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Mochammad Aziz 1), Emmy Suparka 2)
1) Department of Geology UNSOED,
2) Geology and Palaeontology Research Group, Dept. of Geology ITB
e-mail : ;

The study area is located in Sooko, Ponorogo Regency, East Java,
Indonesia; it is dominated by dacite and tuff which have undergone
mineralization and hydrothermal alteration. Several quartz veins are
found. Most of them are characterized by infill- and replacementtexture, white , yellowish- to brownish-, and spotted look smokycolored, compact to slightly brittle, oxidized, contain veinlets of sulphide.
The presence of purple-colored, hexagonal prismatic habit of amethyst
crystals are also noted within some quartz veins.
The assay result for quartz veins averaging between 0.2 0.7ppm Au,
3.3 12.9 ppm Ag with 0.04% Cu, 0.056% Pb, 0.077% Zn, 1.84% As,
0.133% Sb and 0.7% Mo. The study of fluid inclusion giving the
temperature ranging from 216.10C 247.40C and salinities 0.9 3,9 eq.
wt.% NaC, relatively low-sulfur- and base metal- content. The presence of
both clay minerals such as illite, halloysite, montmorilonite, jarosite, and
pyrophyllite, as well as several distinct textures include bandedcolloform, crustiform, ghost bladed, vuggy-comb, cockade breccia, and
drusy quartz, indicate low sulphidation epithermal system. Besides,
texturally, the quartz vein system in the study area can be divided into two
superzones: the Crustified-Colloform (CC) - and the Crystalline (X)

The study area is part of Southern Mountain of East Java, Indonesia;
tectonically it belongs to magmatic arc of Sunda-Banda. Geographically
is located at UTM coordinate of 571.650 mE 573.490 mE and
9.127.630 mN 9.127.690 mN within the exploration area undertaken by
the state company PT. ANTAM Tbk. (Fig. 1). The method which are used
to this study is observation collecting rock samples from outcrop,
especially is quartz vein. The rock samples have been analized using
petrography, PIMA, AAS, and fluid inclusion analysis.


Hydrothermal fluid reaction with wall rocks will cause changing in

physical and chemical condition of rocks which is intruded. This
changing include colour, texture, mineral assemblages and permeability.
Whereas the intensities of alteration depend on their hydrothermal fluid
characteriscs and wall rocks condition. The alteration intensities are also
influence within ore deposits accumulation. So that the intensities of
alteration can be used to determine the accumulation of ore deposits base
on the zonation of hydrothermal alteration.
So that the study of hydrothermal alteration base on the vein texture
characteristic in Sooko, Ponorogo is importance to determine the ore
deposits mineralization in vein epithermal type. The main aims of the
study is to determine the general textures of vein epithermal and make a
model distribution of texture assemblage. This study is also expected to
be used to identified the texture and zonation, which is usually emplaced
by gold mineralization.

Study area

Figure 1. Location map of the study area

Physiographically, study area is located in Southern Mountain Zone of
East Java, and tectonically it is belong to Sunda Banda Magmatic Arc.
This arc has been formed since Early Tertier and still active until now.
The magmatic arc is composed by calc-alkaline volcanic rocks and
volcanoclastic interbeded with sedimentary rocks of Paleogen and


Neogen in age and intruded by andesite, dacite and microdiorite. These

rocks lie over Late Cretaceous rocks. Base on K/Ar dating the Tertiary
magmatism which have related with subduction continental margin can be
devided into two periode, that is Late Eocene Early Miocene and Late
Miocene Pliocene (Soeria-Atmadja et al., 1994).
Stratigraphycally, the regional of study area is composed by Oligo
Miocene volcanic rocks of Mandalika Formation, Early Miocene Early
Midle Miocene volcanic clastic of Jaten Formation, Late Miocene
volcanic clastic of Wuni Formation, limestone reefs of Wonosari
Formation and Pleistocene young volcanic rocks of Argokalangan (Fig. 2
and 3). Whereas in the study area only Mandalika Formation is found, it
is composed by dacitic rocks and tuff. They had been intruded by
andesite, dacite and microdiorite, and had undergone alteration of
prophylitization, and argillitization.

Figure 2. Regional stratigraphy of the study area (Hartono, et al., 1992)


The hydrothermal fluid can produce mineral deposits in variation shapes
dependent upon the opening of rocks, in which the fluid can pass through.
The mineral deposits have been formed from hydrothermal fluid by cavity
filling deposits or replacement deposits. The replacement process occured
under high - pressures and high - temperatures, near intrusive. Whereas
the cavity filling process occured under low - pressures and low


Cavity filling is deposits which formed from hidrothermal fluid to fill the
rock openings. Hydrothermal fluids can melt or concentrate forming hot
or cool from magmatic or meteoric, but generally the deposit forms in
hot, dilute and magmatic condition. The first mineral formed from the
margin of wall rocks fallowing of rock opening (joint) and developed to
inner part, which generally developed to form dots maker in crystal
surfaces into fluid supply. Cavity filling process can be divided into two
processes, firstly to form the rock opening and than followed by
deposition of minerals. Both of these processes work as simultaneous, but
generally they are independent which is separated by a time interval.

Figure 3. Regional geologic map of the study area

(after modified Hartono, et al., 1992)

Observation of quartz vein deposits in Sooko area, based on their

geometry and physical characteristics can be divided into three groups of
quartz veins, that is SJU-A, SJU-B and SJU-C but they have same
characteristic (Fig. 4a & b).
The observation of 12 sample out crop in the field show that quartz vein
deposits generally as vein deposit zone with 1 4 metre in diameter. They
have density are about 2/m with strike relative to NE SW and dip
direction relative to NW and some to SE. They have characterized by
brownish white to white milky and some are purple (amethyst) (sample
SJU-A3), colourless; spongy; show banded-colloform, smooth banded,
vuggy and some are crustiform with crystal zone (crystal growth), semi
hard and brittle. They content of pyrite, galena, limonite, alteration
mineral of zoisite and fluorite. This quartz vein is located in argillic zone.
From the fluid inclusion analysis (using microthermometri method) show
that the quartz vein deposits had been formed at 164.1C 293.2C with
average 216C for SJU-B1, 209.6C - 306C with average 247.4C.


Figure 4a. Vein sample map of the study area

Argillic zone

Figure 4b. 3D of vein quartz in the study area

Mineral which contain fluida inclusion is found in quartz vein with

banding crustifom structure. They are characterized by elongate to
granulair crystals, milky white to colourless, but in granulair crystal the
fluid inclusion decripitated; have distribution disseminated spot by spot,
some are oriented forming planar or curve; generally subhedral in shape
and part of these show necking-down , few subhedral to euhedral; 1 5
m; two phase type (liquid and vapour) and sometimes one phase; vapour
vs liquid ratio is uniform (Fig. 5). So that, the quartz vein can be
interpreted as epithermal zone with 1,122.76 62.83 metre in depth with
the range of salinity are 0,9%wt 3,9%wt equivalent NaCl, low-sulfur
content and base metal.
From the observation above so that quartz veins in the study area have
horizontal distribution with prediction of longitudinal range to SW or NW
about 600 metre parallel to strike.




Figure 5. Micrograph sample of fluid inclusion; sample A is SJU-B1, and

sample B is SJU-C3
inzet fluid inclusion with forming euhedral-subhedral, planar
and curve; two phase type (liquid and vapour); disseminated


Epithermal deposits of Au and Ag commonly have and associated with
volcanic rocks and have been found in quartz vein. Quartz vein is one of
that have texture zonation, formation pattern and geometry. Factors of
vein deposits formation are mineralization fluid, channel way, host rock
and chemical reaction. 12 samples of slab quartz vein have been analyzed
for megascophic (Fig. 6). They are characterized by the same composer of
material and have resembled of their textures.
SJU-A quartz veins
The observation (megascophic and microscophic) of quartz veins
characterized by claudy brownish white, massive structures, to start
showing colloform-banded, comb texture and cockade breccia (SJU-A3),
some show vuggy structure and sometime filled by halloisite and quartz,
concentration of iron oxide found in the middle and margin of quartz
which marked by brown and yellow colour and become clearer in SJU-A3
to show orientation set parallel. The other characteristic is poruos, some
interlocking of euhedral subhedral quartz crystals and some
intergrowth. Ore deposits consist of galena, metallic grey in colour, cubic,
spotted distribution and generally associated with brownish quartz; pyrite
(< 1%), fine grained and iron oxide, sphalerite fine grained (SJU-A3, A4).
Cockade breccia are very clear found in SJU-A4 and vuggy structure is
shown in the margin of this vein. In SJU-A5, comb structure become
coarsening forming of euhedral subhedral quartz crystal and iron oxide
which brownish to yellow found only in the margin of vein. In the SJUA6 have same characteristics with other samples before, but in hear show
off-set of quartz band, and the vuggy structures are oriented parallel,
filled by zoisite, illite and iron oxide. The other characteristic of SJU-A7


is showing a present of ribbon structure, veinlet of pyrite sulphide as

offset layer, ghost bladed texture and the vuggy structure which filled by
montmorillonite, talk together with clay minerals and iron oxide. In SJUA7 contain of covelite and others. In SJU-A8 have characteristic same as
SJU-A7, but the vuggy structure filled by part of illite and jarosite. Other
characteristic show that the concentration of iron oxide forming
orientation set relatively parallel; due to the border of the crystallin quartz
ice plane and forming aggregate of quartz grained.

















Figure 6. Show of several textural quartz veins in the located area are: A. Colloform; B.
Crustiform and Cockade; C. Cockade; D. Comb; E. Colloform.; F. Crustiform-vuggy
and Bladed; G. Comb; H. Colloform-Amethyst Quartz; I. Zoned crystal quartz; J.
Colloform; K. Saccharoidal; L. Drusy Quartz.; M. Crustiform and Ghost-bladed; N.
Comb and Ice Quartz; O. Cockade; P. Crystalline Quartz with spotted galena and clay


SJU-B quartz veins

The appearance of quartz vein zoned is milky quartz, a little greasy , some
vuggy, fine-grain colloform-banded texture, amethyst are shown in the
top of vein forming band, crystal zoned have begun to be formed which
characterized by drusy quartz and some saccharoidal texture, illite, zoisite
and iron oxide filled partly of rhytmic band of colloform-banded. Quartz
vein contain of ore minerals of galena, fine-grained pyrite which
generally associated with brownish quartz, iron oxide concentrade to form
aggregate of quartz grain which show parallel orientation set.
SJU-C quartz veins
The megascophic appearance of quartz veins zoned generally are
brownish white crystalline, massive structure, and show a little joints,
begining to see ghost bladed, show crustiform-banded, fine vuggy which
filled by illite and montmorillonite. They contain of fine epidote, iron
oxide, sphalerite, and pyrite (< 1%) (SJU-C1). The iron oxide
concentrated to form aggregate of grain quartz. In SJU-C2, the crystal
begun to form euhedral crystals and the boundary between quartz
crystalline ice with the margin of vein which brownish in colour, contains
of fine galena and iron oxide. In SJU-C3, the cockade breccia begun to
see, other appearance is the present of latice bladed and quartz become
coaser. In SJU-C4, the cockade breccia are more clearly to see with
brownish fragment of quartz, the present of comb structure.
Systematic evaluation of vertical and horizontal distribution of textures in
the some epithermal vein give as guidance to develope the zonation
model of texture (Fig. 7 & 8). In study area, the observation of quartz vein
texture consists of seven zonation textures including colloform-banded,
crustiform, ghost bladed, vuggy-comb structure, cockade breccia, drusy
quartz, and amorf quartz. They can be divided into two superzone, in
which every superzone is be the boundary by relative position of texture
types and the name of zonation bese on the dominan textures.
- Superzone Crustiform-Colloform (CC), is marked by development of
consistency of banding. The upper zone generally dominated by quartz
amorf and band moss and associate with carbonate and sulphide (SJU-A3,
A4, A7, and SJU-C1). Whereas the lower zone is marked by the present
of crystalline band and dominated by quartz amorf (SJU-A3 and SJUA4).
- Superzone Crystalline (X), is characterized by crustiform band,
associates with quartz crystalline, sulphide, and carbonate. The quartz
crystalline generally is colourless and prismatic, and saccharoidal quartz
is present spot by spot (SJU-A8 and SJU-B1). This superzone undergone
decreasing of sulphide proportion increasing carbonate crystalline to
quartz crystalline downward.


Figure 7. Textural zoning of quartz veins and related to distribution grade

of Au-Ag in epithermal vein system-Buchanan Model (1981);
from Morrison (1990) after modified

Figure 8. Mineralization of epithermal veins and related to mineralization

and alteration zone in the located area (vide Buchanan, 1981;
after modified)


Based on the explanation above, the study area can be concluded that:
1. The study area composed by dacite lava of Mandalika Formation
which occured in Middle Miocene, Quartenary pyroclastic tuff and
quartz vein. Quartz vein in the study area have dimension 600 m in
longitudinal and 2.1 metre in width.
2. Almost of all rocks have undergone hydrothermal alteration with
medium to strongly intensity and mineralization.
3. Mineralization which have found in the study area pyrites, galenas,
sphalerites, covelites, chalcopyrites, iron oxide, hematite, and
4. The Au content in the study area is about 0.5 0.7 ppm, with greyish
(smoky quartz) or brownish in colour, whereas in white quartz vein,
the Au content can be predicted up to 0,2 ppm. The Ag content is
about 6.03 ppm.
5. Quartz vein texture characterised by dominantly colloform
crustiform banded, cockade breccia, and vuggy comb structure, and
some bladed, porous/spongy which generaly found in vuggy quarz.
6. The mineralization environment in the study area probably is low
sulphidation epithermal system.
7. Based on the Buchanan Diagram (1981), the study area show that it
have undergone erosion about 228. 82 metre in depth with the
highest elevation now is about 650 metre above see level.
8. From the physical characteristic of quartz vein zone, observation of
precious metal mineralization, alteration minerals, and the present of
amethyst minerals and from the fluid inclusion analysis, so that, the
study area is located in precious metal epithermal vein system zone.

The authors would like to acknowledge the support and backing of the
management of PT. ANTAM Tbk. Unit GEOMIN who permitted this
paper to be published. Special mention is given to Dean of Faculty of
Science and Technic UNSOED. Additional thanks are given to E. Wiwik
Dyah Hastuti for editing the paper. And memoriam my best lecturer is
given to Prof. Dr. Ir. Totok Darijanto (Mining Department of ITB).

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