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M. Tech (Automotive Engineering), Semester III

Sub: Noise, Vibration and Harshness
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words

1. A system of rigid bodies has infinite degrees of freedom and a deformable elastic body
has finite degrees of freedom.
2. The second harmonic mode, or second resonance, usually has a _________displacement
than the first harmonic mode.
3. The major factors affecting the natural frequencies of an object are the objects
________and ________.
4. If damping is assumed to be zero, then at resonance the __________ will be equal to the
_________. (Write the equation)
5. IS___3028 Standard and ISO___362_ standard are applicable for vehicle pass-by noise.
6. Reference used for sound pressure level (dB) is _20u N/m2.
7. Combining two equal incoherent sound sources will result in a sound pressure level
increase of ___________
8. In a free-field, the SPL reduces by six times as the distance of measurement gets doubled.
9. If the noise has frequencies evenly distributed throughout the audible range, it is known
as _____________
10. With an obstacle in the sound path, part of the sound will be __________, part will
be___________ and the remainder will be _____________through the object.
11. _____________are used as excitation devices for modal testing. (Name any two)
12. ___________ & _____________ are important parameters governing selection of any
13. ______________ type of windows is used for FFT analysis of random signals.
14. Sampling at lower frequencies will cause errors due to ____________
15. Sound transmission loss of 1 mm thick steel plate at 500 Hz by mass law is __________
dB and its critical frequency is ___________Hz.

16. Generally sound absorption coefficient increases with increase in ________, _________
of the material.
17. In a free vibration system, the kinetic energy is stored as ________ and potential energy
as ________.

18. The phenomenon of gradual attenuation of amplitude of a freely vibrating body is called
as ________ and is ________ in nature.

19. All the vibrating bodies generate the sound as an auditory sensation, true or false?

20. The speed at which sound travels through medium is determined primarily by ________
and ________ of the medium, through which the wave is traveling.

21. Different types of sound weightings are based upon ________ contours.

22. At ________frequency, all the sound weightings exhibit the same SPL.

23. ________ and ________ are acoustic excitation devices.

24. ________ and ________ are two types (based on deformation) of piezoelectric

25. One inch diameter microphone would have ________ dynamic range and ________
frequency range of measurement as compared to half inch diameter microphone.

26. The lower (f1) and center (fc) frequencies of 1/12th octave bands are related by ________

27. Besides amplitude, the cross-spectrum gives information about ________ between two
time signals.

28. The problem of aliasing is caused due to sampling at ________.

29. The highest frequency (fmax) that can be measured with sampling frequency of 2* fmax is
termed as ________.
30. The lines approaching and leaving the resonant peak in a FRF are called as ________ and
________ respectively.
31. The mechanical impedance in FRF form is written as________.
32. For correct excitation of the structure with a modal shaker, the stringer between shaker
and structure should have ________ axial stiffness and ________ bending stiffness.
33. The ________ mismatch in a sound intensity probe is much sensitive to ________
34. In a reverberation room, the sound intensity is ________ .
35. When a train with blowing horn approaches and leaves a stationary listener, the perceived
sound level changes accordingly. This phenomenon is called as ________.
36. Two closely spaced monopoles would behave as a dipole only if they are ________.

Answer the following in short

1. What is the necessity of NVH?

2. What is the pass-by noise limit for M1 category of vehicles?
3. Define mechanical vibration, degrees of freedom and vibration nodes.
4. Write the characteristic equation for the following system.

6. Define Forced Transmissibility.
7. Define Isolation Efficiency.
8. Define coupled modes.
9. Define FRF.
10. Write the formula for stiffness of springs in series and in parallel.
11. What are the major NVH test facilities available at ARAI?
12. Give two examples of Impulse-Impact noise.
13. What is signal to noise ratio?
14. What is the significance of background noise?
15. What are different acoustic weighting functions and indicate the application of each.
16. What are the minimum and maximum thresholds of human hearing?
17. What are the two commonly used techniques for frequency analysis?
18. Define and state the relationship between sound pressure, sound intensity and sound
19. Name four noise source identification techniques.
20. Why is it important to characterize structural and acoustic modes?
21. What is Half-power point bandwidth method?
22. What are standing waves?
23. What are the different sound fields? Explain with a neat sketch.
24. Explain different types of microphones based on acoustic environment.
25. Give general classification of vibration transducers.
26. What is TEDS? Explain in brief.
27. What is the working principle of piezoelectric microphones?
28. Explain working principle of accelerometers.

29. What is the speed of sound in hydrogen at 0C? Assume M=2.017 for H2, =1.4,
R=8317, T=273C.
30. What is the sound power level (re 10-12 W) of a sound source radiating energy at a rate
of 0.2 W (re 10-13 W)?
31. Define the following:
32. Frequency response of dynamic transducers
33. What is the wavelength of sound propagating in air at a frequency of 1 kHz? Explain
reflection, refraction and diffusion of sound waves.
34. What is the resultant sound pressure level when three sound sources of 90, 93 and 96 dB
are combined?
35. Why is it necessary to use frequency weightings in noise measurements and what are the
different types?
36. Define Sensitivity of transducer.
37. Explain TEDS facility in transducers.
38. Define the property of piezoelectric material that finds application in transducers?
39. What are the exterior and interior noise sources of vehicle?
40. What do the following standards stand for: IS 10399, ISO 9614, ISO 3744 and ISO 362?
41. Explain the difference between NR and TL in case of a silencer.
42. Give an example of source-path-receiver in a passenger car.

Explain the following in brief:

1. Explain the sources of vehicle interior noise.
2. Explain different classifications of vibration.
3. Derive the equation for natural frequency for single degree of freedom systems with
4. Derive the formula for maximum displacement for the system below:

5. How do you minimize unwanted vibrations? Explain with examples.

6. Explain absorption, reflection, diffraction and refraction of sound.
7. Explain mechanics of hearing with a neat sketch.
8. Explain working of a sound intensity probe with brief sketch & formulae used.
9. Define and differentiate Sound Pressure, Sound Intensity & Sound Power levels and
write the relationship between them.
10. Differentiate free field and diffused field environments and explain their significance for
sound power evaluation.
11. The tone from a tuning fork is 440 Hz and has a measured sound pressure level of 54 dB
at a radial distance of 10m. Assuming the sound waves are radiating uniformly in all
directions (spherically),
12. what is the sound power level of the source? What is the sound pressure level at 20 m?
13. Write the characteristic equations for the following two degrees of freedom system and
convert that in to matrix format to get mass matrix and stiffness matrix and Define
resonance and what causes the amplitude to rise at resonance?

14. Define Decibel (dB) and solve the following: If an acceleration value was 19.6m/s2, what
would be the dB level relative to 1g (or 9.8m/s2)? and Define Damping and explain the
sources of damping in a system.
15. Mention the standard for pass-by noise of automotive vehicles and explain the procedure
for measurement with diagram.
16. Explain different types of microphones based upon different acoustic fields in detail and
Explain construction of condenser microphones.

17. Explain different types of averaging in signal processing in detail and Draw block
diagram of analog signal processing and digital signal processing.
18. What is beam forming? What are its advantages? and Explain conformal mapping. (4)
19. Explain sound intensity method for noise source identification and describe selective
sound intensity technique.
20. What is drive point mobility and transfer function mobility.What is the significance of the
same in curve-fitting technique?
21. What are the different types of FRF? and State the desirable properties of a stinger in
shaker testing and tip in hammer testing?
22. Explain the membrane absorber and Helmholtz absorber. Calculate the resonant
frequency for Helmholtz resonator for given data. Lneck = 35 mm, Dneck = 40 mm and
dimensions of cavity are 65 mm X 75 mm X 80 mm.
23. Explain the mass law and write the characteristic of good sound barrier?and Calculate the
resonant frequency of two 0.8 mm thick steel plates separated by 25 mm air gap to make
double wall partition. Write the advantages of double wall partitions over single wall
24. Design a reactive silencer for TL of 20 dB(A) for the frequency of 400 Hz. Inlet pipe Dia.
is 30 mm.
25. A vehicle is equipped with an engine and air conditioning motor driven by engine only.
With the vehicle being stationary, the engine is accelerated from idling to full throttle.
During this exercise noise is measured with respect to the engine speed in the vicinity of
vehicle. Draw a flow chart (or write down the steps) to identify the different frequency
parameters in the measured noise.
26. Enlist the different types of noise sources in an automobile.
27. By first principles, prove that an undamped mechanical system exhibits a simple
harmonic motion.
28. Prove with an example that in a free field, sound intensity and pressure are the same.
29. Explain in brief the factors governing sound propagation in solids and fluids.
30. Define the longitudinal and transverse waves with suitable sketches.
31. Explain the different types of accelerometer mountings (with respective frequency ranges
of measurement) applicable for modal testing.

32. Explain Maxwells reciprocity theorem with a suitable sketch.

33. Explain the concept of leakage in data acquisition.
34. Define the three types of spacers used in an intensity probe with their correct frequency
ranges of measurement. Also, draw the sketch showing the directivity of a sound
intensity probe with respect to 00, 300, 600 and 900 angle of incidence.