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Joints trajectory planning. Robotics.

Joints trajectory planning. Robotics.

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Trajectory planning

Prof. Alessandro De Luca

Robotics 1

functional robot units

environment

external sensors

task planner*

trajectory planner*

* = programming points

as a sequence of poses

or configurations

(with possible exchange

of contact forces)

Robotics 1

control*

robot

internal sensors

TRAJECTORY

PLANNER

reference profile/values

(continuous or discrete)

for the robot controller

Trajectory definition

1. define Cartesian pose points (position+orientation) using the teach-box

2. program an (average) velocity between these points, as a 0-100% of a

maximum system value (different for Cartesian- and joint-space motion)

3. linear interpolation in the joint space between points sampled from the

built trajectory

examples of additional features

. .B

D.

.C

a) over-fly A

b) sensor-driven STOP

c) circular path

through 3 points

main drawbacks

limited visualization of motion

a mathematical formalization of trajectories is useful/needed

Robotics 1

of motion pd(t)

TRAJECTORY

= +

of interaction Fd(t)

GEOMETRIC PATH

parameterized by s: p=p(s)

(e.g., s is the arc length)

p(s(t))

TIMING LAW

.

A

PATH

B

0

px(s)

p(s) = py(s)

pz(s)

.

t

TIME

PARAMETER smax

TRAJECTORY planner generates p(t)

Robotics 1

Trajectory planning

operative sequence

analytic

inversion

TASK planning

1

sequence of pose points (knots) in Cartesian space

interpolation in Cartesian space

Cartesian geometric path (position + orientation): p = p(s)

path sampling and kinematic inversion

2

sequence of knots in joint space

interpolation in joint space

geometric path in joint space: q = q()

obstacle avoidance

on-line/off-line computational load

sequence 2 is more dense than 1

Robotics 1

Example

.. ...... ..

...... .. ..

q1()

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

..

..

..

.

....... . . ..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

q1

q2

p(s)

q2()

q3

q3()

A

Cartesian space

Robotics 1

joint space

6

Robotics 1

obstacle avoidance, lack of wandering

. ..

q e q (or higher-order derivatives) may also be needed

Cartesian task specifications involve the geometric path,

but also bounds on the associated timing law

for redundant robots, choice among n-m inverse solutions,

based on optimality criteria or additional auxiliary tasks

off-line planning in advance is not always feasible

e.g., when interaction with the environment occurs or

sensor-based motion is needed

7

the choice of a timing law

p = p(s)

s = s(t)

(Cartesian space)

q = q() = (t)

(joint space)

if s(t) = t, path parameterization is the natural one given by time

constant velocity, and so on)

may consider optimality criteria (min transfer time, min energy,)

constraints are imposed by actuator capabilities (max torque, max

velocity,) and/or by the task (e.g., max acceleration on payload)

e.g., in Cartesian

space

Robotics 1

p(t) =

dp .

s

ds

..

p(t) =

dp ..

d2p .2

s+

s

ds

ds2

8

Trajectory classification

space of definition

task type

timing law

concatenated

path geometry

Cartesian, joint

coordinated or independent

or

Robotics 1

ends at the same instants (say, t=0 and t=T) = single timing law

motions are timed independently (according to the requested

displacement and robot capabilities) mostly only in joint space

9

Relevant characteristics

accuracy (vs. overshoot on final position)

flexibility (allowing concatenation, over-fly, )

continuity

da

(at least C1, but also up to jerk =

)

dt

Robotics 1

10

specified boundary conditions in a given class of functions

typical classes: polynomials (cubic, quintic,), (co)sinusoids,

clothoids,

imposed conditions

directly applied also to Cartesian trajectory planning (and vice versa)!

Robotics 1

11

Cubic polynomial

q(0) = qin q(T) = qfin

.

.

q(0) = vin q(T) = vfin

4 conditions

q = qfin - qin

q() = qin + q [a 3 + b 2 + c + d]

4 coefficients

= t/T, [0, 1]

doubly normalized polynomial qN()

qN(0) = 0 d = 0

qN(0) = dqN/d|=0 = c = vinT/q

special case: vin = vfin

qN(1) = 1 a + b + c = 1

qN(1) = dqN/d|=1 = 3a + 2b + c

= vfinT/q

= 0 (rest-to-rest)

qN(0) = 0 c = 0

qN(1) = 1 a + b = 1

qN(1) = 0 3a + 2b = 0

Robotics 1

a=-2

b=3

12

Quintic polynomial

q() = a 5 + b 4 + c 3 + d 2 + e + f

6 coefficients

= t/T, [0, 1]

allows to satisfy 6 conditions, for example (in normalized time )

q(0) = q0 q(1) = q1

+ 3 [q1 + (3q1 -v1T)(1- ) + (a1T2 -6v1T+12q1) (1 - )2/2]

special case: v0 = v1 = a0 = a1 = 0

q() = q0 + q [6 5 - 15 4 + 10 3]

Robotics 1

q = q1 - q0

13

4-3-4 polynomials

qf

q2

q1

q0

.

.

t0

initial

t1

t2

depart

approach

tf

qT(t) = 3rd order polynomial

qS(t) = 4th order polynomial

14 coefficients

final

boundary conditions

q(t0) = q0 q(t1-) = q(t1+) = q1

.

.

q(t0) = q(tf) = 0

. . +

q(ti ) = q(ti )

Robotics 1

6 passages

q(t2-) = q(t2+) = q2 q(tf) = qf

..

..

4 initial/final

q(t0) = q(tf) = 0

velocity/acceleration

.. .. +

4 continuity

q(ti ) = q(ti ) i = 1,2

14

Higher-order polynomials

conditions (in a PTP motion) that impose zero values on

higher-order derivatives

the coefficients of such (doubly normalized) polynomial are always

integers, alternate in sign, sum up to unity, and are zero for all

terms up to the power = (degree-1)/2

points), their use is not recommended

Robotics 1

oscillations arise out of the interpolation points (wandering)

15

Numerical examples

9th

degree

4 derivatives

are zero

14 derivatives

are zero!

2.5

Robotics 1

normalized

velocity

29th

degree

no

overshoot

nor

wandering

4.5!!

velocity

peaking

at midpoint

16

problem

interpolate N knots, with continuity up to the second derivative

solution

spline: N-1 cubic polynomials, concatenated so as to pass through N

knots and being continuous in velocity and acceleration in the N-2

internal knots

4(N-1) coefficients

4(N-1)-2 conditions, or

2(N-1) of passage (for each cubic, in the two knots at its ends)

N-2 of continuity for velocity (at the internal knots)

N-2 of continuity for acceleration (at the internal knots)

Robotics 1

17

Building a spline

q = (t) = {K(t), t [tk, tk + hk]}

q(t)

q1

v1

t1

qk

t2

tk

q2

qk+1

tk+1

qN-1

vN

qN

tN-1

tN

time intervals hk

continuity conditions

for velocity and acceleration

Robotics 1

.

.

K(hk) = K+1(0)

k = 1, , N-2

..

..

K(hk) = K+1(0)

18

An efficient algorithm

1. if all velocities vk at internal knots were known, then each cubic in the spline

would be uniquely determined by

K(0) = qK = aK0

K(0) = vK = aK1

hK2

hK3

aK2

2hK

3hK2

aK3

qK+1 - qK - vK hK

vK+1 - vK

..

..

K(hk) = 2 aK2 + 6 aK3 hK = K+1(0) = 2 aK+1,2

3. expressing the coefficients ak2, ak3, ak+1,2 in terms of the still unknown knot

velocities (see step 1.) yields a linear system of equations that is always (easily)

solvable

A(h)

tri-diagonal matrix

always invertible

Robotics 1

v2

v3

:

vN-1

unknown

b(h,q,v1,vN)

known vector

19

Structure of A(h)

2(h1+h2)

h3

h1

2(h2+h3)

h2

...

hN-2

2(hN-3+hN-2)

hN-1

hN-3

2(hN-2+hN-1)

[the same matrix for all joints]

Robotics 1

20

Structure of b(h,q,v1,vN)

3

[h12(q3 - q2) + h22(q2 - q1)] - h2v1

h1h2

hN-3hN-2

3

[h22(q4 - q3) + h32(q3 - q2)]

h2h3

3

[hN-22(qN - qN-1) + hN-12(qN-1 - qN-2)] - hN-2vN

hN-2hN-1

Robotics 1

21

Properties of splines

interpolating functions having continuous second derivative

a spline is uniquely determined from the set of data q1,,qN,

h1,,hN-1, v1, vN

the total transfer time is T =

objective function) under (nonlinear) bounds on velocity and

acceleration in [0,T]

for cyclic tasks (q1=qN), it is preferable to simply impose continuity of

velocity and acceleration at t1=tN as the squaring conditions

hk = tN - t1

in this way, the first=last knot will be handled as all other internal knots

when initial and final accelerations are also assigned, the spline

construction can be suitably modified

Robotics 1

22

A modification

the initial acceleration 1 and final acceleration N

two fictitious knots are inserted in the first and last

original intervals, increasing the number of cubic

polynomials from N-1 to N+1

in these two knots only continuity conditions on position,

velocity and acceleration are imposed

two free parameters are left over (one in the first

cubic and the other in the last cubic), which are used to

satisfy the boundary conditions on acceleration

depending on the (time) placement of the two additional

knots, the resulting spline changes

Robotics 1

23

A numerical example

at t1 = 0, t2 = 2, t3 = 3, t4 = 5 (thus, h1 = 2, h2 = 1, h3 = 2)

boundary velocities v1 = v4 = 0

boundary accelerations 1 = 4 = 0

two placements: at t1 = 0.5 and t4 = 4.5 (), or t1 = 1.5 and t4 = 3.5 ()

= placement

Robotics 1

= placement

24

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