30 views

Uploaded by Dr. MOHAMED ALZAIN

- Basic beam analysis example2.docx
- 2100-155-PVM-U-011
- 450x 200 Us Sbm6 Grid 6_a-d
- Computer Aided Design Beam
- Sample Beam Design
- CH 4 - Part III-Allowables Stress Design (ASD) Alternative
- Paper 058
- Study of Aluminum rail section
- Lecture 5 Foundations
- Presentation 14
- Materials Exam2 Solutions v3
- Deep Beam Design
- through bolt connection.pdf
- Composite Section Analysis
- The Use of Swimmer Bars as Shear Reinforcement in RC Deep Beams
- (Paper) O-cell and Bored Pile Testing - A Symbiosis
- Concrete Bridge Design (Recovered)
- Calculation
- Sample Test1 Computer Methods Key
- Design of Corbel

You are on page 1of 26

1. Problem Definition

Span Data

Girder Concrete

fc = 6.0 KSI

fci = 4.5 KSI

Design Span

= 105 FT

Girder is simply supported

Skew = 0

w c = 0.150 KCF

Deck Concrete

Number Lanes

Number Girders

Girder Spacing

Roadway Width

Overall Width

=

=

=

=

=

fc = 4.0 KSI

4

6

9.00 FT

48.00 FT

51.00 FT

w c = 0.150 KCF

Prestressing Steel

Type:

Deck Thickness

Actual

Structural

=

=

9.00 IN

8.00 IN

Pull: 75%

H = 75% (Relative Humidity)

Time to Release = 18 HRS

Girder Type

Location: Interior

Reinforcing Steel (Non-Prestressed)

Dead Load

Future Wearing Surface

Barrier Weight

f y = 60 KSI

= 0.025 KSF

= 0.418 KLF

Es

Live Load

HL-93 - Design Truck + Design Lane Loads

29,000 KSI

Figure 1:

Cross Section of Bridge With Six PCI BT-72 Bulb Tee Girders at 9-0 Spacing

2. Analysis

2.1 Section Properties

2.1.1 Bare Girder:

The LRFD Specs allow the inclusion of transformed strand in the section properties for a

prestressed member (Article 5.9.1.4). For simplicity, the contribution of the strand to the

section properties is neglected in this example.

Properties of PCI BT-72:

A = 767.0 IN

= 545,894 IN

= 72.00 IN

yb = 36.60 IN

yt = 35.40 IN

Sb =

2.1.2 Composite Section

Figure 2:

Composite Deck

Note: Any thickening of the slab over the top flange of the girder (i.e., a haunch or build-up)

will be neglected in the computation of the section properties of the composite section.

However, if they are detailed in the plans, they should be included as additional dead load.

Effective deck width:

(LRFD 4.6.2.6.1)

7-3

= 315 IN

(42 IN) / 2 + (12) (8 IN)

= 117 IN

= 108 IN

(Controls)

Transformed deck width = (n) (effective width) = (0.8165) (108 IN) = 88.182 IN

n = = = = 0.8165

Component

Area

yb

A yb

A (yb 2

ybc)

Io

Ic

Girder

767.00

36.60

28,072

273,111

545,894

819,005

Effective Deck

705.45

76.00

53,614

297,334

3,762

301,096

Total

1,472.50

81,686

1,120,101

ytcg = h - ybc = 72.00 IN - 55.47 IN = 16.53 IN

ytcd = hc - ybc = 80.00 IN - 55.47 IN = 24.53 IN

4

4

2.2.1 Dead Loads

2.2.1.1 Girder Dead Load at Release

The moments for this condition are computed separately from other moments because the full

length of the girder is used in computing these moments, rather than the design span

(distance from center-to-center of bearings). The full length is used because, when the girder

cambers upward in the prestressing bed after release, its only points of contact with the bed

(and therefore its support locations) will be at the ends of the girder.

Locations of interest at release conditions:

1. Transfer point

(LRFD 5.8.2.3)

2. Depression point

x = 0.45 L = 0.45 (106 FT) = 47.7 FT

3. Midspan

7-4

Girder Dead Load

2

Mgdli =

L = 106 FT (overall girder length)

Mgdli = 0.799 (x / 2) (106 - x) = 42.35 x - 0.400 x

L = 105 FT (bearing to bearing)

Mgdl = 41.95 x - 0.400 x

Vgdl =

= 41.95 - 0.799 x

Structural Deck Thickness = 8.0 IN

wddl = ((8 IN x 108 IN) /144) (0.150 KCF) = 0.900 KLF

L = 105 FT

Mddl = 47.25 x - 0.450 x

2.2.1.4 Additional Non-Composite Dead Load (Non-Structural Deck)

Non-Structural Deck Thickness = 1.0 IN

wncdl = ((1 IN x 108 IN) /144) (0.150 KCF) = 0.1125 KLF

L = 105 FT

Mncdl = 5.906 x - 0.0563 x

2.2.1.5 Composite Dead Load - Barriers

Barriers: (2) (0.418 KLF / barrier) = 0.836 KLF

wcdl = 0.836 KLF / (6 girders) = 0.1393 KLF / girder

L = 105 FT

Mcdl = 7.313 x - 0.0697 x

2.2.1.6 Composite Dead Load - Future Wearing Surface

Future Wearing Surface: (48.00 FT) (0.025 KSF) = 1.200 KLF

wfws = 1.200 KLF / (6 girders) = 0.200 KLF

L = 105 FT

7-5

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1)

2.2.2 Live Loads

2.2.2.1 Distribution Factors

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1)

To use the simplified live load distribution factor formulae, the following

conditions must be met:

O.K.

O.K.

Curvature < 4

(Nb = 6)

O.K.

3.0 FT O.K.

O.K.

o

(Curvature = 0 )

Bridge Type: k

(LRFD 4.2.2.2b-1)

Provided that:

3.5 S 16

S = 9.00 FT

O.K.

4.5 ts 12.0

ts = 8.00 IN

O.K.

20 L < 240

L = 105 FT

O.K.

Nb 4

Nb = 6

O.K.

Kg = n (I + A eg )

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1-1)

n = = = = 1.2247

n computed earlier)

4

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.3a-1)

Provided that the following condition is met in addition to the conditions specified above:

10,000 Kg ( 2,126,758) 7,000,000

O.K.

2.2.2.2 Live Load Effects

7-6

Figure 3:

At Midspan:

Design Truck will govern over Design Tandem for this span.

Mtruck = 18L - 280

Mlane = =

= 882.0 K-FT

1 + IM = 1 + 0.33 = 1.33

MLL+I = DF [Mlane + 1.33 (Mtruck)] = (0.7423) [882.0 + (1.33) (1,610.0)] = 2,244.2 K-FT

At 6.06FT from Centerline of Bearing (Critical Section for Shear - see Section 3.2.1.1 below):

Mtruck =

Mtruck = [(32 KIP) (98.947 FT) + (32 KIP) (84.947 FT) + (8 KIP) (70.947 FT)] (6.053 FT) / 105 FT

Mtruck = 372.0 K-FT

Mlane = = (0.64 KLF) (6.053 FT) (105 FT - 6.053 FT) / 2 = 191.7 K-FT

MLL+I,Vmax = DF [Mlane + 1.33 (Mtruck)] = (0.7423) [191.7 + (1.33) (372.0)] = 509.6 K-FT

Vtruck = Mtruck / x = 372.0 K-FT / 6.053 FT = 61.46 KIP

Vlane = = 0.64 KLF (105 FT / 2 - 6.053 FT) = 29.73 KIP

VLL+I = DF [Vlane + 1.33 Vtruck] = (0.8839) [29.73 + (1.33) (61.46)] = 98.5 KIP

2.3 Load Combinations and Load Factors

2.3.1 Applicable Limit States

Service I

Service III

Strength I

2.3.2 Service I

This load combination is the general combination for Service Limit State stress checks and

applies to all conditions other than Service III.

All load factors are equal to 1.0 for this problem.

For moment at midspan:

Acting on the non-composite girder, MSLnc:

7-7

Acting on the composite girder, MSLc:

MSLc = 192.0 + 275.6 + 2,244.2 = 2,711.8 K-FT

2.3.3 Service III

This load combination is a special combination for Service Limit State stress checks that applies only

to tension in prestressed concrete structures with the objective of crack control.

All load factors are equal to 1.0 for this problem, except that the live load is reduced by a factor of 0.8.

Acting on the non-composite girder, MSLnc (same as for Service I).

Acting on the composite girder, MSLc:

MSLc = 192.0 + 275.6 + (0.8)(2,244.2) = 2,263.0 K-FT

2.3.4 Fatigue (not required)

According to LRFD 5.5.3.1, Fatigue need not be checked for concrete deck slabs in multigirder

applications. Fatigue of the reinforcement need not be checked for fully prestressed components

designed to have extreme fiber tensile stress due to Service III Limit State within the tensile stress

limit specified in Article 5.9.4.2.2b. Fatigue of concrete is checked indirectly by satisfying the

'

compression stress limit of 0.4 f c for the load combination specified in LRFD 5.9.4.2.1.

2.3.5 Strength I

This load combination is the general combination for Strength Limit State design. Since the

structure is simply supported, the maximum values for the load factors are used because

they produce the greatest effect (see LRFD Table 3.4.1-2).

No distinction is made between moments and shears applied to the non-composite or

composite sections for strength computations. The factored loads are applied to the

composite section.

The following load factors apply:

Dead Load - Component and Attachments

Dead Load - Wearing Surface and Utilities

Vehicular Live Load and Impact

1.25

1.50

1.75

DC

DW

LL and IM

For moment at midspan, Mu:

Mu = (1.25) [1,101.1 + 1,240.3 + 155.0 + 192.0] + (1.50) (275.6) + (1.75) (2,244.2)

Mu = 3,360.5 + 413.4 + 3,927.4 = 7,701 K-FT

For shear at the critical section for shear, V u :

Vu = (1.25) [37.1 + 41.8 + 5.2 + 6.5] +(1.50) (9.3) + (1.75) (98.5)

Vu = 113.3 + 14.0 + 172.4 = 299.7 KIP

For moment at the critical section for shear, M u :

7-8

Mu = 730.3 + 89.9 + 891.8 = 1,712.0 K-FT

7-9

Component

103.4

1,111

1,122

Girder

At Critical Section for Shear

(6.053 FT from Center of Support)

Component

V (KIP)

M (K-FT)

M (K-FT)

Girder

37.1

239.3

1,101.1

Deck (Structural)

41.8

269.5

1,240.3

Additional Non-Composite

5.2

33.7

155.0

84.1

542.5

2,496.4

Barriers

6.5

41.7

192.0

9.3

59.9

275.6

98.5

509.6

2,244.2

SUBTOTAL - Service I

114.3

611.2

2,711.8

---

---

2,263

299.7

1,712

7,701

SUBTOTAL

Acting on Composite Girder:

TOTAL - Strength I

7-10

3. Design

3.1 Flexural Design

3.1.1 Strand Patterns at End of Girder and at Midspan

A trial-and-error procedure is used to determine the strand pattern. For simplicity, the trial

designs that were performed to arrive at the strand patterns shown below are not included as

part of this design example.

The section at midspan is considered first. Generally, strands are added to the section in

pairs, filling the available strand locations from the bottom, until the stress limits and strength

requirements at midspan are satisfied.

The end pattern is then determined by draping strands as required to satisfy the stress limits

at the end of the girder at release. Other methods, which are not considered in this example,

could also be used to control stresses at the end of the girder.

Draped Strands

No. of

Strands

2

2

2

2

Dist. from

Bottom

68 IN

66 IN

64 IN

62 IN

Straight Strands

No. of Dist. from

Strands

Bottom

2

8 IN

6

6 IN

10

4 IN

10

2 IN

Figure 4:

For the following computations, all c. g. dimensions are measured from the bottom of the girder.

At Midspan (and between Depression Points):

Depression Point Location:

0.45 L = 0.45 (105 FT) = 47.25 FT from CL bearing = 47.75 FT from end of girder

c.g. @ midspan = [(12 strands)(2 IN) + (12)(4 IN) +(8)(6 IN) + (4)(8 IN)] / 36 strands = 4.22 IN

eccentricity @ midspan = eCL = yb - c.g. @ midspan = 36.60 - 4.22 = 32.38 IN

7-11

At End of Girder:

c.g. @ end = [(10 strands)(2 IN) + (10)(4 IN) +(6)(6 IN) + (2)(8 IN) + (2)(62 IN) + (2)(64

IN) + (2)(66 IN) +(2)(68 IN)] / 36 strands = 17.56 IN

eccentricity @ end = eend = yb - c.g. @ end = 36.60 - 17.56 = 19.04 IN

At Transfer Length from End of Member (2.5 FT):

(LRFD 5.8.2.3)

c.g. of strand pattern @ depression point = 4.22 IN

c.g. @ transfer point = 17.56 IN - (2.50 FT / 47.25 FT) (17.56 IN - 4.22 IN) = 16.85 IN

eccentricity @ transfer point = etr = yb - c.g. @ t.p. = 36.60 - 16.85 = 19.75 IN

At Critical Location for Shear (6.06 FT from CL bearing; 6.56 FT from end of member):

c.g. @ 6.06 FT = 17.56 IN - (6.56 FT / 47.75 FT) (17.56 IN - 4.22 IN) = 15.73 IN

eccentricity @ 6.06 FT = ecv = 36.60 - 15.73 = 20.87 IN

Total Area of Prestressing Strands:

2

C. G. of Straight Strands:

c.g. straight = [(10 strands)(2 IN) + (10)(4 IN) +(6)(6 IN) + (2)(8 IN)] / 28 strands = 4.00 IN

eccentricity of straight strands = estr = yb - c.g. straight = 36.60 - 4.00 = 32.60 IN

Area of Straight Prestressing Strands:

2

3.1.3.1 Components of Prestress Loss

Elastic Shortening

(LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a-1)

fcgp = Stress at c.g. of strands at release (at midspan)

Scgp = Section modulus of bare girder at c.g. of strand pattern

4

(assumed)

(LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a)

fcgp =

fcgp =

= 2.558 KSI

(LRFD 5.4.4.2)

7-12

Eci =

= = 4,067 KSI

(LRFD 5.4.2.4-1)

= 17.93 KSI

Shrinkage:

(LRFD 5.9.5.4.2-1)

H = 75%

= 5.75 KSI

Creep:

(LRFD 5.9.5.4.3-1)

fcdp = Change in prestress due to all dead loads except self-weight

4

fpCR (12) (2.558) - (7.0) (1.250) = 21.95 KSI

Steel Relaxation:

Relaxation losses prior to release:

(LRFD 5.9.5.4.4b-2)

t = 18.0 HRS = 0.75 DAYS

fpj = Stress in strands at jacking = (0.75) (270 KSI) = 202.5 KSI

fpy = Yield stress of low-relaxation strand

fpy = 0.90 fpu = (0.90) (270 KSI) = 243.0 KSI

(LRFD T5.4.4.1-1)

For stress-relieved strands:

(LRFD 5.9.5.4.4c-1)

For low-relaxation strands, take 30% of above value for stress-relieved strands:

fpR 2 (0.30) [20.0 - (0.4) (17.93) - (0.2) (5.75 + 21.95)] = 2.19 KSI

3.1.3.2 Prestress Loss and Effective Prestress at Release

Compute initial prestress loss

fpi fp ES fp R1

fpi = 202.5 - 19.73 = 182.77 KSI

7-13

7-14

3.1.3.3 Prestress Loss and Effective Prestress after All Losses (Final)

Compute final prestress loss

f pT = f pES + f pSR + f pCR + f pR2

(LRFD 5.9.5.1-1)

f pe = 202.5 - 47.82 = 154.68 KSI

2

Check effective stress:

Add effect of live load to effective prestress, f pe. This is the approach used in the Std

Specifications, but the LRFD is not clear on this.

Change in stress in bottom row of strands:

f pe + f s = 154.68 + 6.24 = 160.92 KSI < 0.8 f py = (0.8) (243 KSI) = 194.4 KSI

3.1.4 Midspan

3.1.4.1 Concrete Stresses Due to Loads

Sign convention for stresses:

(+) = Compression

(-) = Tension

f t = = x 12 = 0.873 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.903 KSI

f t = = x 12 = 0.857 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.886 KSI

f t = x 12 = 0.965 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.998 KSI

f t = x 12 = 0.121 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.125 KSI

Composite Dead Load - Barriers + Future Wearing Surface:

f tg = x 12 = 0.083 KSI

f bg = x 12 = - 0.278 KSI

f td = x 12 = 0.100 KSI

Live Load I:

f tg = x 12 = 0.397 KSI

f td = x 12 = 0.482 KSI

Live Load III:

f bg = x 12 = - 1.067 KSI

3.1.4.2 Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress

At Release

Bottom:

fb = =

= 3.498 KSI

7-15

O.K.

Top:

f t = = = - 0.801 KSI

After all Losses (Final)

Bottom:

fb = =

Top:

ft =

= 2.960 KSI

1 e

Pe CL = = - 0.678 KSI

S t

A

3.1.4.3 Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)

Note: Stresses at depression point will be more critical at release.

Service I:

Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):

fb = 3.498 - 0.903 = 2.595 KSI

Check limiting stress:

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)

2.595 KSI < 0.60 fci

O.K.

ft = -0.801 + 0.873 = 0.072 KSI

Check limiting stress, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement:

0.072 KSI > - = - = -0.201 KSI -0.200 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

O.K.

3.1.4.4 Concrete Stresses at Service Limit States - After All Losses (Final)

Service III (Tensile Stress in Bottom of Girder):

fb = 2.960 -0.886 - 0.998 - 0.125 - 0.278 - 1.067 = - 0.394 KSI

Check limiting stress:

- 0.394 KSI > = = - 0.465 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.2b)

O.K.

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads:

f t = - 0.678 + 0.857 + 0.965 + 0.121 + 0.083 = 1.348 KSI

Check limiting stress:

1.348 KSI < = 0.45 6.00 KSI = 2.70 KSI O.K.

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient

loads (full service load):

f t = - 0.678 + 0.857 + 0.965 + 0.121 + 0.083 + 0.397 = 1.745 KSI

Check limiting stress:

1.745 KSI < = 0.60(1.0)(6.00) = 3.60 KSI O.K

where w = 1.0 for top flange of girder with composite deck because span/thickness ratio of

flange must be less than 15. See LRFD 5.7.4.7.2.

7-16

Compressive stress due to live load and one-half the sum of effective prestress and

permanent loads:

f t = 0.397 + 0.5(1.348) = 1.071 KSI

Check limiting stress:

1.071 KSI < = = 2.40 KSI O.K

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads:

f t = 0.100 KSI

Check limiting stress:

0.100 KSI < = = 1.80 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

O.K.

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient

loads (full service load):

f t = 0.100 + 0.482 = 0.582 KSI

Check limiting stress:

0.582 KSI < = 0.60 4.00 KSI = 2.40 KSI

O.K

span/thickness = (9.00 FT 3.5 FT) / (8 IN / 12 IN/FT) = 8.2 < 15. See LRFD 5.7.4.7.2.

Compressive stress due to live load and one-half the sum of effective prestress and

permanent loads:

f t = 0.482 + 0.5(0.100) = 0.532 KSI

Check limiting stress:

0.532 KSI < = = 1.60 KSI

O.K

Compute nominal moment capacity, M n

Check whether section behaves as a rectangular beam or a T-beam:

= depth of neutral axis

(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4)

(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-2)

dp = h + hf - c.g. @ midspan = 72.00 + 8.00 - 4.22 = 75.78 IN [d p

for shear]

eliminated. Note that the full effective (not transformed) deck width is used in this

computation since the deck concrete strength is used.

= 4.682 IN

Since c = 4.682 IN < hf = 8.00 IN, the neutral axis is in the deck, confirming rectangular

beam behavior.

Compute depth of compression block, a:

= 0.85 for = 4.0 KSI (deck concrete)

a = (0.85) (4.682 IN) = 3.980 IN [a = 3.97 IN at critical section for shear]

(LRFD 5.7.2.2)

(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1)

7-17

Compute nominal moment capacity, Mn:

(LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1)

= 107,827 K-IN = 8,986 K-FT

Compute factored moment resistance, Mr:

= 1.0 for flexure

(LRFD 5.5.4.2)

Mr = Mn = 8,986 K-FT

Compare factored moment resistance, Mr to required moment, Mu:

Mr = 8,986 K-FT > Mu = 7,701 K-FT

O.K.

Check Maximum Reinforcement:

(LRFD 5.7.3.3.1-1)

Since there is no mild steel, de = dp = 75.78 IN

= 0.062 0.42

O.K.

Mr the lesser of 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 Mu

(LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)

(Std Specs 9.18.2.1)

where

=

=

= 0.588 KSI

(LRFD 5.4.2.6)

compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after

losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by

externally applied loads

= f b after losses (see Section 3.1.4.2) = 2.926 KSI

=

=

=

=

1,101.1 + 1,240.3 + 155.0 = 2,496.4 K-FT

= composite section modulus for the tension face

non-composite section modulus for the tension face

1.2 Mcr = 1.2 (5,030) = 6,036 K-FT

1.33 Mu = 1.33 (7,701) = 10,242 K-FT

0.K.

Stresses only need to be checked at release at this location since losses with time will

reduce the concrete stresses making them less critical.

7-18

f t = = x 12 = 0.080 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.083 KSI

3.1.5.2 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress

Stresses due to prestress are equal to zero at the ends.

At Transfer Point:

Bottom:

f b = = = 2.646 KSI

Top:

f t = = = 0.023 KSI

7-19

3.1.5.3 Check Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)

Service I:

Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):

f b = 2.646 - 0.083 = 2.563 KSI

Check stress limit:

2.563 KSI < =

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)

= 2.70 KSI

O.K.

f t = 0.023 + 0.080 = 0.103 KSI

Check stress limit, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement

0.103 KSI > - = - = - 0.201 KSI - 0.200 KSI O.K.

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.2)

Stresses only need to be checked at release at this location since midspan will govern for

final stress conditions.

3.1.6.1 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Loads (Girder Only)

f t = x 12 = 0.865 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.894 KSI

3.1.6.2 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress

Bottom:

f b = 3.498 KSI

(same as at Midspan)

Top:

f t = - 0.801 KSI

(same as at Midspan)

3.1.6.3 Check Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)

Service I:

Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):

f b = 3.498 - 0.894 = 2.604 KSI

Check stress limit in concrete:

2.604 KSI < = = 2.70 KSI O.K.

Top of Girder (Tensile Stress):

f t = - 0.801 + 0.865 = 0.064 KSI

Check stress limit, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement

0.064 KSI > - = - = - 0.201 KSI - 0.200 KSI O.K.

7-20

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.2)

3.2.1 Transverse Shear Reinforcement

In this example, the girder will be designed for vertical shear at the critical

section for shear. In a full design, other sections along the length of the girder

would have to be designed as well.

3.2.1.1 Critical Section for Shear

Shear design using the Sectional Design Model is an iterative process that begins by

assuming a value for .

Assume an initial value for the inclination of the compression field, , of 25.

Critical section for shear is greater of:

(LRFD 5.8.3.2)

0.5 dv cot or

dv

Compute dv:

dv = Effective shear depth

= Distance between resultants of tensile and compressive forces

The depth of the compression block, a, was computed in determining the moment

capacity of the section (see Section 3.1.4.5).

= (72.0 + 8.0 -15.73) - (3.97/2) = 62.28 IN

But dv need not be taken less than the greater of:

(LRFD 5.8.2.7)

0.72 h = (0.72) (80) = 57.60 IN

Therefore, use dv = 62.28 IN

Critical section for shear is greater of:

0.5 dv cot = 0.5 (62.28) cot(25) = 66.78 IN or

GOVERNS

dv = 62.28 IN

Note: dv will govern for > 26.6.

Therefore the critical section for shear is:

0.50 FT + 66.78 IN / 12 = 6.06 FT from centerline of support.

At the critical section for shear, Vu = 299.7 KIP

3.2.1.2 Component of Shear Resistance from Prestress, V p

Pf = 852 KIP

Angle of center of gravity of strand profile with respect to horizontal, :

-1

-1

o

7-21

(LRFD 5.8.3.2)

Vu

Vr = Vn

(LRFD 5.8.2.1-2)

Vn = V c + V s + V p

(LRFD 5.5.4.2.1)

(LRFD 5.8.3.3-1)

Vn max =

(LRFD 5.8.3.3-2)

Vn max = (0.25) (6.00 KSI) (6.00 IN) (62.28 IN) + 19.6 KIP = 580.1 KIP

Vn max = (0.90) (580.1) = 522.1 KIP > Vu = 299.7 KIP

O.K.

(LRFD 5.8.3.3-3)

To use this equation, the quantity must be determined. This quantity is a factor that

represents the efficiency of shear transfer by concrete. Note that = , so a value of 2 would

provide a concrete contribution similar to the familiar simplified value of bd.

To obtain , the quantities and are needed, where is a relative shear stress and is the

inclination of the compression field.

= 0.84 KSI

(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-1)

= = 0.140

Begin iterations using the previously assumed value for .

Trial 1: Assume = 25 (previously assumed and used to determine location of critical section for

shear).

0.002

(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-2)

fpo = 0.7 (270) = 189.0 KSI

(LRFD C5.8.3.4.2)

Aps =

area of prestressing steel on flexural tension side of the member, i.e., the

straight strands

Aps =

4.284 IN

0.002

= - 0.00073

Because x is negative, use Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3:

(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-3)

Ac = Area of concrete on flexural tension side

= Area of girder below h/2 = 80.00/2 = 40.00 IN

= (26)(6) + (4.5)(26+6)/2 + (29.5)(6) = 405 IN

= - 0.00004 = -0.04x10-3

From Table 5.8.3.4.2-1, with x = -0.04x10-3 and = 0.140, find = 25.0 and = 2.72.

7-22

This is the same value as was assumed, so convergence has been achieved.

With these values, the concrete contribution, Vc, can now be computed.

= 78.7 KIP

3.2.1.5 Required Shear Reinforcement, Vs

Required Vs = Vu / - Vc Vp = 299.7 / 0.9 78.7 19.6 = 234.7 KIP

Assuming vertical stirrups,

(LRFD C5.8.3.3-1)

2

2

= 0.351 IN /FT

Check minimum transverse reinforcement:

(LRFD 5.8.2.5)

2

O.K.

(LRFD 5.8.2.7-2)

Vu = 299.7 KIP > 0.1 fc bv dv = (0.1) (6.00) (6.00) (62.28) = 224.2 KIP

Therefore, maximum stirrup spacing is 12 IN.

2

In this example, the girder will be designed for interface shear at the initial

critical section for shear. In a full design, other sections along the length of

the girder would have to be designed as well.

The width of the shear interface is equal to the width of the top flange of the

girder, which is 42.00 IN. Therefore, bv = 42.00 IN.

Assume that the top surface of the girder was intentionally roughened to an

amplitude of 0.25 IN and cleaned prior to placement of the deck concrete.

The requirement for intentional roughening of the top of the girder should be

indicated on the plans.

Compute the factored horizontal shear, Vh:

Vh = Vu / de

(LRFD C5.8.4.1-1)

The definition for de given for this equation is the same as dv. Therefore use dv

as computed above.

Vh = Vu / dv = 299.7 / 62.28 = 4.82 KIPS/IN

Since Vh Vn and = 0.9,

7-23

Check limits on Vn:

Vn 0.2 fcAcv or 0.8 Acv

Using the deck concrete strength of 4.0 KSI for fc, the two limits are equal.

Acv = area of concrete engaged in shear transfer

=

Vn reqd = 5.36 KIPS/IN 0.2 fcAcv = 0.2 (4.0) (42.0) = 33.6 KIPS / IN

O.K.

(LRFD 5.8.4.1-1)

where:

c = 0.100 KSI and = 1.000 for an intentionally roughened surface

Avf

Pc

(LRFD 5.8.4.2)

= 0

Solve for the required Avf:

2

Minimum steel requirement:

(LRFD 5.8.4.1-4)

2

(Controls)

Use 2 # 4 @ 12 IN (Av provd = 0.40 IN /FT Say OK Note that this limit depends directly on the width

of the interface more steel required for a wider interface)

3.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement

In this example, the longitudinal reinforcement requirement will be checked at

the critical section for shear. The Specifications require that this requirement

must be satisfied at each section of the girder. Therefore, in a full design,

other sections along the length of the girder would also have to be checked.

3.3.1 Required Longitudinal Force

Required Longitudinal Force:

Treqd =

(LRFD 5.8.3.5-1)

Treqd =

(LRFD 5.8.3.5)

7-24

where:

Vs = shear resistance provided by transverse reinforcement, not to exceed V u / .

=

(LRFD C5.8.3.3-1)

= = 267.1 KIP

Vu / = 299.7 KIP / 0.9 = 333.0 KIP, so use computed quantity for V s.

Treqd = = (333.0 133.6 19.6) cot (25)

= (179.8) (2.14) = 385.6 KIP

3.3.2 Available Longitudinal Force

The force to resist Treqd must be supplied by the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of

the member. In this case, the available reinforcement consists of the straight strands. The

available force that can be provided by these strands at the critical section for shear must be

determined considering the lack of full development due to the proximity to the end of the

girder.

The location at which T must be provided is where the failure crack assumed for this analysis,

which radiates from inside face of the support, crosses the centroid of the straight strands.

The angle determined above during shear design at this location is used here. The inside

face of the support is 12 IN from the end of the girder.

Figure 5:

Crack Crosses Straight Strands

The total effective prestress force for the straight strands is:

Pes = Aps fpe = 4.284 IN2 (154.68 KSI) = 662.6 KIP

The distance from the bottom of the girder to the centroid of these strands is:

Measured from the end of the girder, the crack crosses the centroid of the straight strands at:

x=

This location is within the transfer length l t , so the available stress is less than the effective

prestress force for the straight strands. The available prestress force, Tavail, at x is therefore

computed assuming a linear variation in stress from the end of the girder to the transfer

length. The transfer length, l t , is 60 db or 30 IN.

(LRFD 5.11.4.1.)

7-25

Since Tavail = 455.0 KIP > Treqd = 385.6 KIP, the straight strands are adequate to resist the

required longitudinal force at this location and no additional reinforcement is required.

If the strands had not been adequate to resist the force, additional mild reinforcement would

have been added to provide the remainder of the required force.

3.4 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:

3.4.1 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement

Article 5.10.10.1 requires that the factored bursting resistance of a pretensioned anchorage

zone be at least 4.0% of the total prestressing force. This resistance is provided by vertical

reinforcement close to the ends of pretensioned girders.

The factored bursting resistance is given by:

Pr = f s As

(LRFD 5.10.10.1-1)

where:

2

Note: The total jacking force prior to any losses is used as the total prestressing force P o

in this calculation:

f s is the working stress in the reinforcement, not to exceed 20 KSI

Solving for the required area of reinforcement, As:

= 2.23 IN

2

2

14.4 IN from the end of the member. Stirrups placed for vertical or interface shear can also

be used to satisfy this requirement since this reinforcement is only required to resist forces at

release.

3.4.2 Confinement Reinforcement

In accordance with Article 5.10.10.2, confinement reinforcement not less than #3 bars at a

spacing of not more than 6.0 IN shall be placed within 1.5 d (say 1.5 h = 9.00 FT) from the

end of the girder. These bars shall be shaped to enclose the strands.

7-26

- Basic beam analysis example2.docxUploaded bymahfuzul_haque
- 2100-155-PVM-U-011Uploaded byrajatkatiyar2416
- 450x 200 Us Sbm6 Grid 6_a-dUploaded byadera1
- Computer Aided Design BeamUploaded byDavidParedes
- Sample Beam DesignUploaded bymokalngan
- CH 4 - Part III-Allowables Stress Design (ASD) AlternativeUploaded bynazgul85
- Paper 058Uploaded byمحمد تانزيم ابراهيم
- Study of Aluminum rail sectionUploaded byHamza Khalid
- Lecture 5 FoundationsUploaded byCarel De Jager
- Presentation 14Uploaded byClaudia Dominoni
- Materials Exam2 Solutions v3Uploaded byCenturión Chávez Luis Norge
- Deep Beam DesignUploaded byDarioLampa
- through bolt connection.pdfUploaded byAkhil VN
- Composite Section AnalysisUploaded byMadusha Galappaththi
- The Use of Swimmer Bars as Shear Reinforcement in RC Deep BeamsUploaded byIOSRjournal
- (Paper) O-cell and Bored Pile Testing - A SymbiosisUploaded byShaileshRastogi
- Concrete Bridge Design (Recovered)Uploaded byIsaac Mureithi Maina
- CalculationUploaded bysneha
- Sample Test1 Computer Methods KeyUploaded byani1167
- Design of CorbelUploaded bySyed Ahmed Kabeer
- 6.Testing of Concrete Quality and ControlUploaded byNiraj Jha
- Design of Compozite Haunch Beams and ConnectionsUploaded bystarsplesh
- Anchor Block Design ciUploaded byeramitdhanuka
- 86645792 Ejma7r2 Bellows Worksheet 1Uploaded byNamık
- Ci2811parra MontesinosUploaded bymoraru_gabriel_2
- ESFUERZOSUploaded byJuanCastro
- RCC Combined footing DesignUploaded byD.V.Srinivasa Rao
- Design CriteriaUploaded bymodest_dhu
- Engineering Service SyllabusUploaded bybabubhai23
- Reciporcating Compressor Foundation BlocksUploaded byLuis Espinosa

- abutmentsUploaded byrealchic
- Chapter_9.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- section05 (2).pdfUploaded byImran Sohail
- CH5_Pile_Fndns.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- cub_brid_lesson02_activity1_pierworksheet.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- CT Bridge Design ManualUploaded byLeedavid168
- PT DetailingUploaded bycuongnguyen
- PilingUploaded byOmar Galvez
- Rak-11_2100_en_-_abutments.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- Design ChartUploaded bygendadeyu552625
- 25-Lecture06-Design loadsUploaded bytakis.papadopoulos6672
- Prestressed Precast Concrete Beam Bridge DesignUploaded byaleitaosilva
- 200 Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering WorksUploaded byVijay
- Post-Disaster_Bridge_Evaluation_Inspection_Manual.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- foundation_op_oct_2005_revisions.pdfUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- Example Three SpansUploaded byJoey Cross
- ASCE Post-disaster Assessment ManualUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- Aashto Lrfd Bridge Design SpecificationsUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- 192887593 Aashto Lrfd Bridge Design Specifications (1)Uploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN
- CT Bridge Design ManualUploaded byLeedavid168
- Design ChartUploaded bygendadeyu552625
- Chapter 7 2007Uploaded bysompongt
- Abutment 2Uploaded byaminjoles
- EUROCODE - Bridge DesignUploaded byAlexandru Radu
- Post TensionUploaded byfareed2100
- Prestress Concrete (17-23)Uploaded byRogerMacadangdangGeonzon
- 25-Lecture06-Design loadsUploaded bytakis.papadopoulos6672
- Design of AbutmentsUploaded bynour64
- 21 Design of Long-span Bridges With Conventional Reinforced Concrete DecksUploaded byDr. MOHAMED ALZAIN

- EN_A017 Data Management 0405Uploaded byantonio87
- RepovbUploaded byshabbinshabz
- Hall-Yarborough-Z.xlsUploaded byica
- QuestionaireUploaded byVioleta Tani
- 2 pass assemblerUploaded byprashanthreddyburri
- PD ENEC 301 Annex B - January 2018Uploaded byAbraham Seco Armesto
- C-130 Hercules.pdfUploaded bysolnegro7
- Presentation new product design 3.pptxUploaded bypriyaa03
- VLSI Syllabus Published on CET WebsiteUploaded byjosesmn
- Realistic Animation of LiquidsUploaded byDonghoon Sagong
- AM3 Installation & Operation ManualUploaded byjdzamora
- ENPE 513 Assignment 2 - ScribdUploaded byJordan Tanaka
- Lab Report Beetroots ; FUploaded bySafwan Othman
- Manual de kt-4126mhUploaded bybere_cs
- BSc Sem4 Unix and Shell Programming Assignment 1 AnsUploaded byMukesh Kumar
- Shielding Gases & FluxUploaded byMuhammed Sulfeek
- Design Symbols- Spark PlugsUploaded bymechkarov1
- Ebonex TDSUploaded bydanilo
- Database Management SystemUploaded byAniket Gupta
- 1 IndexUploaded byRohitkumar Ajani
- 2008_09FoamSystemUploaded byapi_fabian
- SQL Question and Answers DatabaseUploaded byToufique Kazi
- A Guidebook on Performance Monitoring for Iets OperatorsUploaded byNaqib Kamal
- 422aa.pdfUploaded byql2120
- SimAcademy_May_5_Intro_to_FEA.pdfUploaded byManuel
- Samsung Tv Multi ModeloUploaded bycarlosv
- Alligator Flash enUploaded bycyberlegs
- Lab2 Resistors Network and Wheatstone BridgeUploaded byJames Brian
- Phase EquilibriumUploaded byKumarChirra
- Queueing Theory2Uploaded bysenthil kumaran m