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Antenna Design Project

Vamshikrishna R. Kandula
Electrical and Computer Engineering, San Diego State University
San Diego, CA, USA. vamsikandula18@gmail.com

Abstract: In this project, we designed a half-wave Dipole, a


Monopole and a circular loop using Ansys HFSS tool. Dipole and
monopole are some of the oldest, simplest antennas. Loop
antennas feature simplicity, low cost and versatility. We have
computed impedance matching, matching bandwidth, gain ,2D
and 3D radiation patterns, and antenna efficiency at a frequency
of 2.4GHz.

One side of a monopole antenna is attached to a feed line and


the other side is attached to a ground plane, which is often the
Earth.

Key words: Half wave dipole, monopole, loop antenna, HFSS,


Gain, Directivity, Radiation pattern.

I. INTRODUCTION
An antenna or aerial can be defined as a means for
radiating or receiving radio waves. In other words the antenna
is the transitional structure between free space and a guiding
device. The guiding device or transmission line may take the
form of a coaxial line or a hollow pipe (wave guide), and it is
for transporting electromagnetic energy from the transmitting
source to the antenna. In this report, we included three different
types of antennas namely half-wave dipole, monopole and
circular loop antenna.
II. THEORY
A. Dipoles: The dipole antenna or dipole aerial is one of the
most important and commonly used types of RF antenna. A
dipole antenna is based upon the concept of dipole electrons. It
is essentially two element (split wires) that are used to irradiate
an electromagnetic signal when time varying electric signal is
sent through it.

Figure 2: Monopole Antenna


C. Loop Antennas: Loop antennas feature simplicity, low
cost and versatility. They may have various shapes: circular,
triangular, square, elliptical, etc. They are widely used in
communication links up to the micro wave bands (up to
3GHz). They are also used as Electromagnetic field probes in
the microwave bands. Loop antennas are usually classified as
electrically small (C<0.1) and electrically large (C = ). Here,
C denotes the loops circumference. Electrically small loops of
a single turn have very small radiation resistance(comparable
to their loss resistance). As the circumference of the loop
increases ,the pattern maximum shifts towards the loops
normal, and when C, the maximum of the pattern is at the
loops normal.

Figure 3:Circular Loop antenna


Figure 1: Half-wave Dipole Antenna
B. Monopole: A monopole antenna is placed in a free space with a constant factor in any antenna system. It is often
perpendicular over some type of conductive surface, ground
plane. This contrast with a dipole antenna which consists of
two identical rod conductors, with the signals from the
transmitter is applied between the two halves of the antenna.

D. Input impedance: The antenna is physical matchable,


within an acceptable range for the application. Equation (1)
shows the input impedance where ( ) is the real component
and ( ) is the complex component (the inductive/capacitive
part). From here, the reflection coefficient, standing wave ratio,
and return loss may all can be calculated.

Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the antenna.


E. Bandwidth: An important aspect of any antenna is its
bandwidth, this is the range which the antenna is able to
transmit and receive signals. Although the bandwidth cutoff
may vary depending on application, in academia the cutoff is
-10 dB.
F. Radiation Intensity: Radiation intensity is the power
radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle which is obtained
by integrating the radiation intensity. The radiation intensity ,
watts per steradian or per square degree), and the normalize
power pattern can be express in terms of ( , )
= 2

Figure 4: Dipole Antenna mode

(5)

Directivity: Directivity is the radiation intensity in given


direction.

(6)
where D is directivity, Do is maximum directivity, U is
radiation intensity, Umax is maximum radiation intensity, Uo
is radiation intensity of isotropic source, Prad is total radiated
power.
III. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
A. Software: HFSS (High Frequency structural simulator)
software is an industry standard for simulating 3-D full -wave
electromagnetic field. HFSS is atoolused for antenna design
and complex RF electronic circuit elements such as filters and
transmission lines.
B. Procedure: The dimensions and gap were built into
HFSS. The used of the HFSS Antenna Design Kit eased the
process of building the antenna. The results were collected and
compare the PCAAD estimated results to the one from HFSS.
Then do the same procedure for the rest of the project.
Designing a loop antenna was a different from monopole
and dipole antenna. Following the procedure mention in the
previous paragraph, we skipped using the HFSS Antenna
Design Kit and design our antenna. By using the torus shape
for the shape of the loop antenna, we subtracted a small
cylindrical piece of it for the lump port; thus creating a loop
antenna.
IV. DESIGN RESULTS AND ANALYSISS
A. Dipole:

Figure 4:3D ploar plot

Figure 5:Bandwidth

Figure 10: Gain plot

Figure 6: Gain plot


C. Circular loop:

B. Monopole:

Figure 11: Circular loop


Figure 7:Monopole

Figure 8 : Bandwidth
Figure 12: Bandwidth

Figure 9: 3D pattern

Figure 13:3D radiation pattern

V. CONCLUSION
By completing this project, We gained insight into the
operation of different type of antennas: Dipole, monopole, and
loop antenna. We calculated antenna geometry based on
design
goals
which
support
by
the theory. We designed the antennas to operate at 2.4GHz.
References
[1] Constantine A. Balanis Antenna Theory and Design,3rd
edition.
[2]. Antennas by J.D. Krauss 2nd Edition.
Figure 14:Gain plot

[3].www.nptel.iitm.ac.in