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Newtons Laws of Motion

By Roshan, Jaiden, Carlos, Joseph and Cyril

Speed Formula: S = D/T (S: Speed, D:Distance, T: Time). Usually this is represented in km/h or m/s. When
calculating we use the total distance divided by the total time.
Speed: The measure of how fast an object is moving, speed can be determined with distance and time.
(not the same as velocity)
Distance: The measure of how far an object has moved from its original position, distance can be
determined with speed and time.
Time: The measure of how much time it has taken for an object to move from its starting point to its
finishing point, time can be determined using speed and distance.

Velocity Formula: V = D/T (V: Velocity, D: Displacement, T: Time)

Velocity: The measure of how fast an object is moving and the direction in which it moves
Displacement: The shortest straight line distance between two points (eg. if you were to run the 400
metres athletics track and your time was 4 minutes, your speed would be 100m/min but you would
return to the starting point your velocity would be 0, because you havent moved from your original

Acceleration/ Deceleration Formula: FS-IS/T/T (FS: Final Speed, IS: Initial Speed, T: Time)
Acceleration: The rate of which an object increases speed, to determine acceleration speed and
distance is required.
Deceleration: The rate of which an object decreased speed, to determine acceleration speed and
distance is required.

Static Frictional Force:The force of friction of moving an object at a go and stop motion (starting
motion). Therefore measuring the beginning moving frictional force is the static force.

Kinetic Frictional Force: The force or friction of moving an object at a continuous rate. This is measured
from the moving frictional force of the object (continuous motion)

Newtons: Newton (symbol = N) is the International unit of force

Force: An external effort that causes an object to undergo a certain change (motion). Also changes an
effort which changes its velocity and
Unbalanced Force: The unbalanced force is a force which can interrupt this inertia and how it operates.
For example air can be a force or resistance which slows down the speed of an object in motion or alters
its direction.
Resistance: In the laws of motion, resistance is the factors or external force or action which goes against
the object in motion or in action. Best forms of resistance is air resistance.
Gravity: The force which pulls objects to the ground. A force that attracts a body towards the center of
the earth or towards other bodies or objects having mass. Earths gravitational force:
G = 9.78m/sec2
Mass: Typically a large body of matter with no definite shape.

Collision: an instance of one moving object or person to strike violently against another.
Crumple Zone: The crumple zone is a feature in cars which is built to absorb the energy from a
collision impact.
F=ma: The equation from the second law of motion to measure either the, acceleration, force or mass
by rearranging or changing the equation to calculate the second law.

Newtons first law (Inertia)

An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion
continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced

What this means: This means that there is a natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're
doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unbalanced force, an
object in motion will maintain this state of motion.

For Example
For example: if there were two people on two different straight platforms, and were both to run at the
same speed both at the same position and time of departure. Although there is one platform cut short
and the person would fall into the abyss below. if the pair travelling the same distance and both at the
same position will continue to travel to the end at the same speed, even if there is the absence of the
platform for one of the pair. Once the Individual falls off the platform at the same speed with the other
person, he would fall with the same velocity with the individual continually running. Though the
individual falling will gain velocity along the vertical axis, it would remain at the same speed of its
horizontal axis.

Newtons second law

Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being
accelerated), the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).

What this means: Everyone unconsciously knows the Second Law. Everyone knows that heavier
objects require more force to move the same distance as lighter objects. F=ma

For Example:
If you want to calculate the acceleration of the dog pulling the sled, you firstly need to edit and modify
the force equation ( a = F/m ). If the force was 100N while the mass remained 50kg. The acceleration
would be 2 m/s2
Now if you add another dog to the team and added another dog which pulled at the same force ( 100N)
it would result n 200N. If it were to be calculated upon the 50 kg mass, it would result with acceleration
of (4 m/s2). The reason for this is because with a second dog, the acceleration is increased.
If this is applied again but on both sides of the object. if a force of 200N is applied on both sides of the
object its acceleration is 0 m/s due to the force pulled on both sides.

Newtons third law

For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.

What this means: This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but
opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back
in the opposite direction equally hard.

For Example:
If a ball approaches the ground with force, it bounces upwards with the same force which is
applied. Also when walking, as from each step you take, your foot reaches the ground with
force . As your foot is lifted, the same force is exerted lifting the foot up.