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The magazine for the international power industry

July-August 2014

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POWER ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL


JULY-AUGUST 2014/// VOLUME 22/// ISSUE 7

Contents

Industry Highlights

News Analysis

64

Diary

66

Project & Technology Update

72

Ad Index

Regional Profle
10

Malaysias changing power sector p.10


Credit: Siemens

34

Detailed analysis is the basis for success in optimizing existing


boilers and further reducing stable minimum load.

Malaysias changing power sector


With economic growth driving a need for more power,
Malaysia is changing the way it generates and delivers
electricity.

44

Power Report: Japan


Since the 2011 earthquake that destroyed the Fukushima
nuclear complex, Japans energy industry has been in crisis.
We explore how the sector is responding to the challenges.

22

Fuel cell power scales up

50

Walking the torque


Howard Barnes of MAN Diesel & Turbo tells Kelvin Ross why he
believes the power sector is on the verge of a gas engine
boom.

Online condition monitoring


Early detection can mitigate the effects of medium and
peak load operation on power plant core components.

56

Automated demand response in Europe


ADR offers utilities a low-carbon method of stabilizing
the grid and accommodating peaks in demand quickly,
effectively and cheaply.

A look at the worlds biggest fuel cell energy park in South


Korea and the company behind it, US-based FuelCell Energy.

28

Risk in renewables investment


How renewables investors moving into new and emerging
markets can deal with additional market-specifc risk.

Features
16

Steam generator fexilibity at low load

60

Power perspectives: pumped storage


As the UK reforms its electricity market, it must also
recognize and close its storage gap.

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Industry Highlights
esearch reports on the various sectors

is needed in Europe. At a press conference I

of the power market are ten-a-penny,

attended in London recently, Fatih Birol, chief

but what nearly all of them share

economist of the International Energy Agency,

regardless of what technology they are

stated that the European thermal power

reporting on is that, at some point in their

market was almost uninvestable.

fndings, they will state that Asia is driving


growth in that particular technology.

Birol was speaking at a conference


examining the UK sector and he said that the

In the last few weeks I have read such

British governments Electricity Market Reform

reports on the markets for renewables (solar in

package was moving in the right direction

particular), smart city technology, smart grid,

and is an example to many other countries.

diesel gensets the list goes on.

Part of that reform package is the

All of which is good news for Asia, its power

introduction of a capacity mechanism and

sector and those companies working in it and

contracts for difference a guaranteed

looking to break into it because the potential

price paid to energy frms for the electricity

rewards are colossal.

they generate and both of these measures

One of the aforementioned reports from

cleared EU State Aid rules in July.

Bloomberg New Energy Finance predicts


that

the

Asia-Pacifc

region

will

This is good news in a broad sense, but just

spend

how good depends on which sector you work

$3.6 trillion between now and 2030 to meet its

in. One market that feels like it has dropped

power demands (see story on p4).

off

the

governments

radar

is

pumped

This opens the door to many European

storage. Quarry Battery Company is a UK frm

companies: business goes where business is,

that turns abandoned quarries and mines

and there is precious little of it to be had in

into energy storage facilities. In this issue, its

many parts of Europe these days.

managing director Dave Holmes writes that

Jonathan

Robinson,

senior

energy

the provision of more grid-scale storage to

consultant at Frost & Sullivan, highlighted the

partner renewables has been notably absent

attraction of Asia to European engineering

from British government action.

companies and vice versa when he spoke

In his article on p60 part of a new series

about how German technological know-how

we are running called Power Perspectives

is set to prove vital to China as it tackles its

he urges the government to secure Britains

carbon emissions.

energy future by backing storage in a way that

Germany

is

global

leader

in

environmental technologies, thanks to years of

nor the courage to do.


There is certainly no lack of foresight and

alternative energy solutions. He added that

courage in Asia. It has become the go-to

Germany is Chinas largest trading partner

power sector because it is the get-on-with-it

in Europe and China is Germanys in the

region.And this sets the scene for lively, relevant

Asia-Pacifc region, so both countries already

debate at this years POWER-GEN Asia, being

understand what each can offer(story p8).

held in Kuala Lumpur from 1012 September


(register at www.powergenasia.com).

in particular Southeast Asia is MAN Diesel

With debates on topics such as fexible

& Turbo, which sees huge potential in the

generation, emissions control, smart and

region for its gas engines. Yet the company

micro grids and sustainable power growth

has far from written off its home territory for

as well as technical sessions on the latest

new business. Embracing the new European

developments in gas and steam turbines,

power need for fexibility, it believes it has the

boilers, generators and control systems, plus

technology to drive the next evolution of the

many more it is sure to be an indicator

gas market. Find out what it is in my interview

not just of how far the region has come in

with the companys vice president of power

developing its energy mix, and also how far it

plants, Howard Barnes, on p28.

is prepared to go. Ill be there in Kuala Lumpur

And there is no doubt that a power evolution

Kelvin Ross
Editor
www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

their predecessors had neither the foresight

tough regulations and attractive incentives for

One such German frm targeting Asia

The Asia Pacifc


region will spend
$3.6 trillion between
now and 2030 to meet
its power needs.

and I hope to see you there too.

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Follow PEi Magazine on Twitter:


@PEimagzine
Follow me: @kelvinross68

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

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News Analysis

ASIA-PACIFIC

Asia-Pacifc to outpace Europe in renewables


The Asia-Pacifc region will spend $3.6 trillion

pollution and climate change, the biggest

BNEF forecasts that China will add a net

between now and 2030 to meet its power

growth will be in renewables, with some

1.4 TW of new generating capacity between

demands, and two thirds of that sum will go

$2.5 trillion invested and 1.7 TW of capacity

now and 2030 to meet a surge in power

on renewable technologies, according to a

added.

demand. This will require capital investment

new report.

Milo Sjardin, head of Asia-Pacifc for BNEF,

of around $2 trillion, of which 72 per cent will

company

said: The period to 2030 is going to see

go to renewables such as wind, solar and

Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF)

spectacular growth in solar in this region, with

hydro.

called BNEF 2030 Market Outlook is based

nearly 800 GW of rooftop and utility-scale PV

Meanwhile, Japans power sector will

on modelling of electricity market supply

added. This will be driven by economics, not

experience a very different trajectory in the

and demand, technology cost evolution and

subsidies. Our analysis suggests that solar will

next 16 years, with electricity demand only

policy development in individual countries

be fully competitive with other power sources

regaining its 2010 levels in 2021 and then

and regions. It forecasts that Asia-Pacifc will

by 2020, only six years from now.

growing at a modest 1 per cent a year, as

The

study

from

research

account for more than half of the 5 TW of

However, Sjardin added that this does not

effciency gains partially offset economic

net new power capacity that will be added

mean that the days of fossil-fuel power are

growth. The report states that Japan will invest

worldwide in the next decade and a half, and

over far from it. Rapid economic growth in

around $203bn in new power generation

this will equate to $3.6 trillion of investment in

Asia will still drive net increases of 434 GW in

capacity by 2030, with $116bn going to

the region.

coal-fred capacity and 314 GW in gas-fred

rooftop solar and $72bn to other renewable

While it predicts that Asia-Pacifcs fossil

plant between now and 2030. That means

technologies.

fuel power sources, such as coal and gas,

that emissions will continue to increase for

will continue to grow despite concerns about

many years to come.

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

India is forecast to see a quadrupling of its


power generation capacity, from 236 GW in

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News Analysis
The spectacular
growth in solar will be
driven by economics,
not subsidies.
Solar will be fully
competitive with
other power sources
by 2020.

Seb Henbest, BNEFs head of Europe, Middle

wind $70bn and onshore wind $18bn. The

East and Africa, said: Our research shows that

UK is forecast to invest $197bn, with offshore

further improvements in the economics of

wind taking $89bn, small-scale solar $49bn

solar and wind will mean they are increasingly

and gas-fred capacity installed partly for

installed without subsidy in the years ahead.

balancing purposes taking $8bn.

We expect Europe to invest nearly $1 trillion

Globally, BNEF expects $7.7 trillion to be

to increase its renewables capacity by 2030,

invested in new generating capacity by

with rooftop PV accounting for $339bn and

2030, with 66 per cent going on renewable

onshore wind $250bn.

technologies including hydro. Out of the

Our model suggests that power demand

$5.1 trillion to be spent on renewables, the

in Europe will increase by only 9 per cent

Asia-Pacifc region will account for $2.5 trillion,

between 2014 and 2030, as energy effciency

the Americas $816bn, Europe $967bn and the

improvements take effect. This, and the

rest of the world, including the Middle East

2013 to 887 GW in 2030, with 169 GW taking

growing cost advantage of wind and solar, will

and Africa, $818bn.

the form of utility-scale solar and 98 GW of

enable the continent to cut its power sector

The report states that fossil fuels will retain

onshore wind. Hydro will see capacity boosted

emissions from 1.3bn tonnes of CO2 in 2013 to

the biggest share of power generation by 2030

by 95 GW, coal by 155 GW and gas by 55 GW.

564m tonnes in 2030.

at 44 per cent, albeit down from 64 per cent

Milo Sjardin, head of Asia-Pacifc for BNEF

This will take Indias total investment to 2030 to


$754bn, with $477bn of that in renewables.

BNEF states that the only major renewable


power

technology

to

remain

subsidized

in 2013. Some 1073 GW of new coal, gas and


oil capacity worldwide will be added over the

Meanwhile in Europe, the report forecasts

in the 2020s will be offshore wind, and the

that 557 GW of new renewable capacity will

report predicts that Europe will add 64 GW

next 16 years, excluding replacement plant.


The vast majority will be in developing

come online by 2030.

of offshore wind capacity between now and

countries seeking to meet the increased power

In the same period, it predicts coal-fred

2030, involving an investment of $296bn, as

demand that comes with industrialization,

capacity will shrink from 195 GW to 125 GW

governments continue to back it for energy

and also to balance variable generation

as emission regulations bite and the cost-

security and industrial development reasons.

sources such as wind and solar. Solar PV and

of-generation comparison shifts in favour

Germany is expected to see $171bn of

wind will increase their combined share of

of renewables, while gas-fred capacity

investment in renewable generation, with

global generation from 3 per cent last year to

increases modestly from 257 GW to 280 GW.

small-scale solar taking $69bn of that, offshore

16 per cent in 2030.

German power frms set for China boom time


German companies are poised to reap the

in environmental technologies, thanks to years

shortage within the industry, ensuring suffcient

rewards from power opportunities in China,

of tough regulations and attractive incentives

availability for the population and agriculture.

India and developing Asia, according to an

for alternative energy solutions, adding that

He stressed that the waste-to-energy potential

energy expert.

it was already Chinas largest trading partner

is also huge, as is the potential for greater

energy

in Europe, and China is Germanys in the

waste recycling and re-use and the potential

consultant at Frost & Sullivan, said that German

Asia-Pacifc region, so both countries already

for biogas, which offers huge opportunities.

technological know-how is set to prove vital to

understand what each can offer.

Jonathan

Robinson,

senior

China as it tackles its carbon emissions.


Pollution in China has been a serious issue

However, he added that the big concern

He said reducing air pollution is a key

for German companies is to fnd a way to sell

objective in China and the countrys coal

their products and services into the Chinese

for some time, but it has now become one of

plants

control

market, while also protecting their intellectual

the biggest sources of public discontent in

technology

ftted, but

industries,

property rights something that has proved

the country, and as a result is a hot political

particularly

manufacturing, petrochemical

an issue for a number of major companies in

issue.

and chemical, are still heavy polluters.

already

have

pollution
many

the past.

The Chinese government is focused on

According to Robinson,water is another

The most likely route to market would

reducing environmental damage both in

key issue. Chinas coal industry is water

be through partnerships/joint ventures with

terms of atmospheric emissions and also

intensive this includes mining, usage in

Chinese players or potential technology

water pollution as well as making better use

power plants and also usage in associated

licence agreements although these carry

of the waste resource that is produced.

heavy

the risk of creating competitors for the future,

Robinson said Germany is a global leader

industries.

Installing

wastewater

treatment solutions could help to avoid water

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Sarawaks Murum hydroelectric project came online this year


Credit: Sarawak Energy

Regional profle: Malaysia

Malaysias changing
power sector
With economic growth
driving the need for more
energy, Malaysia has set
out plans to meet this
demand while at the
same time changing the
way it generates and
delivers electricity, writes
Jeremy Bowden

ith Malaysia boasting

reliable and affordable power to fuel the

average GDP growth

countrys quest to become a developed

of around 6 per cent

nation. He also defended a recent hike in

for the last four years

tariffs, noting that TNBs capital expenditure

edging up to around

required to expand production capacity and

6.2 per cent in the frst

keep pace with demand had been larger

three months of this year economists remain

than its profts for some time, requiring loans

bullish about this Southeast Asian nations

to make up the difference.

newly industrialized market economy.

dominated by a state generator and operator,

demand for electricity, which according to

alongside independent power producers

state power company TNB is expected to

(IPPs), Dr Razak is continuing with a model

grow at an annual rate of 3 per cent up to

perhaps more associated with developing

2030, when per capita demand should reach

countries than a developed one.

the OECD average.

10

But in opting to maintain a power sector

The strong economic growth is driving

However, while TNB remains responsible

Malaysia has always seen its power

for the transmission, distribution and nearly

sector primarily as a strategic resource and

half of the power generation in Peninsular

an essential input to the economy. In May

Malaysia, its role as system operator and

the Prime Minister, Najib Razak, reaffrmed his

single buyer is in the process of being

support for TNBs dominant role in providing

ring-fenced

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

to

enhance

transparency,

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Regional profle: Malaysia

independence and fair play in generation

this fuel cost advantage is fast disappearing

scheduling and dispatch.

as domestic gas reserves decline and the

East Malaysia

In addition, TNB has been divided into

country becomes increasingly reliant on

Serving much smaller and more dispersed

fve business entities in anticipation of

international coal and liquefed natural gas

populations, Sabah and Sarawaks power

full

(LNG) markets for its fuel supply.

providers

implementation

of

incentive-based

regulation (IBR) in 2015.

So while Malaysia may not be moving

The IBR is meant to enhance operational


effciency

and

maintaining

reliable

and

Energy

Commission.

It

in

Part of its efforts to promote itself as a


heavy industrial destination, the Sarawak

sustainable

maintaining a costly subsidy system is

Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE)

becoming less and less affordable.

strategy involves a massive increase in

includes

competitive

market

direction

dynamic

generation or retail, it is recognizing that

electricity supply, according to Malaysias

the

experienced

towards

transparency

in

have

change in recent years.

the

Effective from 1 January of this year,

capacity generation. Projects include the

introduction of a fuel cost pass-through

electricity tariffs were raised by an average

2400 MW Bakun hydropower plant (HPP),

mechanism (FCPT), which will allow power

of 15 per cent to help phase out energy

which came fully onstream in 2013; the 944

prices to move in line with fuel costs. This will

subsidies through the Subsidy Rationalization

MW Murum HPP (operational by this year);

stabilize TNB profts and help it to meet CAPEX

Programme.

the 150 MW Limbang HPP (2013); the 1000

obligations: With the implementation of the

However, this has been the only rise since

MW Baram HPP (2015), and the 400 MW

IBR and FCPT, it is anticipated that the fuel

June 2011, and was unpopular among

Pelagus (2016) and the 1400 MW Baleh

cost risks are mitigated, therefore leading

sections of business and the public even

HPPs (2019). Additional coal-fred thermal

to better earnings predictability for TNB, the

though many consumers enjoy discounted

power plants are also in the works.

company said.

rates. More such politically sensitive rises are

Sabah Electricity (SESB) has access to

Over recent years, Malaysia and TNB have

needed, as the government will still have to

gas as well as hydropower options, but has

managed to maintain a healthy reserve

spend RM14 billion ($3.6 billion) annually

been hit recently by production shortfalls

margin of around 6 GW, or 20 per cent,

on subsidies and rebates, according to the

due to operational diffculties and cuts in

against quickly rising demand. Prices and

minister for Energy, Green Technology and

gas supply from Petronas. SESB operates

costs have been kept low by cheap domestic

Water, Dr Maximus Ongkili.

410

gas, power price control and subsidies, but

In its fnancial year ended in August 2013,

MW

of

installed

capacity,

supplemented by seven IPPs with 630 MW.

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

11

Regional profle: Malaysia

TNBs CAPEX was RM8.5 billion, against a net

30,000

proft of RM4.61 billion on RM37.13 billion in


25,000

revenue.TNB is only able to sustain borrowings


to make up the difference if returns are stable

20,000

underlining TNBs need for the ICTP.


TNB has also incurred substantial losses

15,000

on occasions when state oil and gas


company Petronas had to cut gas supply

10,000

for technical reasons, forcing TNB to switch


5000

to more expensive distillates. In response,


the government has foated proposals to
Operational
Thermal

Under Construction

allow third-party access to the countrys gas

Planned

networks to ensure more stable supply.


Some private investors in IPPs have always

Renewables

Figure 1. Capacities by status (MW). Analysis based on the selected power plants

been shielded from fuel price risk, as their


deals included long-term fxed-price gas
supply deals with Petronas. Such attractive

40,000

terms had led to criticism that some of the


older IPP deals were overly generous. An

35,000

increased use of direct negotiation as


30,000

opposed to competitive tendering in some


awards is once again making the IPP process

25,000

controversial.
In terms of generation mix, the country is

20,000

set for ever greater reliance on imported coal,


which is normally cheaper than LNG. This is

15,000

despite the fact that Malaysia still exports


10,000

large quantities of LNG to northeast Asia. The


price it gets for that gas is among the highest

5000

in the world, which means the opportunity


cost if it were to be used at home is very high,
and in any case much of it is locked up in
long-term supply deals. The once strong
enthusiasm for nuclear energy including
Operational

Under Construction

two 1000 MW units by 2021 collapsed in


the wake of the 2011 Fukushima disaster

Planned

in Japan.

Figure 2. Capacity planning, by status (MW). Analysis based on the selected power plants

Nevertheless, Malaysia does still have a

Renewable rationing
Solar development has been Malaysias

what has become a very generous feed-in

most popular renewable category by far, but

tariff (FiT) system and introduce scaled tariffs.

a limit on the size of solar installations and

Malaysia (not including hydro, which makes


up around 10 per cent), although the

capacity growth.

some direct deals, including the award

government had set a target for renewables

Energy

of a 50 MW plant to 1MDB. While the tariffs

to account for at least 5.5 per cent of power

Programme (SREP), established to monitor

were not disclosed for that deal, observers

generation by 2015.

the renewable energy industry, allows output

put likely rates at about half the level of

In addition to solar and biogas, new

of no more than 10 MW per solar project to

deals done in January 2012 at around

hydropower projects are coming onstream,

be sold to the grid through TNB, and has still

95 sen/kWh ($0.31/kWh) for solar farms with

such as the 250 MW Hulu Terengganu

had to restrict applications due to budget

a size of 1 MW10 MW, under the FiT system

hydropower plant, targeted for operation

constraints.

introduced in December 2011. The lower

by September 2015, and the 372 MW Ulu

rate takes advantage of economies of scale

Jelai plant, scheduled to come online in

associated with a 50 MW plant.

December 2015.

Renewable

As a result, many developers are calling


on the government to lift the cap, review

12

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

above,

for

the

and

noted

accounts

government has also moved forward with

Small

as

energy

rationing of applications has kept a lid on


The

However,

Renewable

only about 1 per cent of total output in

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Regional profle: Malaysia

few aces up its sleeve. Gas/LNG is not the

increasingly concerned over energy security,

only energy resource present in Sarawak,

as well as costs.

where new hydropower projects, including

Gas-

and

coal-fuelled

production

Interconnection, existing and proposed

1.Peninsular Malaysia Singapore


(1986, 2 x 200 MW)

the 2400 MW Bakun plant, are now operating.

currently represent around 40 per cent

It is unlikely to bring any immediate beneft to

each of Malaysias total, with the remainder

Peninsular Malaysia, however, as plans for an

split between hydro, oil and renewables. On

2. Peninsular Malaysia Thailand

interconnector have been put on hold for the

the demand side, the industrial sector has

time being, and the power will be directed to

historically dominated electricity sales, but

local consumers in Borneo, including a major

has seen a steady decline since 1990, falling

new industrial park.

from 47 per cent then to 44 per cent in 2011

Other plans to bring in power from the

and a predicted 41 per cent by 2020. The

Indonesian island of Sumatra have been

commercial sector is expected to overtake

proposed but are fraught with complications,

the industrial by 2030.

HVAC Bukit Ketri Sadao


(1981, 85 MW)

HVDC Gurun Khlong Ngae


(2001, 300 MW)

Rantau Panjang Sg Kolok


(2015, 2nd 300 MW HVDC)

3. Peninsular Malaysia Sarawak (2022)

while links are being strengthened with


neighbouring Thailand (see interconnection

Controversy over IPPs

table, right).

In the absence of a competitive market, IPPs

4. Peninsular Malaysia Sumatra


(2018)

More gas may be present in Malaysia, but

are seen as providing an essential source

some commentators complain that overseas

of private capital, as well as maintaining

exploratory interest has been distracted by

pressure on TNB to keep its costs under control.

the rise of the unconventional gas sector,

But public concern over the IPP model has

thought to have benefted from generous

drawing potential investment elsewhere. This

resurfaced in the face of a move away from

terms in power purchase agreements (PPAs)

leaves Peninsular Malaysia ever more reliant

competitive tendering and towards direct

signed in the 1990s.

on international markets for its fuel supply,

negotiations with some potential investors.

However, both the issuing process and the

and this along with the implementation

There has been particular concern over a

terms of the agreements have evolved since

challenges of nuclear and some renewables

move to award the Johor power plant Track

the frst and most generous IPP contracts

4A to YTL Power International, a company

were handed out by TNB. As a result, analysts

has

left

TNB

and

the

government

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

13

Regional profle: Malaysia

say new IPPs now yield internal rates of return


on average around 78 per cent, compared
with the mid-teens for early deals.
The government is also renegotiating
the early IPP contract terms as they near
expiration in 20152017, and new lower
rates are expected to accompany lengthy
contract extensions.
However, according to some in the
industry, only around 2250 MW of the
4000 MW contracted out by the original six
contract holders will be renegotiated.
YTL has since withdrawn from the 4A
project bid, but concern remains that
other IPPs will be awarded in a less than
transparent

manner. Already

the

direct

negotiation approach has been extended


beyond coal and gas plants. Earlier this year,
state

developer

1Malaysia

Development

Bhd (1MDB) signed a 25-year PPA through


direct negotiation with TNB, for power from a
50 MW solar park in Kedah the largest in the

Gas-fred plants such as the Paka CCPP generate around 40 per cent of Malaysias energy
Credit: Siemens

country (see renewables box, page 12).


And in February, 1MDB (and Mitsui)
won an estimated RM12 billion deal for the

prices, as the gas price gradually moves

from 2014 could hinder the security of future

2000 MW coal-fred power plant Project 3B

towards the international market price, coal-

supplies.

due onstream in 2019 after negotiations with

fred plants are expected to take over as

Some analysts have been advising TNB

government entities, following a competitive

the cheapest option for baseload, with over

to secure overseas coal assets, as India

tender process involving fve bidders.

60 per cent of generation expected to be

and China have done by snapping up coal

from coal in 2019 before dropping back with

mines in Australia and Indonesia. TNB Coal

[power] imports from Sarawak and nuclear.

International once owned a coal mine in

Early in the tender process, TNB had been


the clear favourite, with Malakoff the other
front-runner. YTL was the other unsuccessful

Malaysias rising appetite for coal comes

bidder. 1MDB already owns Tanjong Energy, a

as a number of other major Asian economies

75 per cent stake in Genting Sanyen Power

are seeking to increase reliance on imported

Political risk

(now known as Kuala Langat Power Plant or

coal, leading to growing competition for

Malaysia is fast moving towards developed

KLPP), and a 75 per cent stake in the coal-

supplies and upward price pressure.

nation status, both in terms of economic

powered Jimah Energy.

Kalimantan, but ceased operations in 2007.

Domestic power producers burn about

power and electricity consumption. It is also

In 2011, the government increased the

23 million metric tonnes (mmt) of coal annually

having to face the problems of maturity

allowable percentage of foreign ownership

(all imported), and this is expected to rise to

associated with declining domestic energy

in IPPs from 30 per cent to 49 per cent. The

37 million mmt by 2020. By that year, coal-

resources, refected in rising fuel costs.

move encouraged 40 companies to bid for

fred electricity is expected to make up

the 4500 MW Prai power plant tender. Despite

42 per cent of Malaysias total generation

rising

this, in October 2012 TNB was awarded an

capacity, compared to 33 per cent now.

expansion, but public pressure will make any

Linking prices to fuel costs will help control


debt

while

maintaining

capacity

RM3 billion contract for the frst 1000 MW

Malaysia buys about 70 per cent of its

1400 MW stage. In total there are about

coal from Indonesia, with Australia and South

Eventually, if it is able to bring power prices

27 licensed IPPs operating in the country, with

Africa contributing most of the remainder

into line with international energy prices,

over 15 GW of capacity.

all through TNB, the sole coal importer for the

there is the option of a more competitive

power sector. Many other regional consumers

market or even part-privatization of TNB, but

More coal on the slate

also buy from Indonesia, the worlds top

at this stage that looks some way off.

Gas supply interruptions are being made

thermal coal exporter with over 300 mmt

worse

by

fast-depleting

gas

annually. That fgure is expected to jump by

Jeremy Bowden is a journalist focusing on

felds, leading to supply shortages. In a

5060 mmt in 2014, but there are signs that

energy matters.

recent presentation TNB said that although

Indonesian supply growth is slowing.

combined-cycle

the

Any policy change in Jakarta such

most competitive form of generation for

as moves to increase royalties or a recent

baseload based on current domestic gas

proposal to ban exports of low-grade coal

14

gas

domestic

price hikes fraught with political risk.

turbines

were

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Kepcos nuclear power plant in Oi, Fukui Prefecture, was ordered by the
Fukui District court not to restart in May due to local protest
Credit: KYODO

Power Report: Japan

A NEW DAWN FOR


JAPANS POWER
SECTOR
Since the 2011 earthquake that destroyed the Fukushima nuclear complex,
Japans energy supply industry has been in crisis. Utilities are haemorrhaging
cash on fossil fuel imports and expensive safety upgrades to an idle nuclear feet,
the economy is under pressure from high energy prices and the government is
seemingly dragging its feet on decisive policy action. David Appleyard explores
how the Japanese energy sector is responding to these challenges

ltimately,

energy

importer, consuming well over a third of the

26 per cent of its electricity coming from

woes stem from its lack of

Japans

2012 total global supply. It is also the second

the atom.

any

largest coal importer and the third largest net

abundant

domestic

resources.The nation supplies

oil importer.

However, all that changed almost three and


a half years ago with the massive earthquake

signifcantly less than one

As an industrial economy, when faced

and subsequent tsunami that destroyed

ffth of its total primary energy

with burgeoning energy imports the country

much of units 1-4 of the Fukushima Daiichi

unsurprisingly adopted an aggressive policy

nuclear complex in March 2011. In the wake

of civil nuclear power. Until 2011 Japan was

of the ensuing disaster, the countrys energy

the

the worlds third largest producer of nuclear

supply companies shut down almost all of

worlds largest liquefed natural gas (LNG)

power after the US and France, with some

their reactors. Indeed, with these shutdowns,

demand from indigenous reserves.


As a result, according to the US Energy

Information Administration, Japan

16

is

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Report: Japan

scheduled maintenance and rigorous new

fscal 1990 level. Unfortunately, even dumping

and rechargeable batteries. He concluded

safety controls in place, all of Japans reactors

270 million tonnes of emissions credits onto

by saying: Japan reaffrms the goal to reduce

were offine by May 2012. And, although two

the market over fve years has seen the

emissions by 50 per cent at the global level

reactors (Kansai Electric Powers Ohi 3 and

average CO2 emissions intensity for the sector

and by 80 per cent in the developed world

4) were returned to service in mid-2012, they

decrease only 2.6 per cent from 1990 levels.

by 2050 absolutely none of which washed

were subsequently shut down at government

This undoubtedly explains why in a

with the greens. Naoyuki Yamagishi, leader

statement to the UN Conference of the

of the Climate and Energy Group for WWF

Parties (COP19) climate change discussions

Japan observed that the move could

in Warsaw in November last year Nobuteru

further accelerate the race to the bottom

The cost of a nuclear-free Japan

Ishihara, Japans Minister of the Environment,

among other developed countries with their

With well over 40 GW of nuclear capacity and

said that although the country had hit its

analysis showing that the latest emission data

48 reactors effectively gathering dust, Japans

target on emissions reduction for the frst

from 2011 show that Japans emissions are

scramble to replace lost power inevitably

commitment period, as the next step, Japan

3.7 per cent above 1990 fgures.

ramped up thermal capacity, and with it

has set a target to reduce emissions by

imports of oil, coal and, primarily, LNG. This has

3.8 per cent compared to the 2005 level in

A costly decision?

had a range of impacts on Japanese energy

2020. This compares with a previous Kyoto

Japans more immediate concerns are rather

providers and the wider economy.

commitment to a 25 per cent reduction on

more related to its declining if not actually

1990 emissions levels by 2020, to the outrage

spiralling out of control economic outlook.

of the environmental movement.

International Energy Agency fgures indicate

request

in

September

2013. They

have

remained idle since.

For example, the latest fgures available


from Japans Federation of Electric Power
Companies (FEPC) reveal CO2 emissions for

No doubt anticipating the outcry, Ishihara

that replacing the countrys nuclear feet

fscal 2012 from electric power companies

pointed out that the revised plan required

cost the countrys top ten utilities more than

totalled 415 million t-CO2 at a collective

Japan to improve its energy effciency by

$30 billion in additional fuel import costs over

intensity

The

20 per cent when it is already at the worlds top

the two years following the Fukushima disaster.

Environmental Action Plan set out by the

level and would see the country enhance

Reuters reports that the cost of replacement

Japanese utility industry envisages a target

development

of

fossil fuels is now almost $90 billion, while

of reducing CO2 emissions intensity by an

renewable energy-related technologies such

domestic media sources estimate that a

average of approximately 20 per cent from the

as offshore wind power, geothermal power

further $1.6 trillion ($16 billion) has gone

of

0.487

kgCO2/kWh.

and

demonstration

Data and insights that give global hydro professionals a competitive advantage.

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

17

Power Report: Japan

temperatures, and could peak above 53 GW


given a hot spell.
Meanwhile,

generation

capacity

is

estimated to be a little above 55.8 GW in July,


and likewise should top 56 GW in August,
largely as a result of the commissioning of
combined-cycle systems at LNG-fred Chiba
and city gas-fred group 7 at Kashima, as
well as an additional 400 MW variable speed
pumped-storage unit at the hydroelectric
plant

at

Kazunogawa. This

unit

began

operating in June against an originally


planned schedule of 2020.
This gives a reserve margin of 4.9 per cent
Previously mothballed, the 600 MW Kashima oil-fred power plant
has received a new gas turbine in preparation for restart
Credit: TEPCO

under high-temperature conditions, METI says,


though its probably fair to say that just about
every unit in the thermal feet was ordered

on upgrades and safety enhancements

sources of electricity, but without it baseload

into operation in order to fend off the summer

to nuclear plants in order to meet the

power prices have inevitably risen, squeezing

onslaught. On 30 June, for instance, Tokyo

requirements of a stringent new regulatory

government, industries and commerce as well

Electric Power Co (Tepco) announced that it

regime. Reportedly, the countrys nuclear plant

as consumers.

was preparing to crank up unit 1 of the heavy

operating companies are sitting on losses

This has cost an already weak Japanese

and crude oil-fred Kashima power station.

economy dearly, and rising exports have so far

Rated at 600 MW, this plant began commercial

Furthermore, as natural gas, fuel oil and

failed to arrest the fall of the yen, nor balance

operations in 1971 and has previously been

coal pours into the boilers of sorely taxed and

a crushing trade defcit (estimated at some

held in a planned long-term suspension.

often aging thermal plant, Japan managed

$70 billion) and the weight of soaring fuel

to spend some $250 billion in total on fuel

costs.

approaching $50 billion.

The government has further called upon


consumers to conserve electricity between

imports in 2012, a third of the countrys total

Perhaps more immediate still, a May 2014

9:00 am and 8:00 pm on weekdays from 1

imported goods costs.The Ministry of Economy,

METI report on electricity supply-demand

July through 30 September, which they argue

Trade and Industry (METI) has reportedly

outlook for this summer pulled no punches

will deliver a guideline power saving of some

estimated that power costs would need to rise

in setting out the countrys tenuous reserve

11.7 per cent.

by some $37 billion per year a sizable chunk

capacity margin. Even with the effects of

METI also requested that Kansai Electric

of Japans GDP for thermal to replace all of

electricity saving taken into account, demand

Power Co (Kepco) and Kyushu Electric Power,

the countrys nuclear capacity. Prior to 2011,

during the peak months of July and August is

where the supply and demand situation is

nuclear had been among Japans cheapest

expected to top 51.5 GW, assuming normal

expected to be particularly severe, increase

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Power Report: Japan

the reserve margin to more than 240 MW in

now made applications to power up and the

total so that the utilities will be able to secure

government has so far continued to stall.

Alongside the new energy plan, the


government is also proceeding with its strategy

the reserve rate of 3 per cent or more as a

According to the World Nuclear Association

for full deregulation of the countrys energy

minimum requirement. METI subsequently

(WNA), back in July 2013 four utilities had

market, which is due to take place in 2016,

confrmed that Kansai and Kyushu had

already applied to restart 12 pressurized water

followed by separation between generation,

boosted the reserve margin to 434 MW in total.

reactors (PWR) at six sites, including Kansais

transmission and distribution in 2018.

As part of a series of measures, the

Ohi units 3 and 4 and Kyushus Sendai 1 and 2,

The bill to revise the Electricity Business

government instigated full inspections of

following exhaustive batteries of stress testing

Act for full retail deregulation of the electric

all 86 of the countrys thermal power plants

and, in some cases, the construction of giant

power system was enacted in June, though

in a bid to prevent unexpected shutdowns.

sea walls to protect the plants against any

the FEPC noted that in spelling out the

They

future tsunami event.

detail of the plans it is necessary to build a

concluded: With

the

increase

in

Japans dependency on thermal power

But, with the reality of the situation

robust mechanism for ensuring that there is

plants for electricity supply following the

becoming clear, and with justifed if pre-

suffcient supply capacity to meet the national

Great East Japan Earthquake, the frequency

existing concerns over the security of energy

electricity demand in the future.

of unexpected shutdowns of such plants

supply fnally spilling over into outright anxiety,

In a statement, Yagi also called upon

remains high, mainly due to the aging of the

the government cracked in April with Cabinet

the government to improve the business

plants, which highlights the risks involved in the

approval of a new 4th Basic Energy Plan.

environment to ensure that the nuclear power

This proposal explicitly recognizes nuclear

business can continue to operate stably

METI had expressed particular concerns

power, alongside hydro, geothermal and coal,

over the long term even in an increasingly

about 31 thermal plants, based on their age

as an important baseload power source.

competitive environment.

and problems that had occurred previously.

In a statement, Makoto Yagi, FEPC chairman

They noted: The situation of the supply-

and also president of Kepco, described

The outlook for renewables

demand balance of electricity is still expected

the decision as highly signifcant, though

With METI minister Motegi highlighting the

to be much more severe this summer and

according to Reuters the minister of Economy,

role of future renewable energy capacity and

signifcant uncertainty remains.

Trade and Industry, Toshimitsu Motegi, told

the government setting up a ministerial-level

reporters after the meeting that the plan

group to study promoting renewables further,

The policy response

makes clear we will reduce reliance on

the new Basic Energy Plan aims to exceed

With public sentiment towards nuclear power

nuclear power through a variety of measures.

previous proposals, which had envisaged

supply-demand balance of electricity.

at an understandably low ebb a number

LNG

was

further

designated

as

an

up to 20 per cent of power coming from

scandals

intermediate resource between baseload

having rocked public confdence still further

and peaking oil, and capable of balancing

Japan is now only just embarking on its

the government has been reluctant to give

renewables which were given the most

programme of renewable feed-in tariffs (FiTs),

even the countrys most modern and safe

policy focus, and are set to be accelerated to

with the 1 July, 2014 launch of the second-year

nuclear installations the go-ahead to resume

full introduction according to reports on the

initiatives under the Green Power Project by

operations. Indeed, close to 20 plants have

proposals.

the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy

of

subsequent

nuclear

safety

renewables by 2030.

Connect quickly
safely
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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

19

Power Report: Japan

Braden Systems
for Gas Turbines

(ANRE). The FiT is supported by a surcharge on electricity prices, which


from April 2014 to September 2014 is $0.05/kWh.
Currently, METI fgures give Japans renewable energy as accounting
for just 2.2 per cent of total electricity generation. Nonetheless, there is
evidence that interest in Japans renewable sector is growing.

Exhaust Stacks
and Diffusers

In June, GE Energy Financial Services (GE EFS) said that it is to invest


in the 32 MW Kumenan solar photovoltaic (PV) power project, together
with project developer Pacifco Energy. Financing was supported by a
11 billion loan from The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ and The Chugoku
Bank Ltd. Additional fnancial details were not disclosed.
Located in the prefecture of Okayama, Kumenan is expected to begin
commercial operations in the frst quarter of 2016. It will sell power to a
regional utility through a 20-year power purchase agreement.
David Nason, president and chief executive offcer of GE EFS, noted:
Our investment in Kumenan advances our global growth into new
markets with a strong risk-return profle.
On a somewhat larger scale, just days after the GE announcement
Photovolt Development Partners GmbH comprising Kyocera, Kyudenko,
ORIX corporations and Mizuho Bank revealed that they have reached
a basic agreement to investigate the possibility of operating a 430 MW
solar power plant on the island of Ukujima, off Sasebo City in Nagasaki
Prefecture.
An investment of approximately 150 billion is envisaged to execute
the scheme, which would generate an estimated 500 GWh per year.
According to its backers, the goal is to see construction commence
during the 2016 fnancial year. A 60 km undersea cable would connect

Diverter Dampers

Ukujima to Kyushu Island and the Kyushu Electric company for power
supply under the national FiT programme, which pays around
$0.37/kWh.

Filter Houses/Air Intakes

Recent analysis from IHS highlights Japan as a key market in its


forecast of a 15 GW global PV market in the fnal quarter of 2014, with just
Japan and the UK responsible for 42 per cent of global installations in
Q1. In fact, IHS predicts Japan as the worlds number two market in 2014,

Braden is a preferred supplier of

Air intakes including filtration


Air intake ducts including silencing
Exhaust diffusers
Filter houses
Exhaust stacks including silencing
Diverter dampers

We provide site supervision and


commissioning service for all of
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behind only China.


Furthermore, Japan is also pushing its technical and research abilities,
centred on the prefecture of Fukushima. In one example, it is aiming to
become a new hub for solar research following the April opening of an
Energy Institute in conjunction with Fraunhofer ISE, the European solar
energy research institute. In other renewable sectors, Fukushima is also
the location of one of Japans foating offshore wind research installations,
with a pilot 2 MW turbine installed in 2013 and a pair of 7 MW machines
planned.
Although Japan has only around 40 MW of offshore wind capacity
installed to date, there are reports that the government is planning to
revise the FiT regime further, boosting support for offshore wind at the
expense of solar. According to an advisory document submitted to the
government by an expert panel, the FiT for offshore should be increased
to around $0.35/kWh, with onshore unchanged at $0.21/kWh, for
20 years. The solar tariff would reportedly fall to around $0.31/kWh under
the same proposals.

Energy sector outlook


A Global Power Company

www.braden.com

While renewable energy capacity in Japan is undoubtedly set to


accelerate rapidly, starting as it has from a relatively small contribution, it
will inevitably take time to grow.This is particularly true if the government is
to secure the support of the electorate, already labouring under rocketing

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Power Report: Japan

energy prices and roundly disenchanted with

currently idling nuclear capacity resumes

the apparent U-turn on a nuclear future for

operations, the

Japan.

generation with diminish. If so, this line is

proportion

of

fossil

fuel

For the immediate


future, Japans energy
sector will likely
become more diverse

And what of Japans nuclear future?

somewhat belied by the investment that

Although the WNA recently reported that

Japans corporate giants such as Mitsui and

the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) is

Mitsubishi are ploughing into LNG production

prioritizing six units for restart, with Kyushus

capacity.There is also evidence of a concerted

Sendai units expected to come online frst,

programme of thermal upgrades underway.

of its environmental impact assessment to the

followed by Kansais Takahama 3 and 4, the

An

regulatory authorities.

group acknowledges that the reactor restarts

commissioning of another unit at the Kashima

For the immediate future, Japans energy

are facing signifcant implementation costs

power station which has been remodelled

sector will likely become more diverse as

ranging from $700 million to $1 billion per unit,

to combined operation from single-cycle.

pragmatism sees the most viable stations

regardless of reactor size or age.

Initially comprising three 268 MW units with a

in the nuclear portfolio return to service and

Analysis from Reuters this year indicates

37.1 per cent thermal effciency, each of the

new or refurbished thermal capacity and

that the high cost of upgrades, together with

gas-fred units now produces 420 MW, adding

renewables come online steadily to meet

local opposition or more stringent regulations

around 460 MW to the total output of the

the shortfall. Short-term, that almost certainly

on seismic resilience, will see as many as

plant.The upgrade also increased the thermal

signals volatility for Japans troubled energy

two thirds of the countrys reactors ultimately

effciency to about 57 per cent, owner Tepco

sector and its consumers. But a power-

never resume operations. Mycle Schneider,

says.

hungry market and high prices also fag an

example

comes

from

the

February

an independent energy consultant, is quoted

Meanwhile, some estimates suggest coal

as saying: I think it is unavoidable that the

capacity could increase by some 21 per cent

Japanese utilities will write off most of their

to 47 GW by the early 2020s, and with good

nuclear assets and move on. Given the slim

reason. In May, for example, planning for a

David Appleyard is a journalist focusing on

realistic prospects for a major nuclear share,

500

the energy sector.

the challenge will be fexibility and the whole

combined-cycle (IGCC) project at Tokyo

baseload concept fies out of the window.

Electric Powers Hirono power station, again in

The government believes that, as the

MW

integrated

coal

gasifcation

Fukushima, moved ahead with the submission

opportunity for a whole host of energy sector


propositions, new and well-established alike.

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
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21

The 59 MW Gyeonggi Green Energy Park in Hwasung City, South Korea is the worlds largest
Credit: FuelCell Energy

Fuel cell energy

Fuel cell
cell
Fuel
power scales
scales up
up
power
Interest in fuel cell power
is growing in markets
where large-scale clean
energy development
is desired but space
is limited for solar or
wind parks. The newest
development is the
worlds largest fuel cell
power park in Hwasung
City, South Korea.
Tildy Bayar spoke with
FuelCell Energy, the
company behind it

outh

Korea

is

an

energy-

PEi spoke with Tony Leo, FuelCell Energys vice

growing population, high urban

president for applications and advanced

population

little

technology development, and Kurt Goddard,

available land. In the wake of

vice president for investor relations, about

falsifed

Gyeonggi, stationary fuel cell power, research

nuclear plant safety certifcates, the nation

and development, market prospects and the

aims to reduce its reliance on nuclear power

frms plans for the future.

country

scandal

density

with
and

involving

to 29 per cent of its energy mix by 2035.


Due to a lack of domestic resources,

How a fuel cell power plant works

around

Fuel cells convert chemical energy from

97 per cent of South Koreas energy demand.

hydrogen-rich fuels into electrical power

In 2013, the country was the worlds second-

and heat in a low-emission electrochemical

largest importer of liquefed natural gas

process.

imported

fuels

currently

meet

(LNG), the fourth-largest coal importer, and

Similar to a battery, a fuel cell is comprised


of many individual cells grouped together

the ffth-largest oil importer.


In a move to clean up its energy mix,

to form a so-called fuel cell stack. Each cell

South Korea has had a green growth

contains an anode, a cathode and an

policy in place since 2008, with the goal

electrolyte later. When a hydrogen-rich fuel

of increasing its use of renewables to

such as natural gas or biogas enters the fuel

20 per cent of the generation mix by 2027.

cell stack, it reacts electrochemically with

Among its renewables-friendly policies, the

the ambient air (oxygen), producing electric

nation has feed-in tariffs (FiTs), a renewable

current, heat and water. But differently from a

heat obligation and a renewable portfolio

battery, which has a fxed supply of energy

standard.

and can be depleted, fuel cells can generate

However, its terrain is hilly and thus not

electricity as long as fuel is supplied.

particularly well-suited for large solar or wind

FuelCell Energys Direct Fuel Cell power

farms. In the past few years South Korea has

plants are based on carbonate fuel cell

shown a growing interest in fuel cell power,

technology, in which the electrolyte is made

with a number of projects in the works.

up of potassium and lithium carbonates.


In

Carbonate fuel cells can generate hydrogen

February the frms South Korean partner,

from multiple fuel sources in a process called

independent power producer Posco Energy,

internal reforming, which has been patented

completed the worlds largest fuel cell

by FuelCell Energy. The company says this

power plant, the 59 MW Gyeonggi Green

process offers a competitive edge because

Energy park in South Koreas Hwasung City,

it allows readily available fuels to be used.

Enter

22

which uses FuelCell Energys technology.

intensive

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

US-based

FuelCell

Energy.

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Fuel cell energy

And because there is no fuel combustion,

In South Korea, where theres high urban

and was just something we needed to work

power production emits almost no NOx, SOx

population density, we take only fve acres

through in engineering terms.

or particulate matter, the frm says.

in an industrial area for almost 60 MW of

Inside the power plant is the fuel cell

continuous baseload power.

The units scalability was an advantage,


making the project very different from trying

stack or, for multi-megawatt power plants,

Posco Energy completed the plant in

a module that contains multiple stacks. The

14 months. For a project of this size, such a

to install one big 59 MW system, Leo added.


Gyeonggi is bigger than what weve done

incoming fuel is processed by the mechanical

short construction time is a testament to how

before, but hopefully will become typical, he

balance of plant, while the electrical output is

smoothly it was done, Leo said, compared

said. In the grand scheme of power plants,

processed by the electrical balance of plant.

to conventional power plants where it takes

its not that big.

that long just to get the permit.

Building Gyeonggi

Permitting for the park was very fast,

Use of heat

At 59 MW, Gyeonggi is quite a bit bigger than

and Leo explained why: Its specifc to this

The effciency of a fuel cell power plant in

the worlds second-largest fuel cell park, a

technology, he said, and its the same in

Gyeonggis case, around 47 per cent electrical

14.9 MW system in Bridgeport, Connecticut,

California and many other US states. Because

can be enhanced by using the waste heat

US, also developed by FuelCell Energy. Posco

fuel cell technology is recognized as emitting

from the fuel cells in other applications such

Energy is also building a third, 19.6 MW fuel

virtually no harmful pollutants, we can bypass

as industrial processes or facility heating and

cell park in Seoul.

the air and pollution permitting which is

cooling, although this is not always possible

required for a power plant of that size.

in systems of this size, explained Goddard.

The LNG-fuelled Gyeonggi plant provides


continuous baseload power to Hwasung

Construction

was

unproblematic

too,

In our 14.9 MW project in Connecticut we

Citys grid. Its 21 Direct Fuel Cell (DFC3000)

Leo said. Because were constructing 21 of

couldnt fnd a user for the excess heat, so

base units, rated at 2.8 MW each, sit on

the same unit, its a relatively straightforward

we take the waste heat from the fuel cell and

2 ha of land. Because of their small footprint,

construction process. Instead of 21 separate

make more electricity in a bottoming cycle.

FuelCell Energys power plants are easy to

mobilizations, there are fewer in terms of

However, Hwasung City has a district

site, Goddard said.

cranes and such. Interconnection of the 21

heating system, to which the Gyeonggi

An intermittent solar plant would need

units was a little more tricky than a single

plant

about 10 times the land we do, Leo added.

unit, he said, but didnt present problems

heat energy. We recover heat from all

now

contributes

2030

MW

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Integrated
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Fuel Cell energy

21 units exhausts, said Goddard, explaining

components out of that. We initially licensed

then 2.8 MW. Its been a general evolution

that atop each fuel cell power plants main

the balance of plant technology, and a few

and refnement of the carbonate technology.

equipment section is a waste heat recovery

years ago they started manufacturing heat

Were also looking at ways to develop

system which transfers heat to a hot water

exchangers and so forth everything but

new products from carbonate for example,

loop and onward to the district heating

the fuel cell stack modules. Theyre already

were

network. While district heating systems are

doing fnal assembly of fuel cell stacks, and

produces hydrogen in addition to electricity

not common in the US, explained Goddard,

in a couple of years they will be able to

and heat, commented Leo. The product

Once you get outside the US and into areas

manufacture the cells themselves.

converts natural gas to hydrogen inside the

with district heating and cooling, there are

developing

product

that

also

For us this is a royalty stream, but also a

fuel cell stack, yielding pure hydrogen for use

second source of supply, Leo said. And for

in industrial processes or hydrogen vehicle

some of our customers, the fact that theres a

stations. The company has a demonstration

Local manufacturing

second source for key fuel cell components

project in California and others in process in

South Korea aims to expand its local

is comforting.

Connecticut and Canada.

manufacturing is predicted to be a driver for

R&D

Department of Energy, involves using fuel

the nations growth over the next 10 years.

The company is working on improving its

cells to capture carbon dioxide. Leo explains:

technology. One of those 21 DFC3000 power

Carbonate fuel cells have a carbon cycle

interesting options for excess heat use.

manufacturing base, and clean energy

While FuelCell Energys components are


currently

manufactured

in

Another project, supported by the US

Connecticut,

plants in South Korea generates 2.8 MW, and

inside them. If you send CO2 into the air

Posco Energy, which is a subsidiary of

you have to change the fuel cell stacks every

intake, it gets transferred to fuel gas and you

the worlds fourth-largest steel company,

fve years, Goddard said. Were developing

can easily separate it out.

is now building a fuel cell component

improvements to the cell technology to

FuelCell Energy is also working on a next

manufacturing facility in Pohang which is

increase output to 3 MW and increase the

generation of fuel cells based on solid oxide

expected to begin operation in 2015.

stack life from fve to seven years.

technology, an interesting option for smaller-

Theyre doing it under license to us,

Weve done this before, he added.When

sized power plants, Leo says. Solid oxide is

Goddard explained, but its for them and

we frst started selling cells commercially, a

more effcient because of the way electrodes

their marketplace, although we can source

DFC3000 would produce 2 MW, then 2.4 MW,

work but its diffcult to make the cells very

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

25

Fuel cell energy

large. A single cell in a carbonate power


plant is 9000 cm2 in area but no one knows

How a Fuel Cell Works

how to make solid oxide cells that big; the


ones we make now are 600 cm2.

Fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen-rich fuels into electrical power
and heat in a low-emission electrochemical process.

Weve scaled up more than anyone,


he said. We hope to enter the market in a
couple of years with sub-megawatt products.
And the US government is funding us for solid
oxide because they think that, in the long
term, its good for power plants running on

Bipolar Plate

coal gas, and we agree.

Cathode Flow Field

Air
O2 from ambient
air and CO2 and
H2O from anode

Cathode

The competition

Electrolyte Matrix

Several other fuel cell companies are active

O2

Anode

CO2

O2

in FuelCell Energys target markets. CaliforniaAnode Flow Field

based Bloom Energy, which uses solid oxide

e-e

Bipolar Plate

fuel cells in its 200 kW EnergyServer power

O2
H2O

plants, has installed systems in Tokyo as well

Water Vapor

CO2
CO

e
e-

e-

Heat

e-

as California and Connecticut. The frm has


formed a joint venture with Japans Softbank

Electrons from the


anode cannot pass
through the
electrolyte to the
positively charged
cathode; they must
travel around it via
an electrical circuit,
creating the electrical
current

Group to deploy its technology in Japan.


Another US-based competitor, ClearEdge
Power, fled for bankruptcy in May. Financial

Electric Current

CO3=

CO3
e-

CO3=

Negative ions
travel through
the electrolyte
to the anode
where they
combine with
hydrogen to
generate water,
heat and
electrons

analysts say fuel cell developers face a diffcult


e-

time in the mid-term, with more bankruptcies

e-

CH4

H+

CH4

and consolidations expected. While investors

CH
H4

Fuel

enthusiasm seems undimmed as recent

H2

Natural gas
Renewable biogas
Other (Propane)

fundraising such as fuel cell maker Plug


Powers $124 million and Intelligent Energys

CH4

and

H+

Flows to
Cathode

H+
CH
H4

C 4
CH

CO2
H2O

H2O

$63 million show analysts caution against


making bets disproportionate to the long-

term revenue opportunities, as Cosmin

The fuel is reformed


within the anode side of
the fuel cell to extract
the hydrogen.

Laslau, an analyst with Lux Research, put it.


Credit: FuelCell Energy

But Leo is confdent about FuelCell


Energys continuing success. Ours is the
lowest-cost system out there and very high

A 2.8 MW unit in California is the worlds

In the UK, the frm has installed two sub-

effciency, he said.Were the most successful

largest fuel cell power plant operating

megawatt systems in central London

fuel cell developer out there.

on renewable biogas, Goddard says. The

including one powering the headquarters of

technology can be useful for food processing

Al Gores sustainable investment company

Future markets

companies and breweries as well, he adds,

and is working with The Crown Estate on

Carbonate fuel cell power plants can be

converting a waste disposal problem into a

its Regent Street redevelopment project.

used in a variety of scenarios given their fuel

revenue stream.

Leo said the company is pursuing a variety

fexibility, Leo says. Quite a few of our units

The frms future market development is

of megawatt-scale applications all over

in North America California in particular

a wide-open question, Leo says. Were very

Europe and hopes to announce specifcs

are running on renewable biogas, he offers,

successful in South Korea, and successful in

soon. Demonstration

because carbonate fuel cells arent bothered

some North American markets, California in

federal ministry building in Berlin and a utility

by CO2 dilution of digester gas, for example.

installations

for

particular. And weve opened up, a couple of

customer in Switzerland are showcasing

There is the possibility to take digester gas

years ago, a subsidiary in Germany, so were

what the technology can do, he said.

from a wastewater treatment plant, clean out

starting to address the European market

Were now working to scale up into

the sulphur and all of the CO2 and sell it into

[which] has a lot of potential and hadnt

bigger applications megawatt-class on-site

the natural gas grid some people do, he

really been adequately served in the past.

power and over time we look, hope, expect

continues. This is very expensive though,

FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH is a

especially the CO2 scrubbing part. We can

joint venture between FuelCell Energy and

put a unit right at the customers plant so

Fraunhofer IKTS. The company operates a

they dont have to scrub out all the CO2 and

facility in Ottobrun which assembles sub-

its less expensive to process the gas.

megawatt Direct Fuel Cell power plants.

26

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

to have European fuel cell parks like those in


South Korea.

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

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Interview: Howard Barnes, MAN Diesel & Turbo

The 35/44G engine on MAN Diesels testbed


Credit: MAN Diesel & Turbo

Howard Barnes

Walking the torque


The power sector is on
the verge of a gas engine
boom, when state-of-theart products outperform
their turbine rivals,
according to Howard
Barnes of MAN Diesel &
Turbo. He explained why
to Kelvin Ross

he buzzword of the moment in

The German company has long been

the power industry is fexibility. The

known in the power industry for its diesel and

need in Europe is for fexible power

dual-fuel engines as well as gas and steam

solutions that can cope with the

turbines, but it believes the future lies in gas

increasing number of renewables

engines.

being introduced to the grid, while

Howard Barnes, MAN Diesels Senior Vice

developing nations want fast power to meet

President of power plants, spoke to me about

soaring electricity demand.

the companys latest gas engine, the 35/44G.

Of course, this means the manufacturers

considerably in the

development of this engine, he says. Its not

themselves and diversify their portfolios.

just a drawing board exercise: its on test beds

One company which believes it has a


generation solution for the twenty-frst century
is MAN Diesel and Turbo.

28

We have invested

of power plant equipment need to be fexible

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

and it is proving its operation.


And in gas we really see opportunity. We
think this product outperforms gas turbines.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

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Interview: Howard Barnes, MAN Diesel & Turbo

MAN Diesel signs


US pact with
Fairbanks Morse
MAN Diesel & Turbo has signed a
co-operation deal with its American
counterpart Fairbanks Morse. The fve-year
pact will see the companies target the US
market for gas and dual-fuel engines.
MAN Diesel & Turbos portfolio of
gas and dual-fuel engines ranges from
2.317.6

MW

produces

while

engines

Fairbanks
in

the

Morse

range

of

0.54.0 MW.
The deal was signed by Howard Barnes
and Fairbanks Morse president Marvin
Riley at a ceremony at Man Diesels
headquarters in Augsburg, Germany.
Barnes said: The US is a signifcant
The 35/44G engine in transit to a new German gas plant for VW in Braunschweig
Credit: MAN Diesel & Turbo

market and offers tremendous growth


potential for gas fred energy generation.
With an installed base of over 1000 MW,

The fashion for many years has been gas

instances, policy decisions are driving the

Fairbanks Morse is a well-established

turbines and somehow we have to try and

shift to gas engines, not least the policies of

player in this market. Working together

educate the market that in many instances

Germanys Energiewende.

we can offer effcient solutions for energy

this product is superior to gas turbines.

The trend is very much away from liquid

facilities of virtually any size. And two

Re-educating any market to move away

fuels and towards gas. Clearly there will be

premium engine brands joining forces will

from a tried and trusted solution is a big task.

continued investment in selected regions in

certainly leave an impression.

Does he think the sector will be receptive to

nuclear, there will be continued investment

Riley added: With access to MAN

such a message?

in selected regions in coal, but the growth

Diesel & Turbos portfolio of gas and dual-

market certainly for MAN Diesel and Turbo

fuel engines, we can offer units up to nearly

is gas engines no question.

20 MW and expand our range of high-

His answer is that its happening already


and cites as an example a German project
of nearly 200 MW.
They brought in reputable European
consultants independent consultants to

Hence

our

enormous

development

quality and fexible power generation

programme to bring online a state-of-the-art

solutions. This

engine.

additional

opens

power

up

substantial

generation

market

determine: should it be a turbine or a gas

He says the European market is ripe for

engine operation? And after several months

a gas engine business boom. Gas engines

of review the conclusion was its going to

have the ability to ramp up and down very

Fairbanks Morse has been a licensee

be gas engine. A number of utilities have

quickly so they suit peaking applications

of MAN marine engines since 1995 and

seen this and appear shocked at the radical

much better than gas turbines.

Riley said this will remove the need for

change in direction.
However, he stresses that this specifc
shock can be overcome by following a

a familiarization phase, while Barnes

of gas applications for engines in Germany

added that the two companies will hit the

and in the European market.

ground running.

And, when you consider the move

Look at the merits; look at the returns; look at

towards renewables, there is a demand to

the economics.

have a highly fexible backup energy source

Its happening but it needs to be said

available in an instant when the sun doesnt

more. And then people will look at it on

shine and the wind doesnt blow to provide a

a neutral playing feld and evaluate the

constant load.

merits of the application rather than look at


Barnes says that MAN Diesel and Turbo

These gas engines are perfect team


players when it comes to renewables thats
the attraction.

is neutral in many respects in the engine

He explains that one of the most promising

vs turbine debate, as the company makes

European markets is Germany there are

both, but he stresses that in Europe, in many

several projects that we are currently looking

30

energy is clearly on the rise in the US.

Because of that we see a serious number

simple mantra: Dont consider the fashion.

historically what is happening.

segments for us at a time when distributed

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

essential.

MarelliMotori

Group of Companies

For more information, enter 19 at pei.hotims.com

www.marellimotori.com

Interview: Howard Barnes, MAN Diesel & Turbo

at and they are substantial projects and


Eastern Europe, where clients are looking
not only for energy but heat: cogen-type
facilities supporting townships and industry.
So theres a nice spread of projects across
the European market.
And is the gas engine-driven model
applicable outside of Europe? Yes, very much
so. We are seriously focused on Southeast
Asia. We are very active in the Gulf region, in
sub-Saharan Africa and also in parts of Latin
America and the Caribbean, where we have
ongoing projects.
In island locations such as Indonesia,
which has some 245 million people, over
5500 islands and a massive demand for

MAN Diesel & Turbos state-of-the-art 35/44G engine


Credit: MAN Diesel & Turbo

energy however, not centralized plants


but decentralized plants there is serious
application for a product like this, from 10 MW

in the developing world that is very much

ability to maintain, service and operate the

to 200 MW. Thats the kind of market we are

welcomed. To send engines alone doesnt

plant, which is also of value in certain areas,

looking at.

provide a solution. Some clients look for a

such as Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of

He adds that in developing regions, MAN

facility that they can switch on and we can

Latin America.

Diesel and Turbo is keen to do more than just

provide that facility and fnance the facility.

marine engines.

And when the requirement is there we have

We can supply a total plant solution, and

a considerable service group and have the

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

Martinique 220 MW plant complete


MAN Diesel & Turbo has completed the

engines is also used to generate the hot

senior vice-president and project director

second of three power plants for EDF on

water required at the site.

for EDF at MAN Diesel & Turbo.

the Caribbean island of Martinique.


MAN
for

Diesel

engineering,

was

responsible

procurement

The plants 110-metre-tall chimney was

In its dimension and design the

custom-made and is now Martiniques

chimney has been constructed to sway

and

tallest building. It was designed with

at its highest point by only one meter even

construction as well as for commissioning

particular thought given to the island

in the event of an earthquake measuring

of the engines.

being in a danger zone for earthquakes

7 on the Richter scale and a simultaneous

and hurricanes says Hermann Krger,

hurricane.

The plant in Bellefontaine replaces a


30-year-old facility and has a capacity of
220 MW which covers around 60 per cent
of the islands power needs.
MAN Diesel said that particular
attention

was

paid

to

the

plants

environmental compatibility and energy


effciency. Fuel consumption was reduced
by 15 per cent and nitrous oxide emissions
by 85 per cent compared to the previous
plant.
It added that the power plant can also
cover its water needs by using desalinated
sea water instead of ground water.
Dry coolers also allow annual water
savings of 700,000 m3. This is the equivalent
of the annual consumption of around
10,000 households. The heat from the

32

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

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Steam generators

Credit: Bilfnger SE / Schlter Fotografe Essen

High fexibility
at low load
Given current market
boundary conditions,
existing boilers must be
optimized and further
reductions of the stable
minimum load must be
achieved. While solutions
vary, in all cases a
detailed analysis of the
existing system is the
basis for success, write
Christoph Nachtigall,
Stefan Hamel and
Christian Storm

34

he energy market is increasingly

effciency factor and emissions minimization

infuenced by growing use of

for part load and low load.

conventional power plants, energy storage

of older power plant components, such as

and energy demand must be optimized.

steam generators. As seen in Figure 1 (page

renewable energy and a resulting


the grid. As a challenge of the

Increasing existing plants


fexibility

future, the interaction of different

Service companies in the energy sector

sectors namely renewable energy sources,

mainly deal with modernization or adaptation

supply of fuctuating energy into

The main goals for a state-of-the art

36), clients requests must be adapted to the

generation system will be the achievement

existing plants boundary conditions. A service

of security of energy supplies, system stability

companys activities cover the whole range,

and energy quality. In the past, conventional

from the total system concept up to detail

power plants were designed for meeting

analysis of a single component.

the demand of total load. In contrast, the

In the case of a low load study for an

demand of the future will be to provide a

existing steam generator, different steps are

regulating measure for residual load.

required (see Figure 2, page 36).

Due to these changing conditions, new

After thermal modelling of the steam

requirements for conventional power plants

generator and recalculation of the current

will appear. Issues of enhanced fexibility

operation, several

thermal

include the extension of load range, increase

calculations

conducted

in load-change rate, optimization of startup

to determine the limitation of low load.

and shutdown processes, improvement of

Furthermore, depending on the problem

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

are

and
in

stability
order

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

For more information, enter 21 at pei.hotims.com

Steam generators

defnition, additional

measurements

are

installed, for example at single tubes of the


evaporator or other critical heating surfaces.
These measurements are required to
evaluate the calculation results and, later, to
monitor and supervise safe boiler operation
at minimum load.
A low load study will give information
about the current minimum technical boiler
load, and will present an analysis of possible
modifcations in order to decrease it. After
basic and detail engineering, Babcock
Borsig Steinmller will also deal with boiler
conversion and commissioning of the new
components (see Figure 3, right).
For a particular plant, the solution is always
individual and will be elaborated iteratively in
close collaboration with the client.

Figure 1. General situation from the point of view of a service company

Case studies
Typical selected case studies illustrate the
range of challenges and their individual
solutions. Conversion

measures

are

not

required in any case.


For example, the frst case study shows
that a reduction of minimum technical load
is possible without any modifcation of the
installation, but only through modifcation of
the operation procedures.
Low

load

optimization

by

operational

modifcation
In this frst case study, two different two-pass
Benson boilers, manufactured in 1982 and
1985 by Deutsche Babcock AG, were analyzed
concerning minimum possible load.
The steam generator of 2160 t/h HP

Figure 2. Typical procedures of a low load case study for existing steam generators

live steam (see Figure 4, page 38), with HP


parameters

186

bar/530C

and

reheat

parameters 36 bar/530C, is equipped with


an opposed-fring system for hard coal with
32 burners.
A low load recirculation loop covering the
evaporator and economizer already exists.
Since the DeNOx retroft in 1989, the lower
limitation of the technical load of 40 per cent
is dictated by the minimum required SCR
catalyst operating temperature of 300C.
The target of the recent investigation was to
optimize the block units fexibility, especially
at low load, down to 22 per cent. This means
a reduction of the minimum load from
40 per cent to 22 per cent.
The analysis revealed that one possible
solution was to apply the existing circulation

Figure 3. Service features of a low load case study for existing steam generators

system. Here the boiling water from the

36

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Steam generators

separator is led over a suction pipe, a


circulation pump and a pressure pipe
towards the feedwater inlet of the economizer.
As a main effect of this circulation system,
the mass fow rate through the evaporator
can be kept constant at a minimum required
value for low load in order to ensure suffcient
tube cooling.
In addition, the solution for controlling the
fue gas temperature at SCR catalyst uses a
side effect of this kind of circulation system.
Due to mixing with circulated boiling water,
the economizers feedwater inlet temperature
is increased, resulting in an increased fue gas
temperature upstream of the catalyst. The
effect could be reinforced by increasing the
circulation rate and the boiling temperature
through an HP system pressure increase. With
these operational modifcations, no further
conversion measures were necessary.
Reduction of minimum technical load by
conversion
Another case study was elaborated for a
two-pass drum boiler with forced circulation,
manufactured in 1985. The steam generator
is equipped with a four-corner tangential
fring system with 20 tilting burners for hard
coal. It produces 1700 t/h HP live steam of
178

bar/540C

and

reheat

steam

of

42 bar/540C.
Presently,after a low-NOx retroft comprising
burner modifcation and installation of an
SCR catalyst, the minimum required fue gas
temperature upstream of SCR is 320C. In
Figure 4. Two-pass Benson boiler for hard coal with opposed fring system

consequence, the operational minimum load


is limited to approximately 5060 per cent
due to the required SCR inlet temperature.
Target was to reduce minimum boiler to
30 per cent load while maintaining the
minimum SCR inlet temperature of 320C.
Accurate

and

reliable

boiler

operation

must be maintained, and prevention of


economizer steaming must be ensured.
The technical solution is illustrated in
Figure 5 (left). With decreasing boiler load,
frst the economizer bypass system is opened.
Part of the feed water bypasses the eco,
resulting in a reduced heat absorption which
means the fue gas temperature is higher
than in the case of full feed through the
eco. With decreasing load, the bypass fow
increases in order to maintain the 320C fue
gas temperature. Unfortunately, this measure
Figure 5. Solution for the increase of SCR operating temperature at low load

38

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

is limited by the eco-steaming, which occurs


at too-low fow through the eco. In this case

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Steam generators

the second system is activated in parallel


where hot water downstream of the eco is
recirculated to the eco inlet. This increases
mass fow through the eco, which prevents
eco steaming. And, due to a higher mixing
inlet temperature, heat absorption is further
decreased which, on the other hand,
contributes to higher fue gas temperatures.
The increase in economizer inlet temperature
is covered by the design parameters of the
economizer inlet header. Increased linear
expansion of the header was provided for.
The

average

feedwater

temperature

downstream of the economizer is 7 K lower


than the drum temperature. Nevertheless,
there is a residual risk of steaming for single
economizer tubes. But due to upward water
fow, static instability of the economizer
is

impossible. Figure

(right)

gives

representation of the required pipe routing.


Low-load stabilization of the pressure part
The target of the investigation was to identify
the low load operation capabilities of two
Figure 6. New installation of economizer bypass and feedwater recirculation

lignite-fred Benson boilers. The basic data


were as follows:

      



 


     
 
     

$1 -1%$0#
00, '  '  ! &
+* 1  $1 * $

      


  
   



   

    


    
  

1 1 ) $0#


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 + 5 !  + 3"#$   $6%8  $
For more information, enter 24 at pei.hotims.com

40

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Steam generators

Commissioning: 1973;

Boiler type: Benson tower boiler;

Steam rating of HP part: 1.805 t/h;

Steam parameters of HP part:


172 bar / 530C;

Steam parameters of reheat part:


32 bar / 530C;

Feedwater inlet temperature: 235C;

Firing system: four-wall tangential fring;

Number of burners: eight;

Fuel: lignite.
Discussion of the results is focused on the water/steam pressure

part of the boilers. In order to determine the stable minimum operation


point without any modifcations, on the one hand, and to give
recommendations for further reducing the minimum technical load
through the application of different modifcations on the other, a
detailed stability analysis of evaporator and heating surfaces passed
downstream is required. Therefore the procedure comprises the
following steps:
l

Creation of thermal boiler model;

Analysis of operating data for full load and part load;

Development of characteristic curves for low load (boiler boundary


conditions over load, e.g., parameters for superheated steam, cold

Better-quality work at a lower


cost. Is it really possible?

reheat, feedwater etc);


l

Extrapolation of thermal calculation to load cases below the present


minimum load (calculation of low load operation at 20 per cent);

Thermal modelling and geometrical segmentation of the spiral


evaporator section;

Calculation of static and dynamic stability for the spiral evaporator


section;

Of course it is. And thanks to EFD Induction, its


becoming achievable for more and more companies in the electrotechnical industry.
Consider the mobile Minac Twin system shown

Calculation of static stability for all heating surfaces passed

above. It comes with two independent power out-

downstream;

puts. This lets two operators work simultaneously

Determination of the stable minimum load of the steam generator


without modifcation;

Comparative investigation of potentials and limitations for different


stabilization concepts.

with identical or different parameters and coil designs. In effect, you get two induction systems in
one.
Our electrotechnical experience goes back

Evaluation of evaporator spiral

decades. For example, to date weve devised thou-

Evaporator instability has been an issue for all boiler manufacturers for

sands of mobile, inline and stationary solutions

several decades.

to braze components in motors, generators and

Typical specifc design mass fow through evaporator tubes in case


of lignite-fred units is in the range from 2000 kg/(m s) at full load to
approximately 800 kg/(m s) at Benson minimum load. If the specifc

transformers.
If youd like to learn how we can benet your

mass fow rate reaches values below this limit, a reliable cooling of all

business, just give us a call or send us an email.

individual tubes cannot be ensured.Typically, no operational experience

We have plants and ofces in the Americas, Asia

is available in that fow regime.

and Europe. So wherever you are, chances are

For that reason a detailed geometrical and thermal analysis of the

were not too far away.

evaporator tubes will be carried out in order to identify their behaviour


at lower specifc mass fow rates.
First, a detailed analysis of the geometry parameters must be
carried out. The routing of all individual tubes has to be traced and
compared in order to identify the shortest and longest tube, also taking
into account individual fow resistance.
Investigation of the static distribution of the medium into the parallel
tube system of the evaporator walls may give a frst indication of

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potential instabilities. During the present investigation, a more important

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

41

Steam generators

analysis appeared to be a dynamic analysis


of the evaporator wall system. The medium
inside the tubes starts as liquid feedwater,
evaporates during the fow through the tube,
and leaves the tube as steam or, depending
on the operating conditions, as a two-phase
steam/liquid mixture. This means that, with
regard to fow behaviour, the medium
consists

of

incompressible

liquid

and

compressible gaseous steam. Under certain


conditions, the combination of compressible
and incompressible amounts may lead to an
oscillation, which may subsequently result in
time-dependent variation in mass fow and
thus in tube cooling.
The evaporator tube reacts to a sudden
change in heat input. Due to an incident, it
is assumed that the heat input is increased
for 10 seconds to 120 per cent of the normal
heating rate of the tube. The oscillation of the
inlet and outlet mass fow is a result of the
suddenly increased heating rate. The system
can be considered as stable as long as
the oscillations level off and reach the initial
behaviour after a certain time.
In contrast, with the same tube at different

Figure 7. Pressure drop of a single economizer tube vs relative mass fow as a function of boiler load

DIGEST
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innovations and market knowledge.
Power industry professionals stay informed twice a week
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industry news, product information, technology updates
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42

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Steam generators

load with the same disturbance in heating

situation that, at the same overall pressure loss

Conclusion

rate, the system responds with an increase

in the tube, two solutions are mathematically

Minimum boiler load reduction is a challenge

in oscillation amplitude. This is an example of

possible. One solution is characterized by a

initiated by the present market boundary

an unstable system clearly below the critical

fow rate close to the nominal value, while

conditions. Optimization of existing boilers is

allowable load.

the other is characterized by a very low fow

requested, and further reduction of stable

This analysis allows us to identify the critical

rate (see Figure 7, page 42), meaning that,

minimum load is targeted.

specifc mass fow for a stable operation of

in a parallel and heated tube system, some

the evaporator. In the present case, stable

tubes with high fow rate and some tubes with

operating procedures without any hardware

operation of the evaporator spiral is possible

very low fow rate may exist simultaneously.

modifcation to extensive modifcations with

above 30 per cent load.

Consequently, the low fow rate tubes may not

additional hardware installations. But in all

be cooled enough and may be damaged

cases an individual detailed analysis of the

Evaluation of tube banks

due to material temperatures that are too

existing system is the basis for successful

Besides the detailed static and dynamic

high. The result is that the economizer is

modifcation towards lower load operation.

analysis of the evaporator, all other heat

potentially unstable below 50 per cent load.

Solutions

vary

from

optimization

of

transfer surfaces are also examined with

As a result of the investigation several

Christoph Nachtigall is Process Engineer for

regard to potential instabilities. While all

different options were derived in order to

Thermal Engineering; Dr Stefan Hamel is Head

superheater

are

increase the stability of the eco and thus to

of Thermal Engineering; and Dr Christian

uncritical, the analysis revealed potential

decrease the minimum stable boiler load.

Storm

unstable behaviour for the economizer below

These options are, for example:

(Combustion Systems) at Babcock Borsig

and

reheater

bundles

a certain boiler load.

- Installation of additional eco-nozzles in

The reason is that the fow through the

- Different methods for establishing an eco

pressure drop due to fow resistance and

circulation in order to increase specifc fow

pressure increase due to geodetic height

rate and achieve stabilization;

of

Process

Engineering

Steinmller GmbH.
This article is based on a Best Paper Awards
winner at POWER-GEN Europe 2014.

- Inverting the eco into an upward-

At low mass fow this may result in the

Head

order to increase pressure drop;

eco is directed downwards, which means

have opposite direction.

is

directed fow.

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

43

Renewables investment

Credit: Dreamstime

risky waters
With the renewable energy industry moving out of traditional growth areas and
into emerging markets, pioneering developers are looking to take advantage of
investment opportunities. However, in order to exploit the potential of these new,
unfamiliar markets, a combination of additional market-specifc risks will need to
be tackled, writes Jatin Sharma of GCube

he draw for renewable energy

Africa and the Middle East, for example, will

GCubes Business Interruption coverage for

developers

in

need to account for a lack of supporting

both developed and developing markets.

the worlds most promising new

infrastructure close to project sites, which can

It is when factors outside the control of

markets is clear. While traditional

be many kilometres from major ports and

developers and operators come into play

growth markets in Europe and

transport links.

that projects become vulnerable. Recent

and

fnanciers

North America continue to feel the

They can also be related directly to the

developments in Crimea where 100 MW

effects of a global recession, and government

construction and operational phases of

of operational wind farms and a substantial

support

a project. The quality of local labour is not

pipeline of projects are currently at a standstill

particularly for onshore wind developments

always consistent, while, in the African market

have served to raise awareness across the

ambitious frms are hoping to make a long-

in particular, theft of project-critical materials

industry that external political risks should

term investment by carving out a share of the

such as copper cable and oil can contribute

be a real concern for industry players in

market in new growth areas.

to signifcant startup delays and project

politically and fnancially unstable territories.

for

new

construction

falters

However, in doing so they open themselves

downtime.

They have also confrmed a clear need

up to additional, less familiar risks. Many of the

Yet it could be argued that, provided

most promising emerging markets, with the

developers do their homework and timely and

most plentiful wind and solar resources, can

appropriate mitigation measures are taken,

The launch of GCubes PRI coverage

bring about one headache after another

generic logistical and operational risks of this

earlier this year, however, was not a knee-jerk

for developers and investors looking to plant

type need not lead to any project setback.

response to a sudden food of enquiries, but

their fag and build out a portfolio of sites.

In fact, from an insurance perspective, we

a considered and strategic move based on

would expect these to be accounted for

a steady increase in demand for PRI since

through

around 2005.

These risks can be logistical: European


manufacturers

looking

to

export

parts,

labour and machinery to South America,

44

sensible

planning

and

project

design, and they form a standard part of

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

for a political risk insurance (PRI) offering to


safeguard investment in these markets.

While recent events in Mexico and Eastern

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

For more information, enter 28 at pei.hotims.com

Renewables investment

Europe have raised the profle of this kind of


risk, over the past ten years or so, unexpected
events in the Middle East and North Africa,
expropriations in Latin America and contract
renegotiations in the mining sector have
played out against a backdrop of ongoing
economic and political uncertainty following
the global fnancial crisis.
Capital

constraints

and

increasing

regulation for foreign investment have limited


fnancing options, while there is a growing
need to satisfy project fnanciers and lenders.
Specifcally, with the rise in project fnance
being utilized to fund renewable energy
initiatives
and

in

lenders,

riskier

markets, companies

particularly

banks,

have

required more safeguards for their overseas


investments, in the form of subsidiaries and

Political protests can leave energy infrastructure projects vulnerable


Credit: asiapacifcglobal

joint ventures.
These business interests are exposed
to a range of potential losses arising from

has passed out of their ownership. Such

as we have seen in Libya and Syria, the

actions taken by the host government.

scenarios have already started to occur in

door is opened to a whole range of more

In particular, GCube has seen increased

the renewable energy sector, and its clear

severe risks such as forced abandonment

demand

that

becoming

and forced divestiture. In these eventualities,

confscation, expropriation, nationalization

increasingly aware of the risks involved in

a comprehensive PRI package is the only

and deprivation (CEND) of assets.

entering potentially unstable foreign markets.

means of fnancial protection following the

for

coverage

against

risks

of

project

developers

are

Acts of CEND such as those seen in the

Given ongoing investment in North Africa

Latin American mining industry, where the

and the Middle East, where high-profle

unforeseen loss of an asset.


Nonetheless, rather than constituting a

Bolivian and Venezuelan governments have

unrest has impacted severely on otherwise

one-size-fts-all solution to host government

seized control of numerous assets previously

promising markets such as Egypt, political

intervention, each package must be carefully

owned by foreign investors see the fate of

violence cover has also become something

tailored based on the stability of the host

Canadian miner South American Silver in

of a prerequisite for developers looking

nation, the foreign enterprise experience

central Bolivia can be hugely damaging for

to exploit this potential and attract the

of the frm in question, the nationalities

overseas investments.

necessary investment to do so.

involved, the size of any given project and the

For a project operator, they can result

Physical damage to investments arising

importance of the asset to the host economy.

in partial or total loss of assets and a

from civil war and domestic unrest in the

Despite a strong Asian market for political

complete cessation of activities in the host

host country is more likely to result in partial

risk insurance, refecting the large growth

nation, since the host government may not

loss; however, should a subsequent change

in infrastructure projects there, it remains a

offer compensation and the investment

in regime lead to a total breakdown such

specialist offering in the renewable energy


space.
While GCubes PRI launch signifes the
arrival of the frst private policy of this type for
the renewable energy market and the role
of PRI for renewables is only set to increase
as some of the largest planned projects to
date in Latin America, Africa, and Asia seek to
reach fnancial close it is a sign of the times
that such a policy is now required to keep
investors on board in testing political climates
around the globe.
Jatin Sharma is Business Development Leader
at GCube. www.gcube-insurance.com

Credit: Dreamstime

46

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Conference & Exhibition


3 - 5 March 2015
Expocentre, Moscow, Russian Federation
www.powergen-russia.com

PROVIDING ENERGY
SOLUTIONS & INNOVATION
PARTICIPATE AT RUSSIAS LARGEST
INTERNATIONAL POWER EVENT
Russia Power is undergoing a change for 2015. This well established event will now
be known as POWER-GEN Russia to bring it in line with PennWells highly successful
family of POWER-GEN global events.
POWER-GEN Russia will continue Russia Powers established legacy of addressing the
key issues affecting the Russian power sector. This essential event will deliver a world
class exhibition foor combined with a multi-track conference programme devised by
experts in feld of electric power generation.

For information on exhibiting and


sponsorship at POWER-GEN Russia,
please visit www.powergen-russia.com
or contact:

Over three days, POWER-GEN Russia provides a world class exhibition foor featuring
the pre-eminent organizations from the global power sector. Accompanying the
exhibition is a thought-provoking two-track conference programme featuring
presentations by industry leading lights.

Gilbert Weir Jnr


T: +351 282 789 609
E: gilbertw@pennwell.com

Be a part of the largest gathering of global power professionals in Russia and showcase
your products and technologies by reserving your place at POWER-GEN Russia.
Book your exhibition space now for POWER-GEN Russia 2015 and be part of an
established event that continues to infuence the industry.

For further information on POWER-GEN Russia 2015 please visit


www.powergen-russia.com

Owned and Produced by:

Presented by:

In partnership with:

Russia and CIS:


Svetlana Strukova
T: +7 495 258 31 36
F: +7 495 258 31 36
E: svetlanas@pennwell.com
Natalia Gaisenok
T: +7 495 258 31 36
F: +7 495 258 31 36
E: nataliag@pennwell.com

Supported by:

System Operator of Russia

For more information, enter 29 at pei.hotims.com

Co-located with:

Exhibitor preview

ext month sees POWER-GEN

For the frst time in POWER-GEN Asias

Asia Conference & Exhibition

history, the

and its co-located Renewable

unique opportunity to bring together the

Financial

Forum

provides

Energy World Asia make a

events traditional audience of engineers,

Aarding Thermal

welcome return to Malaysias

technologists, developers and utilities with

customized solutions based on a proven

Acoustics

is

providing

vibrant federal capital Kuala

the all-important fnancial community in

track record in design, engineering and

Lumpur. Taking place 1012 September in the

the region, such as investment banks and

manufacturing

Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, it represents

venture capitalists. The ASEAN Power Week

Systems, Acoustical Components, Dampers

the 22nd staging of POWER-GEN Asia.

also befts the theme of this years events,

and Expansion Joints. Both new systems as

which is Connecting Asias Industry Power

well as upgrades, retrofts and spare part kits

Professionals.

are provided. Booth 1090

Once again the events promise to bring


together high-level executives, industry leaders
and senior engineers from ASEAN and the

Commenting at the launch of the ASEAN

wider Asian region, as well as the international

Power Week, Nigel Blackaby, Conference

community, to discuss and debate major

Director, said: The creation of ASEAN Power

issues affecting the industry, see the latest

Week allows those within the power generation

technology and service solutions and network

industry to locate under one roof, in a one-of-

with their peers from across the while power

a-kind event. Increasingly, renewable energy

generation spectrum.

generation is becoming a high priority for

of

Gas

Turbine

Exhaust

The last 12 months since POWER-GEN Asia

governments in the region, adding to the

GEA Heat Exchangers energizes the world.

took place in the Thai capital of Bangkok,

already great need for investment, whilst the

GEA Heat Exchangers China is supplying

which was the most successful show in

conventional power generation industry is in

thermotechnical components with highest

its history (over 7800 attendees from 70+

higher demand than ever before. We therefore

quality

countries), have been marked by two exciting

feel that the combination of the three events

propulsion technology. Visit us at POWER-GEN

developments in the evolution of the event.

as ASEAN Power Week enables us to reach

Asia 2014. Booth 1046

In February, the POWER-GEN Asia Financial

the industry as a whole and to encourage

Forum was launched, and takes place

networking, business and knowledge sharing

alongside POWER-GEN Asia and Renewable

across the whole spectrum of the industry.

Energy World Asia on 1011 September.


The

driver

behind

the

effciency

for

the

energy

and

Turning to the exhibition foor, this year,

establishment

as in previous ones, there is an impressive

of this new two-day conference was the

line-up of technology and services experts,

perceived growing need for fnanciers

who will demonstrating their latest and

banks, investment houses and private equity

leading

to gain a strong understanding of the

both conventional and alternative power

addressed globally by SIPOS Aktorik including

trends, technologies and opportunities as the

generation,

consultation,

emerging economies across Southeast Asia

networking and business opportunities.

technologies

and

enabling

solutions

both

All

for

high-level

electric

actuation

requirements

installation,

maintenance,

revisions, overhauls, retrofts and training.

look to meet the challenge of their growing

Here is a selection of some of the exhibitors

Pioneering products and strong service focus

demand for electricity in the most economic

who would be delighted to welcome you to

maximize automation effciency and minimize

and sustainable way.

their booths:

down-time. Booth 1112

HALLS 4 & 5

TURBINE

MALAYSIAN

F401

F402

The Institution of

F403

ENTRANCE

ENTRANCE
REGISTRATION COUNTER 5

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD

2001

SOENERGY
INTERNATIO
NAL

R2244

Emerson Process
Management.

2002

NIPPON
YAKIN
KOGYO CO.

GAS
TURBINE
CONTROLS

2004

2005

HSL Constructor
Pte Ltd

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD

2243
John Crane
Malaysia
Sdn Bhd

2242
IPPF

2229

2008

OILFIELD SOLUTIONS
(OFS) LIMITED

2009

Wah Seong
Corporation
Berhad & Shinko
Ind. Ltd.

Toshiba
Corporation

SCORE ENERGY
LIMITED

2011

ETHOS
ENERGY
GROUP

REGISTRATION COUNTER 4

Megalift Sdn
Bhd

2013

IHI CORPORATION

PIC Asia - Pacific Sdn. Bhd.

2014

VIBROSYST
M INC.

2017

Hydro Pump
Services Malaysia

2018

FOSTER WHEELER

Carborundu
m Universal
Limited

CCI (ASIA
PACIFIC) PTE LTD

2020

2021

WRTSIL

Enerproject SA

2023

ZOK
INTERNATIONAL
GROUP LTD

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

2204

2027

TENAGA
NASIONAL
BERHAD

Teknik
Janakuasa
Sdn Bhd

2029

MITSUBISHI HITACHI
POWER SYSTEMS LTD

LJ Synergy
Sdn. Bhd

2030

SEDAE
ENERTECH CO.,

2031

APac Energy
Rental

2033

Nord-Lock Pte
Ltd

MEE
INDUSTRIES INC

R2034

2036

2037

APR
ENERGY

PW Power
Systems, Inc.

KAWASAKI GAS
TURBINE ASIA SDN
BHD

GE
POWER &
WATER

2063

2051

2039A

DAMPER
TECHNOLOGY

DURAG Sales &


Marketing GmbH 6 Co. KG

2195

AUMA RIESTER
GMBH & CO. KG

2193
Kittiwake Procal
Ltd

2216

NOOTER/ERIKSEN

2101

2207

Hong Tak
Engineering Sdn.
Bhd

2025

Hitachi, Ltd. Power


Systems Company

Elliott Company

2219

DEKOMTE de
Temple
Kompensator-

2024

2208

ProMinent Fluid
Controls (M) Sdn
Bhd

2231

ATE
ENERG
Y
INTER
NATIO
NAL
Co.,
Ltd

VTU
ENERGY
GMBH

2007

DRESSER-RAND

2220
ABENGOA

2232

CORMETEC
H INC

2006

TAPROGGE

Mysore
Thermo
Electric P

2245

Esterline
Advanced
Sensors

2192

R2186

Brentwood
Asia Ltd

Jord
International

2190

2183

2147

2171

MAHINDRA HEAVY
ENGINES PVT LTD

ROLLS-ROYCE

SIHI Pumps
(Malaysia)
Sdn Bhd

2180

2168

Engineered
Turbine
Component
s

R2154 2145

JK Power
Corporation

2191

INTECH FA
CO LTD

2135

2156

2145

CMC
Solutions
LLC

2155

METACOR
VIETNAM
LIMITED

2142

ENVIRONM
ENT ONE

2114

MTU Onsite Energy

ANDRITZ
HYDRO GMBH

Hilliard Corporation,
The

2120

R2108

2096

2133

Freudenber
g Filtration
Technologie
s SE & Co

Thermoflow
Inc.

2143

2132

2078

2099

CHINA EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

R2084

Maser &
Quartzelec
Services Sdn.
Bhd.

2072

Marelli Asia
Pacific Sdn
Bhd

2060

2039

CHROMALLOY

2046

2240

48

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Exhibitor preview

With their electric SA/SQ actuators and various

The largest independent manufacturer of

Doosan builds, maintains and extends the life

gearboxes, AUMA present versatile solutions

turbogenerators in the world. Over 130 years

of power plants across the world. We provide

for industrial valve automation. All variants

experience in producing market leading

clean, effcient, fexible and integrated power

and versions are based on a common design,

generators, transformers, switchgear

solutions, using the latest technologies and

operation and service concept.

control systems, for customers in over 130

best-in-class engineering expertise.

Booth 2193

countries. Booth 1270

Booth 1213

and

Hilco, a division of The Hilliard Corporation,


manufactures fltration systems for turbo-

Siemens Energy Sector is the worlds leading

machinery equipment including oil mist

MAN Diesel & Turbo is the worlds leading

supplier of a broad spectrum of products,

eliminators, lube oil conditioners, duplex/

provider of large-bore diesel engines and

services and solutions for power generation in

simplex

process

turbomachinery for marine and stationary

thermal power plants as well as renewables,

equipment, patented dry resin ion exchange,

applications. At POWER-GEN Asia 2014 the

power

varnish prevention/removal equipment.

company promotes, among others, its 51/60G

processing and transport of oil and gas.

Booth 2096

pure gas engine. Booth 1038

Booth 1126

flters,

transfer

valves,

transmission

and

the

extraction,

As Of Date: 11 August 2014

INTE
301
RLIN

Comp
310
act

HALL 4

HALL 2
ATMAS
PT
PTE
TE LTD

303

Amtech
Power Sdn
Sd
dn
n
Bh
hd

308
0A
08

300
0

R311

STEA
304
04
G

HEWI
307
TECH
B
306
INTER

HALLS 1 & 2

F205

F206

F208

F101

RF102

RF103

Internati

ENTRANCE

ENTRANCE
KLCC

1001

NATIONAL
ELECTRIC COIL

1002

BRUSH

CHINA EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

1004

CIRCOR
Energy

REGISTRATION COUNTER 1

REGISTRATION COUNTER 2

SERVICE DESK
RENTECH
BOILER
SYSTEMS INC.

Energy Capital
Pte Ltd

1006

International Paint
LLC

R1007

SHIN NIPPON
MACHINERY CO
LTD

FIVES
PILLARD

1009

HOWDEN

HALDOR
TOPSOE

1010

Daeyoung
C&E Co.,
Ltd.

Cleaver-Brooks

BFI
AUTOMATION

1011

1013

DOOSAN HEAVY
INDUSTRIES &
CONSTRUCTION

ANSALDO
ENERGIA

1015

STF Group:
STF SpA,
Burmeister

1016

STEULER-KCH
GMBH

1017

TENAGA
NASIONAL
BERHAD

Meggitt
Control
Systems

1019

AREVA
Renewables

ENGENTECH
(M) SDN BHD

R1020

1021

CRE
TECHNOLOGY

1022

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD

BABCOCK &
WILCOX

AD TUBI
INOSSIDABI
LI SPA

VEOLIA

R1024

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD

1026

DSI LASER
INTERNASI
ONAL

1027

CRESTCHIC
LTD

1028

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD

TRUWATER COOLING
TOWERS SDN BHD

SPIG SPA

1030

ALSTOM

R1032

Siemens AG
Energy
Sector

HOLLAND PAVILION

Organics Asia Co.


Ltd.

R1034

DEE
Developmen
t Engineers

Holtec Asia Pvt.


Ltd.

1036

Korea SouthEast Power CO.

1037

MAN DIESEL &


TURBO SE

1038

Korea SouthEast Power CO.

1057

Hamon

1258

ERM

Sarawak
Energy
Berhad

R1246

PCC
ENERGY
GROUP

1234

ROSATOM

1213

SUMITOMO
HEAVY
INDUSTRIES LTD

1210

BABCOCK
POWER INC

1174

1191

SIMEBEST
CORPORATION
SDN BHD

MAXpower
Group Pte
Ltd

GF Piping
Systems Ltd.

1165

OPRA
TURBINES
B.V.

NEM
Energy
b.v

1162

ITALIAN
PAVILION

1150

Pansar Company
Sdn Bhd

1148
TOTAL OIL ASIAPACIFIC PTE. LTD.

1267

1255

1243

1241

R1219

1217

1207

1195

HYUNDAI Heavy
Industries Co.,
Ltd.

R1183

1181

1171

1169

1147

1138

Industrial Info
East Asia

1136
TUV
Rheinland
Japan Ltd

1146

BURNS &
ROE ASIA,
LTD

BOLDROCC
HI SRL

1135

SIPOS AKTORIK
GMBH

1112
THERMACHEM

1123

1122

1078

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

Mitsui Engineering &


Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd.

1066

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

R1056

CHINA
EXHIBITION
WORLD Co.,Ltd

Korea South
-East Power
CO.

1111

CRESCENT
ENGINEERING (M) SDN
BHD

R1042

J. SEELEN
GMBH

1045

GEA Heat
Exchangers
China

TRACTEBEL
ENGINEERING

1090

1126

VYNCKE
N.V.

1047

1189

1270

HUEGLI TECH
SWITZERLAND

R1040

1099

1087

1075

1063

1046

1049

BEAUDREY
ASIA SDN.
BHD

Neway
Valve
(Singapore)

1061

1052

SHW
STORAGE &
HANDLING

NELS
CONSULTIN
G

R1062 1051

Adventure
Power

R1048
REXA

1050

stairs to
PennWell booth

PennWell Booth HL2


P
enHL2

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

49

Online condition monitoring and diagnosis can lead to extended operating times
Credit: Siemens

Condition monitoring

Staying ahead of
the stresses
Early detection with online
condition monitoring
can help mitigate the
effects of increased
thermomechanical
stresses on power plant
core components due
to medium and peak
load operation,
writes Frank Ewert

he infuence of renewable energy

gradually cause damage to their high-voltage

especially wind energy is

insulation. If early detection of changes in the

increasing. Consequently, medium

components is possible through in-process,

and peak load operation of fossil-

long-term

fueled power for the stabilization

expensive outages can be prevented and

of the electrical grid is increasingly

measures can be scheduled and taken to

required. Especially for large fossil fuel plants

diagnosis,

unscheduled

and

extend the service life of generators.

this medium and peak load operation results

Monitoring systems for different parameters

in increased thermomechanical stress on

are available, but at Siemens the focus is on

core components like the generator due to

the monitoring of partial discharges (PD), end

the increasing number of load cycles.

winding vibrations (EWV) and interturn short

This typically results in accelerated aging

circuit (ISC). Other systems for shaft voltage/

of the machines, and risk of damage and

current and fbre-optic stator and rotor

unexpected failures. As a preventive measure,

temperature monitoring are available or in

inspections at more frequent intervals offer

development. The typical Siemens generator

insight into the condition of the generator, but

monitoring concept of the main monitoring

cost the power plant expensive outage time.

systems mentioned above is illustrated in

To minimize loss of revenue, it is helpful

Figure 1 (page 52).

to use online condition monitoring and

Monitoring usually starts with the sensors

diagnosis systems to receive information

installed inside the generator (vibration and

about the state of the machine during

fux) or in the direct vicinity of the generator

operation. This will lead to condition-based

for example, inside the iso-phase bus (partial

maintenance

discharge). The sensor signals are routed to

with

extended

operating

periods between standstills.

a data acquisition unit (AU), located in the


turbine hall. All relevant data is stored on the

50

Generator monitoring overview

AU and can be downloaded for diagnosis.

Generators are in service in power plants

By extending the system with a central server,

for many years. Operation and aging can

up to 20 generators can be monitored

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Condition monitoring

and the data can be stored, visualized

are usually equipped with integrated over

magnitude vs AC cycle phase position, for

and compared. The server can be easily

voltage protection, and have an insulated

visualization of the PD behaviour during a

connected to any I&C systems, such as a plant

signal output to avoid any eddy currents

predefned measuring time. Classifcation

information (PI) system or a T3000 system, or

along the cable shields.

and interpretation of these patterns can

to a superordinated Siemens system like the

be accomplished using the international

WIN_TS. Once connected to one of these

PD analysis tools

systems, the data can be automatically

The most well-known and powerful tool

Monitoring of a generator usually starts

transferred to one of the Siemens Power

is analysis of the Phase Resolved Partial

with a fngerprint measurement, which is

Diagnostic

Discharge (PRPD) patterns. These typically

the frst measurement after the monitoring

show

system is commissioned and the generator

Centres, where

the

data

is

observed permanently by sophisticated rule-

the

PD

pattern catalogue (IEC/TS 60034-27-2).

distribution

map

of

PD

based analyses which include automatic


comparison with all relevant and existing
generator

parameters. In

case

of

any

deviations from normal behaviour, Siemens


experts are mobilized to perform a detailed
evaluation of the data and to provide
recommendations for the customer.

Partial discharge (PD) monitoring


Electrical faults in high-voltage components
like a turbine generator do not occur
suddenly. In nearly all cases, however, defects
are announced by PDs bridging part of the
high-voltage insulation, and are detectable
with RF-measurement methods.
The distribution of the discharges with
respect to the phase angle of the generator
voltage is characteristic for the cause of
discharges, and allows for conclusions about
the grade of risk for further operation of the
high-voltage equipment.
The

PD

measuring

system

can

be

normalized according to IEC/TS 60034-27-2.


By transformation of the measured voltage
signals to charge units, being a measure
for the transferred electrical energy, an
estimation of the risk is possible. Although the
generator, as the most expensive electrical
component, is generally the main target of
supervision, the complete high-voltage area,
including the main and auxiliary transformers,
is monitored through registration of PD signals.
For the detection of PDs, special coupling
capacitors need to be installed in existing
voltage

transformer

cabinets,

generator

terminal boxes, inside the isolated phase bus


(IPB), inside generator neutral cabinets or at
other suitable places in the high-voltage area
of the power plant.
The coupling capacitors are used to pick
up the PD signals from the high-voltage line.
The capacitors usually have a capacity in
the range of 1oC9oC. Coupling capacitors
with lower capacities are not used due
to a decreased sensitivity which does not
fulfl Siemens requirements. The capacitors

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

51

Condition monitoring

an IPB supporter with a poor contact to the


lead.
Most of the PD monitoring systems on the
market provide the possibility of performing
ToF measurements for fault localization.
Based on a high bandwidth and high
sample rates, the signal behaviour of PD
pulses can be analyzed as function of
place. The signal shape of the PD pulse and
comparison of both test points give some
knowledge about the discharge source.
The difference between the propagation
times of the measured pulses can be
determined, and the possible region of the
corresponding PD activity can be restricted.
In this way the pulses travel direction can be
directly calculated.
If
Figure 1. Overview of SIEMONplus monitoring system

there

are

well-defned

signal

propagation paths between two test points


(e.g., along the IPB), analysis of the travel
time allows calculation of the distance of

is at base load. The fngerprint measurement

the PC source from both test points. For time

is used as a reference for any future analyses.

differences below the calibrated travel time

It further serves to identify narrow-band

between test points, the location of the PD

interference, and to eliminate it with digital

Stator currents of all three phases;


Stator voltages of all three phases;
Active and reactive power;
Exciter current.

interference suppression in order to improve


the measurement sensitivity.
Once the fngerprint measurement is

source is between the test points and can be

As a basis for Time of Flight (ToF)

determined with an accuracy that depends

measurement for localization, it becomes

on the steepness of the pulses and the

important

geometry of the propagation paths.

to

evaluate

high-resolution

done, the trending of the following common

oscillograms taken with a sampling frequency

PD parameters starts:

of up 125MS/s of four channels simultaneously

Interference suppression

QIEC [oC] Apparent charge according

over one AC cycle of the high voltage

In general, PD measured in power plants

to IEC60270;

(50 Hz 20 ms).

is superimposed with a lot of noise signals,

Furthermore, the oscillograms can be

which must be eliminated prior to any further

used to determine the slew rates of the PD

processing. Those signals can be principally

impulses in order to gain information about

divided into sinusoidal and pulse shaped

the

the source or origin of any PD impulses. For

signals.

abovementioned common PD parameters

example, the slew rate of PD impulses coming

Sinusoidal noise, e.g., transmission signals

should be correlated with the following

from inside the insulation system, which travel

on the power lines, often fully masks any PD

generator parameters:

through the generator winding, are damped

pulses contained in the measured signal.

much more than impulses coming from

Because each data set is highly resolved

outside the generator, e.g., the impulses from

in the time domain, it can be fltered

Qmax [oC] Maximum charge;


N [1/s] PD rate;
QR [oC/s] Quadratic charge rate.
According

to

IEC

60027-2

[2],

Slot tempratures;
Cold and warm gas temperatures;

digitally by transforming it to the frequency


domain, fltering the resulting signal from the
dominating resonance frequencies using
digital notch flters and transforming it back
to the time domain.
Typical pulse-shaped signals are, for
example, the six equidistant commutation
impulses of the static excitation system (sixpulses bridge). These impulses are caused
by semiconductor switching in the static
exciter power converter and are typical in the
operation of generators with static excitation
Figure 2. Application of fbre-optic accelerometers inside a stator end winding basket.
The fbre-optic accelerometers are non-metallic and do not interfere with the
electromagnetic feld in the end winding area

systems with slip rings.


These high-frequency pulses couple from
the generator rotor winding via air gap into

52

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Condition monitoring

the stator winding, and represent a normal


phenomenon in all generators with static
excitation. They can be used as a sensitivity
check for PD online monitoring systems,
which operate in wide-band mode at low
frequency range acc. IEC 60034-27-2.
Slot discharges typically appear between
the outer corona protection (OCP) and the
stator core. The typical appearance of slot
discharges is an asymmetrical distribution of
the discharges covering the amplitude and
number within the two half-waves.
In

the

negative

half-wave,

higher

PDs appear. In both half-waves the PDs


appear between the zero crossing and the
maximum/minimum

of

the

high-voltage

cycle. The PRPD patterns of slot discharges


typically show a triangular shape.
Screenshot of SIEMONplus EWV monitoring software

Vibration monitoring
All forces that act periodically cause elastic

amplitude). High levels of vibration cause the

vibrates at twice the line frequency; current

structures to vibrate. Such forces occur in every

end-winding assembly to loosen, and can

forces; and bearing and shaft vibration.

generator. Vibration represents a cyclic load

lead to rubbing and fracture of the affected

for the affected components, and increased

components.

The unusually high currents and torques


associated with line short-circuits, lightning

vibration levels mean an increased load

The end-winding sections of generator

(the load being proportional to the vibration

are particularly excited by the core which

strikes
have

and
a

out-of-phase

particularly

synchronization

pronounced

effect

For more information, enter 31 at pei.hotims.com

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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

53

Condition monitoring

A major portion of rotor faults are related


to some kind of winding fault, such as
earth faults, shorted windings, or cracked
conductors. Some winding faults do not
directly lead to a trip of the generator, but may
lead to increased shaft vibrations, excessive
wear or simply reduced effciency. Therefore a
rotor winding monitor is a useful tool for fault
analysis.
Different mechanisms can be responsible
for shorted rotor turns. Most shorted turns are
caused by some kind of relative movement
in the rotor turns. This relative movement may
lead to misalignment of the insulation layer
between individual turns, failure of turn-to-turn
insulation, or loosening of blocking elements
Figure 3. Typical ISC examples

in the end winding region. Relative movement


of rotor winding parts is unavoidable due to

Although

the time-domain signals are transformed

the fact that the copper of the windings has

generators may not be damaged by such

into the frequency domain. Here the frst

a thermal expansion coeffcient different

events, it cannot be completely ruled out that

and second harmonics of the line voltage

from that of the insulation materials and

such events can cause a certain amount of

are usually observed, and the respective

the rotor body. During each startup and

damage to the stator winding. To prevent any

amplitudes,

represent

shutdown the copper windings move relative

secondary damage, the affected generator

the vibration level in [m], are trended

to the rotor slots and the insulating parts.

must be inspected to identify and repair

separately for every sensor signal. The trend

An experienced and reliable rotor winding

potentially loose braces or ties, particularly in

of the vibration values can be displayed

design takes care of this thermomechanical

the end-winding section.

and correlated to operational parameters:

mechanism otherwise relative movement

The condition of generator end windings

for example, active power, reactive power

leads to increased wear on the insulating

is typically examined visually. Loosening of

and exciter current, which may have a direct

materials, and ultimately to interturn short

end-winding assemblies causes secondary

infuence on the end winding vibration

circuits. Sometimes even plastic deformation

damage and increases the cost and effort

behaviour.

can occur, leading to end turn elongation,

on

generator

end

windings.

which

usually

which in turn may cause the loosening of

of any repair measures. Omitted or late repair


can mean that the generator has to be

Advanced analysis

blocking materials in the end winding region

completely re-wound. End-winding vibration

Modern end winding vibration monitoring

and, ultimately, shorted turns.

monitoring thus is a useful tool for evaluating

systems provide an online modal analysis

The effects of shorted turns depend on

the condition of generator end windings, and

of the end winding vibration signals. The

their number as well as their location. In the

also minimizes the risk of a re-wind.

Siemens system provides online evaluation

frst place, shorted turns require a higher feld

Online monitoring of end winding vibrations

and visualization of the standstill and rotating

current to run at a specifc load, thereby

is performed by recording local accelerations

vibration modes separately. The respective

decreasing

during regular operation. Special fbre-optic

changes in these vibration modes during

currents result in higher overall feld operating

accelerometers are placed on the bar end

operation are trended, in order to detect

temperatures. In the case of a two-pole rotor,

connections of the stator end windings (see

possible

mechanical

shorted turns in one pole lead to increased

Figure 2, page 52) considering the results of

behaviour of the generator end winding. For

temperatures on that side of the rotor only.

an offine modal analysis (bump test). These

such diagnostics a detailed knowledge of

This leads to thermal unbalance in the rotor

sensors are free of any metal parts and do not

the generator design is necessary in order to

and increased vibrations due to thermal

interfere with the electromagnetic feld in the

defne potential measures.

bowing. Four-pole rotors may suffer from

changes

in

the

their

effciency. Higher

feld

end winding area. A minimum of six, but better

In most cases end winding vibrations

magnetic unbalance in the case of shorted

even eight, sensors per end winding should

are indicated by friction dust caused by

turns in one pole. Interturn short circuits or

be used to allow a reliable data analysis.

relative movements of different end winding

earth faults in the end winding region may

Real-time signals are usually used to check

components (bandings, blocking elements,

produce arcing underneath the retaining

the general functionality of the sensors. The

etc). Permanent mechanical stresses on

ring, leading to retaining ring damage.

signals of up to 16 fbre-optic sensors are

single bars can lead to fatigue cracks in

For the detection of shorted turns, a sensor

acquired with a sampling frequency of 9 kS/s

single strands. In the case of cracked single

which measures the magnetic fux must be

simultaneously to enable the possibility of

bars, the heat produced from the cyclic

installed in the air gap between the rotor

performing online modal analyses.

interrupted current leads to perforation and

and the stator. The sensor is typically installed

discolouration of the bar insulation.

in the 3 oclock or 9 oclock position, and is

By using a fast Fourier transformation (FFT),

54

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Condition monitoring

fastened on top of a stator slot wedge near

load and full-load (fux density zero crossing).

recommendations based on the condition of

the turbine end of the generator. During

Through a pole-to-pole comparison of the

the generator. This leads to minimized outage

the units operation the monitoring system

heights of the fux probe waveform peaks, the

times, as all necessary repair measures are

analyzes the magnetic fux continuously by

decrease in the number of active turns in the

planned in advance and all spare parts are

detecting changes in the rotor slot leakage

affected pole can be detected.

available in time.

fux signal provided by the sensor. It will detect

By trending the data in the case of an

Another goal of generator monitoring is

most of the shorted turns which can occur at

existing short, rotor winding defects can be

to extend periods between maintenance

a generator rotor, and will issue an alarm if a

detected in an early stage, and planning

outages based on experienced analysis

shorted turn is detected. Identifcation of the

for the next maintenance outage can be

of

affected slot of the rotor is also possible.

supported to minimize loss of revenue.

characteristics, maintenance history and

ISC analysis

ISC Examples

generator components such as stator or rotor

The measured magnetic fux does not cross

Typical reasons for rotor interturn short circuits

windings, bushings or circuit rings can be

the air gap to reach the stator windings. Its

include, for example, end-turn distortions or

achieved through assisting the maintenance

magnitude is proportional to the current

copper

and overhaul of these components.

fowing through the active turns in each slot.

distortions usually appear due to aging caused

This fact is used to diagnose shorted turns.

operational

conditions,

machine

online diagnostics. And a lifetime extension of

chloride

contamination. End-turn

by relative movements in the rotor turns. The

Frank Ewert is an advisory expert at Siemens

Sensitivity in detecting shorted turns in the

resulting misalignment of the insulation layers

Energy. He is responsible for online generator

coils depends on the load point. Therefore

causes failures of the turn-to-turn insulation.

diagnostics as well as generator diagnostic-

it is necessary to use a very sensitive data

Copper chloride contamination can lead to

related research and development projects.

acquisition system. To detect even the

conductive bridges between the turns (see

smallest changes in magnitude, the Siemens

Figure 3, page 54).

system uses a sampling frequency of 100 kHz

The

more

monitoring

This article is based on a Best Paper Awards


modules

and

and a resolution of 24 bit. When using such

operational parameters are available, the

a high resolution, it is no longer necessary to

more successful the diagnostic. Monitoring

approach different load points between no-

can help to optimize outages with early

winner at POWER-GEN Europe 2014.

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

Project: PP12, Saudi Arabia


Conditioning & Analysing Systems (2 units)

Sampling & Analysing Systems

Arabian Bemco Contracting Co. Ltd., Operator: SEC

75

of
Years ty &
a
u
Q li e
High
rmanc
Perfo

4 HRSGs to one steam turbine


Installation of Sampling & Analysing System
in two air conditioned 40 foot container (per unit) complete separation of conditioning and analysing part
Signals & Control architecture and visualisation via Probus, PLC and HMI (redundant)
Installed computer work station and laboratory work place

Dr. Thiedig Engineering Solutions


a company of Dr. Thiedig
For more information, enter 32 at pei.hotims.com

Credit: Dreamstime

Automated demand response

ADR is key
to solving Europes
energy challenges
Automated demand
response is a huge
untapped resource of
energy across Europe that
provides utility companies
with a low-carbon method
of stabilizing the grid
and accommodating
peaks in demand
quickly and effectively
without requiring high,
unnecessary investment,
argues Scott Petersen

ll across Europe indeed,

legislation is driven by the need to reduce

all over the world energy

carbon emissions and to mitigate climate

utility

change.

companies

are

seeking to overcome major


challenges

caused

by

changes to the way energy

is produced, transmitted, distributed and


consumed.

Currently, the answers are mixed.


The proliferation of renewables is putting
traditional power networks under pressure. In

More frequent peak surges in demand

Germany, for example, more than 60 GW of

cause grid constraints that need to be

renewable capacity was online by the end

overcome. The growing number and amount

of 2012. However, the difference in the grids

of renewables in the supply mix create

stability between a calm, overcast day and

transmission imbalances that need to be

a windy, sunny day can be massive. New

managed. The gradual climb out of the

strategies are being implemented to link

global economic crisis means unnecessary

wind turbines, biomass generators and solar

investment

panels with conventional power plants and

in

infrastructure

must

be

avoided.

new storage solutions to create a more stable

In Europe, recent events highlight the

grid. But the focus remains on generating

importance of reducing both dependence

and managing the power required, rather

on external energy sources and exposure to

than on reducing demand.

the wholesale market.

To balance supply and demand, France

On top of all this, overall demand continues

has a generation-focused demand response

to rise. Between 1990 and 2010, electricity use

programme, which uses one aggregator

in the EU-27s public, education, healthcare,

to provide a minimum of 10 MW of power

services and commercial buildings rose by

as and when required. Effectively, this high

93 per cent to 834 TWh, or 29.4 per cent of

requirement limits the programmes capacity

total consumption. In the eight years to 2007,

by restricting it to power stations and to the

consumption in the EU-27s industrial facilities

biggest

rose by 13 per cent to 1150 TWh, accounting

industries.

for 40 per cent of the total fgure.

56

So, how are Europes utilities rising to


the challenges created by these factors?

energy-intensive

manufacturing

In the case of both Germany and France,

But these are just the operational and

neither country currently takes into account

economic issues. Much of the relevant EU

carbon offsets in their grid programmes.

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Automated demand response

Both focus on securing energy supply from


a limited number of generating assets, with
their selection based on economic merit and
speed of response.
In the UK, a lower minimum requirement
of 3 MW energy generation or demand
reduction and more generous payments
from National Grid make the creation of
virtual power plants or VPPs both feasible
and attractive.
Power

management

companies

like

Stor Generation and others use automated


demand response (ADR) technology to
connect with a range of facilities and
aggregate energy savings tied to temporary
adjustments

in

heating

and

cooling

equipment and other building systems.


Honeywell
demand

sets

response

up

Stor

ADR provides utilities with a low-carbon method of stabilizing the grid


Credit: Mott MacDonald

Generations

programmes

its

design load shed strategies, provides testing

automatically implements the prescribed

Akuacom Demand Response Automation

on

and training, and connects each facility

changes. The same technology can also

Server (DRAS), manages the internet portal

to the DRAS via an on-site gateway device.

combine and feed power from on-site

for Stor Generation, reports performance and

The gateway listens for signals indicating

generators into the grid. In both cases,

provides initial training and ongoing support

when energy use needs to be trimmed.

participating organizations are compensated

for participating organizations.

When a demand response event is called,

for their involvement by payments from the

As Stor Generation signs up clients to the

the gateway passes the information to

utility company.

service, Honeywell implements site audits to

the buildings automation system, which

The key to the success of the programme

For more information, enter 33 at pei.hotims.com

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

57

Automated demand response

Honeywells Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) can respond quickly to utility demands
Credit: Honeywell

is to respond quickly to demands from the

networks in a clean way during times of grid

The launch of this equipment and its

utility and to provide a measurable, verifable

stress. The question is, what needs to happen

expanding market mean that aggregators

account of the energy savings made or the

for other countries in Europe to beneft from a

will have ongoing freedom of choice when

power generation delivered.

similar strategy?

it comes to working with an ADR partner.

ADR technology meets these requirements

From

the

investment,

infrastructure,

Similarly, end users will have freedom of

by allowing aggregators and utilities to

operational and environmental perspectives,

communicate with building systems when

the

are

In summary, ADR is a huge untapped

electricity is needed, and instigating pre-

compelling. But it may take more time for

resource of energy across Europe that

planned, fully automated changes to each

some countries to align with the technology

provides

buildings operation. This means fexibility and

from a political, economic and environmental

carbon method of stabilizing the grid and

convenience for organizations and power

standpoint.

accommodating peaks in demand quickly

providers alike.

arguments

What

will

for

then

adopting

be

ADR

required

is

an

choice when selecting an aggregator.

and

utility

effectively

companies

without

with

requiring

low-

high,

It provides utilities with a carbon-friendly

open, competitive market that provides

unnecessary investment.

and cost-effective means of stabilizing the

organizations with a straightforward method

The same, proven open standard system

grid and meeting future peak demand

of entry without being locked into a particular

provides participating organizations with

without the need for major investment. It

platform provider or aggregator or risking

new revenue streams and the ability to

also provides participating organizations

an investment in assets that may become

analyze and to enhance control of their

with near real-time energy use awareness

obsolete if the provider is changed.

energy usage.

and visualization, and gives them the ability

That market already exists, thanks to the

The challenges facing Europes energy

to reduce their kilowatt-hours by offering site

development of a de facto communication

infrastructure are signifcant, but thanks to

load fexibility.

standard for sharing demand response

OpenADR so are the opportunities to meet

information

and overcome them.

Participants also beneft from reducing

the

cloud-based

Open

their carbon footprint and will ultimately play

Automated Demand Response (OpenADR)

an important and integral part in the UKs

protocol, which is promoted by the OpenADR

Scott

decarbonization strategy.

Alliance and its almost 100 members. And

Development Director, Smart Grid Solutions,


Europe and North Africa

Clearly, there is signifcant potential for

that market continues to expand, thanks

Europes building owners to participate in

to the growing range of ADR-compliant

providing their fexible load to help manage

equipment being launched by a variety of

the electrical transmission and distribution

manufacturers.

58

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Petersen

is

Honeywells

Business

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

>>

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World Conference & Expo North America, POWER-GEN International Financial Forum and the GenForum converge in 2014 to form Power
Generation Week. Beneft from fve days packed with pre-conference workshops, technical tours, over 70 conference sessions, panel
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Power Perspectives: Pumped storage

No new grid-scale storage has been built in Britain since the 1.7 GW Dinorwig plant 30 years ago
Credit: Denis Egan

A closing window
of opportunity
Britain has a substantial gap between the storage it needs and the storage it can
call upon. Without concerted action that gap will widen and impact security of
supply and energy costs, writes Dave Holmes of Quarry Battery Company

ritains electricity grid currently

36 per cent or 41.7 GW of generation

days. No wind, coupled with clear skies and

fnds itself in an awkward place,

capacity by 2020. While thermal generation

low nighttime temperatures, would mean

due primarily to the oversight of

is consistent and generally predictable,

electricity demand for heating is very high

successive governments over the

renewables are neither.

right at the time when wind farms are unable

last 20 years.

As a result, the UKs system operator is

to generate any output.

Enthusiastic commitment to

facing an increasingly diffcult task balancing

Blackouts would be costly and hugely

bold carbon reduction targets has already

supply against demand. This volatility will only

damaging. Studies from the Department of

seen the closure of much of the existing large

increase as the percentage of renewables

Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and

coal and oil generation feet, with a further

grows, and there is a real risk of blackouts

energy regulator Ofgem estimate a cost of

21

decommissioned

unless more non-wind backup generation

17,000 ($29,000) for every MWh of lost load,

between 2011 and 2020. At the same

capacity is brought into play to replace

with an incident lasting an hour resulting in

time, and stimulated by highly attractive

decommissioned fossil fuel-powered stations.

680 million in lost economic activity. The role

The most likely conditions for blackouts are

of storage in such a volatile de-carbonized

that

during winter when high pressure weather

environment is both clear and well proven

wind and sun are likely to contribute

systems can sometimes sit over the UK for

in the UK and many other countries. Not only

GW

due

subsidies,
has

60

been

the

to

be

buildout

relentless

of

and

renewables
means

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Perspectives: Pumped storage

capacity should be around 4.8 GW, and that

Britains government
must do as others
around the world have
done and set a target
for the capacity of
storage required, and
by what date

we should plan to have deployed 9 GW of

can grid-scale storage help meet demand

Britain has a closing window of opportunity

peaks

around

in which to get building if spiralling energy

10 seconds, it can also absorb excess energy

costs, driven by constraint payments and grid

at times of glut, and hold it for later release

reinforcement costs, are to be avoided.

by

delivering

energy

in

storage by 2020. In other words, Britain already


has a substantial gap between the storage
it needs and the storage it can call upon.
Without concerted action that gap is set to
widen still further, with all that this implies for
security of supply and energy costs.
New pumped storage will take some
seven years from conception to operation, so

when it will be most useful either for quick

A study by the energy futures laboratory at

reaction, short-term balancing, or as a longer-

Imperial College London and the Carbon Trust

term measure to maintain supply.

predicted that, if Britain meets the challenge

The lower reservoir of the 600 MWh


Glyn Rhonwy pumped storage facility
Credit: Quarry Battery Company

Unaccountably, then, the provision of more

head on, by 2050 storage could be delivering

grid-scale storage to partner renewables has

10 billion ($16.8 billion) a year in value

been notably absent from UK government

and cutting 400 a year from household

This value chain dynamic has indeed

action since the nations frst commercial

electricity bills, all while delivering security of

proved to be the major obstacle to the

onshore wind farm was commissioned in

supply from a predominantly de-carbonized

building of new storage. Britains existing

1991 at Delabole in Cornwall. While other

system.

storage sites are unburdened by borrowing,


their original build cost long since discharged

countries have increased storage capacity


in line with the growth of renewables, the UK

Flexibility and security

has not.

National

to raise development and construction

This is particularly puzzling because, at

assessment of storage. In its paper Operating

funds in the open market and then service

an intellectual level, Britain gets it. Among

the Grid Beyond 2020, the system operator

the borrowings from trading in the system

informed

and

observed that large-scale pumped storage

operators

power industry circles there has long been

could provide fexibility and make a signifcant

investors have followed the money and

a consensus that the UKs renewables

contribution to security of supply. But, tellingly,

concluded the risk vs reward profle of such

programme needs to be partnered with the

it concluded that it was hard to see how the

an endeavour is not encouraging for all but

provision of more grid-scale storage.

investment required would work within the

a handful of the most favourable potential

current market framework.

storage construction sites in the UK.

This

understanding

has

inexplicably

too,

shares

and written down. New storage will have


positive

governmental, academic

Grid,

Balancing

Market.

Would-be

not been translated into action. No new

Just how much new storage the UK should

However, there are now encouraging

storage has been built since Dinorwig

build was looked at in an Imperial College

signs that the British government is beginning

(1.7 GW) began operating more than

and Carbon Trust study for the Department

to revisit the way this particular dynamic has,

30 years ago. Britains total storage capacity

of Energy and Climate Change (DECC).

until now, deterred developers from creating

all of it pumped hydro or pumped storage

It concluded that by 2030 the answer lies

the storage that is so desperately needed.

currently stands at just 2.8 GW.

somewhere between 4.1 and 14.8 GW. The

Storage will be able to participate in

While some emerging alternative storage

authors diffculty with arriving at a more

the Capacity Market, the new mechanism

technologies look promising, they are, even

defnitive recommendation was due to the

intended to encourage the buildout of a

by optimistic estimates, some years away

impossibility of predicting the impact of

modern reserve generation feet, and the

from being realizable on a scale useful to

potential changes in the energy market on

provision of other services such as demand-

the grid. Pumped storage therefore is the

the viability of new storage over time.

side response that are needed to replace

only currently viable and proven grid-scale

Put simply, if the overall cost per MW for

fexibility lost through the decommissioning

storage technology, and that is why it is being

electricity delivered by storage remains as

of old plant. The Capacity Market will allow

deployed so widely in countries with more

it was at the time the report was published,

storage to access more certain revenue

joined-up energy policies than the UK.

then

streams over and above those from trading

only

modest

buildout

of

new

The Portuguese scheme, The National

storage will be commercially viable. Britains

Programme of Hydroelectric Potential Dams,

storage gap will not be crossed. If, however,

This is a very signifcant step, but the

has calculated that the optimum balance for

substantive amendments are made to the

government needs to go further. It must foster

security and evenness of supply is 1 GW of

way value fows around and through storage,

belief. If investors are to be encouraged to get

storage for every 3.5 GW of renewables.

then the cost per MW will fall and a more

involved in what will inevitably be expensive

ambitious buildout of new storage feet can

and long-term projects, they will want to be

be contemplated.

confdent that the government is not about

Apply the same formula to Britain, and it


suggests that our existing 2.8 GW of storage

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

in the Balancing Market alone.

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

61

Power Perspectives: Pumped storage

Pumped storage
is the only currently
viable and proven
grid-scale storage
technology
Capacity Market recognizes that storage only
has a fnite amount of energy to deliver before
it must be recharged. Capacity Market rules
should not mean that storage operators are
compelled to hold back valuable balancing
services in the runup to a stress event in
order to avoid being fned for breaking their
Storage creates substantial externalized value that the current market structure is unable to reward
Credit: Emerson Process Management

obligations. If they do, the system operator will


be unable to call upon storage at the very
times when its highly fexible contribution

to change its mind and leave them high

charges are designed to penalize those

and dry. The UK must do as others have done

that overload the system and force costly

could have maximum benefcial impact.


There must be recognition too within the

and set a target for the capacity of storage

upgrades. Yet storage lessens the need for

Capacity Market that storage can do more

required, and by what date.

network reinforcement and reduces costs.

than simply generate a rated output of

move

Waiving these fees for storage would put right

energy. It can sit awaiting instructions, poised

would be a National Policy Statement on

a glaring inequality and help encourage

to deliver a burst of power, and it can absorb

storage, making explicit the importance the

more storage providers.

excess power. If the rules are set so that

further

confdence-building

government places on storage and charting

Triad payments currently made only

more clearly its route through the planning

to DNOs to encourage self-suffciency are

only energy generation at the nameplate


capacity

process.

another area of inequality that discourages

Capacity Market obligation, then storage will

qualifes

against

an

assets

And then we come to the value chain

new large scale storage. New generation

be unhelpfully penalized for the way National

dynamic surrounding storage. The Imperial

feet with an output of up to 100 MW

Grid will undoubtedly want to use it at times

College and Carbon Trust report states clearly

and in the context of Triad payments this

of system stress.

that storage creates substantial externalized

includes storage must be DNO connected.

At QBC we see signs that Britains storage

value that the current market structure is

It therefore receives a share of valuable

gap has been recognized by the government

unable to recognize and reward. Who are

Triad payments. However, feet over 100 MW

and that storage is now being given the

those who make no contribution to storage,

must be transmission network connected,

recognition it deserves.

but gain from the externalized benefts? They

meaning that by default it receives no share

effect of the actions we propose would be to

are principally the district network operators

of Triad payments. Just as DNO-connected

reduce the cost per kW per year of pumped

and National Grid.

storage would receive payment for improving

storage by around 70 per cent, repairing

More storage on the grid will mitigate the

a regions self-suffciency, should not grid-

the failed market and enabling investors,

peaks and troughs in supply and demand,

scale storage be rewarded for improving the

entrepreneurs and civil engineers to step up

making both the transmission and distribution

transmission network as a whole?

and deliver the grid-scale storage Britain so

The cumulative

elements of the electricity network more

The fact that storage is being encouraged

self-suffcient, and reducing the need for

to participate in the Capacity Market is to be

the costly reinforcement programme that

welcomed. But the creation of the Capacity

Dave

consumers are currently paying for.

Market gives DECC a real opportunity to go

Quarry Battery Company, Britains only active

further and make the full and unique benefts

developer of grid-scale pumped hydro.

In other words, as the market currently


operates, much of the fnancial beneft

Holmes is Managing Director of

of storage available to the system operator.

created by new storage will go to those

Storage is not demand-side response. Both

that shoulder none of the fnancial risk and

can play a useful role in mitigating demand

make no contribution to the construction or

peaks or supply troughs, but only storage

operation of new storage. This is an almost

can do it without asking people to turn the

textbook example of a broken market.

lights out or the air conditioning off. There is

So what can be done? At the moment,

a further crucial difference: only storage can

new storage must pay to connect to the

absorb excess power and release it later. This

distribution or transmission network, and

makes storage a versatile balancing tool for

then pay again to transmit energy. These

the system operator. It is to be hoped that the

62

desperately needs.

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Visit www.PowerEngineeringInt.com
for more information

Do you have a perspective on a


sector of the power industry that you
want to share with PEi readers?
If so, contact Senior Editor Kelvin Ross:
kelvinr@pennwell.com

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

9-11 JUNE 2015


AMSTERDAM RAI
AMSTERDAM
THE NETHERLANDS

SECURE POWER
FOR A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY

CALL FOR PAPERS


Submit an abstract for POWER-GEN Europe 2015
Abstract Submission Deadline: FRIDAY 10 OCTOBER 2014
POWER-GEN Europe, co-located with Renewable Energy World Europe features the industrys most comprehensive multitrack conferences, examining critical aspects of the power generation sector.
The Advisory Board of POWER-GEN Europe, the regions largest event dedicated to all aspects of power generation
business strategy and technology, is now accepting abstracts for the 2015 conference.
POWER-GEN Europes insightful, practical and thought-provoking multiple track conference sessions cover strategic and
technical topics and are conceived and designed by leading power industry practitioners with the aim of presenting only
new, relevant and valuable content.
If you have such a message, you are invited to submit an abstract and share your knowledge,
experience and ideas with your power industry peers.
A full listing of suggested conference topics and themes are listed under the CONFERENCE tab on www.powergeneurope.com
Abstracts focusing on emerging opportunities in the industry as well as the integration of renewable energy into the power system
are of particular interest.
For further information on the conference, please contact:
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E: emilyp@pennwell.com

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Diary
September
7EA Gas Turbine Operations and
Alarm Response
812 September 2014
Sarasota, Florida, US
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The Chilean International


Renewable Energy Congress
Santiago, Chile
910 September 2014
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WindEnergy Hamburg
2326 September
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43rd Turbomachinery & 30th Pump


Users Symposia
2326 September 2014
Houston, Texas, US
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& Energy Engineering
2627 September
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1012 September
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October
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69 October 2014
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2224 October 2014
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46 November 2014
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Power Engineering International July-August 2014

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Project Update
Cogen plant marks
milestones for
France and GE
A landfll gas-fueled power plant believed
to be the most powerful in France has been
inaugurated in Plessis-Gassot.
The opening also marks the frst time a
town in France has had a district heating
scheme fuelled by biogas.
The facility was developed by Volia
in co-operation with Dalkia and Clarke
Energy, and features 10 of GE Distributed
Powers Jenbacher gas engines to generate
renewable electricity and heat for residents
and businesses.
The new cogeneration plant replaces
a

smaller, less

effcient

steam

turbine-

boiler system. GE says it uses the landflls

hot water network. Installing GEs gas engines

installation of GEs Jenbacher Type 6 landfll

methane-rich biogas to generate enough

increased the power output of the landfll

gas engines in France. Karl Wetzlmayer,

renewable electricity to power more than

gas plant by 5 MW while also raising its

general manager for gas engines at GE Power

41,000 homes.

electrical effciency from 22 per cent to

& Water Distributed Power, said: As the largest

40 per cent.

landfll gas power plant in France and the

The electricity is sold to lectricit Rseau


Distribution France (ERDF) for use by residents
and businesses throughout the country.
In addition to electricity, the facility also
produces

30,000

MWh/year

of

thermal

The new plant consists of 10 Jenbacher

frst installation of our Type 6 technology for

units four 2.7 MW J620 gas engines, fve

landflls in France, this project demonstrates

containerized

how our fuel-fexible Jenbacher gas engines

1.1

MW

J416s

and

one

containerized 1 MW J320.

energy, which is feeding a new heating and

The

project

also

can provide more power with increased

represents

the

frst

effciency.

Metso wins waste-to-energy deal in UK


Finnish automation solutions company Metso

monitoring solution to predict mechanical

on Metsos experience in waste-to-energy

has signed a deal with Babcock & Wilcox

faults in critical machinery.

plants in the UK: Our Metso DNA automation

Vlund to supply automation for a waste-toenergy plant in the UK.

Neil

Buckland,

sales

director

of

UK

Automation for Metso, said the contract builds

system is installed in 6070 per cent of the UKs


energy-from-waste plants.

The new plant in Peterborough will be


operated and maintained by major European
waste management company Viridor and is
scheduled to be completed in 2015.
Denmark-headquartered

Babcock

& Wilcox Vlund is responsible for the


engineering, procurement and construction
of the plant, which will have a capacity of
7.25 MW and will handle approximately
85,000 tonnes of waste per year.
Metso will deliver a DNA automation
system, a DNA information management
system and a fully integrated DNA machine

66

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Project Update
Alstom hails HVDC
link as South Korean
milestone
Alstom Grid has completed a frst of its kind
400 MW high voltage direct current turnkey
project in South Korea.
The bi-directional transmission line links
Jindo and the island of Jeju and is the second

continuous innovation in high voltage energy

power supply due to the networks lack of

such project delivered by Alstom Grid in the

management.

effciency and low power capacity.

country following a 300 MW link between Jeru


and the mainland in 1997.
Patrick Plas, senior vice president of Power
Electronics & Automation for Alstom Grid,

The International Energy Agency ranks

Alstom said its HVDC technology is well-

South Korea eleventh worldwide in power

aligned with Koreas ambition for a low-carbon

consumption, yet it imports 82 per cent of the

economy and is essential to carrying large

total energy it consumes.

amounts of power across long distances, with

said: This second project, frst of its kind at a

Jeju Island is 100 km south of the mainland

power capacity of 400 MW in South Korea,

and is 73 km wide and 41 km long. It previously

The new HVDC link is designed to be bi-

demonstrates Alstoms effcient commissioning

operated on an independent electric network

directional so that renewable power on Jeju

management,

and suffered frequent blackouts and unstable

Island will be integrated for mainland use.

and

commitment

to

minimal losses.

Noja Power plays part in World Cup energy team


Australian company Noja Power provided

of electricity supply. One ACR is ftted to the

several stadiums in Belo Horizonte which were

technology at many of the venues for Junes

stadiums primary feeder with an additional

used as training camps for the teams from

FIFA World Cup in Brazil.

unit on a secondary feeder. In the event of

Argentina, Uruguay and Chile.

The electrical switchgear frm has supplied

a problem with the primary feeder, the ACR

Bruno Kimura, managing director of Noja

its OSM series automatic circuit reclosers

opens to isolate the line, while the second

Power Brazil, said: The 2014 FIFA World Cup

(ACR) at several stadiums.

unit automatically closes to activate the

and the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de

secondary feeder to supply stadium power

Janeiro will focus the eyes of the globe on

while the primary line is repaired.

our country. It is therefore very important that

The OSM15 ACRs were installed in Castelo


Stadium which hosted six of the tournaments
games.

OSM15 ACRs were also installed this year to

the facilities for these events are seen to be

The ACRs, which have a maximum rated

provide overcurrent protection for the training

world-class. Im pleased that Noja Power Brazil

voltage of 15.5 kV and a rated continuous

centre of the Italian team in Mangaratiba,

is performing an important part in this respect

current of 800 A, are used in an auto change

near Rio de Janeiro, while OSM27 ACRs

by providing the equipment that will help

over (ACO) confguration to ensure continuity

provided overcurrent protection for feeders of

ensure reliable electricity supplies.

Senvion installs Nordsee Ost wind turbines


Suzlon Group subsidiary Senvion has installed

largest commercial wind power projects off

the frst offshore turbines for the Nordsee Ost

the German coast.

offshore wind farm.

Senvion is supplying all components for

The RWE project is located approximately

the wind turbines and the service platform

35 km from the island of Heligoland off

cranes. The hubs, rotor blades, nacelles,

Germany and is equipped with a total of

towers and other platform components are

48 turbines, each rated at 6.15 MW.

being preassembled as much as possible

After its completion in 2015, Nordsee

in a harbour at Bremerhaven and are then

Ost will have an installed capacity of

loaded onto special ships to be transported

approximately 295 MW, making it one of the

to the wind farm.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

67

Project Update
Nordex seals trio of Turkish wind orders
German

has

wind farm for Yeni Enerji; and two N117/2400

clinched three orders for for a total of 44.4 MW

windpower

group

Nordex

turbines for the Pitane wind farm in Izmir for

in Turkey.

Bicakcilar Enerji.

The company has said that because much


of the equipment will be manufactured locally,
it will qualify for higher feed-in tariffs (FiTs).

The towers and some rotor blades are

Under the terms of the three orders,

being sourced locally, which means all three

Nordex will supply six Generation Delta

projects will be eligible for higher FiTs, because

N117/3000 turbines at the Urla wind farm

if blades and towers are manufactured in

in Izmir for Sancak Enerji; nine Generation

Turkey the FiT of $7.3 cents per kWh is topped

Gamma N117/2400 turbines at the Yenihisar

up with an additional $1.4 cents per kWh.

Doosan Heavy hails Rabigh safety milestone


Doosan Heavy Industries & Constructions

workforce employed and the equipment and

construction offce on the site of the Rabigh

facilities involved.

2 power plant in Saudi Arabia has achieved


40 million hours of accident-free operations.

Nordex plans to start all three projects


between spring and summer 2015.

Zimbabwe swaps
Chinese frms for
$1.3bn coal plant

To mitigate these risks, Doosan Heavy has


implemented a series of Environment, Health

Zimbabwe has awarded a $1.3bn power

Doosan Heavy says that the milestone

& Safety (EHS) programmes that focus on

project contract to a Chinese frm after

reinforces the companys commitment to

providing workers with hands-on experience

cancelling a previous contract, the energy

outstanding safety performance across its

and help different cultures work together in a

ministry has announced.

power plant construction operations.

safe environment. The programme includes

The contract to add two 300 MW units to

The Rabigh 2 project, awarded to Doosan

training workers for real accident situations;

the 900 MW coal-fred Hwange power station

Heavy in 2010, involves the construction of a

the operation of a daily safety patrol system;

in northwestern Zimbabwe was frst awarded

2100 MW combined-cycle, gas-fred plant,

and awards for exemplary workers.

to China Machinery Engineering Company

which is expected to be completed in 2017.

Meanwhile, Foster

Wheeler

has

won

(CMEC) in mid-2013, but the company failed

The project calls for the simultaneous

a contract to design and supply six heat

to meet a design and construction timeline,

construction of four plants, with around

recovery steam generators (HRSGs) for Rabigh

the government said.

15,000 workers from 37 countries deployed

2.The deal was clinched by BHI, a licensee of

CMEC failed to conclude the contract

daily, which Doosan says makes the safety

Foster Wheelers global power group, and the

within the stipulated time frame that they

record all the more signifcant. All four plants

six HRSGs will be coupled to six SGT6-5000F

had agreed upon with the Zimbabwe Power

are currently operating to test output.

Siemens gas turbines fring natural gas and oil.

Company and the government of Zimbabwe,

Doosan said: Power plants entail a higher

Woo Jong-Ihn, president of BHI, said: We

hence the tender was cancelled, said energy

risk of industrial accident than conventional

have executed a number of key projects in

and power development minister Dzikamai

construction projects due to a number of

the Middle East and this award reinforces our

Mavhaire.

factors, including the cultural diversity of the

position as a leading supplier in the region.

The contract has now been awarded to


the second-highest bidder in the tendering
process, Chinese EPC frm SinoHydro.
Zimbabwean

paper

NewsDay

said

CMEC was awarded the contract under


controversial circumstances

during

the

previous energy ministers tenure.


According to the paper, CMECs bid was
over $300m more than SinoHydros, which
came in at $990m.
The Hwange plant currently operates at
63 per cent of its installed capacity.

68

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Technology Update
GE talks fexibility and effciency at UK forum
Old Trafford, the UK home of Manchester United

as engineers, arming those people with the

if a customer has high dynamics in their

football team, was the venue for General

analytical tools to come up with the best

combustion and lets say they dont have auto

Electric

solutions.

tune, we can identify the high dynamics, tell

Power

and Waters

FlexEffciency

Forum, aimed at getting the most out of gas

The thing we can do for power plants is,

the customer what the impact is, and remotely

we can help a plant maintain its maximum

re-tune the machine to keep the dynamics in

GE chiefs used the event to demonstrate to

performance across the entire power plant

check.

UK-based gas-fred power sector personnel the

the scheme cycle, the gas cycle, all of the

benefts of harnessing the companys big data

components.

turbine technology, writes Diarmaid Williams.

AGP technology also enables GE customers


to beneft from lower fuel consumption, and

and analytics resources, GEs 9E Advanced

We have the analytics to calculate that

the industrys longest gas path maintenance

Gas Path (AGP) and 9F-3 Advanced Gas Path

corrective to standard conditions and track

interval that extend gas turbine assets and

(AGP) upgrade solutions.

degradation and then remotely monitor it and

parts life.

The focus of the technology is on helping


plant

owners

demands

more

fulfl

burgeoning

fexibly,

effciently,

engage experts when theyre needed. Then

The AGP solution exemplifes GEs Power

power

we can combine that with the on-site services

LifeMax, a portfolio of hardware- and software-

and

of testing and evaluation, full plant level, not

blended solutions that enables customers

just the gas part of it.

to improve the performance and long-term

while maintaining a low emissions footprint.


Ultimately the technology is about bringing

For reliability its very similar. GE works

more predictability and sustainability to power

with its clients and facilitates their objectives

generation operations.

through harnessing data-driven insights from

Among the benefts of using the technology

100+ million hours of operating data on what

are a 2 per cent increase in output combined

is the worlds largest gas turbine feet.

cycle, a 2 per cent increase in fuel effciency

Predictability is highly sought after for


power plant owners and management, and

value of their existing B/E-Class gas turbine


assets.

that ability to forecast costly issues is key

We monitor about a thousand signals

for combined-cycle and up to 32,000-hour or

to the product. The company has invested

from each machine and those also go to our

1200-start gas path maintenance intervals,

signifcantly in a software centre of excellence

remote monitoring centre. We have algorithms

which can extend outage intervals up to

in Silicon Valley which has as its aim

we use to look for issues and we contact

33 per cent. There is also the potential to

an imperative for power plant owners: having

customers when we fnd issues. We combine

extend gas turbine assets and parts life out to

planned rather than unplanned outages,

that with inspection data. For example,

as much as 96,000 hours.

giving them the ability to see failures on


the horizon before system failures actually
arise.
Explaining the technology in terms of
asset management and asset optimization,
Eric Kauffman, Director of Product Strategy,
Software & Analytics at GE Power Generation,
provided a football analogy to bring home
the qualities of the product in maintaining
performance.
Inspired by the Old Trafford backdrop
to the event, Kauffman said that what GE
is doing is similar to the practice of teams
using saliva tests on players after games or
training to determine nutritional needs so that
each player gets a custom energy drink and
is then ready for the next game as quickly as
possible.
When we talk about predictivity we
are talking about getting information from
instrumented machines with lots of data
coming from that, giving that to experts such

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

6969

Technology Update
GEs OpFlex corrected parameter control

In terms of successful deployment, Dubai


(DUBAL), one

of

the

worlds

will translate to nearly 18 MW of additional

software suite can further improve AGP

Aluminium

performance. For example, it can lead to

largest producers of aluminium products,

power across all three gas turbines.


At the launch, International Energy Agency

up to an 8 per cent increase in output with

has experienced a 3.4 per cent output

head of gas, coal and power, Laszlo Varro,

<25 ppm NOx.

increase and a 1.5 per cent fuel effciency

said that there was much to be positive about

It can also enable power to be delivered

improvement on one GE 9E gas turbine since

for UK gas-fred power providers, and pointed

to the grid in less than 10 minutes and allow

installing the AGP solution. These performance

to the expense and environmental pitfalls of

turndown to as low as 50 per cent.

improvements have delivered nearly an

competing means of power generation.

In developing the product, the company

additional 6 MW of power to the sites power

If UK energy policy succeeds, there could

leveraged more than 30 million hours of feet

station, and enabled DUBAL to reduce its fuel

be problems for gas-fred power. The business

operational experience in applying design

costs.

case for gas is less strong if policy is successful.

innovations to key gas turbine components,

DUBAL is to install AGP technology on two

However, no nuclear power build has ever

including hot gas path buckets, nozzles and

additional GE 9E units, and expects to gain

been on time. ... Also, the reason lignite coal is

shrouds.

comparable performance improvements that

dirt cheap is because it is dirt.

Tidal Energy unveils DeltaStream generator


Tidal Energy has unveiled its DeltaStream Tidal

the device to the seabed. By providing a

of the triangular main base. An automated

Energy Generator in Ramsey Sound, Wales, UK.

gravity foundation for three nacelles, this

hydraulic yaw mechanism for each nacelle

DeltaStream is designed to generate power

system reduces the high installation and

controls the orientation of the water turbine

over the widest possible variation of tidal water

maintenance costs traditionally associated

generators in relation to the direction of

fows, the company said. The device will now

with marine renewable technology.

the tidal fow. DeltaStream units connect to

be deployed for a 12-month testing period.

independent

shore through an export submarine power

steel

horizontal axis water turbine generator in each

cable. Power conditioning equipment for grid

main base frame with Rock Feet to secure

nacelle, supported on a tower at the apexes

connection is located onshore.

The

unit

includes

triangular

The

unit

features

an

Areva to launch fuel assembly design in US


Six US nuclear utilities have established a

needs of nuclear utilities, the Gaia fuel

technical advisory board for the deployment

assembly is focused on ensuring the safety

Gaias fuel design provides utilities cost

of Gaia, Arevas next generation pressurized

and robustness of nuclear fuel operations,said

savings through its high mechanical fretting

water reactor fuel assembly design.

Guillaume Dureau, senior executive vice

resistance, better thermal performance and

president of Arevas Front End Business Group.

increased tolerance to earthquakes, Areva

As part of this programme, one of the


utilities will operate a set of eight lead test
assemblies starting in spring 2015.
Developed to meet the ever-increasing

Successfully

used

the

said. The design also features advanced

Ringhals power plant in Sweden, Gaia offers

cladding designed to meet anticipated

customers

changes in US regulatory requirements.

optimal

in

2012

performance

in

high burn-up capability, he added.

and

Chinese nuclear pump accolade for SPX and ClydeUnion


SPX Flow Power & Energy ClydeUnion Pumps

The award is specifc to the supply of pumps

business development at SPX, said: This is a

manufacturing facilities in Glasgow and

to the nuclear industry in China and refects

huge honour for SPX. It is affrmation of the

Annecy, Scotland, have been awarded A

a longstanding relationship between the

quality of engineering, manufacturing and

Grade supplier designation by China Nuclear

companies, during which they have delivered

customer service we offer from our Glasgow

Power Engineering Company (CNPEC) in

146 pumps for nuclear applications to CNPEC

and Annecy facilities.

recognition of their high quality design,

in China since 2006.

manufacturing, service and support.


CNPEC is one of three frms in China

An A grading signifes an excellent


supplier.

licensed to construct nuclear power stations.

70

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

Colin Elcoate, vice-president of power

It also shows the high standard of service


and support our teams in Glasgow, Annecy
and China have provided to CNPEC, of which
we are very proud.

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

20

14

12-14 October 2014


Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre
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Technology Update
EEMUA publishes latest safety handbook
The Engineering Equipment and Materials

EEMUA 186 offers guidance for improving

Users Association (EEMUA) has published

safety in potentially explosive atmospheres,

explosive atmospheres by checking both the

the sixth edition of EEMUA Publication 186,

including power plants, and more, when the

underpinning knowledge and practical skills

failure to adopt safe working practices could

and attributes of candidates.

practitioners

handbook

for

explosive

atmospheres.
This latest edition provides a signifcant

result in the ignition of fammable gases or


combustible dust.

update on previous editions, and includes

the

design engineering considerations.

core

CompEx

scheme

competency

hazardous,

fammable

or

EEMUA Publication 186 is available to


purchase directly from EEMUA through its

EEMUA 186 is closely associated with

new chapters on mechanical and application

potentially

for

which
safe

determines
working

in

online shop at www.eemua.org. Alternatively


orders

can

be

placed

by

emailing

sales@eemua.org

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72

Power Engineering International July-August 2014

www.PowerEngineeringInt.com

#POWERBRASIL

S O PA U L O , B R A S I L / T R A N S A M E R I C A E X P O C E N T E R

WWW.POWERBRASILEVENTS.COM

A LOOK AT THE POTEN TI AL OF TH E BR AZI L I AN E L E CTR I C POW E R M AR K E T

BILLION
US
DOLLARS

IN REQUIRED
INVESTMENTS

ELECTRICITY
CONSUMPTION
CONSUMPTIO
GROWTH
520 TWh
TO 785.1TWh
AVERAGING 4.7%
INCREASE / YEAR

NUCLEAR
POWER
PLANT

x2

BILLION US
DOLLARS

TO BE SPENT IN
SUBSTATION GROWTH

to

TO BE SPENT IN
TRANSMISSION
LINES
GROWTH

(>50MW) UNDER
FEASIBILITY STUDIES WITH
AN EXPECTED TOTAL
OF 6.9 GW

BILLION
US
DOLLARS

MVA JUMP IN
TRANSFORMATION
CAPACITY

KM OF NEW
LINE BY 2022

RENEWABLES
EXPECTING

AVERAGE INCREAS
IN WIND, BIOMASS,

HYDRO
POWER
PROJECTS

53.5 TWh TO
115 TWh

UNDER CONSTRUCTION
WITH A TOTAL OF 3.8 GW

WIND POWER,
BIOMASS
AND SMALL
HYDRO PLANT
GENERATION
WILL JUMP FROM

FOR CONSTRUCTION
WITH A TOTAL
OF 39.4 GW

on-site
generation
will more than

119.5 GW TO 183.1GW
AVERAGING >4.2%
INCREASE / YEAR

NEW THERMAL
POWER PLANTS

UNDER
CONSTRUCTION
WITH 1.4 GW

NEW
HYDROPOWER
PLANTS

EXPECTED GROWTH FOR


ELECTRICAL ENERGY
GENERATION

FROM 249,600 MVA TO352,800 MVA


Source: Epe (Empressa
De Planejamento
Energetico Company)
Pde 2022 10-Year Plan Published Dec 2013

FROM 51,500 TO
155,500 KM

increase in % of total energy portfolio

SMALL HYDRO (<50 MW) GROWTH

GLOBAL P ER SP E C T I V E

TOTA L GTD COV E RAGE

TE CHNICA L M E ET S CO MMERCIAL

JUST CONFERENCE

In 2013,

INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONS
FOR BRAZILIAN UTILITIES.

51

collaborate and
discuss the future of
the Brazilian electric

NATIONS power industry.

Owned & Produced by:

PROGRAMS,

came together to

Offcial Endorsement by:

- Conventional & Renewable Power Generation


- Hydropower Generation
- Transmission & Distribution

weve included a
world-class exhibition
- allowing utilities the
chance to talk directly
with suppliers.

Supporting Associations:

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