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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES

DRYING
Compilation of Lectures and Solved Problems

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 2


DRYING

DRYING
-

is the removal of relatively small amounts of solvent, at temperatures below its boiling
point, by circulating air or some other gas over the material in order to carry away the
solvent vapor.

This is an adiabatic (constant enthalpy) drying process in which heat required for the
vaporization of solvent comes solely from the sensible heat of the frying medium

In the usual drying or dehumidification process, water is the solvent and air is the
drying medium. The drying process cools the air adiabatically at a constant wet bulb.
The dry bulb temperature approaches the wet bulb temperature and could reach it at
the saturation point.

Moisture Content, wet basis,


Expressed as kg moisture per kg wet solid or kg moisture per combined kg of dry solid and
moisture.
Moisture Content, dry basis,
Expressed as kg moisture per kg dry solid
Bound Moisture
Is the moisture content of a substance which exerts an equilibrium vapor pressure less than
that of the pure liquid at the same temperature; it is the moisture difficult to remove, but
which can be removed only under special conditions
Unbound Moisture
Refers to the moisture content of a substance which exerts an equilibrium vapor pressure
equal to that of the pure liquid at the same temperature.
Equilibrium Moisture Content,
Is the limiting moisture to which a given material can be dried under specific conditions of
air temperature and humidity; corresponds to bound moisture
Free Moisture Content,

Moisture content of a substance in excess of the equilibrium moisture; only free moisture
can be evaporated, and the free moisture content of a solid depends upon the vapor
concentration in the gas

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DRYING

Critical Moisture Content,


The average moisture content at the end of constant rate drying period or at the start of the
falling rate period
Constant Rate Drying Period
The drying period during which the rate of water removal per unit of drying surface is
constant
Falling Rate Drying Period
The drying period during which the instantaneous drying rate continually decreases

METHODSOF DRYING OPERATIONS


1. Batch Drying actually a semi-batch process wherein a quantity of the substance to be
dried is exposed to a continuously flowing stream of air into which the moisture
evaporates; batch or semi-batch equipment is operated intermittently or cyclically
under steady state conditions: the dryer is charged with the substance, which remains
in the equipment until dry, whereupon the dryer is emptied and recharged with a fresh
batch
2. Continuous Drying the substance to be dried as well as the gas passes continually
through the equipment; no typically stagewise methods are ordinarily used, and all
operations involve continuous contact of the gas and the drying substance; continuous
dryers are usually operated in steady state fashion
METHODS OF SUPPLYING THE HEAT NECESSARY FOR EVAPORATION OF MOISTURE
1. Direct Dryers heat is supplied entirely by direct contact of the substance with the hot
gas into which the evaporation takes place
2. Indirect Dryers heat is supplied quite independently of the gas used to carry away the
vaporized moisture
NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE TO BE DRIED
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rigid Solid wood or fibreboard


Flexible material cloth or paper
Granular solid mass of crystals
Thick paste or thin slurry or a solution

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 4


DRYING

HEAT TRANSFER IN DRYERS


CALCULATION OF HEAT DUTY:
Heat must be applied to a dryer to accomplish the following:
1. Heat the feed (solids and liquid) to the vaporization temperature
(
)+
(
)
=
2. Vaporize the liquid
=

3. Heat the product (solids and liquid) to their final temperature


=

4. Heat the vapour to its final temperature


=

5. Heat the air or other added gas to final temperature


The total heat transferred per unit mass of dry bone solid is:

)+

= + +
) +

+
+

)+

In an adiabatic dryer, the heat transferred to the solids, liquid and vapour, comes from the
cooling of the gas
=

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS


=
=

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DRYING

EVALUATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT


1. For air flowing parallel to the drying surface
=

= .

2. For flow of gas perpendicular to the surface, (air velocities between 0.90 and 4.5 m/s)
.
= .
(

Constant drying rate is simply,

HEAT TRANSFER UNITS


Some adiabatic dryers, especially rotary dryers, are conveniently rated in terms of the
number of heat transfer units they contain.
=

When the initial liquid content of the solids is high and most of the heat transferred is for
vaporization,
may be taken as the logarithmic mean difference between the dry bulb and
wet bulb temperatures
=

)
(

=
=

=
)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 6


DRYING

where:
= total heat transferred per unit mass of dry bone solid
= rate of heat transfer in a section of the dryer
= specific heat of dry bone solid
= specific heat of liquid
= specific heat of vapour
= humid heat of gas at inlet humidity
= temperature of feed
= final solids temperature
= vaporization temperature
= final vapour temperature
= heat of vaporization
= mass rate of dry bone solid
= mass rate of dry gas
= over-all heat transfer coefficient
= heat transfer area
= average temperature difference (not necessarily the logarithmic mean)
= dryer volume
= volumetric heat transfer coefficient
= Nusselt number
= heat transfer coefficient between gas and surface of slab
= equivalent diameter
= thermal conductivity
BATCH DRYING: CALCULATIONS OF DRYING TIME

Drying in batches is relatively an expensive operation and is consequently limited to


small-scale operations, to pilot plant and development work and to drying valuable
materials whose total cost will be little influenced by added expense in the drying
operations
Examples of batch dryers
o Tray, Cabinet or Shelf Dryers used for drying solids which must be supported on
trays
Unless stated otherwise, moisture contents of solids are on the wet basis and should be
converted to dry basis before solving any problem
Batch dryers operate under constant drying conditions

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DRYING

TIME OF DRYING UNDER CONSTANT DRYING CONDITIONS


Falling
Rate

Constant
Rate

Xe

Xf

Xc

Xi

Where:
= rate of drying, lb H2O/ft2h or kg H2O/m2h
= rate of drying at falling rate
= rate of drying at constant rate
= equilibrium moisture content (dry basis)
= critical moisture content (dry basis)
= final moisture content (dry basis)
= initial moisture content (dry basis)
= drying time
= weight of dry bone solid, kg or lb
= total drying area, ft2 or m2
At Constant Drying Conditions (CDC)
=

1. Constant Rate Period as long as the liquid covers the entire surface of the solid, the
rate of drying is constant. During this period, water diffuses through the solid at a rate
sufficient to keep the entire surface wet
=
=
=

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 8


DRYING
(

2. Falling Rate Period when part of the solid surface is no longer wetted by the liquid, the
drying rate decreases. Most of the water escapes by vaporizing at the surface of the
solid
( )
= ( )
=
(

)=

=
(

3. Total Drying Time (Constant Rate + Falling Rate)


= +
( )
(
=
+
=

+(

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DRYING

DRYING EQUIPMENT
1. Dryers for Solids and Pastes
a. Tray Dryers
Consists of a rectangular chamber of sheet metal containing two trucks that
supports racks; each rack carries a number of shallow trays that are loaded with
the material to be dried
Heated is circulated at 2 5 m/s between trays by fan and motor and passes
over heaters; air is distributed uniformly over the stack of trays through baffles
Useful on small production rate; they find most frequent application for valuable
products like dyes and pharmaceuticals
b. Screen Conveyor Dryers
A layer (25 mm to 150 mm) thick of material to be dried is slowly carried on a
travelling metal screen through a long drying chamber or tunnel
The chamber consists of series of separate sections, each with its own fan and
air heater. At the inlet end of the dryer, the air usually passes upward through
the screen and the solids; near the discharge end, where the material is dry and
may be dusty, air is passed downward through the screen. The air temperature
and humidity may differ in the various sections to give optimum conditions for
drying at each point
Typically 2 m wide and 4 50 m long, giving drying times of 5 120 minutes;
the minimum screen size is about 30 mesh
Handles variety of solids continuously and with a very gentle action; particularly
applicable when the drying conditions must be appreciably changed as the
moisture content of the solid is reduced
c. Tower dryers
Contains a series of circular trays mounted one above the other on a central
rotating shaft
Solid feed is dropped on the topmost tray is exposed to a stream of hot air or gas
that passes across the tray. The solid is then scrapped off and dropped to the
tray below. The flow of solids and gas may be either parallel or counter-current
d. Rotary Dryers
Consists of a revolving cylindrical shell, horizontal or slightly inclined toward
the outlet
Wet feed enters one end of the cylinder; dry material discharges from the other
Rotary dryers are heated by direct contact of gas with the solids, by hot gas
passing through an external jacket, or by steam condensing in a set of
longitudinal tubes mounted on the inner surface of the shell

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DRYING

The allowable mass velocity of the gas in a direct dryer depends on the dusting
characteristics of the solid being dried and ranges from 2,000 to 25,000 kg/m2h
for coarse particles; inlet gas temperatures are typically 120 175C for steam
heated air and 550 - 800C for flue gas from a furnace.
Dryer diameters range from 1 3 m; the peripheral speed of the shell is
commonly 20 25 m/min.
Direct contact rotary dryers are designed on the basis of heat transfer
=

.
.

= .
=

Where:
= rate of heat transfer, BTU/h
= dryer volume, ft3
= dryer length, ft
= average temperature difference, taken as logarithmic mean of wet-blub
depressions at inlet and outlet of the dryers
= mass velovity, lb/ft2h
= dryer diameter, ft
= volumetric heat transfer coefficient, BTU/ft3hF
e. Screw Conveyor Dryers
A continuous indirect-heat dryer, consisting essentially of a horizontal screw
conveyor (or paddle conveyor) enclosed in a cylindrical jacketed shell
Solid fed in one end is conveyed slowly through the heated zone and discharges
from the other end. The vapour evolved is withdrawn through pipes set in the
roof of the shell
Handles solids that are too fine and too sticky for rotary dryers; they are
completely enclosed and permit recovery of solvent vapors with little or no
dilution by air.
f.

Fluid Bed Dryers


Solid particles are fluidized by air or gas in a boiling-bed unit; mixing and heat
transfer are very rapid; wet feed is admitted to the top of the bed; dry product is
taken out from the side, near the bottom
.

= . + .

Where:
= heat transfer coefficient between and gas and solid, BTU/ft2hF
= particle diameter, ft
= thermal conductivity at mean film temperature, BTU/fthF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 11


DRYING

g. Flash Dryers
Wet pulverized solid is transported for a few seconds in a hot gas stream
The rate of heat transfer from the gas to the suspended solid particles is high
and drying is rapid so that no more than 3 or 4 s is required to evaporate
substantially all the moisture from the solid
Flash drying may be applied to sensitive materials that in other dryers would
have to be dried indirectly by a much cooler heating medium
2. Dryers for Solutions and Slurries
a. Spray Dryers
A slurry or liquid solution is dispersed into a stream of hot gas in the form of a
mist of fine droplets. Moisture is rapidly vaporized from the droplets, leaving
residual particles of dry solid, which are then separated from the gas stream.
The flow of liquid and gas may be co-current, counter current or a combination
of both in the same unit
Droplets are formed inside a cylindrical drying chamber by pressure nozzles,
two-fluid nozzles, or, in large dryers, high speed spray disks
An equation for the volume-surface mean diameter
of the drops from a disk
atomizer is:
.

= .

Where:
= average drop diameter, m or ft
= disk radius, m or ft
= spray mass rate per unit length of disk periphery, kg/ms or lb/fts
= surface tension of liquid, kg/m3 or lb/ft3
= disk speed, r/s
= viscosity of liquid, Pas or lb/fts
= disk periphery, 2r, m or ft
b. Thin Film Dryers
Competitive with spray dryers but relatively expensive
c. Drum Dryers
Consist of one or more heated metal rolls on the outside of which a thin layer of
liquid is evaporated to dryness. Dried solid is scraped off the rolls as they slowly
revolve

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DRYING

PROBLEM # 01.
A hot air dryer handles 1,000 kg/h of wet feed with a moisture content of 20% wet basis to
reduce the moisture content to 12.5% dry basis. Atmospheric air at 23.9C with a relative
humidity of 60% is preheated to a dry bulb temperature of 82.2C. The exhaust air leaves
the dryer at 60C. Calculate: (a) the volume of the atmospheric air handled by the preheater, and (b) the duty of the pre-heater in kcal/h.
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (November 1989)
SOLUTION:

Air
23.9 C
60% RH
HEATER

60 C

82.2 C
DRYER

F = 1,000 kg/h
xi=0.20

Xf=0.125

1. Final moisture content wet basis


=

1+
0.125
=

= 0.1111

(1 + 0.125)

2. Dry product balance:


(1 ) = 1
(1 0.20) 1,000
=

(1 0.1111)

= 899.9888

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 13


DRYING

3. Water evaporated
= +
= 1,000

899.9888

= 100.0112

4. Humidity of air entering the pre-heater


At 23.9C,
= 22.243
=

100

(60)(22.243)
= 13.3458
100
(18)(13.3458)
=
= 0.0112
(28.84)(760 13.3458)

5. Humidity of air entering the dryer


=

= 0.0112

6. Humidity of air leaving the dryer


Assume adiabatic drying conditions, using the psychrometric chart at dry bulb
temperature of 60C
= 0.019

7. Amount of dry air entering the dryer


= ( )
100.0112

= 12,821.9487

(0.019 0.0112)

8. Specific volume of dry atmospheric air


From the psychrometric chart at 23.9C
1
= 13.4

= 0.8365
16.0185

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DRYING

9. Humid volume of atmospheric air


0.0112
= 0.8365

0.08205

+
(1

) 18

= 0.8516

10. Volume of entering air


= 12,821.9487
=

0.8516

11. Humid heat of air entering the dryer


From the psychrometric chart at = 0.0112
= 0.244

12. Heat requirement


( )
=
= 12,821.9487
=

0.244

(82.2 23.9)

(296.9 )

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DRYING

PROBLEM # 02.
A Proctor & Swartz coconut meat dryer processes
hour. The following are other data:
Specific heat of coconut meat
Density of coconut meat from the shearing
and washing section
Initial moisture content of coconut meat
Final moisture content of coconut meat
Coconut meat inlet temperature
Coconut meat outlet temperature
Drying condition
Drying condition RH
Barometer reading
Compute the heat input to the dryer.

1,133.8 kg of desiccated coconut per


-

0.754 kJ/kgK
1.520 kg/m3

20%
1.5%
21C
38C
71C db
20%
89.6 kPa

SOLUTION:
Air
RH = 20%
tF = 71 C

DRYER

F = 1,133.8 kg/h
xi = 0.20
tsi = 21 C

xf = 0.015
t sf = 38 C

1. Moisture content (dry basis)


0.20
=
=
= 0.25
1
1 0.20
0.015
=
=
= 0.0152
1
1 0.015
2. Mass of bone-dry solid
= 1,133.8

80
100

= 907.04

3. Mass of water in the feed

= 1,133.8

20
100

= 226.76

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 16


DRYING

4. Mass of product after drying


Consider solid balance
(1 ) = 1
(1 0.20) 1,133.8
=

(1 0.015)

= 920.8528

5. Mass of water evaporated


Consider over-all material balance
= +
= 1,133.8

920.8528

= 212.9472

6. Mass water in the product

= 920.8528

1.5
100

= 13.8128

7. Vaporization temperature
From steam table at 89.6 kPa drying operation
= 96.48
8. Sensible heat to raise temperature of solid from initial (21C) to vaporization
temperature (96.48C)
=
)
, (
= 907.04

= 51,621.3879

0.754

(96.48 21)

9. Sensible heat to raise temperature if water from initial (21C) to vaporization


temperature (96.48C)
=
)
, (
= 226.76

= 71,660.6190

4.1868

(96.48 21)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 17


DRYING

10. Latent heat to vaporize the moisture


=
From steam table at 89.6 kPa,
= 2,261.55
= 212.9472

2,261.55

= 481,591.7526

11. Sensible heat to raise temperature of the bone dry solid from vaporization temperature
(96.48C) to final product temperature (38C)
=

,
= 907.04

0.754

= 39,994.9492

(38 96.48)

12. Sensible heat to raise temperature of water remaining in the material from vaporization
temperature (96.48C) to final product temperature (38C)
=

,
= 13.8128

4.1868

= 3,381.9821

(38 96.48)

13. Total heat requirement of the system


= + + + +
= 51,621.3879

+ 71,660.6190

+ 3,381.9821
= 561,496.8282
=

1
3,600

1
1

+ 481,591.7526

+ 39,994.9492

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DRYING

PROBLEM # 03.
Ipil-ipil leaves will be dried in a moving train of tray dryers. The wet leaves containing 75%
water (wet basis) is to be dried to 15% (wet basis) in trays measuring 1 m x 1.5 m. The wet
leaves are spread out in the tray to a uniform thickness of 8 cm. Calculate:
a) The number of trays needed to produce 1 metric ton of the dried leaves
b) The amount of water removed/MT of product. The density of the wet leaves is 0.75 g/cc
c) If dry hot air at 20% RH and a dry bulb temperature of 110F is blown into the dryer
and moist air leaves at 105F dry bulb and 86F wet bulb temperatures, how many ft3 of
dry hot air will be needed per MT of product?
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem
SOLUTION:
Air
110 F
20% RH

db = 105 F
wb = 86 F
DRYER

xi=0.75
P = 1 MT
xf=0.15

1. Weight of feed
(1 ) = 1
(1 0.15)(1,000
=
(1 0.75)

= 3,400

2. Required number of trays


=1

1.5

1
100

3,400

750
0.12

= 0.12

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 19


DRYING

3. kg water removed
= +
= 3,400
1,000
= ,

= 2,400

4. humidity of entering air


For the entering air, at 20% RH and 110F:
= 1.2763

100

20
= 0.25526
100
(18)(0.25526)
=
= 0.0110
(28.84)(14.7 0.25526)

= (1.2763

5. Humidity of air leaving the dryer


For the exit air at Tdb = 105F and Twb 86F
= 0.023

6. Amount of dry air entering the dryer


= ( )
2,400

= 200,000

(0.023 0.011)

7. Specific volume of dry air


From the psychrometric chart at 110F
= 14.3

13. Humid volume of atmospheric air


= 14.3

.
.

0.0110
+

0.7302

(1

= 14.5544

14. Volume of entering air


= 200,000
= .

1
0.454

14.5544

) 18

(570 )

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DRYING

PROBLEM # 04.
A wet material from a process plant containing 100% (dry basis) moisture has to be dried
to produce a product with 10% moisture. Heated air at 100C and 10% relative humidity is
being supplied to the dryer and leaves at 60C and a dew point of 52.5C. Part of the outlet
air is re-circulated and mixed with ambient air at 30C and 70% relative humidity.
Neglecting heat losses due to radiation to the surroundings and pre-heating of the solid
materials and its receptacle, calculate: (a) volume of ambient air, m3/min, and (b)
percentage of the outlet air re-circulated and mixed with ambient air when producing 500
kg/h of product.
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1988)
SOLUTION:
Air
30 C
70% RH
db = 60 C
Dew pt = 52.5 C
4

R
2

3
DRYER

Xi=1.00

1. Feed rate
Consider dry material balance
(1 ) = 1
1
=
=
= 0.50
1+
1+1
0.10
=
=
= 0.0909
1+
1 + 0.10
(1 0.0909) 500
=

(1 0.50)

= 909.0909

2. Water evaporated/removed from the material


Consider over-all material balance
= +
= 909.0909

500

= 409.0909

100 C
10% RH

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 21


DRYING

3. Humidity of ambient air


For air at 30C, 70%RH, from table 2-5 CHE HB 8th edition
= 31.824
=
=
=

100
(31.824

)(70)
100

= 22.2768

(18)(22.2768)
= 0.0188
(28.84)(760 22.2768)

4. Humidity of air entering the dryer


For air at 100C, 10%RH, from table 2-5 CHE HB 8th edition
= 760
=
=
=

100
(760

)(10)
100

= 76

(18)(76)
= 0.0693
(28.84)(760 76)

5. Humidity of leaving the dryer


For air at 60C and dew point of 52.5C, from the pychrometric chart
= 0.0950

6. Amount of dry air required in the dryer


= ( )
=

409.0909

= 15,917.9338

(0.095 0.0693)

7. Dry air balance at the entrance of dryer


=
+
= 15,917.9338
1
Consider water balance:
=
+
.
15,917.9338
0.0693

=
0.095
= 11,611.7138 0.1979
2
Equate 1 and 2
15,917.9338
= 11,611.7138 0.1979
= 5,368.6822

) 0.0188

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 22


DRYING

8. Specific volume of ambient air


From figure 19.2 Unit Operations of Chemical Engineers, 7th edition, McCabe, et.al.
.
1
.
.
.
= 13.75
= 0.8584
.
.
.
16.0185
.
9. Humid volume of ambient air
0.0188

.
+
.

= 0.8584

= 0.8844

0.08205
(1

) 18

10. Volume of ambient air


= 5,368.6822
=

1
60

0.8844

11. Weight of wet air recycled, from equation 1


.

= 15,917.9338 5,368.6822 = 10,549.2516


= 10,549.2516
= 11,551.4305

+ 10,549.2516

11,551.4305
17,430.1375

0.0950

13. % recycled air


=

12. Weight of wet air leaving the dryer


=
+
.
= 15,917.9338
+ 15,917.9338

.
= 17,430.1375

100

0.0950

(303 )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 23


DRYING

PROBLEM # 05.
An adiabatic tunnel dryer reduces the moisture content of pineapple stumps used as a fuel
in the boiler of a pineapple cannery. Ambient air is heated and blown through the tunnel
dryer countercurrent to the flow of pineapple stumps. The operating conditions are:
Pineapple Stumps:

Feed rate
Moisture content, feed
Moisture content, product
Temperature
Relative Humidity
Inlet temperature
Outlet relative humidity

Ambient Air:
Hot Air:

100 MT/day
100% Dry basis
30% dry basis
29.4C
80%
76.9C
100%

Calculate: (a) the quantity of moisture removed from the pineapple stumps in MT/day; (b)
the humidity of the inlet air; (c) the temperature of the air leaving the dryer; (d) the volume
of ambient air needed for drying in m3/h
CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1993)
SOLUTION:
Ambient Air
T1 = 29.4 C
80% RH
T2 = 76.9 C

100% RH

HEATER
DRYER

F = 100 MT/day
Xi = 1.0

Xf = 0.30

1. Dried pineapple stumps produced


(1 ) = 1
1
=
=
= 0.50
1+
1+1
0.30
=
=
= 0.2308
1+
1 + 0.30
(1 0.50) 100
=

(1 0.2308)

= 65.0026

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 24


DRYING

2. Moisture removed
= +
= 100 65.0026
=

3. Humidity of ambient air


From table 2-5 CHE HB 8th edition at 29.4C
= 30.745
=
=

100

(30.745

)(80)
100

= 24.596

(18)(24.596 )
= 0.0209
(28.84)(760 24.596)

4. Humidity of inlet air to dryer


Since ambient air undergoes only sensible heating, therefore,
=
= .

5. Wet bulb temperature of inlet air to the dryer


From figure 19.2 (McCabe, et al), for air at 76.9C and H = 0.0209
= 97 = 36.11
6. Wet bulb temperature of outlet air from the dryer
For adiabatic drying,
=
= 97 = 36.11
Temperature of the outlet air, outlet air humidity and amount of air needed are all interconnected, thus the remaining questions can be solved only by trial and error.
a. Assume value of outlet air dry bulb temperature
b. Using the psychrometric chart (figure 19.2) with wet bulb temperature of 97F,
determine the air outlet humidity
c. To check if assumption is correct, solve for humidity considering 100% RH, wherein
=
=

( )
d. If humidity from (b) is approximately the same as that from (c), then assumption is
correct; if otherwise, make new assumptions.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 25


DRYING

Trial

Assume T3

H (from b)

pA3

H (from c)

01
02

97F
97.5F

0.040
0.040

0.8698 psi
0.8832 psi

0.0392
0.0399

7. Temperature of outlet air


= . = .

8. Amount of dry air needed


= ( )
34.9974
=

= 1,841.9684
(0.0399 0.0209)

9. Specific volume of ambient air at 29.4C


From figure 19.2 Unit Operations of Chemical Engineers, 7th edition, McCabe, et.al.
.
1
.
.
.
= 13.70
= 0.8553
.
.
.
16.0185
.
10. Humid volume of ambient air
.
+
.

= 0.8553

= 0.8841

0.0209

0.08205
(1

) 18

11. Volume of ambient air


= 1,841.9684
=

1,000

1
24

0.8841

(302.4 )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 26


DRYING

PROBLEM # 06.
10 short tons/h of crushed coal with 15.1% moisture (wet basis) is to be dried to 5%
moisture (wet basis) in a counter-current continuous rotary dryer using hot air entering the
dryer at 180F, 10% relative humidity and leaves at 40% RH. How much hot air, in ft3/min
will be needed for the operation? Assume adiabatic operation.
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem
SOLUTION:
Hot Air
T1 = 180 F
10% RH

40% RH
DRYER

F = 10 short ton/h
xi = 0.151

xf = 0.05

1. Weight of dried crushed coal


(1 ) = 1
(1 0.151) 10
=

(1 0.05)

= 9.8368

2. Moisture removed
= +
= 10 9.8368 = 1.0632

3. Humidity of inlet air


From appendix 7 (McCabe, et.al) at 180F
= 7.515
=

100

(7.515
)(10)
= 0.7515
100
(18)(0.7515)
=
=
= 0.0336
(
) (28.84)(14.7 0.7515)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 27


DRYING

4. Wet bulb temperature of inlet air


From figure 19.2 (McCabe, et al)
= 106
5. Wet bulb temperature of outlet air
For adiabatic process,
=
= 106
6. Humidity of outlet air
From figure 12-1 (CHE HB, 8th edition), at Twet bulb of 106F and 40% RH
= 0.045

7. Air requirement
= ( )
=

1.0632

2,000

= 186,526.3158

(0.045 0.0336)

8. Specific volume of dry air


From figure 19.2 (McCabe, et al)
= 16.1

9. Humid volume of hot inlet air


0.0336
= 16.1

0.7302

+
(1

) 18

= 16.9723

10. Volume of air required


= 186,526.3158
=

1
60

16.9723

(640 )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 28


DRYING

PROBLEM # 07.
Adiabatic tunnel dryer handles 100 kg of banana chips per batch reducing the moisture
content from 50% to 12%, all on wet basis. Drying takes 10 hours to complete by blowing
air at 82C and 5% RH. The air leaves the dryer saturated. Assuming that the drying rate is
constant, calculate: (a) exit temperature of the air; (b) volume of air blown, in m3/h
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1990)
SOLUTION:
Air
T1 = 82 C
5% RH

100% satd
DRYER

F = 100 kg
xi = 0.50

xf = 0.12

1. Amount of dried banana chips


(1 ) = 1
(1 0.50)(100 )
=
= 56.8182
(1 0.12)
2. Moisture removed
= +
= 100 56.8182 = 43.1818
3. Humidity of inlet air
From figure 12-3 (CHE HB, 8th edition), at 82C and 5% RH
= 0.017

4. Humidity of outlet air (adiabatic conditions)


From figure 12-3 (CHE HB, 8th edition), at 100% saturated
= 0.0375

5. Temperature of outlet air


= =

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 29


DRYING

6. Dry air required


= ( )
43.1818
=
(0.0375 0.017)

= 2,106.4293

7. Specific volume of inlet dry air


From figure 12-4 (CHE HB, 8th edition) at 82C
= 16.15

8. Humid volume of inlet air


0.017
= 16.15

0.7302

+
(1
1

= 16.5914

) 18

.
.

16.0185

.
.

= 1.0358

9. Volume of air required


= (2,106.4293

) 1.0358

10. Air flow rate


Since each batch takes 10 hours of drying time
1
= 2,181.8394
10
=

= 2,181.8394

(640 )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 30


DRYING

PROBLEM # 08.
A dryer is to deliver 1,000 kg/h of palay with a final moisture content of 10%. The initial
moisture content in the feed is 15% at atmospheric conditions with 32C dry bulb and 21C
wet bulb. The dryer is maintained at 45C while the relative humidity of the hot humid air
from the dryer is 80%. If the steam pressure supplied to the heater is 2 MPa, determine: (a)
palay supplied to the dryer in kg/h; (b) temperature of the hot humid air from the dryer; (c)
air supplied to the heater in m3/h; (d) heat supplied by the heater in kW; (e) steam supplied
to the heater in kg/h
Source: ME Board Exam Problem (October 1985)
SOLUTION:
Air
TDB = 32 C
TWB = 21 C
T2 = 45 C

80% RH

HEATER
DRYER

F = 1,000 kg/h
xi = 0.15

xf = 0.10

1. Palay fed to the dryer


(1 ) = 1
(1 0.10) 1,000
=
= ,

(1 0.15)
.

2. Moisture removed
= +
= 1,058.8235 1,000 = 58.8235

3. Humidity of air entering the heater


From figure 12-3 (CHE HB, 8th edition), at 32C dry bulb and 21C wet bulb
= 0.0115

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 31


DRYING

4. Humidity of air entering the dryer


Since only sensible heating is involved in the heater
=

= 0.0115

5. Wet bulb temperature of the air inside the dryer


From figure 12-3 (CHE HB, 8th edition), at 45C dry bulb and 0.0115 humidity
= 74.5
6. Wet bulb temperature of air leaving the dryer
Assume adiabatic operation,
=
= 74.5
7. Temperature of the air leaving the dryer
From figure 12-3 (CHE HB 8th edition), at 80% RH and 74.5F wet bulb
= = .
8. Humidity of air leaving the dryer
From figure 12-3 (CHE HB 8th edition), at 80% RH and 74.5F wet bulb
= 0.0172

9. Air supplied to the dryer


= ( )
58.8235

= 10,319.9123

(0.0172 0.0115)

10. Specific volume of dry air entering the heater


From figure 19-2 (McCabe, et. al), at 32C
= 13.8

11. Humid volume of air entering the dryer


0.0115
= 13.8

0.7302

+
(1
1

= 14.0564
16.0185

) 18

.
.
.
.

= 0.8775

(549.6 )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 32


DRYING

12. Air supplied to the dryer


= 10,319.9123
= ,

0.8775

13. Humid heat of air entering the heater


From figure 19-2 (McCabe, et. al), at humidity of 0.0115
= 0.244

14. Heat transfer by the air in the heater


( )
=
= 10,319.9123

0.244

(45 32) = 32,734.7618

15. Heat input to the heater


=
=

= 32,734.7618
.

16. Steam requirement


=
From steam table at 2 MPa,
= 451.6329
=

32,734.7618
451.6329

1
60

1
14.34

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 33


DRYING

PROBLEM # 09.
A rotary dryer fired with bunker oil of 10,000 kcal/kg heating value (HHV) is to produce 20
MT/h of dried sand with 0.5% moisture from a wet feed containing 7% moisture. Specific
heat of sand is 0.21 BTU/lbR. Temperature of wet sand is 30C and temperature of dried
product is 115C. Determine: (a) weight of wet feed; (b) weight of water to be removed in
kg/h; (c) heat required; (d) liters of bunker oil per hour if specific gravity of bunker oil is
0.90 and efficiency is 60%.
Source: ME Board Exam Problem (November 1983)
SOLUTION:
Assume water starts to evaporate at 100C
1. Weight of wet feed
(1 ) = 1
(1 0.005) 20,000
=

(1 0.07)

2. Water removed
= +
= 21,397.8495 20,000
= ,

3. Weight of bone dry sand


= (1 0.005) 20,000

= 1

= 19,900

4. Weight of water in the feed

= (0.07) 21,397.8495

= 1,497.8495

5. Sensible heat to raise temperature of sand from 30 to 100C


=
)
, (
= 19,900

0.21

(100 30)

= 292,530

6. Sensible heat to raise temperature of water from 30 to 100C


=
)
, (
= 1,497.8495

1.0

(100 30) = 104,849.465

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 34


DRYING

7. Latent heat to vaporize the moisture


=
From steam table at 100C
= 539.0599
= 1,397.8495

539.0599

= 753,524.567

8. Sensible heat to raise temperature of sand from 100 to 115C


=

,
= 19,900

0.21

(115 100)

= 62,685

9. Sensible heat to raise temperature of water in the product from 100 to 115C
=

,
= (1,497.8495 1,397.8495)

1.0

(115 100)

= 1,500

10. Total heat requirement of the system


= + + + +
= 292,530

+ 104,849.465

+ 1,500
= ,

+ 753,524.567

11. Weight of bunker fuel oil


=

1,215,089.032

10,000

1
= 202.5148
0.60

12. Volume of bunker fuel oil


= 202.5148
=

1
900

1,000

+ 62,685

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 35


DRYING

PROBLEM # 10.
A wet material having a critical moisture content of 15% (db) and an equilibrium moisture
content of 3% (db) took 6 hours to dry from 45% (db) to 5.5% (db). How long will it take
to dry to 15% moisture (db)?
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (January 1974)
SOLUTION:

Xe
0.03

+(

Xf
0.055

Xc
0.15

0.45 0.15 + (0.15 0.03) ln

0.15 0.03
0.055 0.03

= 12.2892

1. Time to dry from 45% to 15% (CRP)


=
=
=
=

= (12.892)(0.15 0.45)
= .

Xi
0.45

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 36


DRYING

PROBLEM # 11.
Wet solids is to be dried from 36% to 8% moisture in 5 hours under constant drying
conditions, Xc = 14%, Xe = 4%. Calculate how much longer it would take under the same
drying conditions to dry the same materials from 8% to 5.5% moisture. All moisture
contents are on dry basis.
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (October 1979)
SOLUTION:

Xe
Xf
Xf
Xc
0.04 0.055 0.08 0.14

1. Consider crying from 36% to 8% - (CRP + FRP)

=
+( )

5
=
0.14 0.04
0.36 0.14 + (0.14 0.04) ln
0.08 0.04
= 16.0447

2. Time to dry from 8% to 5.5% (FRP)


( )

0.08 0.04
= (16.0447)(0.14 0.04) ln
0.055 0.04
= .

Xi
0.36

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 37


DRYING

PROBLEM # 12.
Glazed banana chips are dried to its equilibrium moisture content of 12.28% by wt (wet
basis) in a tunnel dryer under constant air temperature and humidity in a batch process.
Control tests give the following data on the process:
Time, minutes
Moisture content, % wet basis

0
23.08

30
20.00

60
16.67

90
14.72

120
13.21

150
13.01

From these data, (a) determine the critical moisture content of the banana chips, % wt dry
basis; (b) formulate the falling rate equation for the drying operations.
Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (November 1988)
SOLUTION:
Basis: 1 m2 drying area
x
X*
0.2308
0.3001
0.2000

, min

0.2751

0.0501

30

0.00167

0.2250

0.0500

30

0.00167

0.1863

0.0274

30

0.00091

0.1624

0.0204

30

0.00068

0.1509

0.0026

30

0.00009

0.2500

0.1667

0.2000

0.1472

0.1726

0.1321

0.1522

0.1301

Ave X

0.1496

1
Plot X vs R

Critical moisture content


From the chart,
= 0.225
% = 22.5 % ANSWER

0.0018
0.0016

Drying Rate

0.0014
0.0012
0.001
0.0008

Falling rate equation


= .
.

0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
0
0.15

0.17

0.19

0.21

0.23

0.25

Moisture Content, % dry basis

0.27

0.29

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 38


DRYING

PROBLEM # 13.
A batch of wet solid was dried on a tray dryer using constant drying conditions and a
thickness of material on the tray of 25.4 mm. Only the top surface was exposed. The drying
rate during the constant rate period was R = 2.05 kg H2O/hm2. The ratio of LS/A used was
24.4 kg dry solid/m2 exposed surface. The initial free moisture was X1 = 0.55 and the
critical moisture content XC = 0.22 kg free moisture/kg dry solid. Calculate the time to dry a
batch of this material from X1 = 0.45 to X2 = 0.30 using the same drying conditions but a
thickness of 50.8 mm, with the drying from the top and bottom surfaces.
Source: Transport Process and Unit Operations, by Geankoplis, et al
SOLUTION:
Assume 1 m2 cross-sectional area of dry solid
1. Volume of dry solid at condition 1
)(0.0254 ) = 0.0254
=
= (1
2. Mass of dry solid at condition 1
(1

= 24.4

) = 24.4

3. Density of dry solid


24.4
=
= 960.6299
0.0254
4. Volume of dry solid at condition 2
)(0.0508 ) = 0.0508
=
= (1
5. Mass of dry solid at condition 2
= 960.6299

(0.0508

) = 48.8000

6. Time to dry solid from 45% to 30%


=
=
=
=
=

(48.8000
(2 1

= .

) 2.05

(0.30 0.45)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 39


DRYING

PROBLEM # 14.
In commercial practice, rayon-yarn skeins are dried after centrifuging, and the drying
occurs in the falling rate period. Experimental data for the drying of a certain type of yarn
under constant air-drying conditions have been correlated by the following equation:

where:

= 0.00302

Rate of drying, lb H2O evaporated / lb of dry yarn hour

=
=
=
=

Wet air mass velocity, lb wet air/hft2


Saturation humidity at wet-bulb temperature of the air
Humidity of air
Free moisture content of yarn, lb water/lb dry yarn

A compartment dryer at 1 atm is to be used to dry the yarn from 0.80 to 0.01 lb free water
per lb dry yarn. The operation will be conducted under conditions approximating constant
drying conditions. The average conditions of the air passing over the yarn are to be:
Dry bulb temperature
=
150F
% Relative Humidity
=
10
Air velocity
=
600 fpm
The equilibrium moisture content of the yarn for the above conditions is 0.036 lb water per
lb dry yarn.
(a) determine the lbs of water evaporated per 100 lb of dry yarn; (b) final moisture content
of the yarn; (c) determine the time required for drying.
SOLUTION:
1. Water evaporated
= (100

)(0.80 0.01)

2. Final moisture content of the yarn


= +
= 0.01 + 0.036
= .

3. Air humidity
From figure 12-3 (CHE HB 8th edition), for air at 150F and 10% RH
= 0.016

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 40


DRYING

4. Air wet bulb temperature


From figure 12-3 (CHE HB 8th edition), for air at 150F and 10% RH
= 89.1
5. Air saturation humidity at wet bulb temperature of 89.1F
From figure 19.2 (Unit Operations of CHE, 7th edition, McCabe, et. al)
= 0.031

6. Specific volume of dry air


From figure 19.2 (Unit Operations of CHE, 7th edition, McCabe, et. al) at 150F
= 15.3

7. Humid volume of air


0.016
= 15.3

0.7302

+
(1

(610 )

) 18

= 15.6959

8. Mass velocity of air


=

60

600

(1 + 0.016)

15.6959

9. Drying time
.

= 0.00302

= 0.00302 (2,330.2855)

= 4.0382
=
=

= 4.0382
1
=
4.0382

.
.

0.01
= 0.2476 ln
0.8
= .

(0.031 0.016)

= 2,330.2855

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 41


DRYING

PROBLEM # 15.
In a pilot process, mashed potatoes are dried in pans inch deep which are insulated on
the bottom. Drying air is at 180F with a 10% relative humidity. Drying from an initial
moisture content of 0.15 lb/lb dry solid requires 6 hours. All drying is in the falling rate
period and is diffusion controlled. The equilibrium moisture content is 0.1 lb/lb dry solid
when in contact with air at this temperature and humidity. Bulk density of the product is
0.75 g/cc.
In the plant process, the potatoes are to be dried from the same initial moisture content as
in the pilot process to a final moisture content of 0.25 lb/lb dry solid. The process will take
place in a pan dryer with pans 2-in deep but with perforated metal bottoms so that drying
occurs from both faces. If the drying air conditions are controlled to duplicate those in the
pilot dryer, what drying time will be required?
Source: Principles of Unit Operations by Foust, et.al
SOLUTION:
For the pilot process: assume pan cross sectional area of 1 ft2
1. Volume of dry solid
=

= (1

) 0.5

12

= 0.0417

2. Mass of dry solid


62.43
=

(0.0417

0.75

) = 1.9509

3. Constant drying rate for falling rate period (FRP)


( )

(1.9509

)(0.60 0.10)

=
= 0.3743

(1

)(6 )

ln

0.60 0.10
0.15 0.10

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 42


DRYING

For the plant process: assume same pan cross-sectional area of 1 ft2
4. Volume of dry solid
=

= (1

) 2

12

= 0.1667

5. Mass of dry solid


62.43
=

(0.1667

0.75

) = 7.8038

6. Required drying time for falling rate period (FRP)


( )

Since drying will occur on both sides, therefore, A must be multiplied by 2


(7.8038

)(0.60 0.10)

ln
(2 1

= .

) 0.3743

0.60 0.10
0.25 0.10

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 43


DRYING

PROBLEM # 16.
Under a constant drying condition a dryer produces 1,080 kilos of 8% wet from a 50% wet
material in 6 hours. The critical moisture content of this material is 16%. In the market,
this product could be sold under 2 classes as follows:
Grade

Moisture Content

Price/kg

I
II

9%
5%

20 cents
23 cents

The plant must operate on a continuous 24 hours basis and spends PhP 80 daily for heat,
power, labor, fixed charges, etc. if the raw material usually arrives at an average of 50%
moisture content and costs PhP 0.12 per kilo received, which grade will you produce? (%
are in dry basis). Do not assume any change in the construction and operating conditions,
except the rate of feed.
SOLUTION:
1. Constant drying rate
Since final moisture content is lower than critical moisture and initial moisture is higher
than critical moisture, therefore drying is combined constant rate and falling rate
= +
For CRP:
(

For FRP:
=

Assume Xe = 0
=
=

ln
(

)+

ln

ln

ln

= 1,080

8
(100 + 8)

100
8

= 1,000

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 44


DRYING
=

1,000
6

0.50 0.16 + 0.16 ln

= 75.1506

0.16
0.08

For Grade I product


2. Over-all drying time
(

=
=
=

)+

ln
ln

1,000

0.50 0.16 + 0.16 ln

75.1506

0.16
0.09

= 5.7492

3. Wet product daily production


(100 + 9)
= 1,000

100

5.7492

24

4. Total Sales
0.20

= 4,550.1983

910.04

5. Raw materials required daily


= (1 )
=

1+

= 1

1+

= (1,000
= 1,500

1
1+

)(1 + 0.50)

5.7492

24

= 6,261.7408

6. Cost of raw material


0.12

= 6,261.7408

751.41

7. Revenue
=
=

(
910.04

= 78.63

+
751.41

)
80

= 4,550.1983

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 45


DRYING

For Grade II product


8. Over-all drying time
(

=
=
=

)+

ln
ln

1,000

0.50 0.16 + 0.16 ln

75.1506

0.16
0.05

= 7.0001

9. Wet product daily production


(100 + 5)
= 1,000

100

7.0001

24

= 3,599.6583

10. Total Sales


0.23

= 3,599.6583

827.92

11. Raw materials required daily


= (1 )
=

1+

= 1

1+

= (1,000
= 1,500

1
1+

)(1 + 0.50)

7.0001

24

= 5,142.7837

12. Cost of raw material


0.12

= 5,142.7837

617.13

13. Revenue
=
=

(
827.92

+
617.13

)
80

= 130.79

THEREFORE, IT IS MORE ECONOMICAL TO PRODUCE THE GRADE II PRODUCT

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 46


DRYING

PROBLEM # 17.
A 25% solution of a certain soap is fed at 175F to a double drum dryer (2 ft diameter by 4
ft long) being heated by steam at 40 psig. The drums are rotated at 5 rpm. In 30 minutes,
20 lb of product (2% moisture) was obtained. Calculate: (a) capacity of dryer, in lb water
evaporated per sq ft drum area per hour; (b) if the specific gravity of the product was 1.05,
how thick was the soap flakes produced; (c) estimate the steam consumption per hour; (d)
calculate the over-all heat transfer coefficient for this dryer.
SOLUTION:
1. Lb of product produced per hour
20
=
= 40
0.50

2. Lb dry solid produced per hour


2
98
= 40

100
2

= 39.2

3. Lb feed required per hour


(1 ) = 1
(1 0.02) 40
=

0.25

= 156.8

4. Water removed per hour


= +
= 156.8 40 = 116.8

5. Dryer surface area per revolution


=2

= 2 (2

)(4

) = 50.2655

6. Dryer capacity

=
=

116.8

50.2655

= .

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 47


DRYING

7. Volume of soap flakes produced per batch


40

= 0.6105

1.05 62.4

8. Thickness of soap flakes


=

0.6105

50.2655

60

= .

9. Steam requirement
Assume that the steam requirement is the amount needed to evaporate water from soap
and water is removed at 212F
(

)+

212 = 970.3
= 116.8

= 117,652.64

(212 175) + 970.3

For the steam


=
40
=

= 920.2063

117,652.64

920.2063
=

10. Over-all heat transfer coefficient


( )
=
40
= 286.61
=
=

117,652.64
(50.2655
.

)(286.61 212)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 48


DRYING

PROBLEM # 18.
Flourspar (CaF2) is to be dried from 6 to 0.4 percent moisture (dry basis) in a countercurrent adiabatic rotary dryer at a rate of 18,000 lb/h of bone-dry solids. The heating air
enters at 1,000F with a humidity of 0.03 and a wet-bulb temperature of 150F. The solids
have specific heat of 0.48 BTU/lbF; they enter the dryer at 70F and leave at 200F. The
maximum allowable mass velocity of the air is 2,000 lb/ft2h. (a) what would be the
diameter and length of the dryer if Nt = 2.2? Is this a reasonable design? (c) repeat part a if
Nt = 1.8.
Source: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th edition, McCabe, et.al
SOLUTION:
Assume water is vaporized at 212F
1. Mass water in feed
,

= 18,000

6
100

= 1,080

0.4
100

= 72

2. Mass water in product


,

= 18,000

3. Mass water vaporized/removed


= 1,080 72 = 1,008

4. Temperature of outlet air


Using equation 24.8 (McCabe, et al)

= ln

1,000 150
=
+ 150 = 244.1827
.
5. Specific heat of air at H = 0.03
Using figure 12-3 CH HB 8th edition
= 0.254

6. Logarithmic temperature difference


Using equation 24.7 (McCabe, et al)
(
)(
)

ln

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 49


DRYING
=

(1,000 150) (244.1827 150)


= 343.5533
1,000 150
ln
244.1827 150

7. Heat the solids from 70F to 212F


( )
=
= 18,000

0.48

(212 70) = 1,226,880

8. Heat water from feed from 70F to 212F


( )
=
= 1,080

1.0

(212 70) = 153,360

9. Heat to vaporize water at 212F


= 970.3
= = 1,008

970.3

= 978,062.40

10. Heat the solids from 212F to 200F


=

= 18,000

0.48

(200 212) = 103,680

11. Heat water from product from 212F to 200F


=

= 72

1.0

(200 212) = 864

12. Heat duty of the dryer


= + + + +
= 1,226,880

+ 153,360

+ 864
= 2,253,758.4

13. Air mass flow rate


For adiabatic condition
=
(
=

+ 978,062.40

+ 103,680

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 50


DRYING
2,253,758.4

=
0.254

= 11,739.695

(244.1827 1,000)

14. Cross-sectional area of dryer


=
=

11,739.695
2,000

= 5.8698

15. Dryer diameter


=
=

4
4(5.8698

= .

16. Length of dryer


Using equation 24.22 (McCabe, et al)
.
= 0.125

2,253,758.4
=
0.125 (2.7338)(2,000) . (343.5533)
= .
THIS IS LONGER THAN USUAL ROTARY DRYER DESIGN
For Nt = 1.8
1. Temperature of outlet air
Using equation 24.8 (McCabe, et al)

= ln

1,000 150
=
+ 150 = 290.5041
.
2. Logarithmic temperature difference
Using equation 24.7 (McCabe, et al)
(
)(
)

ln

(1,000 150) (290.5041 150)


=
= 394.1644
1,000 150
ln
290.5041 150

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 51


DRYING

3. Air mass flow rate


For adiabatic condition
=
(
=

2,253,758.4

=
0.254

(290.5041 1,000)

4. Cross-sectional area of dryer


=
=

12,506.1534
2,000

= 6.2531

5. Dryer diameter
=
=

4
4(6.2531

= .

6. Length of dryer
Using equation 24.22 (McCabe, et al)
.
= 0.125

2,253,758.4
=
0.125 (2.8216)(2,000) . (394.1644)
= .

= 12,506.1534

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 52


DRYING

PROBLEM # 19.
Calculate the mean droplet diameter for a spray dryer with a 6-in rotary atomizer turning at
10,000 rpm. The feed rate is 30 lb/min at 120F. Assume the slurry density is 70 lb/ft3 and
the surface tension is that of water. In scaling up to a larger dryer with a 12-in atomizer,
what rotation should be used to obtain the same droplet size?
Source: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th edition (McCabe, et al)
SOLUTION:
Using equation 24.24 (McCabe, et.al)
= 0.4

1. Disk radius
6
=
2
12

= 0.25

2. Disk periphery
=2
= 2 (0.25 ) = 1.5708
3. Spray mass rate per unit length of disk periphery
=
=

1
60

30
1.5708

= 0.3183

4. Disk speed
= 10,000

1
60

= 166.6667

5. Density of water at 120F


= 61.71

6. Viscosity of water at 120F


6.7197
= 0.559

10

= 3.7563

10

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 53


DRYING

7. Surface tension of water at 120F


= 4.67

10

8. Droplet size
.

= 0.4

0.3183

166.6667

=
61.71

= 0.0104
(0.25

3.7563

10

0.3183

0.25

4.67 10

= 0.2596

61.71

(1.5708

0.3183

12

10

2.54

1
1 10

9. Rotation rate for a 12-in atomizer, with the same droplet size
=
.
.
.

= 0.4

.
.
.
.
.

0.4
= 0.4

For a change in diameter of disk atomizer,


, , , will remain constant
.
. 1 .
. 1
=

.
.

= 0.4(0.0104)(0.2596)(1.6435)

= 4.4372

) 32.174

.
.

= 1.6435

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES 54


DRYING
.

1
.

1
(2

1
(2

) =(

)
.

=
= (10,000
= ,

6
12

PROBLEM # 20.
If the rate of drying under constant drying conditions with air at 140F and absolute
humidity of 0.03 lb water per lb dry air of unknown mass of solid is given by:
= 0.5

What is the equilibrium moisture content?


Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1985)
SOLUTION:
1. Equilibrium moisture content, where R = 0
= 0.5
0 = 0.5
= 0.0116
= . %