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Design Example Precast/Prestressed Concrete Girder

1. Problem Definition
Span Data

Girder Concrete

fc = 6.0 KSI
fci = 4.5 KSI

Overall Girder Length = 106 FT


Design Span
= 105 FT
Girder is simply supported
Skew = 0

w c = 0.150 KCF
Deck Concrete

Bridge Cross Section Data


Number Lanes
Number Girders
Girder Spacing
Roadway Width
Overall Width

=
=
=
=
=

fc = 4.0 KSI

4
6
9.00 FT
48.00 FT
51.00 FT

w c = 0.150 KCF
Prestressing Steel
Type:

Deck Thickness
Actual
Structural

=
=

Eps = 28,500 KSI

9.00 IN
8.00 IN

Pull: 75%
H = 75% (Relative Humidity)
Time to Release = 18 HRS

Girder Type

Profile: 2-pt. Depressed

PCI BT-72 (72 in. deep bulb-tee)


Location: Interior

Depression Point: 0.45L = 0.45 (106 FT)


Reinforcing Steel (Non-Prestressed)

Dead Load
Future Wearing Surface
Barrier Weight

0.5-IN Diameter 270 KSI LowRelaxation Seven-Wire Strand

f y = 60 KSI

= 0.025 KSF
= 0.418 KLF

Es

Live Load
HL-93 - Design Truck + Design Lane Loads

29,000 KSI

Figure 1:

Cross Section of Bridge With Six PCI BT-72 Bulb Tee Girders at 9-0 Spacing

2. Analysis
2.1 Section Properties
2.1.1 Bare Girder:
The LRFD Specs allow the inclusion of transformed strand in the section properties for a
prestressed member (Article 5.9.1.4). For simplicity, the contribution of the strand to the
section properties is neglected in this example.
Properties of PCI BT-72:
A = 767.0 IN

= 545,894 IN

= 72.00 IN

yb = 36.60 IN
yt = 35.40 IN
Sb =

545,894 IN / 36.60 IN = 14,915 IN

St = 545,894 IN / 35.40 IN = 15,421 IN


2.1.2 Composite Section

Figure 2:

Cross Section of Single Girder with


Composite Deck

Note: Any thickening of the slab over the top flange of the girder (i.e., a haunch or build-up)
will be neglected in the computation of the section properties of the composite section.
However, if they are detailed in the plans, they should be included as additional dead load.
Effective deck width:

(LRFD 4.6.2.6.1)
7-3

One-quarter span length = (105 FT / 4)(12)

= 315 IN

One-half flange width + (12)(deck thickness):


(42 IN) / 2 + (12) (8 IN)

= 117 IN

Average spacing of adjacent girders = (9 FT) (12)

= 108 IN

(Controls)

Transformed deck width = (n) (effective width) = (0.8165) (108 IN) = 88.182 IN
n = = = = 0.8165
Component

Area

yb

A yb

A (yb 2
ybc)

Io

Ic

Girder

767.00

36.60

28,072

273,111

545,894

819,005

Effective Deck

705.45

76.00

53,614

297,334

3,762

301,096

Total

1,472.50

81,686

1,120,101

ybcg = (A yb) / A = 81,686 IN / 1,472.5 IN = 55.47 IN


ytcg = h - ybc = 72.00 IN - 55.47 IN = 16.53 IN
ytcd = hc - ybc = 80.00 IN - 55.47 IN = 24.53 IN
4

Sbcg = Ic / ybc = 1,120,101 IN / 55.47 IN = 20,193 IN

Stcg = Ic / ytcg = 1,120,101 IN / 16.53 IN = 67,762 IN


4

Stcd = (Ic / ytcd) / n = (1,120,101 IN / 24.53 IN) / (0.8165) = 55,925 IN

2.2 Moments and Shears


2.2.1 Dead Loads
2.2.1.1 Girder Dead Load at Release
The moments for this condition are computed separately from other moments because the full
length of the girder is used in computing these moments, rather than the design span
(distance from center-to-center of bearings). The full length is used because, when the girder
cambers upward in the prestressing bed after release, its only points of contact with the bed
(and therefore its support locations) will be at the ends of the girder.
Locations of interest at release conditions:
1. Transfer point

(LRFD 5.8.2.3)

l t = 60 db = 60 (0.5 IN) = 30.0 IN = 2.5 FT


2. Depression point
x = 0.45 L = 0.45 (106 FT) = 47.7 FT
3. Midspan
7-4

x = 0.5 L = 0.5 (106 FT) = 53.0 FT


Girder Dead Load
2

wgdl = (767 IN / 144) (0.150 KCF) = 0.799 KLF


Mgdli =
L = 106 FT (overall girder length)
Mgdli = 0.799 (x / 2) (106 - x) = 42.35 x - 0.400 x

2.2.1.2 Girder Dead Load - Final


L = 105 FT (bearing to bearing)
Mgdl = 41.95 x - 0.400 x
Vgdl =

= 41.95 - 0.799 x

2.2.1.3 Deck Dead Load (Structural Deck)


Structural Deck Thickness = 8.0 IN
wddl = ((8 IN x 108 IN) /144) (0.150 KCF) = 0.900 KLF
L = 105 FT
Mddl = 47.25 x - 0.450 x

Vddl = 47.25 - 0.900 x


2.2.1.4 Additional Non-Composite Dead Load (Non-Structural Deck)
Non-Structural Deck Thickness = 1.0 IN
wncdl = ((1 IN x 108 IN) /144) (0.150 KCF) = 0.1125 KLF
L = 105 FT
Mncdl = 5.906 x - 0.0563 x

Vncdl = 5.906 - 0.1125 x


2.2.1.5 Composite Dead Load - Barriers
Barriers: (2) (0.418 KLF / barrier) = 0.836 KLF
wcdl = 0.836 KLF / (6 girders) = 0.1393 KLF / girder
L = 105 FT
Mcdl = 7.313 x - 0.0697 x

Vcdl = 7.313 - 0.1393 x


2.2.1.6 Composite Dead Load - Future Wearing Surface
Future Wearing Surface: (48.00 FT) (0.025 KSF) = 1.200 KLF
wfws = 1.200 KLF / (6 girders) = 0.200 KLF
L = 105 FT
7-5

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1)

Mcdl = 10.500 x - 0.100 x

Vcdl = 10.500 - 0.200 x


2.2.2 Live Loads
2.2.2.1 Distribution Factors

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1)

To use the simplified live load distribution factor formulae, the following
conditions must be met:

Width of deck is constant

O.K.

Number of girders, Nb,

O.K.

Girders parallel and same stiffness

Roadway part of overhang, de,

Curvature < 4

(Nb = 6)

O.K.

3.0 FT O.K.

O.K.

(de = 1.25 FT)


o

(Curvature = 0 )

Bridge Type: k

(LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1)

Distribution Factor for Moment (2 or More Lanes loaded):


(LRFD 4.2.2.2b-1)
Provided that:

3.5 S 16

S = 9.00 FT

O.K.

4.5 ts 12.0

ts = 8.00 IN

O.K.

20 L < 240

L = 105 FT

O.K.

Nb 4

Nb = 6

O.K.

Kg = n (I + A eg )

(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1-1)

n = = = = 1.2247

(Note that this is the reciprocal of the value for


n computed earlier)

eg = yt + (ts / 2) = 35.40 IN + (8 IN / 2) = 39.40 IN


4

Kg = 1.2247 [545,894 IN + (767 IN ) (39.40 IN) ] = 2,126,758 IN

= 0.7423 lanes / girder

Distribution Factor for Shear (2 or More Lanes Loaded):


(LRFD 4.6.2.2.3a-1)
Provided that the following condition is met in addition to the conditions specified above:
10,000 Kg ( 2,126,758) 7,000,000

O.K.

= 0.8839 lanes / girder


2.2.2.2 Live Load Effects

7-6

Figure 3:

LRFD Design Truck and Design Lane Load

At Midspan:
Design Truck will govern over Design Tandem for this span.
Mtruck = 18L - 280

(Maximum moment at midspan)

Mtruck = (18) (105 FT) - 280 = 1,610.0 K-FT


Mlane = =

= 882.0 K-FT

Dynamic Load Allowance (Impact Factor)


1 + IM = 1 + 0.33 = 1.33

(LRFD Table 3.6.2.1-1)

(applied only to truck portion of live load)

MLL+I = DF [Mlane + 1.33 (Mtruck)] = (0.7423) [882.0 + (1.33) (1,610.0)] = 2,244.2 K-FT
At 6.06FT from Centerline of Bearing (Critical Section for Shear - see Section 3.2.1.1 below):
Mtruck =
Mtruck = [(32 KIP) (98.947 FT) + (32 KIP) (84.947 FT) + (8 KIP) (70.947 FT)] (6.053 FT) / 105 FT
Mtruck = 372.0 K-FT
Mlane = = (0.64 KLF) (6.053 FT) (105 FT - 6.053 FT) / 2 = 191.7 K-FT
MLL+I,Vmax = DF [Mlane + 1.33 (Mtruck)] = (0.7423) [191.7 + (1.33) (372.0)] = 509.6 K-FT
Vtruck = Mtruck / x = 372.0 K-FT / 6.053 FT = 61.46 KIP
Vlane = = 0.64 KLF (105 FT / 2 - 6.053 FT) = 29.73 KIP
VLL+I = DF [Vlane + 1.33 Vtruck] = (0.8839) [29.73 + (1.33) (61.46)] = 98.5 KIP
2.3 Load Combinations and Load Factors
2.3.1 Applicable Limit States
Service I

Service III

(LRFD Table 3.4.1-1)


Strength I

2.3.2 Service I
This load combination is the general combination for Service Limit State stress checks and
applies to all conditions other than Service III.
All load factors are equal to 1.0 for this problem.
For moment at midspan:
Acting on the non-composite girder, MSLnc:
7-7

MSLnc = 1,101.1 + 1,240.3 + 155.0 = 2,496.4 K-FT


Acting on the composite girder, MSLc:
MSLc = 192.0 + 275.6 + 2,244.2 = 2,711.8 K-FT
2.3.3 Service III
This load combination is a special combination for Service Limit State stress checks that applies only
to tension in prestressed concrete structures with the objective of crack control.
All load factors are equal to 1.0 for this problem, except that the live load is reduced by a factor of 0.8.

For moment at midspan:


Acting on the non-composite girder, MSLnc (same as for Service I).
Acting on the composite girder, MSLc:
MSLc = 192.0 + 275.6 + (0.8)(2,244.2) = 2,263.0 K-FT
2.3.4 Fatigue (not required)
According to LRFD 5.5.3.1, Fatigue need not be checked for concrete deck slabs in multigirder
applications. Fatigue of the reinforcement need not be checked for fully prestressed components
designed to have extreme fiber tensile stress due to Service III Limit State within the tensile stress
limit specified in Article 5.9.4.2.2b. Fatigue of concrete is checked indirectly by satisfying the
'

compression stress limit of 0.4 f c for the load combination specified in LRFD 5.9.4.2.1.
2.3.5 Strength I
This load combination is the general combination for Strength Limit State design. Since the
structure is simply supported, the maximum values for the load factors are used because
they produce the greatest effect (see LRFD Table 3.4.1-2).
No distinction is made between moments and shears applied to the non-composite or
composite sections for strength computations. The factored loads are applied to the
composite section.
The following load factors apply:
Dead Load - Component and Attachments
Dead Load - Wearing Surface and Utilities
Vehicular Live Load and Impact

1.25
1.50
1.75

DC
DW
LL and IM

Mu or Vu = 1.25DC + 1.50DW + 1.75(LL + IM)


For moment at midspan, Mu:
Mu = (1.25) [1,101.1 + 1,240.3 + 155.0 + 192.0] + (1.50) (275.6) + (1.75) (2,244.2)
Mu = 3,360.5 + 413.4 + 3,927.4 = 7,701 K-FT
For shear at the critical section for shear, V u :
Vu = (1.25) [37.1 + 41.8 + 5.2 + 6.5] +(1.50) (9.3) + (1.75) (98.5)
Vu = 113.3 + 14.0 + 172.4 = 299.7 KIP
For moment at the critical section for shear, M u :
7-8

Mu = (1.25) [239.3 + 269.5 + 33.7 + 41.7] + (1.50) (59.9) + (1.75) (509.6)


Mu = 730.3 + 89.9 + 891.8 = 1,712.0 K-FT

7-9

Summary of Dead and Live Load Effects

Moments at Release (K-FT)


Component

Transfer Pt. (2.5 FT)

0.45L (47.7 FT)

Midspan (53.0 FT)

103.4

1,111

1,122

Girder

Moments and Shears


At Critical Section for Shear
(6.053 FT from Center of Support)
Component

Midspan (52.50 FT)

V (KIP)

M (K-FT)

M (K-FT)

Girder

37.1

239.3

1,101.1

Deck (Structural)

41.8

269.5

1,240.3

Additional Non-Composite

5.2

33.7

155.0

84.1

542.5

2,496.4

Barriers

6.5

41.7

192.0

Future Wearing Surface

9.3

59.9

275.6

Live Load + Impact

98.5

509.6

2,244.2

SUBTOTAL - Service I

114.3

611.2

2,711.8

SUBTOTAL - Service III

---

---

2,263

299.7

1,712

7,701

Acting on Non-Composite Girder:

SUBTOTAL
Acting on Composite Girder:

TOTAL - Strength I

7-10

3. Design
3.1 Flexural Design
3.1.1 Strand Patterns at End of Girder and at Midspan
A trial-and-error procedure is used to determine the strand pattern. For simplicity, the trial
designs that were performed to arrive at the strand patterns shown below are not included as
part of this design example.
The section at midspan is considered first. Generally, strands are added to the section in
pairs, filling the available strand locations from the bottom, until the stress limits and strength
requirements at midspan are satisfied.
The end pattern is then determined by draping strands as required to satisfy the stress limits
at the end of the girder at release. Other methods, which are not considered in this example,
could also be used to control stresses at the end of the girder.

Draped Strands
No. of
Strands
2
2
2
2

Dist. from
Bottom
68 IN
66 IN
64 IN
62 IN

Straight Strands
No. of Dist. from
Strands
Bottom
2
8 IN
6
6 IN
10
4 IN
10
2 IN

Figure 4:

Strand Pattern at End and Midspan

3.1.2 Properties of Assumed Strand Patterns


For the following computations, all c. g. dimensions are measured from the bottom of the girder.
At Midspan (and between Depression Points):
Depression Point Location:
0.45 L = 0.45 (105 FT) = 47.25 FT from CL bearing = 47.75 FT from end of girder
c.g. @ midspan = [(12 strands)(2 IN) + (12)(4 IN) +(8)(6 IN) + (4)(8 IN)] / 36 strands = 4.22 IN
eccentricity @ midspan = eCL = yb - c.g. @ midspan = 36.60 - 4.22 = 32.38 IN

7-11

At End of Girder:
c.g. @ end = [(10 strands)(2 IN) + (10)(4 IN) +(6)(6 IN) + (2)(8 IN) + (2)(62 IN) + (2)(64
IN) + (2)(66 IN) +(2)(68 IN)] / 36 strands = 17.56 IN
eccentricity @ end = eend = yb - c.g. @ end = 36.60 - 17.56 = 19.04 IN
At Transfer Length from End of Member (2.5 FT):

l t = 60 db = 60 (0.5 IN) = 30 IN = 2.5 FT

(LRFD 5.8.2.3)

c.g. of strand pattern @ end = 17.56 IN


c.g. of strand pattern @ depression point = 4.22 IN
c.g. @ transfer point = 17.56 IN - (2.50 FT / 47.25 FT) (17.56 IN - 4.22 IN) = 16.85 IN
eccentricity @ transfer point = etr = yb - c.g. @ t.p. = 36.60 - 16.85 = 19.75 IN
At Critical Location for Shear (6.06 FT from CL bearing; 6.56 FT from end of member):
c.g. @ 6.06 FT = 17.56 IN - (6.56 FT / 47.75 FT) (17.56 IN - 4.22 IN) = 15.73 IN
eccentricity @ 6.06 FT = ecv = 36.60 - 15.73 = 20.87 IN
Total Area of Prestressing Strands:
2

Aps = (36 strands) (0.153 IN ) = 5.508 IN

C. G. of Straight Strands:
c.g. straight = [(10 strands)(2 IN) + (10)(4 IN) +(6)(6 IN) + (2)(8 IN)] / 28 strands = 4.00 IN
eccentricity of straight strands = estr = yb - c.g. straight = 36.60 - 4.00 = 32.60 IN
Area of Straight Prestressing Strands:
2

Apss = (28 strands) (0.153 IN ) = 4.284 IN

3.1.3 Prestress Losses


3.1.3.1 Components of Prestress Loss
Elastic Shortening
(LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a-1)
fcgp = Stress at c.g. of strands at release (at midspan)
Scgp = Section modulus of bare girder at c.g. of strand pattern
4

Scgp = I / eCL = (545,894 IN ) / (32.38 IN) = 16,860 IN

fi = Stress in strands after release = 0.70 fpu = 189.0 KSI

(assumed)

(LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a)

Pi = Aps fi = (5.508 IN )(189.0 KSI) = 1,041.0 KIP


fcgp =
fcgp =

= 2.558 KSI

Eps = 28,500 KSI

(LRFD 5.4.4.2)

7-12

Eci =

= = 4,067 KSI

(LRFD 5.4.2.4-1)

= 17.93 KSI
Shrinkage:
(LRFD 5.9.5.4.2-1)
H = 75%

(see LRFD Fig. 5.4.2.3.3-1)

= 5.75 KSI
Creep:
(LRFD 5.9.5.4.3-1)
fcdp = Change in prestress due to all dead loads except self-weight
4

Sc,cg = Ic / (ybcg - c.g. @ midspan) = 1,120,101 IN / (55.47 - 4.22) = 21,856 IN

fcdp [(155.0 + 1,240.3) / 16,860 + (467.6 / 21,856)] (12) = 1.250 KSI


fpCR (12) (2.558) - (7.0) (1.250) = 21.95 KSI
Steel Relaxation:
Relaxation losses prior to release:
(LRFD 5.9.5.4.4b-2)
t = 18.0 HRS = 0.75 DAYS
fpj = Stress in strands at jacking = (0.75) (270 KSI) = 202.5 KSI
fpy = Yield stress of low-relaxation strand
fpy = 0.90 fpu = (0.90) (270 KSI) = 243.0 KSI

(LRFD T5.4.4.1-1)

Relaxation losses after release:


For stress-relieved strands:
(LRFD 5.9.5.4.4c-1)
For low-relaxation strands, take 30% of above value for stress-relieved strands:
fpR 2 (0.30) [20.0 - (0.4) (17.93) - (0.2) (5.75 + 21.95)] = 2.19 KSI
3.1.3.2 Prestress Loss and Effective Prestress at Release
Compute initial prestress loss

fpi fp ES fp R1

fpi = 17.93 + 1.80 = 19.73 KSI

(9.74 % of initial prestress, fpj )

Compute effective stress and force after losses


fpi = 202.5 - 19.73 = 182.77 KSI

7-13

Pi = (Aps) (fpi) = (5.508 IN ) (182.77 KSI) = 1,006.7 KIP

7-14

3.1.3.3 Prestress Loss and Effective Prestress after All Losses (Final)
Compute final prestress loss
f pT = f pES + f pSR + f pCR + f pR2

(LRFD 5.9.5.1-1)

f pT = 17.93 + 5.75 + 21.95 + 2.19 = 47.82 KSI

(23.62 % of initial prestress, fpj )

Compute effective stress and force after losses


f pe = 202.5 - 47.82 = 154.68 KSI
2

Pe = (Aps) (f pe) = (5.508 IN ) (154.68 KSI) = 852.0 KIP


Check effective stress:

(LRFD Table 5.9.3-1)

Add effect of live load to effective prestress, f pe. This is the approach used in the Std
Specifications, but the LRFD is not clear on this.
Change in stress in bottom row of strands:
f pe + f s = 154.68 + 6.24 = 160.92 KSI < 0.8 f py = (0.8) (243 KSI) = 194.4 KSI
3.1.4 Midspan
3.1.4.1 Concrete Stresses Due to Loads
Sign convention for stresses:

(+) = Compression
(-) = Tension

Girder Dead Load - At Release with L = 106 FT:


f t = = x 12 = 0.873 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.903 KSI

Girder Dead Load - Final with L = 105 FT:


f t = = x 12 = 0.857 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.886 KSI

Deck (Structural) Dead Load:


f t = x 12 = 0.965 KSI

f b = x 12 = - 0.998 KSI

Additional Non-Composite Dead Load (Non-Structural Deck):


f t = x 12 = 0.121 KSI
f b = x 12 = - 0.125 KSI
Composite Dead Load - Barriers + Future Wearing Surface:
f tg = x 12 = 0.083 KSI
f bg = x 12 = - 0.278 KSI
f td = x 12 = 0.100 KSI
Live Load I:
f tg = x 12 = 0.397 KSI
f td = x 12 = 0.482 KSI
Live Load III:
f bg = x 12 = - 1.067 KSI
3.1.4.2 Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress
At Release
Bottom:
fb = =

= 3.498 KSI

7-15

O.K.

Top:
f t = = = - 0.801 KSI
After all Losses (Final)
Bottom:
fb = =
Top:
ft =

= 2.960 KSI

1 e
Pe CL = = - 0.678 KSI
S t
A

3.1.4.3 Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)
Note: Stresses at depression point will be more critical at release.
Service I:
Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):
fb = 3.498 - 0.903 = 2.595 KSI
Check limiting stress:

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)

= 0.60 4.50 KSI = 2.70 KSI


2.595 KSI < 0.60 fci

O.K.

Top of Girder (Tensile Stress):


ft = -0.801 + 0.873 = 0.072 KSI
Check limiting stress, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement:
0.072 KSI > - = - = -0.201 KSI -0.200 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

O.K.

3.1.4.4 Concrete Stresses at Service Limit States - After All Losses (Final)
Service III (Tensile Stress in Bottom of Girder):
fb = 2.960 -0.886 - 0.998 - 0.125 - 0.278 - 1.067 = - 0.394 KSI
Check limiting stress:
- 0.394 KSI > = = - 0.465 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.2b)
O.K.

Service I (Compressive Stress in Top of Girder):

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads:
f t = - 0.678 + 0.857 + 0.965 + 0.121 + 0.083 = 1.348 KSI
Check limiting stress:
1.348 KSI < = 0.45 6.00 KSI = 2.70 KSI O.K.

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient
loads (full service load):
f t = - 0.678 + 0.857 + 0.965 + 0.121 + 0.083 + 0.397 = 1.745 KSI
Check limiting stress:
1.745 KSI < = 0.60(1.0)(6.00) = 3.60 KSI O.K
where w = 1.0 for top flange of girder with composite deck because span/thickness ratio of
flange must be less than 15. See LRFD 5.7.4.7.2.

7-16

Compressive stress due to live load and one-half the sum of effective prestress and
permanent loads:
f t = 0.397 + 0.5(1.348) = 1.071 KSI
Check limiting stress:
1.071 KSI < = = 2.40 KSI O.K

Service I (Compressive Stress in Top of Deck):

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads:
f t = 0.100 KSI
Check limiting stress:
0.100 KSI < = = 1.80 KSI

(LRFD 5.9.4.2.1)

O.K.

Compressive stress due to the sum of effective prestress, permanent loads and transient
loads (full service load):
f t = 0.100 + 0.482 = 0.582 KSI
Check limiting stress:
0.582 KSI < = 0.60 4.00 KSI = 2.40 KSI

O.K

where w = 1.0 for deck between tips of girder flanges, because


span/thickness = (9.00 FT 3.5 FT) / (8 IN / 12 IN/FT) = 8.2 < 15. See LRFD 5.7.4.7.2.

Compressive stress due to live load and one-half the sum of effective prestress and
permanent loads:
f t = 0.482 + 0.5(0.100) = 0.532 KSI
Check limiting stress:
0.532 KSI < = = 1.60 KSI

O.K

3.1.4.5 Strength Limit State (Strength I)


Compute nominal moment capacity, M n
Check whether section behaves as a rectangular beam or a T-beam:
= depth of neutral axis

(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4)
(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-2)

k = 2 [1.04 - (243 KSI / 270 KSI)] = 0.280


dp = h + hf - c.g. @ midspan = 72.00 + 8.00 - 4.22 = 75.78 IN [d p
for shear]

= 64.27 In at critical section

Since no mild tension or compression reinforcement is being considered, terms are


eliminated. Note that the full effective (not transformed) deck width is used in this
computation since the deck concrete strength is used.
= 4.682 IN
Since c = 4.682 IN < hf = 8.00 IN, the neutral axis is in the deck, confirming rectangular
beam behavior.
Compute depth of compression block, a:
= 0.85 for = 4.0 KSI (deck concrete)
a = (0.85) (4.682 IN) = 3.980 IN [a = 3.97 IN at critical section for shear]

(LRFD 5.7.2.2)

Compute average stress in prestressing strand at strength limit state:


(LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1)

7-17

= 265.3 KSI [fps = 264.6 KSI at critical section for shear]


Compute nominal moment capacity, Mn:
(LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1)
= 107,827 K-IN = 8,986 K-FT
Compute factored moment resistance, Mr:
= 1.0 for flexure

(LRFD 5.5.4.2)

Mr = Mn = 8,986 K-FT
Compare factored moment resistance, Mr to required moment, Mu:
Mr = 8,986 K-FT > Mu = 7,701 K-FT

O.K.

3.1.4.6 Reinforcement Limits


Check Maximum Reinforcement:
(LRFD 5.7.3.3.1-1)
Since there is no mild steel, de = dp = 75.78 IN
= 0.062 0.42

O.K.

Check Minimum Reinforcement:


Mr the lesser of 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 Mu

(LRFD 5.7.3.3.2)

Compute Mcr using Std Specs Article 9.18.2.1


(Std Specs 9.18.2.1)
where
=
=

= 0.588 KSI
(LRFD 5.4.2.6)
compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after
losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by
externally applied loads
= f b after losses (see Section 3.1.4.2) = 2.926 KSI
=
=
=
=

the non-composite dead load moment


1,101.1 + 1,240.3 + 155.0 = 2,496.4 K-FT
= composite section modulus for the tension face
non-composite section modulus for the tension face

Mcr = 5,913 K-FT - 883 K-FT = 5,030 K-FT


1.2 Mcr = 1.2 (5,030) = 6,036 K-FT
1.33 Mu = 1.33 (7,701) = 10,242 K-FT

GOVERNS since 1.2 Mcr < 1.33 Mu

Mr = 8,986 K-FT > 1.2M cr = 6,036 K-FT

0.K.

3.1.5 End and Transfer Point at Release


Stresses only need to be checked at release at this location since losses with time will
reduce the concrete stresses making them less critical.

7-18

3.1.5.1 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Loads (Girder Only)


f t = = x 12 = 0.080 KSI
f b = x 12 = - 0.083 KSI
3.1.5.2 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress
Stresses due to prestress are equal to zero at the ends.
At Transfer Point:
Bottom:
f b = = = 2.646 KSI
Top:
f t = = = 0.023 KSI

7-19

3.1.5.3 Check Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)
Service I:
Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):
f b = 2.646 - 0.083 = 2.563 KSI
Check stress limit:
2.563 KSI < =

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)
= 2.70 KSI

O.K.

Top of Girder (Tensile Stress):


f t = 0.023 + 0.080 = 0.103 KSI
Check stress limit, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement
0.103 KSI > - = - = - 0.201 KSI - 0.200 KSI O.K.

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.2)

3.1.6 Depression Point (0.45L) at Release


Stresses only need to be checked at release at this location since midspan will govern for
final stress conditions.
3.1.6.1 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Loads (Girder Only)
f t = x 12 = 0.865 KSI
f b = x 12 = - 0.894 KSI
3.1.6.2 Compute Concrete Stresses Due to Prestress
Bottom:
f b = 3.498 KSI
(same as at Midspan)
Top:
f t = - 0.801 KSI

(same as at Midspan)

3.1.6.3 Check Concrete Stresses at Service Limit State - Before Losses (At Release)
Service I:
Bottom of Girder (Compressive Stress):
f b = 3.498 - 0.894 = 2.604 KSI
Check stress limit in concrete:
2.604 KSI < = = 2.70 KSI O.K.
Top of Girder (Tensile Stress):
f t = - 0.801 + 0.865 = 0.064 KSI
Check stress limit, without bonded auxiliary reinforcement
0.064 KSI > - = - = - 0.201 KSI - 0.200 KSI O.K.

7-20

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.1)

(LRFD 5.9.4.1.2)

3.2 Shear Design


3.2.1 Transverse Shear Reinforcement
In this example, the girder will be designed for vertical shear at the critical
section for shear. In a full design, other sections along the length of the girder
would have to be designed as well.
3.2.1.1 Critical Section for Shear
Shear design using the Sectional Design Model is an iterative process that begins by
assuming a value for .
Assume an initial value for the inclination of the compression field, , of 25.
Critical section for shear is greater of:

(LRFD 5.8.3.2)

0.5 dv cot or
dv
Compute dv:
dv = Effective shear depth
= Distance between resultants of tensile and compressive forces
The depth of the compression block, a, was computed in determining the moment
capacity of the section (see Section 3.1.4.5).
= (72.0 + 8.0 -15.73) - (3.97/2) = 62.28 IN
But dv need not be taken less than the greater of:

(LRFD 5.8.2.7)

0.9 de = (0.9) (80-15.73) = (0.9) (64.27) = 57.84 IN


0.72 h = (0.72) (80) = 57.60 IN
Therefore, use dv = 62.28 IN
Critical section for shear is greater of:
0.5 dv cot = 0.5 (62.28) cot(25) = 66.78 IN or

GOVERNS

dv = 62.28 IN
Note: dv will govern for > 26.6.
Therefore the critical section for shear is:
0.50 FT + 66.78 IN / 12 = 6.06 FT from centerline of support.
At the critical section for shear, Vu = 299.7 KIP
3.2.1.2 Component of Shear Resistance from Prestress, V p
Pf = 852 KIP
Angle of center of gravity of strand profile with respect to horizontal, :
-1

= tan [(eCL - eend) / (dist. to depression point)]


-1

= tan [((32.38 IN - 19.04 IN) / 12) / 47.75 FT] = 1.32


o

Vp = Pf sin (1.32 ) = (852 KIP) [sin (1.32 )] = 19.6 KIP

7-21

(LRFD 5.8.3.2)

3.2.1.3 Governing Equations for Shear


Vu

Vr = Vn

(LRFD 5.8.2.1-2)

= 0.90 for shear


Vn = V c + V s + V p

(LRFD 5.5.4.2.1)
(LRFD 5.8.3.3-1)

Compute maximum shear capacity of section:


Vn max =

(LRFD 5.8.3.3-2)

Vn max = (0.25) (6.00 KSI) (6.00 IN) (62.28 IN) + 19.6 KIP = 580.1 KIP
Vn max = (0.90) (580.1) = 522.1 KIP > Vu = 299.7 KIP

O.K.

3.2.1.4 Concrete Contribution to Shear Resistance, Vc


(LRFD 5.8.3.3-3)
To use this equation, the quantity must be determined. This quantity is a factor that
represents the efficiency of shear transfer by concrete. Note that = , so a value of 2 would
provide a concrete contribution similar to the familiar simplified value of bd.
To obtain , the quantities and are needed, where is a relative shear stress and is the
inclination of the compression field.
= 0.84 KSI

(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-1)

= = 0.140
Begin iterations using the previously assumed value for .
Trial 1: Assume = 25 (previously assumed and used to determine location of critical section for
shear).
0.002

(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-2)

Mu = 1,712 K-FT = 20,544 K-IN

(see Summary of Dead and Live Load Effects)

Nu = 0 - no applied axial loads


fpo = 0.7 (270) = 189.0 KSI

(LRFD C5.8.3.4.2)

Aps =

area of prestressing steel on flexural tension side of the member, i.e., the
straight strands

Aps =

4.284 IN

0.002
= - 0.00073
Because x is negative, use Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3:
(LRFD 5.8.3.4.2-3)
Ac = Area of concrete on flexural tension side
= Area of girder below h/2 = 80.00/2 = 40.00 IN
= (26)(6) + (4.5)(26+6)/2 + (29.5)(6) = 405 IN
= - 0.00004 = -0.04x10-3

From Table 5.8.3.4.2-1, with x = -0.04x10-3 and = 0.140, find = 25.0 and = 2.72.
7-22

This is the same value as was assumed, so convergence has been achieved.
With these values, the concrete contribution, Vc, can now be computed.
= 78.7 KIP
3.2.1.5 Required Shear Reinforcement, Vs
Required Vs = Vu / - Vc Vp = 299.7 / 0.9 78.7 19.6 = 234.7 KIP
Assuming vertical stirrups,
(LRFD C5.8.3.3-1)
2

Compute Av on an IN /FT basis (s = 12 IN):


2

= 0.351 IN /FT
Check minimum transverse reinforcement:
(LRFD 5.8.2.5)
2

= 0.093 IN /FT < 0.351 IN /FT

O.K.

Check maximum stirrup spacing:

(LRFD 5.8.2.7-2)

Vu = 299.7 KIP > 0.1 fc bv dv = (0.1) (6.00) (6.00) (62.28) = 224.2 KIP
Therefore, maximum stirrup spacing is 12 IN.
2

Use #4 stirrups @ 12 IN (Av,provd = 0.40 IN /FT)

3.2.2 Interface Shear Reinforcement


In this example, the girder will be designed for interface shear at the initial
critical section for shear. In a full design, other sections along the length of
the girder would have to be designed as well.
The width of the shear interface is equal to the width of the top flange of the
girder, which is 42.00 IN. Therefore, bv = 42.00 IN.
Assume that the top surface of the girder was intentionally roughened to an
amplitude of 0.25 IN and cleaned prior to placement of the deck concrete.
The requirement for intentional roughening of the top of the girder should be
indicated on the plans.
Compute the factored horizontal shear, Vh:
Vh = Vu / de

(LRFD C5.8.4.1-1)

The definition for de given for this equation is the same as dv. Therefore use dv
as computed above.
Vh = Vu / dv = 299.7 / 62.28 = 4.82 KIPS/IN
Since Vh Vn and = 0.9,
7-23

Vn reqd = Vh / = 4.82 / 0.9 = 5.36 KIPS/IN


Check limits on Vn:
Vn 0.2 fcAcv or 0.8 Acv
Using the deck concrete strength of 4.0 KSI for fc, the two limits are equal.
Acv = area of concrete engaged in shear transfer
=

= (42.0 IN) (1.0 IN) = 42.0 IN

Use = 1.0 IN to compute Vh on a per inch basis.


Vn reqd = 5.36 KIPS/IN 0.2 fcAcv = 0.2 (4.0) (42.0) = 33.6 KIPS / IN

O.K.

Compute the nominal interface shear resistance, Vn:


(LRFD 5.8.4.1-1)
where:
c = 0.100 KSI and = 1.000 for an intentionally roughened surface
Avf

= area of shear reinforcement crossing the shear plane

Pc

= permanent net compressive force normal to the shear plane

(LRFD 5.8.4.2)

= 0
Solve for the required Avf:
2

= 0.0193 IN /IN or 0.232 IN /FT


Minimum steel requirement:
(LRFD 5.8.4.1-4)
2

Avf = (0.05) (42 IN) (12 IN) / 60 KSI = 0.42 IN / FT

(Controls)

Use 2 # 4 @ 12 IN (Av provd = 0.40 IN /FT Say OK Note that this limit depends directly on the width
of the interface more steel required for a wider interface)
3.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
In this example, the longitudinal reinforcement requirement will be checked at
the critical section for shear. The Specifications require that this requirement
must be satisfied at each section of the girder. Therefore, in a full design,
other sections along the length of the girder would also have to be checked.
3.3.1 Required Longitudinal Force
Required Longitudinal Force:
Treqd =

(LRFD 5.8.3.5-1)

However, at the inside edge of bearing at the simply-supported ends,


Treqd =

(LRFD 5.8.3.5)

7-24

where:
Vs = shear resistance provided by transverse reinforcement, not to exceed V u / .
=

(Use final values from shear design above)

(LRFD C5.8.3.3-1)

= = 267.1 KIP
Vu / = 299.7 KIP / 0.9 = 333.0 KIP, so use computed quantity for V s.
Treqd = = (333.0 133.6 19.6) cot (25)
= (179.8) (2.14) = 385.6 KIP
3.3.2 Available Longitudinal Force
The force to resist Treqd must be supplied by the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of
the member. In this case, the available reinforcement consists of the straight strands. The
available force that can be provided by these strands at the critical section for shear must be
determined considering the lack of full development due to the proximity to the end of the
girder.
The location at which T must be provided is where the failure crack assumed for this analysis,
which radiates from inside face of the support, crosses the centroid of the straight strands.
The angle determined above during shear design at this location is used here. The inside
face of the support is 12 IN from the end of the girder.

Figure 5:

Assumed Failure Crack and Location Where


Crack Crosses Straight Strands

The total effective prestress force for the straight strands is:
Pes = Aps fpe = 4.284 IN2 (154.68 KSI) = 662.6 KIP
The distance from the bottom of the girder to the centroid of these strands is:

d g = c.g. straight strands = 4.00 IN


Measured from the end of the girder, the crack crosses the centroid of the straight strands at:
x=

= 12 IN + 4.00 IN (cot 25) = 20.6 IN

This location is within the transfer length l t , so the available stress is less than the effective
prestress force for the straight strands. The available prestress force, Tavail, at x is therefore
computed assuming a linear variation in stress from the end of the girder to the transfer
length. The transfer length, l t , is 60 db or 30 IN.
(LRFD 5.11.4.1.)

7-25

Tavail = Pes = 662.6 KIP (20.6 IN / 30 IN) = 455.0 KIP


Since Tavail = 455.0 KIP > Treqd = 385.6 KIP, the straight strands are adequate to resist the
required longitudinal force at this location and no additional reinforcement is required.
If the strands had not been adequate to resist the force, additional mild reinforcement would
have been added to provide the remainder of the required force.
3.4 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:
3.4.1 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement
Article 5.10.10.1 requires that the factored bursting resistance of a pretensioned anchorage
zone be at least 4.0% of the total prestressing force. This resistance is provided by vertical
reinforcement close to the ends of pretensioned girders.
The factored bursting resistance is given by:
Pr = f s As

(LRFD 5.10.10.1-1)

where:
2

Pr = (0.04) Po = (0.04) [(0.75) (270 KSI) (5.508 IN )] = 44.61 KIP


Note: The total jacking force prior to any losses is used as the total prestressing force P o
in this calculation:
f s is the working stress in the reinforcement, not to exceed 20 KSI
Solving for the required area of reinforcement, As:
= 2.23 IN

2
2

Therefore, at least 2.23 IN of vertical reinforcement must be placed within h/5 = 72 IN / 5 =


14.4 IN from the end of the member. Stirrups placed for vertical or interface shear can also
be used to satisfy this requirement since this reinforcement is only required to resist forces at
release.
3.4.2 Confinement Reinforcement
In accordance with Article 5.10.10.2, confinement reinforcement not less than #3 bars at a
spacing of not more than 6.0 IN shall be placed within 1.5 d (say 1.5 h = 9.00 FT) from the
end of the girder. These bars shall be shaped to enclose the strands.

7-26