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Band instruments

Brass instruments

The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched instrument in the brass family. Sound is produced by
vibrating or "buzzing" the lips into a large cupped mouthpiece. It first appeared in the mid 19thcentury, making it one of the newest instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The
tuba largely replaced the ophicleide.[1] Tuba isLatin for 'trumpet'. [2]


The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments, sound is
produced when the players vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument
to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the
instrument to change the pitch. Special variants like the valve trombone and superbone have three
valves like those on the trumpet.


The horn, also known as the French horn, is a brass instrument made of tubing more than 20 feet
(6.1 m) long, wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The main tubing on an F Horn is ~1213' long and
that associated with the valves adds additional length to achieve ~20' of tubing overall. A musician
who plays the horn is called a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). In informal use, "horn" may
also refer to nearly any wind instrument with a flared exit for the sound.[2]


The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore,
compact shape, and mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is atransposing instrument in B
. It is not related to the renaissance and early baroque cornett.


A trumpet is a musical instrument. It is the highest register in the brass family. Trumpets are among
the oldest musical instruments,[1] dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are played by blowing air
through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air
column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have primarily been constructed
of brass tubing, usually bent twice into a rounded oblong shape.


The piccolo[1] (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy)[2] is a half-size flute, and a member of
the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as
its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute,[3] but the sound it produces is an octave higher than
written. This gave rise to the nameottavino (Italian for "little octave"), the name by which the
instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers.[4]


The flute is a family of musical instrument of the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments
with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrumentthat produces its sound from the flow
of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of HornbostelSachs, flutes are
categorized as edge-blown.


The oboe /obo/ is a family of double reed woodwind musical instruments. The most commonly
used variant, the standard oboe, plays in the treble or soprano range. It is made from a wooden tube
roughly 65 cm (25 inches) long, with metal keys, a conical bore and flared bell. Sound is produced
by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air. The distinctive oboe tone is versatile, and has
been described as "bright".[1] When the term oboe is used alone, it is generally taken to mean the
standard treble instrument.


The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments that have a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight
cylindrical tube with an approximately cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell. A person who plays any
type of clarinet is called a clarinetist or clarinettist.


The bassoon[1] is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written
in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its modern form in the 19th
century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band, and chamber music literature.
The bassoon is a non-transposing instrument known for its distinctive tone color, wide range, variety
of character and agility. Listeners often compare its warm, dark, reedy timbre to that of a
male baritonevoice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist.[1]


A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch.Bass drums
are percussion instruments and vary in size and are used in several musical genres.


The snare drum or side drum is a widely used unpitched percussion instrument. It is often used
in orchestras, marching bands, concert bands, parades, drum corps and many other applications.


A tenor drum is a cylindrical drum that is higher pitched than a bass drum. In a symphony
orchestra's percussion section, a tenor drum is a low-pitched drum, similar in size to a field snare,
but without snares and played with soft mallets or hard sticks. Under various names, the drum has
been used by composers since the mid-19th century. It is particularly noticeable in scores by 20thcentury English composers such as Benjamin Britten and William Walton, and American composers
such as Aaron Copland and Samuel Barber.


Maracas (

pronunciation (helpinfo)), sometimes called rumba shakers and various other names,

are percussion musical instrumentsrattlesthat originated in Latin America. They are classified
as idiophones. Players hold them by their handles, usually in pairs, and shake them. Traditional
maracas consist of hollow balls made from dried gourd shell (cuia "koo-ya") or coconut shell filled
with seeds or dried beans and mounted on a wooden handle. Modern maraca balls are also made of
leather, wood, or plastic.[1]


The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often
of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the term tambourine
denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all.
Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets. They can be mounted, but position is
largely down to preference.


Timpani, or kettledrums, are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum, they
consist of a skin called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper. They are
played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet.
Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of
the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of musical ensembles
including concert, marching, and even some rock bands.


Cymbals are a common percussion instrument. Cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of
various alloys; see cymbal making for a discussion of their manufacture. The majority of cymbals are
of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite
note (see: crotales). Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion
ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, and marching groups. Drum kits usually incorporate at
least acrash, ride or crash/ride, and a pair of hi-hat cymbals.


A glockenspiel (German pronunciation: [lknpil], Glocken: bells and Spiel: play) is

a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of
a piano. In this way, it is similar to the xylophone; however, the xylophone's bars are made of wood,
while the glockenspiel's are metal plates or tubes, thus making it a metallophone. The glockenspiel,
moreover, is usually smaller and higher in pitch.[1]


The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. It is a bar of metal,
usually steel but sometimes other metals like beryllium copper, bent into a triangle shape. The
instrument is usually held by a loop of some form of thread or wire at the top curve. It was first made
around the 16th century


The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from 4 to
18 strings, usually having 6. The sound is projected either acoustically or through electrical
amplification (for an acoustic guitar or an electric guitar, respectively). It is typically played by
strumming or plucking the strings with the right hand while fretting (or pressing against the fret) the
strings with the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood
and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its

construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, thevihuela, the fourcourse Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the
development of the modern six-string instrument.


The violin, also known as a fiddle, is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect
fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also
includes the viola, and the cello. The modern word derives from the Italian word violino, literally
'small viola'.


The bandurria is a plucked chordophone from Spain, similar to the mandolin, primarily used
in Spanish folk music, but also found in countries that were once colonies of Spain.


Lad (Spanish: "lute") is a plectrum-plucked chordophone from Spain, played also in diaspora
countries such as Cuba and the Philippines.It belongs to the cittern family of instruments, with six
double courses in unison (i.e. twelve strings in pairs), similar to the bandurria, but with a longer
neck.[1]Traditionally it is used folk string musical groups, such as the Filipino rondalla string

ensemble, together with the guitar and the bandurria. Like the bandurria, it is tuned in fourths, but its
range is one octave lower.