturi do godine 2004., a donosi

se i dobar broj neobjavljenih natpisa i fragmenata koji su prvu

inscriptions published in the literature up to 2004, and it also

objavu doivjeli upravo u ovome djelu. Meutim, u ovoj objavi

contains a goodly number of unpublished inscriptions and

naalost nije svoje mjesto naao sav neobjavljeni kasnoantiki

fragments first published here. However, all of the unpublished

epigrafiki materijal sa salonitanskog podruja. U Muzeju

Late Antique epigraphic material from the Salona territory did not

se hrvatskih arheolokih spomenika, naime, uva nekoliko

find its place in this work. For instance, the Museum of Croatian

ulomaka natpisa (latinskih i grkih) koji potjeu s relativno

Archaeological Monuments holds several inscription fragments

nedavnih (zadnjih dvadesetak godina) istraivanja tog muzeja

(Latin and Greek) which were yielded by relatively recent (roughly

u tzv. upljoj crkvi u Solinu. Bili su kao spoliji iskoriteni u

within the last twenty years) research conducted by this Museum

gradnji te srednjovjekovne benediktinske crkve i okolnoga

in the so-called Hollow Church in Solin. They were used as spolia

groblja. U istom su muzeju pohranjeni i natpisi koji su na

in the construction of the medieval Benedictine church and the

tom lokalitetu bili pronaeni tridesetih godina dvadesetog

surrounding cemetery. This same Museum also holds inscriptions

stoljea, u vrijeme dok je u Solinu istraivao poznati danski

found at this same site in the 1930s, at the time when the well-

arhitekt Ejnar Dyggve. Drugi lokalitet koji je dao nekoliko

known Danish architect Ejnar Dyggve was conducting research

kasnoantikih natpisa je prizemna razina Dioklecijanove

in Solin. The other site which has provided several Late Antique

palae u Splitu, poznatija pod nazivom podrumi. Epigrafiki

inscriptions is the ground level of Diocletians Palace in Split, better

je materijal odavno pronaen prilikom pranjenja podruma

known as the basements. These epigraphic materials were found

Dioklecijanove palae, ali je dugo vremena bio na neki

long ago when the basements of Diocletians Palace were emptied,

nain nedostupan jer je bio nerazvrstan u skupini s mnogim

but was in a way long inaccessible, for they were unclassified in a

pronaenim arhitektonskim ulomcima.

group with the many architectural fragments discovered.

Zatim, kako je od zakljuivanja rukopisa knjige (2004. g.)

As to the gathering of materials, the catalogue contains all

Additionally, since a relatively considerable amount of time

prolo relativno dosta vremena, podatak od 825 natpisa i 476

has transpired since the completion of the manuscript (2004), the

fragmenata vie nije toan jer su u meuvremenu pronaeni i

data on 825 inscriptions and 476 fragments are no longer accurate,

objavljeni novi natpisi. Iako autori katalog i raspravu nisu odluili

for in the meantime new inscriptions have been discovered

iriti zbog nekoliko novih natpisa, nadopunili su bibliografiju

and published. Even though the authors of the catalogue and

onom novijeg datuma, za pojedine natpise koji su bili predmetom

discussion opted not to expand their work for a few more

rasprava u citiranim djelima. To ovo djelo moda ini nepotpunim

inscriptions, they supplemented the bibliography to encompass

ve u trenutku objave, ali takva je situacija neizbjena jer se na

works of a more recent date for individual inscriptions which were

podruju Salone stalno istrauje i pronalasci su novih natpisa

the subject of discussion in these works. These factors perhaps

neizostavni. Zasigurno nee protei mnogo vremena, a da se ne

make this work incomplete at the moment of its publication, but

objavi jo koji natpis ili odnekud ne pojavi neki za koji se mislilo

this is an inescapable situation, because research is continually

da je izgubljen.

being conducted in Salona and discoveries of new inscriptions

are inevitable. Certainly not much time will pass before some

Tako ve moemo spomenuti natpise koji su otkriveni prije

kojih pet godina, prilikom nadogradnje nove rive u Vranjicu

inscription is published, or some inscription previously thought

(Radi Rossi 2007, str. 452), a meu kojima takoer ima nekoliko

lost reappears.

kasnoantikih, i latinskih i grkih, kao i pronalazak ulomka

kranskog sarkofaga na Klisu.

five years ago during additional construction at the new riva in

Vranjic (Radi Rossi 2007, p. 452), among which there were several

Osim ovih iz podruma, koji su objavljeni (Demicheli 2009,

Thus, I may point out the inscriptions discovered roughly

str. 55-79), znanstvena obrada svih navedenih natpisa je u

Late Antique, both Latin and Greek, as well as the discovery of a

pripremi, a ovo e djelo biti uvelike od koristi za njihovu to bolju

fragment of a Christian sarcophagus at Klis.

interpretaciju.

published (Demicheli 2009, pp. 55-79), the scholarly analysis of

Na kraju kaimo da je ovo djelo dokaz kako se na dobre i

Besides those from the basements which have been

kvalitetne sintetske objave isplati ekati. Najvea vrijednost

all of the aforementioned inscriptions is being prepared, and this

ovih dvaju svezaka jest ta to su vrlo upotrebljivi u smislu

work will be of great use for their better interpretation.

350

In the end, it should be said that this work shows that good,

351

VAPD 104, 2011., 343-352

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