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1441 Lab Final Exam Study Guide

This study guide is intended to assist you in reviewing for your final exam. It is NOT intended to take the
place of your lab manual. You are responsible for all information in your lab manual. You will need to
spend time studying each lab including the lab goals, introduction, prelabs, protocols, and any follow up
Lab 1: Scientific Method
Identify/define the independent, dependent, constant variables
Differentiate between the control and experimental groups
Define/describe and write a hypothesis
Convert between metric and English units
Lab 2: Data Analysis and Presentation/Scientific Writing
Define/describe all terms in bold
Determine if a hypothesis has been supported or refuted if you are given statistical (e.g.
standard deviation, confidence intervals) or graphical (ex. a figure) experimental results
Identify the key elements of each section of a scientific paper
Lab 3 and 4: Photosynthesis and Respiration
Be able to describe the experimental protocol and interpret results
Identify the independent and dependent variables
Lab 5: Microscopes and Cells
Define all terms in bold
Identify the parts of a microscope
Demonstrate proper usage of a microscope
Determine the approximate size of the field of view and of a specimen
Know the key features which separate plant, animal, and protist cells from one another
Lab 6: Osmosis and Diffusion
Define all terms in bold, as well as those in the prelab
Understand the processes of osmosis and diffusion and how they were demonstrated by the
Describe what happens to cells placed in hypo/hyper/isotonic solutions
Interpret a graph of experimental osmosis results, similar to the homework assignment
Lab 7: Macromolecules
Define the terms in bold, including all biologically important molecules
Know the importance of the listed macromolecules to organisms
Identify the positive and negative controls for each test
Be able to construct and interpret a standard curve

Lab 8: Enzymes
Understand how enzymes work and describe factors affecting enzyme functionality
Be familiar with the reaction of tyrosine with DOPA to produce dopachrome
Describe how a spectrophotometer is used to measure DOPA production
Interpret a graph representing this enzymatic reaction
Lab 9: Electrophoresis
Describe the process of electrophoresis, the equipment/materials involved, and what features
of the DNA molecule permit this technique to be performed
Understand the role restriction endonucleases play and why it is important to be able to
separate DNA fragments by size
Be able to estimate the size of DNA fragments using the DNA standards and a standard curve
Determine the genotypes of individuals based upon the resulting DNA fragments
NOTE: the exam format may include any of the following: multiple choice, T/F, fill-ins, diagram
identification, graph interpretation, and practical-style questions based upon activities and protocols
that you completed in lab.