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SQL, PL/SQL

1) What is SQL?
1) SQL stands for "Structured Query Language". It is a slandered for relation
database system. It is 4th generation non-procedural language where we have
to just specify what to get and its system's responsibility how to get it.
2) How many types of SQL Statements are there in Oracle?
2) There are basically 6 types of SQL statements. They are
1. Data Definition Statements (DDL) DDL statements define, maintain, and
drop objects when they are no longer needed. DDL statements also include
statements that permit a user to grant other users the privileges, or rights, to
access the database and specific objects within the database.
2. Data Manipulation Statements (DML) DML statements manipulate the
database's data. For example, querying, inserting, updating, and deleting rows
of a table are all DML operations; locking a table or view and examining the
execution plan of an SQL statement are also DML operations.
3. Transaction Control Statements Transaction control statements manage the
changes made by DML statements. They allow the user or application
developer to group changes into logical transactions. Examples include
COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT.
4. Session Control Statements Session control statements allow a user to
control the properties of his current session, including enabling and disabling
roles and changing language settings. The two session control statements are
ALTER SESSION and SET ROLE.
5. System Control Statements System control commands change the
properties of the Oracle Server instance. The only system control command is
ALTER SYSTEM; it allows you to change such settings as the minimum number
of shared servers, to kill a session, and to perform other tasks.
6. Embedded SQL Statements Embedded SQL statements incorporate DDL,
DML, and transaction control statements in a procedural language program
(such as those used with the Oracle Precompilers). Examples include OPEN,
CLOSE, FETCH, and EXECUTE.
3) Built-in Data types in ORCALE 9i
3)
a) VARCHAR2 - Variable length character string. The maximum size is 4000
bytes. Will not have trailing blanks.
b) NVARCHAR2 - Variable length character string. Generally used with national
character sets. The maximum size is 4000 bytes. Will not have trailing blanks.
c) NUMBER - Variable length numeric data. Maximum length is 21 bytes.
d) LONG - Variable length character data. Maximum length is 2 gigabyte.
Provide for backward capability.
e) DATA - Fixed length date and time. Uses 7 bytes.
f) TIMESTAMP - Contain year, month, day, second, and fractional seconds.
g) INTERVELYEAR/DAY - Store period of time in years and months.
i) RAW - Variable length raw binary data. Maximum length is 2000 bytes.
Provide for backward capability.

j) LONG RAW - Variable length raw binary data. Maximum length is 3 gigabytes.
Provide for backward capability.
h) ROWID - Hexadecimal string containing the address of the row.
i) UROWID - Hexadecimal string containing the logical address of the row.
j) CHAR - Fixed length character string. The maximum size is 2000 bytes. Will
have trailing blanks.
k) NCHAR - Variable length character string. Generally used with national
character sets. The maximum size is 2000 bytes. Will have trailing blanks.
l) CLOB - Single byte character data upto 4 gigabyte.
m) NCLOB - Single byte or fixed length multibyte National Character set up 4
gigabyte.
n) BLOB- Unstructured binary data up to 4 gigabyte.
o) BFILE - Binary data stored in an external file.
4) What are the data types supported by oracle (INTERNAL)?
4) Varchar2, Number, Char, MLSLABEL.
5) Char vs VarChar ?
5) The differee difference between CHAR and VAR CHAR is that CHAR takes up
a fixed amount of space on the disk while VARCHAR takes up only the space
required for the actual string (or the number of bytes specified by r if you use
the VARCHAR(m,r) syntax).
For example:
DEFINE char_str CHAR(10)
DEFINE var_str1 VARCHAR(10)
DEFINE var_str2 VARCHAR(10,5)
LET char_str = "A"
LET var_str1 = "A"
LET var_str2 = "A"
On disk, the following space will be used (I use the hyphen to mean a space)
char_str A--------var_str1 A
var_str2 A---(<- 5 bytes total because of its declaration)
So, varchars make much better use of you disk space-wise. There is, of course,
a price to pay.
1. When you add varchars to a table, the rows are no longer of a fixed length.
If your select does a sequential scan of the table, it will now take longer
because it will need to calculate the starting location of each row.
For example, before the engine can examine record #2, it must figure out the
length of record #1. Etc.
2. Record updates become more difficult.
For example, imagine a record with a varchar of 10 bytes. If you update the
record so that the varchar is now 20 bytes, the record will most likely have to
be moved to another spot on the disk where it can gain the 10 extra bytes it
needs.
So, the pros and cons work out like this:

Pro: Disk space is conserved when the lengths of data items vary widely or
when only a few items are longer than average. (i.e. The r value of the
VARCHAR(m,r) syntax)
Pro: Queries on the more compact tables can be faster.
Con: Updates of a table can be slower in some circumstances.
Con: Sequential scans can be slower (as if they weren't bad enough already!)
As far as some of the other comments go.
1) I think that char strings are stored with their space padding on the disk. It
doesn't matter, though, since they are allocated a fixed number of bytes either
way.
2) VARCHAR is not equivalent to TEXT in anyway! Blobs are handled
completely differently than VARCHAR!
3) Varcher may or may not be efficient depending upon your circumstances
and what you mean by
efficient (disk space vs. performance).
My personal experience is that, for the most part, char is better than VARCHAR.
However, there definitely are times when a VARCHAR is what you want.
6) What is B-Tree, Reverse Key, Bit-Mapped Key, Function Based index and ,
Index organized Tables(IOTs) ?
6) Upto 30 column can be placed for multicolumn Index.
a) B-Tree Index - All Indexs are B-Tree Indexes be default unless otherwise
stipulated whenever the index is created. Rowid is used to locate the actual
row in the table(Simple Index or Unique index).
b) Reverse Key Index - It is actually B-Tree Index with reverse key. It reverse the
byte of column indexed. The rowed is not reversed. For example 'Wentz' will be
'ztneW'. It is also a bit map index.
Advantage of reverse key indexes is that insertion become distributed across
all leaf keys in the index. This work well in the equality comparisons such as
where lastname = 'Wentz'.
DisAdvantage - Rang scanning does not work very well.
c) Bit Map Index 1. A Bit Map Index is an alternative to the B-Tree Index. In this Bit Map is
created for each key value instead of a list of Rowids as in a B-Tree index.
2.Each bit in bit map is corresponding top a rowId. When bit is set then it
means that the row with the corresponding RowId contains the key value.
3.A mapping function convert the bit position to an actual Rowid so the row can
be found whenever performing a query.
Ex Product_no = 'P00001' Product_no = 'PO3453'
Product_no= 'P06734'
----------------------------- -------------------------------------1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0

Each entry or 'bit' in the bitmap index corresponds to a single row of the table.
The value of each bit depends upon the values of the corresponding row in the
table. For instance, the bitmap Product_no = 'P00001' contains 1 as its first
bit. This is because the product no P00001 is in the first row of the table.
Advantages
1. Work well with the tables containing million of rows.
2. Bit Map index improve response time dramatically whenever multiple join
conditions reference the column having the Bit Map index created on it. Bit
Map index also works good for join conditions having many (AND, OR clause).
3. Bit Map works well when the column referenced in the Bit Map index is not
updated or deleted frequently.
4. Bit Map indexes work well when the columns contained in the Bit Map index
has a low cardinality is usually (a small number of distinct values). Low
cardinality is usually whenever a column has less then 12 distinct values. An
example would be a column containing YES or NO.
DisAdvantages
1. Does not work well with the tables that have the column in the Bit Map Index
updated frequently.
2. The bit Map index requires rebuilding frequently.
d) Function based Index 1. A function based index precomputes the value of the expression or function
and stores it in the index.
2. The expression or function can't be aggregate function such as SUM, AVG,
COUNT, MAX, MIN, GROUPING, STDDEV, LAST, FIRST, RANK etc.
3. Function Based indexes still used the B- tree indexing method.
4. Use function based index whenever a function is used in the where clause or
join condition of a query. An example would be whenever searching for a
persons last name using UPPER function.
5. If a person's last name is stored in mixed case and the search condition is
provide in the upper case, a full table scan is performed if a function based
index is not created using the UPPER function.
6. If function is a PL/SQL function or package and the function or package is
disabled Oracle will not use the Function Based index.
e) Index Organized Table (IOTs):
1. Index Organized Table (IOTs) stores the indexed columns of the table in the
table itself. An index Organized table (IOTs) will in most instance contain an
index on the primary key of the table that does not change frequently.
2. Index organized tables store the data in the order of primary key of the
table.
3. Index organized tables can provide very fast access to table data when the
query execute a exact match or range search on the indexed primary key of
the table.
4. The decreased time is primarly because the Oracle only has to make a singe
trip to the table since the index is part of the table index. No going to index
and then to the table as in other indexes.
5. Storage requirement for the index are reduced since the index column is
not duplicated in the separate index.
6. The keyword ORGANIZATION INDEX indicates to Oracle that the table will be
on IOT.

7. Indexed organized tables can be become large since they contain all rows of
the table. The mandatory OVERFLOW clause provides the necessary space to
divide a row into parts.
8. If you use IOT, make sure your application will not update primary key
frequently.
7) Object Types: Abstract Datatype, Nested Tables , Varying Array, Large
Objects, References, Object Views.
7)
1. Abstract Datatype: Abstract datatype is a datatype that consists of one or
more subtypes. abstract data types can be nested and can contain references
to other abstract data types.
2. Nested Tables: A nested table is a table within a table. A nested table is a
collection of rows, represented as a column within the main table. For each
record within main table, the nested table may contain multiple rows. In a
sence, It's a way of storing a one-tomany relationship within one table.
Consider a table that contained information about departments, in which each
department have many projects in progress at any ont time, In a strictly
relational model, two separate tables would be created.
Nested tables allow storing the information about projects within DEPARTMENT
table. The project table records can be accessed directly via the DEPARTMENT
table, without the need to perform join.
The ability to select data without traversing joins makes data access easier.
Even if methods for accessing nested data are not defined. Department and
Project data have clearly been associated.
3. Varying Array: A varying array is a set of objects, each with the same data
types. The size of the array is limited when it is created.
(When the table is created with a varying array, the array is a nested table with
a limited set of rows) .
Varying arrays also known as VARRAYS, allows storing repeated attributes in
tables.
For example, suppose there is a PROJECT table, and projects have workers
assigned to them.
A project can have many workers, and a worker can work on multiple projects.
In a strictly relational implementation, a PROJECT table, a WORKER table, and
an intersection table PROJECT_WORKER can be created that stores the
relationships between them.
Varying array can be used to store the worker names in the PROJECT table. If
the projects are limited to ten workers or fewer, varying array with a limit of
the entries can be created. The datatype for the varying array can be created.
The datatype for the varying array will be whatever datatype is appropriate for
the worker name values.

The varying array can then be populated, so that for each project the names of
all of the project's workers can be selected without querying the WORKER
table.
4. Large Objects: A large object, or LOB, is capable of storing large volumes of
data. The LOB datatypes available are BLOB, CLOB, NLOB and BFILE.
a. CLOB - Single byte character data upto 4 gigabyte.
b. NCLOB - Single byte or fixed length multibyte National Character set up 4
gigabyte.
c. BLOB- Unstructured binary data up to 4 gigabyte.
d. BFILE - Binary data stored in an external file. It exist at operating system
level. The data base
only maintains a pointer to the file. The size of the external file is limited only
by the OS. Since the data is stored outside the database, ORACLE does not
maintain concurrency or integrity of the data.
Multiple LOBs per table can be used. For example, there can be table with a
CLOB column and two BLOB columns.
5. References : Nested tables and varying arrays are embedded objects. They
are physically embedded within another object. Another type of object, called
referenced objects are physically separate from the object that refer to them.
References (also know as REFs) are essentially pointers to row objects. A row
object is different from a column object. An example would be a varying array,
it is an object that is treated as a column in a table. A row object, on the other
hand, always represent a row.
6. Object Views : Object view allow adding OO concepts on top of existing
relational tables. For example, an abstract datatype can be created based on
existing table definition. Thus, object views give the benefits of relational table
storage and OO structures. Object views allow the development of OO features
within a relational database, a kind og bridge between the relational and OO
worlds.
8) What is rowid? when it changed ? Can you delete data using rowid?
8) Hexadecimal string containing the address of the row. If you ENABLE ROW
MOVEMENT on a partitioned table, then the rowid of a row can change if the
partitioning or sub-partitioning key is updated such that the row must be
moved into a different partition or sub-partition. However, this is not the
default.
However, you cannot assume that the rowids of deleted rows will not be reused
by subsequent inserts to the same table. In fact, once the delete transaction
has been cleaned out, you can almost guarantee that they will be. So you will
need to find another way of doing your deletes (possibly using the primary
key).
The ROWID never changes for a row unless you change it using EXP/IMP utilitie
9) When will you get invalid rowid error?
9) Oracle 8i's ROWID is a base 64-encoded physical address and has significant
difference from Oracle7 ROWID. If you database has not been migrated to 8i,
you may get invalid rowid error.

10) How to delete duplicate record from table using row-id?


10)
a) delete from &&table_name t1 where t1.&&column_name in (select
&&column_name
from &&table_name t2 where t1.rowid > t2.rowid and t1.&&column_name =
t2.&&column_name)
/
undefine table_name
undefine column_name
The script will prompt for a table name and a column name from which
duplicate values are to be removed. It will then remove all rows with ROWID
values higher than the lowest ROWID for this particular column.
b) Let us take a table containing 3 columns, then we can use the following
command to delete the duplicate rows from the table.
delete from table where rowid in ( SELECT rowid FROM group by
rowid,col1,col2,col3
minus SELECT min(rowid) FROM group by col1,col2,col3);
c) delete from table where rowid not in ( SELECT min(rowid) FROM group by
col1,col2,col3 );
d) delete from employee where empid not in (Select min(empid) from
employee)
e) select column_name from table_name group by column_name having
count(*) > 1
11) How to find Second Max() and Min() value of a Column..?
11)
a) For Second Max: Select columnA from tableA order by columnA desc limit
1,1;
b) For Second Min: Select columnA from tableA order by columnA asc limit 1,1;
a) Select max(salary) from table where salary not in(select max(salary) from
table);
b) Select min(salary) from table where salary not in(select min(salary) from
table);
nth Max() and Min() value of a Column:
Select distinct col from table a where 3 = ( select count(distinct col) from table
b where b.col >= a.col)
12) What is the difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE table ?
12) Delete:
At the simplest level, delete scans the table and removes any rows that match
the given criteria in the (optional) where clause. It generates rollback
information so that the deletions can be undone should it be necessary. Index
entries for the deleted rows are removed from the indexes. You must commit to
make the deletions permanent.
When deleting rows from a table, extents are not deallocated, so if there were
50 extents in the table before the deletion, there will still be 50 after the
deletion. In addition the High Water Mark is not moved down, so it remains

where it was before the deletion began. This means that any subsequent full
table scans may (still) take a long time to complete - because a full table scan
always scans up to the HWM. So, by example, if a select count(*) from
very_large_table; took 15 minutes to complete before all the rows were
deleted, you will find that it still takes about 15 mins after the deletion because Oracle is still scanning every single block up to the HWM - even
though some (or all) of the blocks may have no data in them.
Truncate
Truncate, on the other hand, simply moves the high water mark on the table
right down to the beginning. It does this very quickly, and does not need to be
committed. Once you truncate a table, there is no going back. Indexes are also
truncated. There is no facility to be able to specify which rows to 'delete' as
you can with the where clause on the delete command.
When a table is truncated, all its extents are deallocated leaving only the
extents specified when the table was originally created. So if the table was
originally created with minextents 3, there will be 3 extents remaining when
the tables is truncated.
If you specify the reuse storage clause, then the extents are not deallocated.
This saves time in the recursive SQL department if you intend to reload the
table with data from an export for example, and can reduce the time it takes to
do the import as there is no need to dynamically allocate any new extents
13) When having clause is used?
13) The having clause is used to restrict the result set returned by the GROUP
BY clause. When you use GROUP BY with the HAVING clause, the GROUP BY
clause divides the rows into sets of grouped rows and aggregates their values,
and then the HAVING clause eliminates undesired aggregated groups (filter
the rows that a group by statement returns).
SQL> select * from students;
NAME
DATE_OF_B G STUDENT_ID EXAMS
GPA
---------- --------- - ---------- --------- --------Smith
04-JUL-65 F 2
2
5.8
Green
04-JUL-65 F 3
2
3.3
Taylor
01-JAN-77 F 4
1
0.8
Bane
01-JAN-55 M 5
4
4
SQL> select gender, count(*) from students group by gender;
You should see the following result.
G COUNT(*)
- --------F3
M1
Select gender from students group by gender having avg(gpa) > 3.9;
You should see the following result.
SQL> select gender from students group by gender having avg(gpa) > 3.9;
G
M
14) Is it mandatory to have a group by clause if , having exists ?
14) Yes.

15) What are the set operator?


15) Set operators combine the results of two queries into one result.
INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both queries. MINUS returns all
distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second. UNION returns
all distinct rows selected by either query. UNION ALL returns all rows selected
by either query, including all duplicates.
1.If both queries select values of datatype CHAR, the returned values have
datatype CHAR.
2.If either or both of the queries select values of datatype VARCHAR2, the
returned values have datatype VARCHAR2.
16) What are Row Operators?
16) Row operators return or reference particular rows. ALL retains duplicate
rows in the result of a query or in an aggregate expression. DISTINCT
eliminates duplicate rows from the result of a query or from an aggregate
expression. PRIOR refers to the parent row of the current row returned by a
tree-structured query. You must use this operator in the CONNECT BY clause of
such a query to define the parent-child relationship.
17) What are comparison operators?
17) Typically, you use comparison operators in the WHERE clause of a data
manipulation statement to form predicates, which compare one expression to
another and always yields TRUE, FALSE, or NULL. You can use all the
comparison operators listed below to form predicates. Moreover, you can
combine predicates using the logical operators AND, OR, and NOT.
ALL
Compares a value to each value in a list or returned by a subquery and yields
TRUE if all of the individual comparisons yield TRUE.
ANY, SOME
Compares a value to each value in a list or returned by a subquery and yields
TRUE if any of the individual comparisons yields TRUE.
BETWEEN
Tests whether a value lies in a specified range.
EXISTS
Returns TRUE if a subquery returns at least one row.
IN
Tests for set membership.
IS NULL
Tests for nulls.
LIKE
Tests whether a character string matches a specified pattern, which can
include
18) What is the use of dynamic SQL statement prepare and execute
18) Dynamic SQL lets programs accept or generate SQL statements at run
time. Unlike precompiled SQL or SQL module language, in which SQL
statements are known at compile time, dynamic SQL lets the user formulate
the statements at run time.

Preparing the SQL statement for execution: When a SQL statement enters the
Oracle library cache, the following steps must occur before the statement is
ready to execute:
1. Syntax check - The SQL statement is checked for proper spelling and word
order.
2. Semantic parse - Oracle verifies all of the tables and column names against
the data dictionary.
3. Stored Outline check - Oracle checks the data dictionary to see if a stored
outline exists for the SQL statement.
4. Generate execution plan - Oracle uses cost-based optimizer algorithms and
statistics in the data dictionary to determine the optimal execution plan.
5. Create binary code-Oracle generates a binary executable based on the
execution plan.
Once a SQL statement is prepared for execution, subsequent executions will
happen very fast, because Oracle recognizes identical SQL statements and reuses executables for those statements.
However, for systems that generate ad hoc SQL or SQL with embedded literal
values, SQL execution plan generation time is significant, and previous
execution plans often can't be used. For those queries that join many tables,
Oracle can spend a significant amount of time determining the proper order to
join the tables together.
Evaluating table join order
The most expensive step in the SQL preparation process is the generation of
the execution plan, particularly when dealing with a query with multiple joins.
When Oracle evaluates table join orders, it must consider every possible
combination of tables. For example, a six-way table join has 720 (permutations
of 6, or 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 720) possible ways that the tables can be joined
together. This permutation issue becomes even more pronounced when you
have more than 10 joined tables in a query: For a 15-way table join, there are
over one trillion (1,307,674,368,000 to be exact) possible query permutations
that must be evaluated.
19) What are the Different Optimisation Techniques
19) The Various Optimisation techniques are
a) Execute Plan: we can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly
based on the indexes
b) Optimizer_hint:
set_item_property('DeptBlock',OPTIMIZER_HINT,'FIRST_ROWS');
Select /*+ First_Rows */ Deptno,Dname,Loc,Rowid from dept
where (Deptno > 25)
c) Optimize_Sql:
By setting the Optimize_Sql = No, Oracle Forms assigns a single cursor for all
SQL statements.This slow downs the processing because for evertime the SQL
must be parsed whenver they are executed.
f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_sql = No
d) Optimize_Tp:
By setting the Optimize_Tp= No, Oracle Forms assigns seperate cursor only
for each query SELECT statement. All other SQL statements reuse the cursor.

f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No


20) Where does oracle store information about query?
20) Oracle actually 'stores' two relevant things in buffer.
Firstly, it stores the actual code you're executing along with the execution plan.
It stores this in the Library Cache which is a component of the Shared Pool
which is a component of the System Global Area (SGA). When Oracle parses
the statement and determines the execution plan (which takes time and in the
case of complex queries can take a substantial amount of time), this is stored
away so that when the same code is subsequently executed, Oracle doesn't
have to redo all the work of parsing and redetermining the execution plan. It's
already there (note all users have access to this area of
memory).
Therefore, the first time you execut the quesry it probably needs to be (hard)
parsed and so initially needs to go through this overhead. Subsequent times
you execute the query, Oracle probably finds the SQL in the Library cache and
is more efficient as a result as the hard parse is not performed.
To 'get rid' of this, you can issue the ALTER SYSTEM FLUSH SHARED_POOL;
Secondly, Oracle stores the 'blocks' that contain the rows of interest in a Buffer
Cache that is also a component of the SGA. The reason it does this is two fold.
Firstly, Oracle can only manipulate and extract information out of the blocks
once they're loaded into memory. However they are stored in a
shared memory structure because having gone to all the trouble of retrieving
the data from disk, there might be a possibility that the blocks might need to
be accessed again. Note this possibility is greater for the session that has read
in the block(s) but depending on the data (eg. block on a freelist)
and the data structure (eg. popular index) it is quite likely that another session
may want access to the same block. The Buffer Cache is organized in a number
of linked lists (eg. Least Recently Used LRU list) to encourage popular blocks to
remain cached in memory.
Therefore, the first time you run your query, the blocks need to be read from
disk and loaded into the Buffer Cache. However when you subsequently reexecute the query, the blocks are probably still cached in memory, so you
avoid the (expensive) disk reads and the query runs faster as a result.
There is no flush Buffer Cache command (as it never makes sense to do tis).
21) Simple join and outer join?
21) Outer Joins:
The outer join extends the result of a simple join. An outer join returns all rows
that satisfy the join condition and those rows from one table for which no rows
from the other satisfy the join condition. Such rows are not returned by a
simple join. To write a query that performs an outer join of tables A and B and
returns all rows from A, apply the outer join operator (+) to all columns of B in
the join condition. For all rows in A that have no matching rows in B, Oracle
returns NULL for any select list expressions containing columns of B.

Example I
This query uses an outer join to extend the results of Example XIV:
SELECT ename, job, dept.deptno, dname FROM emp, dept
WHERE emp.deptno (+) = dept.deptno;
ENAME
JOB
DEPTN
DNAME
CLARK
MANAGER
10
ACCOUNTING
KING
PRESIDENT
10
ACCOUNTING
MILLER
CLARK
10
ACCOUNTING
ADAMS
CLARK
20
RESEARCH
BLAKE
ANALYST
20
RESEARCH
TURNER
SALESMAN
20
RESEARCH
WARD
MANAGER
30
SALES
JONES
MANAGER
30
SALES
40
OPERATION
In this outer join, Oracle returns a row containing the OPERATIONS department
even though no employees work in this department. Oracle returns NULL in the
ENAME and JOB columns for this row. The join query in Example X selects only
departments that have employees.

22) What is TTITLE, BTITLE, REPHEADER, PERFOOTER ?


22) you can set a title to display at the top of each page of a report. You can
also set a title to display at the bottom of each page. The TTITLE command
defines the top title; the BTITLE command defines the bottom title.
You can also set a header and footer for each report. The REPHEADER
command defines the report header; the REPFOOTER command defines the
report footer.
23) How do u implement the If statement in the Select Statement
23) We can implement the if statement in the select statement by using the
Decode statement.
e.g select DECODE (EMP_CAT,'1','First','2','Second',Null);
Here the Null is the else statement where null is done .
If you want to compare, for instance, tbl.Payment with 200,use this code:
Select decode(sign(tbl.Payment -200),0,'two hundred',1,'Greater than 200','less
than 200');
This is a nice shortcut rather than writing the procedure.
The value of sign(tbl.Payment -200) is 0 if tbl.Payment = 200.
The value of sign(tbl.Payment -200) is 1 if tbl.Payment > 200.
otherwise, or
The value of sign(tbl.Payment -200) is -1 if tbl.Payment < 200
24) What is SERVEROUTPUT setting? Can I print inside a PL/SQL program?
24) One can use the DBMS_OUTPUT package to write information to an output
buffer. This buffer can be displayed on the screen from SQL*Plus if you issue
the SET SERVEROUTPUT ON; command. For example:
set serveroutput on
begin
dbms_output.put_line('Look Ma, I can print from PL/SQL!!!');
end;
/
DBMS_OUTPUT is useful for debugging PL/SQL programs. However, if you print
too much, the output buffer will overflow. In that case, set the buffer size to a
larger value, eg.: set serveroutput on size 200000
If you forget to set serveroutput on type SET SERVEROUTPUT ON once you
remember, and then EXEC NULL;. If you haven't cleared the DBMS_OUTPUT
buffer with the disable or enable procedure, SQL*Plus will display the entire
contents of the buffer when it executes this dummy PL/SQL block.
25) What built-in functions/operators are available for manipulating strings?
25) The most useful ones are LENGTH, SUBSTR, INSTR, and ||:
1. LENGTH(str) returns the length of str in characters.
2. SUBSTR(str, m, n) returns a portion of str, beginning at character m, n
characters long. If n is omitted, all characters to the end of str will be returned.
3. INSTR(str1,str2,n,m) searches str1 beginning with its n-th character for the
m-th occurrence of str2 and returns the position of the character in str1 that is
the first character of this occurrence.
4. str1 || str2 returns the concatenation of str1 and str2

26) Is it possible to write a PL/SQL procedure that takes a table name as input
and does something with that table?
26) For pure PL/SQL, the answer is no, because Oracle has to know the schema
of the table in order to compile the PL/SQL procedure. However, Oracle
provides a package called DBMS_SQL, which allows PL/SQL to execute SQL DML
as well as DDL dynamically at run time.
For example, when called, the following stored procedure drops a specified
database table:
CREATE PROCEDURE drop_table (table_name IN VARCHAR2) AS
cid INTEGER;
BEGIN
-- open new cursor and return cursor ID
cid := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR;
-- parse and immediately execute dynamic SQL statement
-- built by concatenating table name to DROP TABLE command
DBMS_SQL.PARSE(cid, 'DROP TABLE ' || table_name, dbms_sql.v7);
-- close cursor
DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(cid);
EXCEPTION
-- if an exception is raised, close cursor before exiting
WHEN OTHERS THEN
DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(cid);
-- reraise the exception
RAISE;
END drop_table;
.
RUN;
27) What is the correct syntax for ordering query results by row-type objects?
27) As a concrete example, suppose we have defined an object type
PersonType with an ORDER MEMBER FUNCTION, and we have created a table
Person of PersonType objects. Suppose you want to list all PersonType objects
in Person in order. You'd probably expect the following to work:
SELECT * FROM Person p ORDER BY p;
But it doesn't. Somehow, Oracle cannot figure out that you are ordering
PersonType objects. Here is a hack that works:
SELECT * FROM Person p ORDER BY DEREF(REF(p));
28) How you specify column separators?
28) The solution is to concatenate the rows together with whatever separator
you choose to display. For example: SELECT col_a || '|' || col_b FROM table;
This will show the result like:
first|100
second|200
thrid|300
29) Can U disable database trigger? How?
29) Yes. With respect to table
ALTER TABLE TABLE [DISABLE all_trigger]

30) What are attributes of cursor?


30) %FOUND , %NOTFOUND , %ISOPEN, %ROWCOUNT
31) What are pseudo columns? Name them?
31) A pseudo column behaves like a table column, but is not actually stored in
the table. You can select from pseudo columns, but you cannot insert, update,
or delete their values. These are: CURRVAL, NEXTVAL, LEVEL, ROWID,
ROWNUM.
32) Rownum with ORDER BY clause?
32) One of the most often uses of the pseudo column rownum is to provide
serial numbers to the records in a query. This feature is widely used in reports
to represent systematic display of information.
For instance
Listing A
Select rownum, ename, empno from emp10;
Table A
ROWNUM ENAME
EMPNO
-------------------------1
KING
7839
2
BLAKE
7698
3
CLARK
7782
4
JONES
7566
5
MARTIN 7654
However, when we order this statement the rownum gets disturbed as shown
below ( Listing B and Table B).
Listing B
select rownum, ename, empno from emp10 order by ename;
Table B
ROWNUM ENAME
EMPNO
--------- ---------- --------2
BLAKE
7698
3
CLARK
7782
4
JONES
7566
1
KING
7839
5
MARTIN
7654
As we can see from above the employee names did get ordered but the
rownum also got the wrong order. The desired result was BLAKE having
rownum 1 , CLARK having a rownum of 2 and so on. To achieve this we have to
outer join this table with dual that process forces a implicit order on the
rownum as shown below ( Listing C, Table C).
Listing C
select rownum, ename, empno from emp10 a , dual d where a.ename =
d.dummy (+) order by ename;
Table C
ROWNUM ENAME
EMPNO
-----------------------1
BLAKE
7698
2
CLARK
7782
3
JONES
7566

4
5

KING
MARTIN

7839
7654

The trick is to do an outer join with the column that you want to order and this
process does not disturb the rownum order. In addition to that if the column is
of number datatype then one should make sure to use TO_CHAR datatype
conversion function.
32) Can you use select in FROM clause of SQL select ?
32) Yes.
33) Inline View?
33) An inline view is just a subquery in place of a table in an INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE, or SELECT. If you could have issued a "create view as <subquery>"
and then inserted/updated/deleted/selected from it, you can skip the create
view and just inline it in the DML.
Consider:
SQL> select * from ( select empno, ename from emp where deptno = 10 );
EMPNO ENAME
---------- ---------7782 CLARK
7839 KING
7934 MILLER
SQL> delete from ( select empno, ename from emp where deptno = 10 );
3 rows deleted.
SQL> update ( select empno, ename from emp where deptno = 20 ) set
ename = lower( ename );
5 rows updated.
SQL> insert into ( select empno, ename from emp where deptno = 20 with
check
option ) values ( 1, 'x' );
insert into ( select empno, ename from emp where deptno = 20 with check
option )
values ( 1, 'x' )
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01402: view WITH CHECK OPTION where-clause violation
SQL> insert into ( select empno, ename, deptno from emp
2 where deptno = 20 with check option ) values ( 1, 'x', 20 );
1 row created.
34) How many types of Exceptions are there?
34) There are 2 types of exceptions. They are
a) System Exceptions:

e.g. When no_data_found, When too_many_rows


b) User Defined Exceptions
e.g. My_exception exception
When My_exception then
35) How many columns can table have?
35) The number of columns in a table can range from 1 to 254 (32 bit).
36) What is the max. length for variable name and value to be stored in it
36) A variable name must begin with character and can be followed by a
maximum of 29 character.
37) What are the uid and user function?
37) UID returns an integer that uniquely identifies the session user (the user
who logged on).
SELECT UID FROM DUAL;
UID
---------19
USER returns the name of the session user (the user who logged on) with the
datatype VARCHAR2. Oracle compares values of this function with blankpadded comparison semantics.
In a distributed SQL statement, the UID and USER functions identify the user on
your local database. You cannot use these functions in the condition of a
CHECK constraint.
SELECT USER, UID FROM DUAL;
USER
UID
------------------------------ ---------SCOTT
19
38) What does the set escape command does? or How does one disable
interactive prompting in SQL*Plus?
38)
ESC[APE] {\|c|OFF|ON}
Defines the character you enter as the escape character. OFF undefines the
escape character. ON enables the escape character. ON changes the value of c
back to the default "\".
You can use the escape character before the substitution character (set
through SET DEFINE) to indicate that SQL*Plus should treat the substitution
character as an ordinary character rather than as a request for variable
substitution
If your data contains special punctuation characters, you may encounter
difficulties in SQLPLUS of ORACLE. There are the solutions:

To obtain a single quote character ('), use two single quotes, i.e., '', to get one
single quote character. For example, you would enter 'Smith''s Home' in SQL
for the string "Smith's Home".
The '&' character is used by SQLPLUS as substitution character for data input.
To use an '&' character as part of your string value, you need to turn on the
escape character first use the following command:
SQL>set escape \
If you want enter a string containing '&, you would use '\' to escape the '&'
character. For example, to enter the string, "Johnson & Son Co.", as 'Johnson \&
Son Co.'
39) How to insert an ampersand into an table?
39) create table x (a varchar2(10));
Table created.
SQL> insert into x values ('a'||chr(38)||'b');
1 row created.
SQL> set escape on
SQL> insert into x values ('x\&y');
1 row created.
SQL> set escape off
SQL> set define ^
SQL> insert into x values('m&n');
1 row created.
SQL> select * from x;
a&b
x&y
m&n
39) With set autocommit on command, a PL/SQL block having multiple insert,
update or delete statements is executed. Now if the script aborts in between,
will all the changes be committed or none at all ?
39) SET AUTOCOMMIT ON treats a PL/SQL block as a single transaction. In
other words, no matter how many INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements
that are executed in the PL/SQL block, the commit will happen only at the end
of the complete block. Therefore, if the script aborts in the middle of the block,
then nothing will be committed. But as long as the block completes
successfully, all statements executed within the block will be committed.
40) How to execute operating system commands from SQL plus? Or What is
the difference between ! and HOST?
40) host ls -alrt
Both "!" and "HOST" will execute operating system commands as child
processes of SQL*Plus. The difference is that "HOST" will perform variable
substitution (& and && symbols), whereas "!" will not. (Note: use "$" under
MVS, VMS, and Windows environments, not "!")
41) What is the difference between & and &&?
41) "&" is used to create a temporary substitution variable and will prompt
you for a value every time it is referenced.

"&&" is used to create a permanent substitution variable as with the DEFINE


command and the OLD_VALUE or NEW_VALUE clauses of a COLUMN statement.
Once you have entered a value it will use that value every time the variable is
referenced.
Eg: SQL> SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE TNAME LIKE '%&TABLE_NAME.%';
42) How can a SQL script be executed automatically as soon as SQLplus is
invoked?
42) When SQL*Plus starts up, it will look for a global login script called
glogin.sql in the $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin directory. If found, this script
will be executed.
Thereafter, sqlplus will try to find a local login script called login.sql. It will look
for the login.sql script in the directory where you start sqlplus from,
alternatively it will search the directories listed in the SQLPATH environment
variable for such a script. When found, sqlplus will execute it.
43) What is %type and %rowtype?
43) The %TYPE and %ROWTYPE Attributes The %TYPE attribute provides the
datatype of a variable, constant, or column. This attribute is particularly useful
when declaring a variable or procedure argument that refers to a column in a
database table. The %ROWTYPE attribute is useful if you want to declare a
variable to be a record that has the same structure as a row in a table or view,
or a row that is returned by a fetch from a cursor.
When you declare a construct using %TYPE and %ROWTYPE, you do not need
to know the datatype of a column or structure of a table. For example, the
argument list of a procedure that inserts a row into the EMP table could be
declared as
CREATE PROCEDURE hire_fire(emp_record emp%ROWTYPE) AS ... END;
If you change the column or table structure, the constructs defined on their
datatypes or structure automatically change accordingly.
However, while one type of dependency is eliminated using %TYPE or
%ROWTYPE, another is created. If you define a construct using object%TYPE or
object%ROWTYPE, the construct depends on object. If object is altered, the
constructs that depend on object are invalidated.
44) What are Procedure, functions and Packages?
44) Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are
grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform set of related
tasks. procedure do not return values while function return one value.
Packages: Packages provide a method of encapsulating and storing related
procedures, functions, variables and other Package Contents.
45) What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures?
45) Database Triggers: Database Triggers (DT) are procedures that are
automatically executed as a result of insert in, update to, or delete from table.
DT have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is
deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used. DT are useful
for implementing complex business rules which cannot be enforced using the
integrity rules. We can have the trigger as Before trigger or After Trigger and at
Statement or Row level.

e.g.: operations insert, update, and delete 3 before, after 3*2 a total of 6
combinations
At statement level (once for the trigger) or row level (for every execution) 6 *
2 A total of 12.
Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12
triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7.3 Onwards.
What is a stored procedure? Pre-compiled SQL statement residing in the
database you can pass in parameters and you can receive result sets(s) out.
Why use stored procedures? Pre-compile once, use many times stored
procedure is a re-usable object
reduce network traffic Separate business rules and logic from prresentation
layer They're faster
Stored Procedures: Oracle Stored Procedures (OSP) are Procedures that are
stored in Compiled form in the database. The advantage of using the stored
procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and
ready to use format. It also reduce the network traffic.
OSP should contain as much of the business rules logic for an application as
possible. In front-end which handles only the user interface; OSP in the backend encapsulate all the business logic of the app. The front-end basically
gathers user input and passes it to OSP as parameters; the OSP contain all the
logic data validation, etc. There are no SQL statements anywhere in the app.
There are several advantages to this approach. First, when the business rules
change, OSP can be changed as necessary individually. There is no "library"
that needs wholesale replacement, as with VB modules or .dll's. At least with
Oracle, procedures can be re-created without shutting down the server or the
front-end app. This architecture permits a clear distinction in functionality
between the front-end and back-end. You'll find that centralizing the business
rule logic on the server back-end side makes both development and
maintenance much easier in the long run.
46) What are the implicit & explicit cursor attributes?
46) Both Implicit and Explicit cursor have 4 attributes:
Implicit Cursor:
1. %ISOPEN: The Oracle engine automatically opens and closed the SQL cursor
after executing its associated select, insert, update or delete SQL statement
has been processed in case of implicit cursor. Thus the SQL%ISOPEN attribute
of an implicit cursor cannot be referenced outside of its SQL statement. As a
result, SQL%ISOPEN always evaluates to FALSE.
2. %FOUND: Evaluates to TRUE, if an insert, update or delete affected one or
more rows, or a single-row select returned one or more rows. Otherwise it
evaluates to FALSE. The syntax for accessing this attribute is SQL%FOUND.
3. %NOTFOUND: It is logical opposite of %FOUND. It evaluates to TRUE, if an
insert , update or delete affected no rows, or otherwise it evaluates to FALSE.
The syntax for accessing this attribute is SQL%NOTFOUND.

4. %ROWCOUNT: Returns the numbers of rows affected by an insert , update or


delete, or select into statement. The syntax for accessing this attribute is SQL
%ROWCOUNT.
Explicit Cursor:
1. %ISOPEN: Return TRUE if cursor is open, FALSE otherwise.
2. %FOUND: Return TRUE if record was fetched successfully, FALSE otherwise.
3. %NOTFOUND: Return TRUE if record was not fetched successfully, FALSE
otherwise.
4. %ROWCOUNT: Returns number of records processed from the cursor.
47) What is the difference between implicit and explicit cursors?
47) An explicit cursor is declared opened and fetched from in the program
block where as an implicit cursor is automatically generated for SQL
statements that process a single row only.
48) For which SQL statements is the implicit cursor opened?
48) SQL statements that processes a single row.
49) How cursor attributes can be referenced in case of implicit cursor?
49) By using SQL%FOUND, SQL%NOTFOUND, SQL%ROWCOPUNT, SQL
%ISOPEN.
50) Which is the form of the cursor, where these operations are made
automatically?
50) In case if Implicit Cursor.
51) When is it appropriate to use explicit cursors, give an example?
51) When more than one row of a table is to be processed by an SQL
statement.
52) Can you pass a parameter to a cursor? What is the mode of the parameter
that can be passed?
52) Yes, It can be of type value/ variable/ expression.The scope of cursor
parameters is local to that cursor, which means that they can be referenced
only within the query declared in the cursor declaration. Each parameter in the
declaration must have a corresponding value in the open statement.
53) What are the advantages of using PL/SQL?
53) PL/SQL is a completely portable, high-performance transaction processing
language that offers the following advantages:
1. Support for SQL.
2. Higher productivity.
3. Better performance
4. Portability.
5. integration with Oracle
54) The procedural and SQL statements in a PL/SQL block are processed by
the SQL statement executor and the Procedural statement executor. Explain

how this works in a client server environment and where the components
reside.
54) Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on
Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.
Anonymous PL/SQL blocks can be embedded in an Oracle Pre-compiler or OCI
program. At run time, the program, lacking a local PL/SQL engine, sends these
blocks to the Oracle Server, where they are compiled and executed.
When it contains the PL/SQL engine, an application development tool can
process PL/SQL blocks. The tool passes the blocks to its local PL/SQL engine.
The engine executes all procedural statements at the application site and
sends only SQL statements to Oracle. Thus, most of the work is done at the
application site, not at the server site
55) What are 4 of the places (or vehicles) for the use of PL/SQL?
55) What is the purpose of each?
1. As anonymous blocks which are compiled and run when loaded. Required to
do once off tasks.
2. As triggers for integrity purposes. Required for integrity purposes.
3. As procedures and functions (collectively known as subprograms). To
permanently store blocks of application code in the database for reuse at to
refer to from other blocks of code(modularization).
4. As packages: essentially a named declarative section for storing related
objects including procedures, functions and variables. See above subprograms.
(Triggers, procedures, functions and packages are stored in the database and
can be called directly from other PL/SQL blocks)
Embedded in a host language such as C. To combine PL/SQL with a more
powerful language such as C for specific tasks.
56) What are mutating tables?
56) When a table is in state of transition it is said to be mutating. e.g. If a row
has been deleted then the table is said to be mutating and no operations can
be done on the table except select.
A mutating table is a table that is in the process of being modified by an
UDPATE, DELETE or INSERT statement. A table may also be considered to be
mutating if it needs to be updated due to a DELETE CASCADE referential
integrity constraint. The reason you may get a mutating table error (i.e. ORA04091) is that if you fire a trigger which attempts to look at or modify the same
table, the trigger is effectively prevented from seeing a consistent view of the
data.
For example, let's say that you attempt to give every employee who makes
$10/hour a 10% salary increase as follows: UPDATE employee SET salary =
salary * 1.10 WHERE salary = 10 ;
This would mean that the changed salary for all these employees would be
$11. Your UPDATE statement caused an AFTER ROW trigger to be fired that
contained the following statement: SELECT salary FROM employee WHERE . . .
You would get the mutating table error because the trigger tried to query the
original employee table but the original table was in the process of change.
Which version of the table should Oracle retrieve when the SELECT is issued?
That's the problem! Oracle simply will not allow this statement to occur,

because it doesn't have any way of knowing how to provide the correct set of
data (i.e. a consistent view of the data). Oracle would generate the ORA-04091
error and rollback both the trigger body and the triggering statement (i.e. the
UPDATE).
Bottom-line: you cannot touch the table you are updating, deleting from or
inserting into in any trigger or user-defined function code that it may execute
57) What restrictions apply to the use of PL/SQL in triggers?
57) First define mutating table and a constraining table.
A mutating table is one that is one that is currently being modified by a DML
statement. For a trigger this is the table on which the trigger is defined. Also if
a table is being updated as a result of a DELETE CASCADE referential integrity
constraint it is also mutating.
A constraining table is a table that might need to be read from for a referential
integrity constraint.
For all row level triggers and also a statement triggers that have been fired as
a result of a DELETE CASCADE operation.
SQL statements in a trigger body may not
-read from or modify any mutating table of the triggering statement. This
includes the triggering table itself.
- read from or modify the primary, unique, or foreign key columns of a
constraining table of the triggering table. They may, however, modify the other
columns if desired.
58) What are the Locks in Oracle?
58)
Shared Locks:
1. Shared locks are placed on resource whenever a READ operation(SELECT) is
performed.
2. Multiple shared locks can be simultaneously set on a resource.
Exclusive Locking:
1. Exclusive locks are placed on resources whenever Write operations (INSERT,
UPDATE and DELETE) are performed.
2. Only one exclusive lock can be placed on a resource at a time i.e. the first
user who acquire an exclusive lock will continue to have the sole ownership of
the resource, and no other user can acquire an exclusive lock on that resource.
59) What is the use of 'For Update'?
59)
Explicit Locking: The technique of lock taken on a table or its resources by a
user is called Explicit Locking.
Who can Explicitly Lock?
User can lock tables they own or any tables on which they have been granted
table privileges(such as select , insert, update, delete).
Oracle provide facilities by which the default locking strategy can be
overridden. Table(s) or row(s) can be explicitly locked by using either the
Select...for update statement, or a lock table statement.
Select...For Update Statement

It is used for acquiring exclusive row level locks in anticipation of performing


updates on records. It is often followed by one or more update statement with
a where clause.
Example:
1. Two client machine Client A and Client B are generating sales_orders
simultaneously.
2. Client A fires the following select statement.
Client A> SELECT * FROM Sales_Order Where order_no = '00001' for UPDATE;
When the above select statement is fired, the Oracle engine locks the record
00001, this lock is released when a commit or rollback is fired by Client A.
Now Client B fires a Select statement, which points to record 00001, which has
already been locked by client A.
Client B> SELECT * FROM Sales_Order Where order_no = '00001' for UPDATE;
The Oracle engine will ensure that Client B's SQl statement waits for the lock to
be released on Sales_Order by a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement fired by
client a forever.
In order to avoid unnecessary waiting time, a NOWAIT option can be used to
inform the Oracle engine to terminate the SQL statement if the record has
already been locked.
If this happens the Oracle engine terminates the running DML and comes up
with a message indicating that the resource is busy.
If Client B fires the following select statement now with a NOWAIT clause.
Client B> SELECT * FROM Sales_Order Where order_no = '00001' for UPDATE
NOWAIT;
Oracle engine will display the following message:
SQL> 00054: resource busy and acquire with nowait specified.
The Select...for update cannot be used with the following:
1. Distinct and the group by clause.
2. Set operators and group functions.
60) What is exception handler?
60) An Exception Handler is nothing but a code block in memory that will
attempt to resolve the current exception condition. The Oracle engine can
recognize every exception condition that occurs in memory. To handle very
common and repetitive exception conditions the Oracle engine uses Named
Exception Handlers. The Oracle engine has about fifteen to twenty named
exception handlers. In addition to this Oracle engine uses more than twenty
thousand numbered exception handlers. These exception handlers are
identified not by names but by four integers preceded by a hyphen(i.e. -1414) .
These exception handlers names are actually a set of negative signed integers.
Each Exception Handler, irrespective of how it is identified, (i.e. by Name or

Number) has code attached that will attempt top resolve an exception
condition. This is how Oracle's "Default Exception-Handling" strategy works.
Oracle's default exception handling code can be overridden. When this is done
Oracle's default exception handling code is not executed but the code block
that takes care of the exception condition, in the exception section, of the
PL/SQL block executed. This is an example of a programmer giving explicit
exception handling instructions to an Oracle exception handler.
This means that Oracle engin's Exception Handler must establish whether to
execute its own exception handling code or whether it has to execute userdefined exception handling code.
As soon as the Oracle engine invokes an exception handler the exception
handler goes back to the PL/SQL block from which the exception was raised.
The exception handler scans the PL/SQL block for the existence of an Exception
section within the PL/SQL block, If an exception section within the PL/SQL block
exists the exception handler scan the first word, after the action word When,
within the exception section.
If the first word after the action word "When", is the exception handler's name
then the exception handler executes the code contained in the "Then" section
of the construct as follows:
Exception: When {<Exception Name>} Then
{<User defined action to be carried out>}
The first word that follows the action word When must be String. Hence this
technique will work well for the fifteen to twenty named exception handlers. In
addition to these Oracle has twenty thousand numbered exception handlers,
which are raised automatically can appropriately when the oracle engine
recognizes exception condition. User defined exception handling code must be
permitted even for these(numbered) exception handlers.
61) Pre-Defined Oracle error handlers?
61)
1. DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX: Raised when an insert or update attempts to create
two rows with duplicate values in colums/s constrained by a unique index.
2. LOGIN_DENIED: Raised when an invalid username/password was used to log
onto Oracle.
3. NO_DATA_FOUND: Raised when a select statement returns zero rows.
4. NOT_LOGGED_ON: Raised when PL/SQL issues an Oracle call without being
logged onto Oracle,
5. PROGRAM_ERROR: Raised when Oracle has internal problem.
6. TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE: Raised when Oracle has been waiting to access a
resource beyond the user-defined timeout limit.
7. TOO_MANY_ROWS: Raised when a select statement returns more than one
row.
8. VALUE_ERROR: Raised when the data type or data size is invalid.
9. OTHERS: Stands for all other exceptions not explicitly named.

62) USER-Named Exception Handlers?


62) To handle unnamed internal exceptions, you must use the OTHERS handler
or the
pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. A pragma is a compiler directive, which can be
thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. Pragmas (also called
pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time, not at run time. In PL/SQL,
the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name
with an Oracle error number. That allows you to refer to any
internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. You code the
pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block, subprogram,
or package using the syntax
PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name, Oracle_error_number);
where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. The
pragma must appear somewhere after the exception declaration in the same
declarative section, as shown in the following example:
DECLARE
deadlock_detected EXCEPTION;
PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected, -60);
User-Defined Exceptions
BEGIN
...
EXCEPTION
WHEN deadlock_detected THEN
-- handle the error
END;
or
The technique that is used to bind a numbered exception handler to a name
using Pragma Eception_init(), This binding of a numbered exception handler, to
a name (i.e. a String), is done in the Declare section of a PL/SQL block.
All objects declared in the Declare section of a PL/SQL block not created until
actually required within the PL/SQL block. However, the binding of a numbered
exception handler to a name must be done exactly when declared not when
the exception handler is invoked due to an exception condition.
The Pragma action word is a call to a pre-compiler, which immediately binds
the numbered exception handler to a name when encountered.
The function Exception_init() takes two parameters the first is the user defined
exception name the second is the Oracle engine's exception number. These
lines will be included in the Declare section of the PL/SQL Block.
Syntax:
DECLARE
<exception_name> EXCEPTION;

PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(<exception_name>,<error_code_no>);
BEGIN
Using this technique it is possible to bind appropriated number exception
handlers to names and use these names in the Exception section of a PL/SQL
block. When this is done the default exception handling code of the exception
handler is override and the user-defined xeception handling code is executed.
Syntax:
DECLARE
<exception_name> EXCEPTION;
PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(<exception_name>,<error_code_no>);
BEGIN
....
....
EXCEPTION
WHEN <exception_name> THEN
<action >
END;
Using raise_application_error: Package DBMS_STANDARD, which is supplied
with Oracle, provides language facilities that help your application interact with
Oracle.
For example, the procedure raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined
error messages from stored subprograms. That way, you can report errors to
your application and avoid
returning unhandled exceptions.To call raise_application_error, use the syntax
raise_application_error(error_number, message[, {TRUE | FALSE}]);
where error_number is a negative integer in the range -20000 .. -20999 and
message is a character string up to 2048 bytes long. If the optional third
parameter
is TRUE, the error is placed on the stack of previous errors. If the parameter is
FALSE (the default), the error replaces all previous errors. Package
DBMS_STANDARD is an extension of package STANDARD, so you need not
qualify references to its contents.
63) What is the block structure of PL/SQL block?
63)
64) Bind variable?
64) Bind variable, also referred to as input variables and output varaibles, are
used to promote the reuse of SQL statements. For example, given the famous
emp table in the scott schema, you may code:
SQL> select * from emp where empno = 1234;
SQL> select * from emp where empno = 5678;
Unfortunately, as far as Oracle is concerned, the above two queries are two
completely different queries and each will need to be parsed, optimized, and

validated for access (can you select * from the emp table?). If on the other
hand you coded:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>

variable empno number


exec :empno := 1234;
select * from emp where empno = :empno;
exec :empno := 5678;
select * from emp where empno = :empno;

You would get the same results, but the second execution of the select
statement would 'reuse' the already compiled, parsed, optimized query plan
(eg: it would run faster the second time around). Since SQL query plans are
shared not only across sessions (eg: you could log out and log back in between
executions of the select statement and still see the speed up) but across users,
commonly executed SQL will get parsed/compiled/optimized once per database
instance, not per user/per use.
Bind variables can be used anywhere a database column can be used.
Anywhere you can put a column, you can put a bind variable. You cannot use
bind variables in place of database objects however, so for example:
SQL> select * from :some_table;
Will always fail. This SQL query cannot be parsed and compiled and optimized
since the value of :some_table will be changing. In order to accomplish the
above you need to use dynamic sql (see dbms_sql if pl/sql is the access
language, pro*c docs for documentation on dynamic sql methods 1-4
otherwise).
OR
You can use bind variables anywhere. PL/SQL actually converts all local
variables to bind variables in your static SQL automatically. With SQL, your host
application has to supply actual values for bind variables if you use them.
NOT using bind variables where appropriate (and it's almost everywhere) is a
major performance and scalability inhibitor. Without them, all your SQL is
unique to Oracle, and each statement is hard-parsed and is kept in the library
cache as new unique SQL, which quickly fills up the SGA with unique nonshareable statements and introduces library cache latch contention among
other bad things. There are cases when you would want not to use bind
variables (to allow CBO to see actual values so that it can come up with
optimal plan for your particular data distribution), but these are actually rare.
Tom Kyte's book (Expert one-on-one: Oracle) lists a method for detecting SQL
statements with literals, which allows to spot such statements quickly and
reliably.
Optimizer and Bind variables: The first time the optimizer sees a SQL
statement with bind variables, it checks the actual input values and uses those
values to generate an execution path. Thereafter, the same path is used for
that SQL text, regardless of the actual values for the bind variables in the
subsequent uses of the text. This behavior also appears if you use
cursor_sharing=force, but can be modified if you use cursor_sharing=exact.
In 8i and later, there is CURSOR_SHARING parameter, which automatically
replaces literals with bind variables when set to EXACT (or SIMILAR in 9i), but it
has a number of bugs and caveats associated with it, so it's not a silver bullet,

though it is particularly useful with dynamic SQL. You may want to look at it,
but I would discourage setting it at instance level and only set it to EXACT in
session when it is really needed. Ideally, you should explicitly use bind
variables where they are appropriate and not rely on some database setting to
do it for you automatically.
OR
A Bind: A bind variable is like a parameter to a query. For example the
query:SQL> select * from emp where ename = 'KING'; make no use of bind
variables. If we want to change the search criteria from 'KING' to 'BLAKE' we
must rewrite the entire query, reparse and execute it. If on the other hand we
had coded: SQL> select * from emp where ename = :x;
We would 'bind' the value of 'KING' to :x and simply parse and execute the
query. Later we can change the value of our bind variable :x to BLAKE and
simply re-execute the query (skipping the parse phase).
To a forms developer, this is all pretty much transparent. D2K and pl/sql do
this transparently for you. When you build a block and go into enter query
mode, forms will build a query that uses bind variables(in the hope that
someone else has already parsed/optimized such a query for us in the shared
pool in the database and we can save time). also, whenever you code pl/sql,
the pl/sql parser is finding bind varaables
and turning them into 'real' bind variables when possible. Consider the
following example executed in sql*plus: SQL> alter session set sql_trace
=true;
Session altered.
SQL> @a
SQL> declare
2
l_cnt number;
3
l_str varchar2(20) default 'KING';
4 begin
5
select count(*) into l_cnt from emp where ename = l_str;
6 end;
7 /
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Now, when we run 'tkprof' on the
generated trace file (from the alter session command) we get to see the 'real'
sql we executed which was:
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE ENAME = :b1
See how pl/sql rewrote the query using placeholders AKA bind variable in the
query.
65) Advantages of packages.
65) Advantages of Packages:
1. Packages enable the organization of commercial applications into efficient
modules. Each package is easily understood, and the interface between
package are simple, clear and well defined.
2. Package allows granting of privileges efficiently.

3. A Package's public variables and cursor persist for the duration of the
session. Therefore all cursor and procedures that execute in this environment
can share them.
4. Package enables the overloading of procedure and function when required.
5. Package improves performance by loading multiple objects into memory at
once. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package
require no I/O.
6. Package promote code reuse through the use of libraries that contain stored
procedures and functions, reducing redundant coding.
65) PL/SQL table?
65) PL/SQL tables are a lot more useful than you might think. True, a PL/SQL
table is LIKE a 1-dimensional array. However, unlike an array, it is a sparse
structure. You only use the memory that you need. It's unlimited in it's size.
Well, it IS limited by the amount of memory you have.
If you need to hold 100 items, then you must declare an array of that size with
your normal programming langauges (such as C or Pascal or Basic). However,
there really is no way to search the array other than a sequential search
UNLESS you use hashing or a binary search.
With a PL\SQL table, the index is a binary index. The indexes do NOT have to
be in sequential order. I can declare a PL/SQL table as such:
TYPE error_table_typ IS TABLE of NUMBER(7)
INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER;
my_table error_table_typ;
I could then store numbers as follows:
my_table(1) := 100;
my_table(100) := 205;
my_table(150) := 1;
All that is in memory are these three "records". That's it. Now, if I wanted to
store them this way in an array in C or Pascal, I would have to create an array
of at least 150 elements. Of course, some of you may be thinking, "WHY would
I want to store elements out of order?" Well, a PL/SQL table works great if you
have data you have to constantly verify against. Selecting against a PL/SQL
table is a LOT faster than having to constantly go against a table in the
database. Loading the table into a PL/SQL table and then using the PL/SQL
table to verify your data is much faster. THIS is where a PL/SQL table comes in
handy.
Let's say you have a table that has an ID to indentify a business. You want the
business name. The ID's are NOT neccessarily in a sequential order. But, they
ARE numbers. Here's the table:
COMPANY_TABLE

company_id_nbr NUMBER(8);
company_name_txt VARCHAR2(200);
We create a PL/SQL table as follows:
DECLARE
TYPE company_name_table_typ IS TABLE of VARCHAR2(200)
INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER;
my_table company_name_table_typ;
CURSOR my_cursor IS
SELECT company_id_nbr, company_name_txt
FROM company_table;
my_cursor_rec my_cursor%ROWTYPE;
BEGIN
OPEN my_cursor;
FETCH my_cursor
INTO my_cursor_rec;
WHILE my_cursor%FOUND
LOOP
my_table(my_cursor_rec.company_id_nbr) :=
my_cursor_rec.company_name_txt;
FETCH my_cursor
INTO my_cursor_rec;
END LOOP;
CLOSE my_cursor;
END;
Put this code into a procedure before you're main code runs (make the PL/SQL
tables global, of course). Then, if we ever need to verify the company name
and all we have is the id, we can then do the following:
DECLARE
name_txt VARCHAR2(200);
id_nbr NUMBER(8);
BEGIN
name_txt := my_table(id_nbr);
...
EXCEPTION
WHEN no_data_found
THEN
/* This will happen if the record does NOT exists */

/* in the PL/SQL table. */


END;
This is MUCH faster than going against the table in the database directly. THIS
is the beauty of PL/SQL tables. At first, I too felt they were useless. Now,
I've gone back to many programs I've written and rewrote them to use PL/SQL
tables with this kind of programming. I have noticed a 25%+ increase in the
speed in the verification routines of my programs, which also decreases the
amount of time my programs run (especially my overnight processes that are
huge).
With PL/SQL 2.3, you will be able to have PL/SQL tables with more than one
column which means you can create a PL/SQL table that is a direct copy of a
record of a table in the database. Until then, if you use PL/SQL version before
2.3, then you won't be able to have more than one column per PL/SQL table.
But,
you just have to create a PL/SQL table for each column that has a different
type and index each table by the same index. It's that simple.
66) How the nulls are handled in PL/SQL?
66) A NULL does not equal NULL. Null is always undefined. Since it has no
definition it cannot be equal to another undefined value. This is how NULL are
treated in ORACLE. if both columns that were being compared were null then
they were not equal. One way to handle this is to wrap nvl(your_column_her,0)
in your cursor select or in the comparison this will ensure that NULL will be
handled identically.
IF nvl(a,0) = nvl(b,0) then
do something;
END IF;
Watch out! The above example will fail when a=0 and b is null, and When a is
null and b=0.
The only way you can really be sure is with something like this:
IF a = b or (a is null and b is null)
Oracle's way of always returning FALSE to any comparison where a column
value is null indicates that
they don't work much in the *real*.
Ok, here is the partial package, the rest you can fill in with your
rules for comparision ( is a null < null for example?. Why is a null
< anything else? )
---------------------------------------------------------create or replace package null
as
function "="( a in varchar2, b in varchar2 ) return number;
pragma restrict_references ( "=", WNDS, RNDS, WNPS, RNPS );

function "<"( a in varchar2, b in varchar2 ) return number;


pragma restrict_references ( "<", WNDS, RNDS, WNPS, RNPS );
end nulls;
/
create or replace package body nulls
as
function "="( a in varchar2, b in varchar2 ) return number
is
begin
if ( a = b OR ( a is NULL and b is NULL ) )
then
return 1;
else
return 0;
end if;
end "=";
function "<"( a in varchar2, b in varchar2 ) return number
is
begin
if ( a is NULL and b is NOT NULL )
then
return 1;
elsif ( a < b )
then
return 1;
else
return 0;
end if;
end "<";
end nulls;
/
---------------------------------------------------------select nulls."="( null, null )
from dual
/
NULLS."="(NULL,NULL)
-------------------1
select nulls."<"( null, 1 )
from dual
/
NULLS."<"(NULL,1)
----------------1

select * from dual


where nulls."="( null, null ) = 1
/
D
X
select * from dual
where nulls."<"( null, dummy ) = 1
/
D
X
67) Exception?
67) Exceptions are identifiers in PL/SQL that are raised during the execution of
a block to terminate its action. A block is always terminated when PL/SQL
raises an exception but you can define your own error handler to capture
exceptions and perform some final actions before quitting the block. If PL/SQL
handles the exception within the block then the exception will not propagate
out to an enclosing block or environment.
There are two classes of exceptions, these are :Predefined - Oracle predefined errors which are associated with specific error
codes.
User-defined - Declared by the user and raised when specifically requested
within a block. You may associate a user-defined exception with an error code if
you wish.
If an error occurs within a block PL/SQL passes control to the EXCEPTION
section of the block. If no EXCEPTION section exists within the block or the
EXCEPTION section doesn't handle the error that's occurred then the block is
terminated with an unhandled exception. Exceptions propagate up through
nested blocks until an exception handler is found that can handle the error. If
no exception handler is found in any block the error is passed out to the host
environment. Exceptions occur when either an Oracle error occurs (this
automatically raises an exception) or you explicitly raise an error using the
RAISE statement.
The two most common errors originating from a SELECT statement occur when
it returns no rows or more than one row (remember that this is not allowed).
The example below deals with these two conditions.
DECLARE
TEMP_COST NUMBER(10,2);
TEMP_ISBN NUMBER(10);
BEGIN
SELECT ISBN, COST FROM JD11.BOOK INTO TEMP_ISBN, TEMP_COST WHERE
ISBN > 21;
IF TEMP_COST > 0 THEN
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = (TEMP_COST*1.175) WHERE ISBN > 21;
ELSE
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = 21.32 WHERE ISBN > 21;
END IF;

COMMIT;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'NOT FOUND');
WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'TOO MANY');
END;
The block above will generate an error because there are more than one record
with an ISBN greater than 21. The exception raised from this will be passed to
the EXCEPTION section where each handled action will be checked. The
statements within the TOO_MANY_ROWS action will then be executed before
the block is terminated.
If some other error occurred this EXCEPTION section would not handle it
because is isn't defined as a checkable action. To cover all possible errors you
can specify a catch all action named OTHERS.
DECLARE
TEMP_COST NUMBER(10,2);
TEMP_ISBN NUMBER(10);
BEGIN
SELECT ISBN, COST FROM JD11.BOOK INTO TEMP_ISBN, TEMP_COST WHERE
ISBN > 21;
IF TEMP_COST > 0 THEN
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = (TEMP_COST*1.175) WHERE ISBN > 21;
ELSE
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = 21.32 WHERE ISBN > 21;
END IF;
COMMIT;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'NOT FOUND');
WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'TOO MANY');
WHEN OTHERS THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'SOME ERROR
OCCURRED');
END;
This block will trap all errors. If the exception isn't no rows returned or too
many rows returned then the OTHERS action will perform the error handling.
PL/SQL provides two special functions for use within an EXCEPTION section,
they are SQLCODE and SQLERRM. SQLCODE is the Oracle error code of the
exception, SQLERRM is the Oracle error message of the exception. You can use
these functions to detect what error has occurred (very useful in an OTHERS
action). SQLCODE and SQLERRM should be assigned to variables before you
attempt to use them.
DECLARE
TEMP_COST NUMBER(10,2);
TEMP_ISBN NUMBER(10);
ERR_MSG VARCHAR2(100);
ERR_CDE NUMBER;
BEGIN

SELECT ISBN, COST FROM JD11.BOOK INTO TEMP_ISBN, TEMP_COST WHERE


ISBN > 21;
IF TEMP_COST > 0 THEN
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = (TEMP_COST*1.175) WHERE ISBN > 21;
ELSE
UPDATE JD11.BOOK SET COST = 21.32 WHERE ISBN > 21;
END IF;
COMMIT;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'NOT FOUND');
WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'TOO MANY');
WHEN OTHERS THEN
ERR_MSG := SUBSTR(SQLERRM,1,100);
ERR_CDE := SQLCODE;
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(ERR_CDE,
ERR_MSG);
END;
If you explicitly need to raise an error you can do this by using the RAISE
statement. For example, if you wanted to raise an error if a SELECT statement
found a row (which it shouldn't have found) you would only be able to do this
by raising your own error.
DECLARE
TEMP_COST NUMBER(10,2);
TEMP_ISBN NUMBER(10);
ERR_MSG VARCHAR2(100);
ERR_CDE NUMBER;
BEGIN
SELECT ISBN, COST FROM JD11.BOOK INTO TEMP_ISBN, TEMP_COST WHERE
ISBN < 0;
RAISE THIS_IS_WRONG
EXCEPTION
WHEN THIS_IS_WRONG THEN
INSERT INTO JD11.ERRORS (CODE, MESSAGE) VALUES(99, 'OOPS');
END;
The example above shouldn't find any rows with an ISBN less than 0. If it did
we raise our own exception to force PL/SQL to pass control to our own action
within the EXCEPTION section.
68) How many triggers?
68) There are total 14 database triggers
insert before
delete before
update before
insert after
delete after
update after

above all for each row


above all for each statement
these are 12
Istead of Trigger- INSTEAD-OF trigger provide a transparent way of modifying
views that
cannot be modified directly through DML statement (INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE). These trigger are called Istead-of-triggers because, unlike other types
of triggers, oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering
statement. The trigger perform update, insert or delete operation directly on
the underlying tables. Users write normal INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE
statement against the view nad the INSTEAD-OF trigger works invisibly in the
background to make the reght action take place.
Instead of trigger are only applicable only for row level triggers.
8 System Level triggers - After Startup, Before Shutdown, After Logging, before
logoff,
ServerError, create, alter, delete
Total is 14 database triggers.
69) Copy a structure of a table without records?
69) create table_name as select * from source_table where 1=2;
70) If two structure are same and one table in having data how to insert the
data into empty
table?
70) insert into tablename select * from tablename.
71) How to get salary whose salary is greate then avg sal?
71) select salary from employee where salary > (select avg(salary) from
employee);
72) What will you get if you run "select 1 from ja05_customer;'
72) It will return number or rows with 1 like if there are to records it will return
1
1