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CASE ANALYSIS

I.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
This study is intended to address the problems of Lingayen

Gulf are brought by conflicting interest of social and economic


problems as manifested by the following:
Overfishing- Commercial trawlers that employ less than 220
persons but harvest 20-25 of the total catch encroach into the 7-km,
area designated by law to municipal fishermen. The maximize fish
catch by using 2cm. net mesh instead of the required 3.5 cm mesh
size. The combined municipal and commercial fishing pressures
resulted in a fish extraction rate 6 times faster than the natural
replenishment rate of the Gulfs fishery resources.
Destructive fishing- to cope with the competition and dwindling
catch, many municipal fishermen practices are illegal(use of explosive
and poison) but very efficient fishing methods areas of Agoo Aringay
and Caba. Seashore mining in these areas aggravates the problem. Its
damages to beach resorts severely affect the tourism industry of La
union.
Destruction of critical habitat- mangroves, sea-grasses and coral
reefs are marine ecosystems critical to the Gull productivity. Mangroves
are rapidly reduced primarily due to charcoal making and the
subsequent conversion of some areas into aqua-cultured ponds,
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industrial sites and settlements. The extend of destruction on grass


beds is yet to be established. Coral reefs are being destroyed by
dynamic fishing, use of poisons and sedimentation related to
deforestation, breakage due to storms and by the boat anchor.
Pollution the pollution reached critical level.
Increasing population, in 1990, there is approximately 1,186,050
coastal population of the Gulf next. During the ten years, the increase
in coastal municipalitys population will heighten problems in food
consumption. Statistic reveals that the greatest contributor to (7.4%),
and Rosario (7%). These municipalities will experience intense pressure
on land uses and resources utilization.
Poverty and unemployment- poverty is amplified by the
annual growth rate in coastal villages reaching 12.1% and dwindling
fish catches as the scenario.
Occurrence of natural hazards- typhoons and earthquakes are some of
the natural hazards that affect the Gulf. Data on extend of losses due
to these have to be estimated to develop appropriate management
actions that will mitigate its impact.
Weak institutional arrangements, weak coordination and
ineffective linkage among LGUs, NGOs, and GO have resulted in
overlapping of activities. Thus, coastal management effort is
unfocused. A number of brilliantly conceived plans and regulatory
measures were even formulated but mostly remained toothless. An
institutional structure or mechanism for integrated, interdisciplinary
and multi-sectoral coastal management still needs to be strengthened
particularly the village or barangay level.
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Inadequate support services, access to financial and technical


support needs to be strengthened and made known to coastal
municipalities.

II.

STATEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this study are the following:


Environmental protection and law enforcement
Community organizing, training and information, education campaign
Rehabilitation, enhancement and management implementation in
phase
Phase 2 projects will encompass those requiring the foundation set by
phase 1 projects and those significant impacts is spread over relatively
larger period of time.
All programs and projects would be implemented for a period
of ten years,
It is expected that the
1. of critical habitats
2. Resource use planning
3. Tourism and recreation
4. Policy review and formulation
5. Environmental assessment and monitoring
6. Alternative livelihood development
7. Infrastructure development
III.
AREAS OF CONSIDERATION
The study is expected to see the output in the ten year period
from the time the master plan was submitted to the President
in the latter part of 1994. The plan requires an outlay of P357
million. During the first two years of its operation, the
commission failed to get the necessary budgetary support for
its programs and projects for 1995-1996 which required an
outlay of P48 million because of delay in its approval therefore
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failure in catching up with the budgetary process. The


LGCAMC continued with these through projects by soliciting
assistance from the president these through his presidents
contingency fund (PCF), the line agencies, and from
congressmen of the coastal areas through their CDFs
IV.

ASSUMPTION
The study defined other factors affecting the project although
not specifically stated in the case but need to be assumed to
understand further this case analysis.

Review and study of

existing laws, decrees, orders and policies regarding the


issuance

of

permits

for

foreshore

and

fishpond

lease

agreements, fish pens and other fishing structures.


V.

ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION


These are the possible solution of the problem.

The fisherfolk in Lingayen Gulf sees poverty as the main problem why
the coastal resources are nearing depletion. The specific concerns
under poverty include: low family income, low educational attainment,
lack of employment, high population growth rate, and the lack of
awareness on coastal resources management (CRM).
Another main problem is illegal fishing, the most common practice
among the fishermen of Lingayen Gulf. This problem is caused by
unregulated trading of illegal fishing materials and chemicals due to
the ineffective enforcement of fishery laws and ordinances. The lack of
alternative livelihood also pushes fishermen to fish illegally.
Fishkill was identified to be another cause of the exhaustion of the
coastal resources. Massive fishkills occurred in all municipalities in
1994. Fishkill occurred due to the abuse of aquaculture technology that
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was adopted by a large number of fish farmers particularly in


Binmaley, Dagupan City, and Lingayen and recently by the
fisherfarmers of Bolinao and Bani. Other causes of fishkills are poor
domestic waste disposal, coastal pollution, and soil erosion and
siltation.
High dependence on fishing as the primary source of income seemed
to be the biggest root cause of overfishing in Lingayen Gulf, which
again, is rooted on the lack of an alternative livelihood.
Other equally important issues and concerns are pollution, low catch,
and squatting. Pollution was aggravated due to excess feeding and
deposits of waste from mariculture of milkfish in pens and cages, and
the improper disposal of chemicals from ponds, improper disposal of
industrial and domestic wastes, and dynamite and cyanide fishing.
Fisherfolk blame low catch to overfishing in the municipal waters and
the influx of transient fishermen while the unavailability of housing
facilities and lack of permanent residence forced some fishermen to
squat near the coast. Squatting has become rampant also because of
the underdeveloped tourist attraction and facilities.
Solutions and possible actions
The threat against the possible depletion of the coastal resources of
Lingayen Gulf could be solved with the appropriate management plan
of conservation but this, too, needs the cooperation of the fisherfolk
themselves. The coastal ecosystems of Lingayen Gulf represent a huge
and natural economic resource not only for the province of Pangasinan
by providing food and livelihood for the people living along the area
but it has wider implication to the whole economy of the country. And
so when the fisherfolk were asked what solutions are needed to solve
the threat against the possible depletion of fishery resources they
immediately recommended for the provisions of appropriate
alternative livelihood and creation of employment opportunities
through eco-tourism development. If farmers have other means to live,
they would not have to fully rely on fishing as source of food and
livelihood, thus illegal fishing, fishkills and squatting are minimized (if
not stopped).
The fishermen also stressed the importance of a strict implementation
of fishery laws and ordinances to control, if not to stop illegal fishing,
altogether. Policymakers must have the political will and intensified
advocacy, information, education and communication campaign to
effectively conserve and better protect the coastal resources.
Likewise, it is also important to have coastal zoning and dismantling of
illegal fishpens and cages in the rivers and coastal waters to avoid the
occurrence of fishkills. Pollution is best resolved with proper discipline
among the people living in the area themselves through continuous
cleaning of the coastal areas and regulation of mariculture operations
in rivers and ponds within the Gulf.
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According to the result of the study, local and national government


interventions are also important in this endeavor to conserve the
coastal resources of Lingayen Gulf. Institutional development initiatives
and actions had been taken by national government agencies to
immediately address major issues and problems. Unfortunately,
despite these institutional efforts and initiatives, the dwindling state of
the fishery resources remains. On the part of the people living along
the coastal areas, there is also a need for the fishermen to be aware of
the real root of the problems and their role and participation in solving
these problems. Hopefully, with an increased level of awareness and
an effective management plan to conserve the area, the threat of
coastal resources depletion becomes a no dead end for the
fishermen in Lingayen Gulf.

VI.

ANALYSIS
The consideration and assumptions including the advantages

and disadvantages identified by the organization in order to


solve the problem assumed the following results:
On the hundred island national park, four major problems in
the park that were already reported to the president remained
unsolved. the 42 illegal fish pens constructed inside the park
have not been removed.. These are now the subjects of criminal
and civil cases pending before the Municipal Trial Court of
Alaminos. Illegal construction of commercial and residential
establishments in the forshore area of Lucan Bay continues. The
46 hectares fish ponds developed and titled to the 220 members
of the Bolo Development Cooperative (BOLODECO) remain
leased for a period of 10 years under a so called management
contract to Mrs. Norma Sison Buendia of Alaminos. The facilities
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of the National Bangus Breeding project of BFAR that was


transferred to Pacific Frms, Inc. last November 993 through
Memorandum of Agreement still existand operate in the area.
On the Bolinao Dilemma awaiting the final action by the
President are proposals to set-up a cement plant complex by the
Pangasinan international Port and Industrial Park Corporation.
This has split the people of Bolinao in two camps. One concerned
with its economic benefits and the other with the environment.
On Fish pens, Fish cages, and fish apparatus. Lately, there had
been proliferation of fish pens and fish cages in the municipal
waters of Lingayen Gulf. Wealthy entrepreneurs from Bulacan
and Manila allegedly operated them. The situation have threaten
massive pollution in some areas of the gulf and passively created
more deprivation on the part of the coastal fishermen. The
LGCAMC is now working on a policy that will rationalize the
issuance of lease agreements, licenses and permits which when
adopted will be implemented by all local government units and
line agencies concerned.
VII.

CONCLUSION

Therefore, the role of the local government to solve the subject


of this study play very important role. The situation have threaten
massive pollution in some areas of the gulf and passively created
more deprivation on the part of the coastal fishermen. The LGCAMC
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is now working on a policy that will rationalize the issuance of lease


agreements, licenses and permits which when adopted will be
implemented by all local government units and line agencies
concerned. The 10 year period may not be enough to accomplish
the aim of the government unemployment, overfishing, pollution,
poverty, destructive habitat of mangroves.
VIII. PLAN OF ACTION
On the Bolinao Dilemma. awaiting the final action by the President
are proposals to set-up a cement plant complex by the Pangasinan
international Port and Industrial Park Corporation. This has split the
people of Bolinao in two camps. One concerned with its economic
benefits and the other with the environment.
On Fish pens, Fish cages, and fish apparatus. Lately, there had been
proliferation of fish pens and fish cages in the municipal waters of
Lingayen Gulf. Wealthy entrepreneurs from Bulacan and Manila
allegedly operated them. The situation have threaten massive
pollution in some areas of the gulf and passively created more
deprivation on the part of the coastal fishermen. The LGCAMC is
now working on a policy that will rationalize the issuance of lease
agreements, licenses and permits which when adopted will be
implemented by all local government units and line agencies
concerned.

The ten year master plan was submitted to the President in the
latter part of 1994. The plan requires an outlay of P357 million.
During the first two years of its operation, the commission failed to
get the necessary budgetary support for its programs and projects
for 1995-1996 which required an outlay of P48 million because of
delay in its approval therefore failure in catching up with the
budgetary process. The LGCAMC continued with these through
projects by soliciting assistance from the president these through
his presidents contingency fund (PCF), the line agencies, and from
congressmen of the coastal areas through their CDF

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