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Final Project

SEEKING
VALIDITY:
A NEW MODEL FOR CONNECTING THE
STARTUP AND DESIGN COMMUNITIES.
BY: J. SPINKS

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE DESIGN MANAGEMENT


PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
SAVANNAH COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN
SAVANNAH, GA
MARCH 2014

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: SEEKING VALIDITY

Contents
INTRODUCTION
Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

FRAMING
Title of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subject of Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Audience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Significance of Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6
6
6
6
7
7
7

POSITIONING
Market Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Project Positioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS







Research Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Collection Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research Synthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research Findings at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
28
28
29
39
61

DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES, DESIGN CRITERIA


& REFRAMING
Opportunities for Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Communication & Design Criteria for Prototype. . . . . 65
Reframing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING


Prototype Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploration of Diverse Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chosen Concept Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concept Testing with Target Audience . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concept Testing Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69
71
77
84
85
86

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET


Final Prototype. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Business Model Canvas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS


Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

REFERENCES
Annotated Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

APPENDICES












Appendix A: Project Roadmap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Appendix B: Creative Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C: Target Audience Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix D: Research Planning Matrix. . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix E: Survey Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix F: Interview Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix G: Business Model Canvas SWOT. . . . . . .
Appendix H: LaunchHour Detailed Design . . . . . . . .
Appendix I: Working Walls in Progress. . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix J: Consent Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix K: Synthesis Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix L: Literary Concept Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix M: List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118
119
121
122
124
126
128
138
140
146
148
149
150

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: INTRODUCTION

Abstract
A CASE STUDY OF STARTUP & DESIGN CULTURE
The purpose of this case study is to explore the values, beliefs and attitudes of the startup
and design communities to create a new model for interaction that supports connection,
collaboration and shared value creation.
Primary research, conducted in the Columbus, Ohio, area during January and February
2014, includes an online survey as well as open-ended and semistructured interviews with
representatives of each community. Secondary sources include peer-reviewed academic
papers and popular books relevant to establishing current theoretical and methodological
practice in startups and design.
Data analysis and synthesis of findings revealed areas of convergence and divergence in
values and practice related to the quality of, and approach to, work, the type of learning
sought from these activities, how each community relates to the management of capital,
costs and equity, insights into the beliefs and attitudes that motivate behavior and
opportunities for learning and collaboration.

This resulted in the exploration of an event concept designed to create a low-barrier-toentry experience for designers and entrepreneurs that would facilitate creation of shared
understanding between these communities, offer networking as a value add, and act as
a forum for advancing knowledge around the value of design and design thinking in early
stage startups.
From this, we conclude that there is potential to make meaning by engaging a young
generation of entrepreneurs and exposing them to the value of design and design thinking as
an innovative way to change the fundamental relationship between design and business in
the future.
It is recommended that both communities work collaboratively to create lean design practice
that supports validated learning, new shared-value models that create equity for designers
as integral to entrepreneurship, and methods for advancing and disseminating this learning
as a means of driving startup success by leveraging design as the competitive advantage.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FRAMING

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FRAMING

Overview
TITLE OF PROJECT

SUBJECT OF STUDY

Seeking Validity: A new model for connecting the startup and design communities.

Groups like Startup Weekend facilitate multi-disciplinary collaboration, but many startups still fail. Could
engagement with the design community and design managers positively influence this trend?

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The idea for exploring this problem arose from personal experiencean inability to engage a group I
worked with at Startup Weekend to continue pursuing a promising project with an interested market.
While at SW, I witnessed a disproportionate number of tech and business people to designersa ratio
of approximately 3:1. Conversations revealed that the startup community may have a challenge engaging
designers, and virtually no one seemed to know what design thinking or design management is.
After thinking about this challenge, a connection was made to a recurring theme in design thinking and
business books: Everyone is saying design is the competitive advantage, but how are we moving this
theoretical advantage forward? In startup terms, we need to figure out how to ship.
As a culture, we idolize Apple as the paragon of design. Business leaders such as A.G. Lafley are
interviewed, studied and praised ad nauseamwere enamored with these outliers, but too many
business people simply dont understand design or design thinking. As a discipline, we simply dont have
the numbers to change this.1 We need an ally.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to engage the startup community, contribute to mutual learning,
facilitate connection back to the design community and raise the profile of the design management
discipline as an essential partner in developing innovation. If the concept is successful, then there will
be greater collaboration between the design community, design managers and startups. There will also
be a broader understanding in the startup community of design thinking and how it can contribute to the
success of startups in the future.
1 See Chapter 5 of Martins The Design of Business (2009), showing that American schools produce about 1,000 MFAs versus 140,000 MBAs annually.

TARGET AUDIENCE
Four groups were identified as target audiences for this case study. These have been named Established
Entrepreneurs, Seasoned Creatives, Startup Leaders and Designers.
Established Entrepreneurs are successful leaders of several startups (founders or partners), viewed as
mentors, team builders and experts in lean startup practice. They understand the culture, how to connect
people and how to invest. A diverse set of experiences and backgrounds inform their approach.
Seasoned Creatives posses a deep understanding of agencies within the brand, strategy, advertising
or design space. They are viewed as mentors, team leaders and experts in design and strategy. They
understand design thinking, process and implementation in order to create competitive advantage.
Startup Leaders may have started and failed in one or a few startups. They are entrepreneurs, learning
how to assemble a team and manage a business. They may or may not be familiar with lean startup
practice. Focus is likely on a particular user or customer segment, product development and how to secure
investment. This group has a limited experience and is seeking growth through their approach.
Designers likely work in a studio or agency, carry titles like designer and art director, or may be a
freelancer. They understand design from a functional viewpoint, and have practical expertise and skills to
support the creative process. This group is developing, or has developed, specific expertise in a narrow
domain and has a background and eduction in design, which informs their approach.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FRAMING

Overview
PURPOSE (FOCUS)

SIGNIFICANCE TO DESIGN MANAGER

The focus area is how the startup and design communities in central Ohio currently function in relation to
one another, and how through the process of research, analysis and synthesis, insights can be gained and
opportunities identified for creating a new model of interaction.

This study prepares me as a design manager for next steps by utilizing all of the skills developed across
the courses in the design management program and applying them in a real-world context. It has allowed
me to stretch my skills in planning research thus far and has facilitated network building within a new
community. I hope the result will be new expertise, and an opportunity for cross-disciplinary learning and
collaboration in the future.

SCOPE
The scope of the project is roughly defined as engagement with active members of the Columbus, Dayton
and Cleveland startup communities and the Columbus design community. The time frame for the project is
January 6 through March 13, 2014.
The startup community includes members of several startups, representatives of The Ohio State
Universitys Technology Commercialization and Knowledge Transfer Center, TECH Columbus and a
representative of the Columbus District SBA.
The design community includes members of the Columbus Society of Communicating Arts (CSCA), working
design professionals and members of The Ohio State Universitys Department of Design.

HUNT STATEMENT
I am going to research the startup and design communities so that I can learn how to create a new model
of collaboration.

SIGNIFICANCE TO DESIGN MANAGEMENT


This project has the potential to benefit two multi-disciplinary groups that are active within the Columbus
business community, and further the reach of the design management discipline into both. The bigger
picture benefit, and where I see an opportunity to make meaning, is in engaging a young generation of
entrepreneurs and exposing them to the value of design and design thinking as an innovative way to
change the fundamental relationship between design and business in the future (longer term).

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

POSITIONING

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Market Analysis: Opportunity Statement


DEFINING THE OPPORTUNITY
An opportunity exists to conduct research within the startup
community in the Columbus and central Ohio markets, as well as
within the design community. By employing design thinking and
management process to identify potential opportunities, a new model
for engagement is sought.
This study can contribute to the field of design and design
management in two ways:
> Act as a road map for entrepreneurs and designers in how to
effectively engage one another.
> Raise awareness of the discipline of design management and its
ability to drive innovation and competitive advantage.
Big picture benefit: An opportunity to make meaning by engaging a
young generation of entrepreneurs and exposing them to the value
of design and design thinking as an innovative way to change the
fundamental relationship between design and business in the future
(longer term).

Seek validity, all things


are seldom equal.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: ccad.edu/#mm

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Connecting design students with entrepreneurs


Educating students in startup practice
Providing a forum for discussions on creativity
and business

Teachers
Students
Entrepreneurs

Collaborative environment
Multi-pronged approach combines design,
ideation and enterprise

What is their networks value?

What categories do they fall into?

What can they teach us for our network?

CCADs Mind Market is currently being revamped


under the direction of a new chairperson. In the past
it was comprised of three elements: The Design Lab,
The Incubator and The Thought Lab.
The Design Lab offered design charettes, 16week class projects and partnerships with local
businesses.
The Incubator existed to provide mentorship,
business coaching and professional services to artand design-based startups.
The Thought Lab acted as a open forum for
collaborative conversations between the design and
business communities.

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Creative education
Academic startup incubator
Academic design
Low-cost resource
Collaboration

Online presence
Physical space
Networking

Interest in design and startup culture


Design skills
Ideation practice

How do they create value?

What is the entry point to their network?

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

10

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: columbusideafoundry.com

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Providing hands-on instruction in a variety of artand craft-related disciplines

Artists
Craftsmen
Entrepreneurs

Meeting unmet needs for training does not


have to take place in a traditional educational
environment
Collaboration is appealing to people

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Knowledge sharing
Facilitating collaboration
Providing retail space for artists and craftsmen

Online presence
Retail space
Work space
Membership
Classes

Providing space for learning and developing


skills

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The Columbus Idea Foundry provides space for


people to learn and work on a variety of projects
that are primarily hands-on. The facility provides
access to conventional workshops for metal work,
welding, woodworking and blacksmithing, as well as
technology-focused production via a CNC ShopBot,
laser cutter and engraver, and 3-D prototyping
printers.
The facility has 4,000-square-feet of gallery and
classroom space, 10,000-square-feet of studio space
and 11,000-square-feet of workshop space.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

11

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: cscarts.org

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Promotion of the communicating arts


Raise the quality of creative work in Columbus

Designers
Writers
Illustrators
Photographers
Art Directors
Creative Directors

How to assemble a diverse group with


overlapping interests around a unified interest

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Monthly venue for top creative talent from


around the country to speak locally
Engender excellence via Creative Best awards

Online presence
Membership
Monthly events

Platform for reaching their members to increase


collaboration with startup community

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

Columbus Society of Communicating Arts is


a nonprofit organization of professionals devoted
to elevating the standard of communications within
central Ohio and to promote a better understanding
of the context and function of the visual arts in
commerce, industry, education and the community.
The organization holds monthly events where
creative professionals from around the country
are given a forum for speaking. They also conduct
an annual awards show, Creative Best, which is
generally judged by some of the years speakers. Past
speakers include Massimo Vignelli, Debbie Millman,
Kyle Cooper, Scott Stowell, Armin Vit, Chip Kidd,
Dana Arnett, Stefan Sagmeister, Steff Geissbuhler,
Mary Ellen Mark, Wink and Jessica Hische.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

12

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: decindublin.com

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Providing co-working space and a collaborative


environment for startups and entrepreneurs in
order to accelerate development

Entrepreneurs
Technologists
Consultants
Designers
Business sponsors

Solving a problem for startups (need for


workspace and access to technology) can draw
them together

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Access to collaborative workspace


Providing office space for a multi-disciplinary
group of people in a single location
Shared services and technology
Weekly events

Event attendance
Monthly, no-cost jelly days for co-working
Renting workshop space
Leasing office space

Space for startups to work


Forum for conducting workshops

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The Dublin Entrepreneurial Center is a


co-working center focused on innovation and
startups. Its essential function is to provide space
for collaboration and access to office amenities
that most startups need, but would find a hassle
to assemble on their own.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

13

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: fundable.com

Objectives

Members

Lessons

An online funding platform for small businesses

Small business owners


Entrepreneurs
Designers
Technologists

There is value in providing a public platform for


fundraising in the startup space
Startups can help each other (Fundable was a
startup)

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Offering an alternate to venture capital for


fundraising
Public platform allows for broader reach when
seeking funding

Online presence

A resource for capital generation

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

Fundable provides small business owners and


startups with an alternative to the Kickstarter model
of raising capital. With Fundable, entrepreneurs can
offer rewards or equity in exchange for funding.

What can they teach us for our network?

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

14

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: nbia.org

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Promote business incubation and


entrepreneurship

Incubator developers, managers and staff


Economic development professionals
Consultants
Educators

There is a need for greater knowledge sharing in


the startup community
Business owners cant be experts at everything
and need a forum for connecting with others

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Conferences for members


Startup and business-specific publications for
members
Business assessment
Training and workshops

Online presence
Membership

Interest in incubation of startups


Venue for developing an audience through their
existing platform and reach to members

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The National Business Incubation Association


is focused on incubation and entrepreneurship. The
organization shares information, provides education,
advocacy and networking resources to its members.
NBIA serves as a clearinghouse of information on
incubator management and development issues
and offers conferences and training, research and
consulting services.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

15

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: development.ohio.gov

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Stimulate economic development in the state of


Ohio

Government employees
Economic development professionals
Business owners
Startup incubators
Investors
Technology developers

Government has an interest in innovations that


create jobs and wealth

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Supporting economic growth


Education for entrepreneurs
Commercialization activities for innovation
Creating conditions that can attract an advanced
workforce

Online presence
Government programs

Interest in innovation and startups

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The Ohio Development Services Agency exists


to advance the economic development strategy
of the state. Of particular interest to startups is
the Ohio Third Frontier program, which focuses
on technological innovation and works with tech
companies, university and non-profit organizations to
create innovation.
The agencys programs focus on four areas:
innovation, commercialization, capital and talent
development.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

16

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: tco.osu.edu

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Commercialization of innovation supported by


the research activities of a university

Researchers
Inventors
Startup community
Students
Faculty
Designers

There is a direct link between learning and


innovation
Large organizations can produce innovation
In some ways TCO acts as a model for multidisciplinary collaboration
Having a platform that allows startups to pitch
publicly attracts like-minded professionals

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Drive economic development by supporting


startups
Commercialize output of research colleges
Involve students in the process to support
learning
Create a platform for startups to pitch work

Wakeup Startup
Startup Weekend

Pitch opportunities
Growth space for design within the startup
community

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The OSU Technology Commercialization Office


is a collaborative effort focused on building a
culture of innovation within the university and with
community partners.
These efforts are manifest in several ways, including
traditional work in the areas of patents, licensing and
contract negotiation, as well as new areas of focus
that include software development, design ideation,
startup development and integrated learning for
students.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

17

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: portfolioiscreative.com

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Connect creative talent with businesses

Designers
Writers
Illustrators
Photographers
Art Directors

Startups owned by creative people can focus on


something other than becoming an ad, brand or
marketing agency
Connecting service providers with companies in
need has value

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Facilitating connection between companies that


need creative staff and the creative community
Streamlining billing and payment for freelancers

Online presence
Meeting with a recruiter or account rep

Connecting designers with startups


Presenting information on how designers can
work with startups at Illumination Bureau events

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

Portfolio Creative is a staffing agency in Columbus


that specializes in creative services. It is an essential
resource for freelance designers, writers, illustrators
and photographers.
The staff partners with members of the creative
community on a regular basis to run the Illumination
Bureau, which provides classes, lunch and learns,
and crash courses relevant to the working creative
community.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

18

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Site URL: sba.gov/about-offices-content/2/3138

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Support the growth of small business

Small business owners


Bank representatives
Entrepreneurs
Consultants

Risk is a factor in funding no matter what type of


business is being built
It is important to match risk tolerance with risk
assessment when seeking sources of capital

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Providing access to capital resources


Education and training

Online presence
Meeting with an SBA representative

Helping businesses to operate once demand for


a product of service has been established

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

The Small Business Administration is an


essential resource for starting a company, securing
loans, and learning about managing and operating a
business.
The SBA is generally more focused on small business
and less focused on startups. This stems from the
agencys relationships with commercial banks. When
a small business seeks capital a bank can generally
review the performance of other businesses in the
same category and use past history of these entities
to assess risk. With startups, which are generally
focused on innovation or disruptive innovation this
becomes a difficult process and is less likely to
succeed in securing commercial funding.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

19

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

Spark Camp is best described in its own words:


Site URL: sparkcamp.com

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Facilitating networking toward problem solving

Innovators
Philanthropists
Technologists
Entrepreneurs
Journalists
Authors
Designers
Bloggers

Innovation is enhanced by multi-disciplinary


collaboration

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Facilitating connection of multi-disciplinary


teams
Providing time and space for ideation focused on
problem solving
Network building

Invitation only
Online presence

Events focused on producing innovation through


collaboration

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

Spark Camp is a next-generation convener. We


engineer productive collisions of talented people to
tackle provocative questions, develop meaningful
relationships and lead ideas into action. We facilitate
important conversations that propel society forward.
We challenge convention. We value intimacy. We
have fun. And we form an enduring and diverse
network of innovative thinkers set on bringing about
positive change in their worlds.
The events are by invitation only and could be
considered an organically growing network as the
web site features a prominent link to Suggest an
Invitee.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

20

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Competitor/Collaborator Analysis

TechColumbus is a hybrid organization that is


focused on startups, early stage investment and
acceleration.
Site URL: techcolumbus.org

Objectives

Members

Lessons

Help turn entrepreneurial ideas into products


and products into high-growth business

Investors
Technologists
Subject matter experts
Strategists
Analysts
Entrepreneurs

How to support startups by forming an


ecosystem populated with investors, experts and
support staff

Approach

Channel

Collaboration Opportunities

Investment in early stage startups


Office, lab and manufacturing space
Mentorship and advising
Pitch platform

Online presence
Events
Pitching startup ideas

Introducing design and design thinking as a key


component to their ecosystem
Workshop facilitation for their startups

What is their networks value?

How do they create value?

What categories do they fall into?

What is the entry point to their network?

What can they teach us for our network?

Entrepreneurs have a wealth of assets that extend


beyond capital available through TechColumbus.
These include SpringBox Labs, which provides
offices, labs, manufacturing space and three
programs designed to help startups network with
advisors, experts, key customers and industry
members in their target markets.

Where do we overlap?

NOTES

21

22

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Startup Incubation Capabilities Matrix


CAPABILITIES

CCAD
COLUMBUS
MIND MARKET IDEA FOUNDRY

CSCA

DEC

YES

KEY

NO

SOMEWHAT

FUNDABLE

NBIA

OHIO DSA

OSU TCO

PORTFOLIO
CREATIVE

SBA

SPARK CAMP

TECH
COLUMBUS

a
a

a
a
a

a
a
a

a
a
a

a
a

a
a
a

DESIGN

a
a
a
a

DESIGN THINKING

IDEATION

INDUSTRIAL SPACE

LICENSING & PATENTS

NETWORKING EVENTS

OFFICE SPACE

a
a

a
a

a
a

PITCH PLATFORM

CAPITAL

a
a

WORKSHOPS

a
a

ADVISING/MENTORS
COLLABORATIVE SPACE
EDUCATION

Figure 1. Startup incubation capabilities matrix. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

23

LaunchHour is
designed to be
emulated. It is
intended to foster
collaboration, not
limit interaction.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING


Success can be
extended by
scaling up to conduct
LaunchHours
in other cities.

ZAG Steps
SUMMARY
Throughout the ZAG process, steps were informed by the insight that there
is a need for an actionable way to begin to engage both the startup and
design communities that features a forum for efficiently extending the
conversation about the insights and opportunities revealed in this case
study.
In order to be effective and collaborative with efforts that currently exist
in the local startup community, it must address an unmet need: facilitating
connection where little or no opportunity currently exists.
It is believed that the experience should feature a low barrier to entry, as
evidenced by geographic accessibility and limited-time commitment, and
should maximize potential to benefit both communities. In short, answering
the old question, Whats in it for me? is essential.
Modeled after the idea of a design charette,1 this concept applies principles
of speed datingmultiple brief, structured points of contactwith a
streamlined Pecha Kucha style presentation designed to set the tone for
interaction.

16
HOW DO
YOU EXTEND
SUCCESS?

By consistently providing
opportunities for relevant
connection between
startups and design.

17
HOW DO YOU
PROTECT
YOUR
PORTFOLIO?

I am a design thinker
who is dedicated to
the pursuit of learning
in order to bridge
communities and create
greater collaboration.

1
WHO ARE
YOU?

A free learning,
collaboration and
networking opportunity.

60-minute, speed-dating
style exchanges between
communities.

3
WHATS YOUR
VISION?

14
WHAT DO
THEY
EXPERIENCE?
13
HOW DO
PEOPLE ENGAGE
WITH YOU?

Pitching in person
at startup and design
community events, via
social media, guest blog
series, event stickers.

Design as a catalyst for


success in startups.

2
WHAT DO
YOU DO?

15
HOW DO
YOU EARN THEIR
LOYALTY?

4
WHAT WAVE
ARE YOU
RIDING?

17-STEP PROCESS

STARTUP & DESIGN


COLLABORATIVE

12
HOW DO
YOU SPREAD
THE WORD?

10
WHAT DO
THEY
CALL YOU?

9
WHOS THE
ENEMY?

LaunchHour
Siloed, uncollaborative
experts who perpetuate
misconception.

8
WHO LOVES
YOU?

The trend toward design as


the competitive advantage
as evidenced by the cultural
phenomenon of addressing
needs consumers never
knew they had via design
thinking process.

5
WHO SHARES
THE
BRANDSCAPE?
6
WHAT MAKES
YOU THE ONLY?

11
HOW DO
YOU EXPLAIN
YOURSELF?

We dissolve barriers
to connection between
communities of
entrepreneurs and
designers.

1 See Design Charette in Martin and Haningtons Universal Methods of Design (2012).

We act as an entry
point for greater
collaboration
between
entrepreneurs and
designers.

7
WHAT SHOULD
YOU ADD OR
SUBTRACT?

CCAD Mind Market


OSU TCO
Startup Weekend

The only collaborative


event that creates a new
model of interaction for
entrepreneurs and designers
in the U.S. who seek
disruptive innovation in an
era of siloed practice.

Add brief, structured


interactions to open the
lines of collaboration.
Subtract multi-day time
commitments.

Entrepreneurs, designers,
developers and investors.

Figure 2. ZAG steps for startup & design collaborative. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

2x2 Axis Chart: Organizational Focus


STARTUP VS. DESIGN ORIENTATION
HIGH
CCAD

CSCA

DESIGN FOCUS includes education in


design, design practice, design thinking,
ideation process or labs, networking events
and creative workshops.

PORTFOLIO
CREATIVE

IDEA
FOUNDRY

DESIGN

STARTUP FOCUS includes engagement in


activities such as advising and mentoring,
rental of industrial or office space in a central
location, license and patent expertise, events
to foster networking and facilitate pitching,
access to or relationships with venture
capital, angel funding or business loans, and
startup workshops.

POTENTIAL TARGET AREA

LOW

HIGH
OSU
SPARK
CAMP

TECH
COLUMBUS
FUNDABLE

DEC

OHIO
DSA
SBA

LOW

STARTUPS

NBIA

NOTES

24

Figure 3. 2x2 Axis chart showing organizational focus.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

25

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: POSITIONING

Project Positioning: Value Proposition & Onliness Statement


VALUE PROPOSITION

ONLINESS STATEMENT

For entrepreneurs and designers who are seeking ways to collaborate in order to create
disruptive innovation, our events offer a new model for interaction designed to dissolve
barriers and facilitate connection.

This is the only collaborative project that creates a new model of interaction for
entrepreneurs and designers in the United States who seek disruptive innovation
in an era of siloed practice.

We do this by facilitating a maximum number of connections between entrepreneurs and


designers in a structured, informative format that requires a very limited time commitment.

WHAT: The only collaborative event

Unlike other organizations that operate in frameworks primarily dedicated to either


discipline, which tend to stratify participants by function, our approach is based in research
that revealed the underlying mental models that each group holds in relation to the other in
order to suggest opportunities for how we might change our perceptionsso that we may
increase the odds of success in startupsby integrating design and design thinking as a key
competitive advantage.

HOW: that creates a new model of interaction


WHO: for entrepreneurs and designers
WHERE: in the United States
WHY: who seek disruptive innovation
WHEN: in an era of siloed practice

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

CHANGE/MANAGEMENT

27

> Christensen & Overdorf (2000)


> Godin (2012)
> Heath & Heath (2010)
> Linder (2004)
> Pink (2006)
> Prather (2009)
> Yamashita & Spataro (2004)

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Research Space

STARTUP PROCESS

> Chrisman & McMullan (2004)


> Hudson, Schroeder &
Van de Ven (1984)
> Rode & Vallaster (2005)

> Hudson, Schroeder &


Van de Ven (1984)
> Kawasaki (2004)
> Korunka, Frank, Lueger &
Mugler (2003)
> Linder (2004)
> Ries (2011)

CAPITAL

VALUES

SUCCESS FACTORS

ECOSYSTEM MAP
The ecosystem for this case study focuses on research into
two communities, Startup and Design. A key component
to understanding the mental models is secondary research
identified by concept and author. Primary research is focused
on exploring the beliefs, values and attitudes that a sample
population from these groups hold.

> Christensen & Overdorf (2000)


> Kawasaki (2004)
> Martin (2009)
> Ries (2011)
> Rode & Vallaster (2005)
> Osterwalder & Pigneur (2010)

> Bann (2009)


> Hudson, Schroeder &
Van de Ven (1984)
> Kawasaki (2004)
> Korunka, Frank, Lueger &
Mugler (2003)
> Martin (2009)
> Ries (2011)
> Rode & Vallaster (2005)

COLLABORATION

> Duck (2012)


> Heath & Heath (2010)
> Martin (2009)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Yamashita & Spataro (2004)

DESIGN PROCESS

STARTUPS

DESIGN & DESIGN THINKING


COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

DESIGN

> Buchanan (1992)


> Duck (2012)
> Greene (2010)
> Martin (2009)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)

HUMAN
BEHAVIOR

COMMUNITY 2

HUMAN
BEHAVIOR

MENTAL
MODEL

HUMAN
BEHAVIOR

MENTAL
MODEL

MENTAL
MODEL

MENTAL
MODEL

BALANCED APPROACH:
ANALYTICAL & INTUITIVE

INTERACTION
COMMUNITY 1

COMMUNITY 2

> Johansson (2006)


> Martin (2009)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Pink (2006)

FRAMEWORKS

> Bann (2009)


> Duck (2012)
> Jones (2011)
> Martin (2009)
> Neumeier (2007)
> Osterwalder & Pigneur (2010)
> Ries (2011)

BRAND/DIFFERENTIATION

HUMAN
BEHAVIOR
MENTAL
MODEL

> Beaudine (2009)


> Chrisman & McMullan (2004)
> Godin (2012)
> Duck (2012)
> Jones (2011)
> Laurel (2003)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Schensul & Le Compte (1999)

ISOLATION
COMMUNITY 1

HUMAN CONNECTION
& INFLUENCE

MENTAL
MODEL

> Greene (2010)


> Neumeier (2007)
> Rode & Vallaster (2005)

MENTAL MODELS

> Gladwell (2013)


> Godin (2012)
> Martin (2009)

DETERMINATE/
INDETERMINATE
NATURE OF WORK
> Buchanan (1992)

MEANING MAKING

> Godin (2012)


> Kawasaki (2004)
> Martin (2009)

ITERATION

> Duck (2012)


> Jones (2011)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Ries (2011)

INTEGRATED THINKING

MASTERY & STANDARDS

> Heath & Heath (2010)


> Martin (2009)
> Osterwalder & Pigneur (2010)
> Pink (2006)

> Godin (2007)


> Martin (2009)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Tufte (2001)

INNOVATION

THE UNSEEN ADVANTAGE

> Buchanan (1992)


> Christensen & Overdorf (2000)
> Johansson (2006)
> Martin (2009)
> Meyer & Marion (2010)
> Pink (2006)
> Prather (2009)
> Rogers (2003)

> De Bono (1973)


> Gladwell (2013)

Figure 4. Ecosystem map. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

28

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Research Methodology
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION

The research methodology is a case study with lenses of ethnographic study and critical qualitative
research.
This mixed methodology is appropriate for several reasons. The case study is focused on the description
and analysis of two groups: entrepreneurs and designers. The case is bound by location and time and the
unit of analysis is the startup and design communities each of these groups work within locally. There is
an ethnographic lens in use as the study is focused on the beliefs, values and attitudes that these groups
possess about themselves and each other. The critical qualitative approach is derived from the intent
to examine and critique the social and cultural assumption of these two groups in order to understand
the way these factors structure and limit each groups way of thinking and being. The ultimate goal is to
empower change to the social context of collaboration for these groups.1

How could the startup and design communities interact to increase the value of design and design thinking
in business?

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
> An online survey was conducted from January 23 at 9 pm EST through January 30 at 9 pm EST.
> Open-ended interviews were conducted with a representative of the startup and design communities.
> Semistructured interviews were conducted with 4 members of the startup community.
> Semistructured interviews were conducted with 3 members of the design community.
> S econdary research was conducted into 12 community organizations that represent or interact with
members of each community.
> An annotated bibliography was created for each of 37 secondary research sources.

1 See Chapter 1 of Merriams Qualitative Research in Practice (2002), describing Case Study, Ethnographic Study and Critical Qualitative Research.

SUB RESEARCH QUESTIONS


1. How does the startup community currently interact with the design community?

> How are they connected? What mental model exists?
2. How does the design community view the startup community?

> Why are they not currently interacting more with the startup community? What mental model exists?
3. How could both communities interact to increase the value of design and design thinking in business?
4. Do both communities, as assumed, have an interest in innovation?
5. How engaged with innovation are each of these communities?
6. How are each of the respective communities perceived by the other?
7. Who are the agents of stability and agents of change within these communities?
8. What quantitative data is available about the success of startups?

> What percentage of startups move forward? What is their lifespan?

> How many succeed in obtaining funding?
9. Who are the active venture capitalists in the community?

> What projects have they funded? How successful have these efforts been?
10. What organizations currently connect the two communities?
For data collection methods see following page or Research Planning Matrix, 122123.
For details see Interview and Survey Questions, 124127.

29

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Data Collection Methods


PARTICIPANTS: WHOS INVOLVED?
The startup community includes members of several startups, representatives of The Ohio State
Universitys Technology Commercialization and Knowledge Transfer Center, TECH Columbus and a
representative of the Columbus District SBA.
The design community includes members of the Columbus Society of Communicating Arts (CSCA), working
design professionals and members of The Ohio State Universitys Department of Design.

METHODS: HOW WILL DATA BE COLLECTED?


Qualitative data will be collected via open-ended and semistructured interviews, and an online survey
designed to reveal insights between communities.
Quantitative data will be collected via secondary research, an online survey and from community
stakeholders during semistructured interviews.

DATA: HOW WILL IT BE PROCESSED AND ANALYZED?


Data will be analyzed by combining results from qualitative and quantitative research using iterative
working wall process, a unique method of analysis will be created to parse, analyze and visualize data
from the online survey, ecosystem maps, value continuums, ZAG steps, Business Model Canvas analysis,
SWOTS and, finally, a Venn diagram model will be created to identify key concepts and issues relevant to
both communities in order to reveal insights and opportunities.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

SURVEY RESULTS

31

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 1: CONSENT FORM

Figure 5. Question 1: Online consent form. Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 2: SELF-IDENTIFICATION OF COMMUNITY AFFILIATION

Survey respondents tended to skew slightly toward


being members of the design community. Additional
interviews with the startup community may be
necessary based on the data currently available
(gap).
These results were further analyzed to reveal how
respondents viewed themselves in composite,
categorized and then used to synthesize data for
questions 47.

NOTES

32

Figure 6. Question 2: Self-identification of community


affiliation. Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 3: MOTIVATION

This question offered respondents several ways to


reveal an orientation toward being agents of change
or stability and toward validity-seeking or algorithmrunning behavior.
These roughly equate to the renegades, rule
followers or glue-that-holds-an-organization-together
types in any organization.

NOTES

33

Figure 7. Question 3: Motivation.


Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 4: RELATIONSHIP TO QUALITY

These questions were designed to reveal


respondents opinions and attitudes about quality
levels in work and levels of risk in different areas
as they relate to failure, workplace stability and the
opportunities for growth that startups can offer.

QUESTION 5: RELATIONSHIP TO RISK

These are important themes that commonly occur


in secondary research into startup process, design
process, change management and collaboration.
These results were synthesized with identity data.

NOTES

34

Figure 8. Question 4: Relationship to quality.


Authors image, January 28, 2014.
Figure 9. Question 5: Relationship to risk.
Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 6: BELIEFS ABOUT STARTUPS AND ENTREPRENEURS

To understand what each community believes about


themselves and the other community, questions
6 and 7 were designed to reveal similar data for
each with regard to capital, learning/MVP process,
vernacular as a potential barrier, value of work
and perceptions of what sells a startups ideas to
investors.
These results were synthesized with identity data.

NOTES

35

Figure 10. Question 6: Beliefs about startups


and entrepreneurs.
Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 7: BELIEFS ABOUT DESIGN AND DESIGNERS

Here the focus is on when a startup should


engage with a designer, the cost/benefit of design,
vernacular as a barrier, relevancy to early stage
startup work and perceptions of what sells a startups
ideas to investors.
These results were synthesized with identity data.

NOTES

36

Figure 11. Question 6: Beliefs about design


and designers.
Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Online Survey Results


QUESTION 8: ADOPTER CATEGORIES

Question 8 was designed to establish Innovation


Adopter category information for each respondent.
Question 9 was designed to establish how much
overlap there is between members of each
community in event attendance.

QUESTION 9: COMMUNITY AFFILIATIONS

NOTES

37

Figure 12. Question 8: Adopter categories.


Authors image, January 28, 2014.
Figure 13. Question 9: Community affiliations.
Authors image, January 28, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

SYNTHESIS

39

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 2


#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

#15

#16

#17

#18

#19

#20

#21

#22

#23

#24

#25

SELF-IDENTIFICATION
Question 2 provided respondents with the option to self-identify as a creative
person (designer, writer, researcher), entrepreneur (inventor, programmer,
investor) or some combination of related disciplines.
The eight possible answers were mapped onto an eight-pointed pattern and the
non-relevant points were removed to form an initial pattern for signifying type.
This simple visualization reveals similarities between respondents perceptions
of themselves.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> People are not one dimensional.


> Allowing multiple selections resulted in richer data.

QUESTION

2. Im a:
(check all that apply)
O Designer
O Writer
O Researcher
O Inventor
O Entrepreneur
O Programmer
O Investor
O Other (Text Entry Box)

EIGHT-POINT PATTERN
DESIGNER
OTHER

WRITER

INVESTOR

RESEARCHER

PROGRAMMER

INVENTOR
ENTREPRENEUR

Figure 14. Synthesis of self-identification data. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

40

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 2


CATEGORIZING RESPONDENTS
An initial attempt was made to categorize respondents by
Innovation Adopter categories based on responses to question
8 (see appendix), but this yielded too many data points that
obscured efforts to reveal patterns.
To simplify data interpretation, each eight-point pattern was
analyzed and assigned one of three possible colors to represent
identity categories as follows:
ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

BLENDED

A pattern was formed from the 5 x 5 grid of 25 respondents


and then converted into small multiples. This pattern was then
used to reveal patterns of belief, opinion and attitude present in
respondents answers to questions 47.

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

#15

#16

#17

#18

#19

#20

#21

#22

#23

#24

#25

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Figure 15. Synthesis to categorize respondent data. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

41

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 3


#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

#15

#16

#17

#18

#19

#20

#21

#22

#23

#24

#25

OPINIONS ABOUT WORK (QUALITY)


How each community views and relates to issues of quality is a key metric
for understanding the approach they take to work; how much value they place
on learning and value creation and whether or not they are agents of change,
agents of stability or act as organizational glue able to work equally well in
either role.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> Motivations, like self-concept are often multi-faceted.


> Mapping these trends with other variables reveals additional data (next page).

QUESTION

EIGHT-POINT PATTERN

3. In my work I am motivated by
the opportunity to:

CREATE NEW

(check all that apply)


O Create something new
O Meet expectations for a well-defined deliverable
O Make sure everything runs smoothly
O Learn from experience
O Establish a new system
O Collaborate
O Create value
O Other (Text Entry Box)
ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

LEARN

NEW SYSTEM

CREATE
VALUE
PROBLEM
SOLVE

MEET
EXPECTATIONS
COLLABORATE
RUN SYSTEM

BLENDED
Figure 16. Synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 3

CHANGE

OPINIONS ABOUT WORK (QUALITY)


Aligning the eight-point pattern mapping with a 2x2 axis chart, reveals
motivation vertically on a continuum from Agent of Change to Agent of Stability
and horizontally against Validity Seeking vs. Algorithm Running activity.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

EIGHT-POINT PATTERN

ALGORITHM

>W
 hile generally all over the map, the chart does reveal that entrepreneurs
are less likely to be motivated by meeting expectations and are more oriented
toward validity and change.
> Designers show a stronger orientation to work change within a system and
less affinity toward validity.

VALIDITY

42

CREATE NEW
LEARN

NEW SYSTEM

CREATE
VALUE
PROBLEM
SOLVE

MEET
EXPECTATIONS
COLLABORATE
RUN SYSTEM

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

BLENDED

STABILITY
Figure 17. 2x2 Axis chart synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

43

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 4


OPINIONS ABOUT WORK (QUALITY)
Primary and secondary research reveal that expectations about quality appear
to be a key point of differentiation between entrepreneurs and designers who
follow iterative processes (design and lean startup MVP).
It was assumed that designers desire the highest quality product before
it is reviewed by an audience as they are seeking client approval, while
entrepreneurs have a more elastic standard of quality as they are seeking
validated learning.
Question 4 was designed to gauge whether these concepts would test out
across both communities at a small scale.

NEVER

ALMOST NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALMOST ALWAYS

ALWAYS

4A. Doing great work


leads to more work

4B. Sometimes good is


good enough

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> 4A: Both communities tended to agree that doing great work would lead to
opportunity.
> 4B: Both agreed that there were times when good is good enough, though this
question should likely have been structured to exclude the word Sometimes
as it was also one of the optional Likert scale responses.
> 4C: Entrepreneurs who follow Lean Startup methodology would likely have
seen the end goal as more important than the individual steps, yet they are
answered all along the continuum. Designers appear to be split here.
> 4 D: These responses generally follow what was expected, with entrepreneurs
answering in line with Startup MVP methodology and designers leaning
toward getting it right before its revealed. Note that no entrepreneurs or
blended respondents answered Almost Always or Always to this question.
ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

Respondent #10 did not answer questions 4C, 4D.

4C. The end goal is more


important than the
steps along the way

4D. Its critically


important to get
it right before
revealing it

BLENDED
Figure 18. Synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data by response. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

44

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 5


NEVER

ATTITUDES TOWARD RISK


Startups often attempt to manage failure on a small scale in order to achieve
validated learning and later success. Many successful entrepreneurs have failed
in the past. How designers approach failure could be an indication of whats at
stake in their workgiven their assumed need to consistently produce work of
a high quality, is managing quality levels a hedge against failure?

ALMOST NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALMOST ALWAYS

ALWAYS

5A. Id rather risk failure


than not accomplish
my goals

5B. Its not a risk unless


you have skin in
the game

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> 5A: Entrepreneurs in general tended to have a higher stated tolerance for
failure than designers.
> 5B: Designers appeared to believe more strongly that having stake in the
failure correlated to risk levels.
> 5C: This question acts as a gauge for how respondents perceive risk in
relation to a companys maturity level. This is relevant as disruptive innovation
generated by startups changes the context in which mature organizations
operate. Entrepreneurs tend to believe the statement in this question less
than designers.
> 5D: Both communities seemed to hold this as true in general, with a few
entrepreneurs exhibiting diverging attitudes.
> 5E: Most respondents from both communities seemed to think that
startups offered an opportunity to learn and grow that outweighed the
risks Sometimes, Almost Always or Always. This could indicate that both
communities place a value on growth and learning, but that some designers
may work in cultures that are failure- or risk-averse.
ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

BLENDED

5C. A companys


reputation and number
of years in business
make it less risky to
work for

5D. The size of the


risk is proportional
to the size of the
reward

5E. The opportunity to


learn and grow far
outweigh any risks
when working in a
startup
Figure 19. Synthesis of attitudes about work data by response. Authors image, march 11, 2014.

45

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Synthesis: Survey Question 6


NEVER

BELIEFS ABOUT STARTUPS & ENTREPRENEURS


These questions were designed in parallel with questions about design and
designers to try to understand how each community views themselves and the
other community.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> 6A: Some of the designers and entrepreneurs perceive this statement to be
true, though secondary research shows only about 6% of startups source
capital via venture funding.
> 6B: This question illustrates the core principle of validated learning. It was
assumed that most of the entrepreneurs would agree with this statement, but
they do not. Designers appear to be split on this belief.
> 6C: The key insight here may be that the respondents who represent a
blended identity think that sometimes entrepreneurs use vernacular.
> 6D: Responses here may indicate that entrepreneurs and blended identity
respondents dont value design for what the work is worth as strongly as
designers.
> 6E: Both communities responded across the continuum here, indicating
that this may not be an area where either community possesses a strong
understanding of the dynamics of the pitch process.

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

BLENDED

Respondent #12 did not answer questions 6A, 6B, 6C. Respondent #19 did not answer any questions in Section 6.

ALMOST NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALMOST ALWAYS

ALWAYS

6A. Most startups


are searching for
funding via venture
capital or angel
investors

6B. Its more important


to ship and learn
than to get it right
out of the box

6C. Startups have their


own language that
makes it difficult to
understand their work

6D. Early stage startups


cant afford to pay
a designer for what
the work is worth

6E. The founders


passion for the
startup is the most
important part of
selling ideas to
investors
Figure 20. Synthesis of beliefs about startups and entrepreneurs data by response. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

46

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Survey Synthesis Question 7


NEVER

BELIEFS ABOUT DESIGN AND DESIGNERS


These questions were designed in parallel with questions about startups and
entrepreneurs to try to understand how each community views themselves and
the other community.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> 7A: In general it appears the responses here are mixed, though there is a
trend of designers believing that startups should wait to engage designers
and entrepreneurs believing that they shouldnt. This may indicate that
the startup community is more receptive to collaboration than the design
community.
> 7B: Responses to this question may indicate that there is an opportunity for
design to be more agile and effective.
> 7C: Again clustering of the blended identity respondents here may indicate
that those who have an understanding of both communities see areas where
vernacular could be a barrier.
> 7D: Both communities seem to believe design is relevant to early stage
startup work. This presents itself as an area of alignment and opportunity for
design.
> 7E: Designers seem to believe in the power of their work to sell a startups
ideas to investors, as do some of the entrepreneurs. Blended identity
respondents may have a better understanding of the pitch process here as
indicated by their moderate response.

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

BLENDED

Respondent #19 did not answer any questions in Section 7.

ALMOST NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALMOST ALWAYS

ALWAYS

7A. A startup should


wait to work with a
designer until they
have funding

7B. Design is expensive


and often too slow
to be effective

7C. Designers have their


own language that
makes it difficult to
understand their work

7D. Design is not


relevant to early
stage startup work

7E. Well-designed
presentations sell
a startups ideas to
investors

Figure 21. Synthesis of beliefs about design and designers by response. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

47

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Survey Synthesis: Question 8


INNOVATION ADOPTER CATEGORIES
Responses to question 8 were designed to determine a respondents general
attitude toward innovations based on Rogers Innovation Adopter categories.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> Entrepreneurs tend to be more likely to adopt innovation earlier.


> Designers and blended identity respondents tended to be more evenly
dispersed across categories. No designers identified as innovators.
> Color-coded Innovation Adopter categories as applied to question 4 results
can be found in the Appendix.

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

Respondent #19 did not answer Section 8.

8. When I hear about something innovative:


A.
I want to jump in
and try it as soon
as possible, no
matter the cost

B.
I want to use it
and create an
informed opinion
I can share with
my local network

INNOVATOR

EARLY ADOPTER

C.
I want to learn
more about it so
I can then put it
to effective use

EARLY MAJORITY

D.
I want to know
that it has worked
for others before
I make a change

E.
I want to
continue to use
what I know
works until the
innovation has
become the norm

LATE MAJORITY

LAGGARDS

BLENDED
Figure 22. Synthesis of innovation adopter categories data by response. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

INTERVIEW INSIGHTS

49

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Startup Community Interview Insights


You need money to build and to sell.
You dont need money to think.
Carl L.

Getting quick design out


is useless.

Design looks at startups


and they are doing
everything wrong.

Carl L.

Dan R.

Perfect is the enemy of anyone


trying to build anything.

In essence, when you say designers and


startups, what youre really asking is,
How do you get designers to work for free?
Carl L.

Too often in the startup world


design is not at the table until the
big money shows up.

We have to find
a way to do lean
startup design.

Dan R.

Its really tough to ask a designer


to get emotionally involved in a
startup in the current way that
design is taught.

Quality doesnt matter early on,


it should be mostly in
consumer touch points.

Carl L.

Dan R.

Dan R.

Dan R.

Capital

Process

Quality

A recurring theme in interviews was capital. When do you need


money? How is it best useddesign or development? What do you
do when you lack capital?
> There seemed to be a sense that working with designers was a
challenge because startups are often bootstrapping.
> Resource allocation is a challenge.
> Design may need to explore new ways of working with startups in
early stages.

Entrepreneurs focused on several areas of design and startup process,


and how collaboration is influenced by academic institutions as well
as with a lens toward validated learning stemming from lean process.
> Is there a way to apply lean startup methods to design?
> Design tends to be systematic and often startups are chaotic.
> Design students might be able to offer value for money to the
startup community, but are often too busy with schoolwork to
engage in a meaningful way.

Clearly entrepreneurs have different needs and expectations about


quality as they are building. They seem to understand that the
relationship between design and quality may limit its usefulness as
currently practiced.
> How might design engage in a way that will change the perception
of its utility in building startups?

50

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Startup Community Interview Insights


You learn by doing it.
Carl L.

The deck doesnt


matter. People stay
focused on you.
Are you doing art
or are you building
a business?
Dan R.

Can we have a coherent


conversation, gather some ideas
and get people behind them?
Dan R.

Are design people really


like entrepreneurs
are they leap off the cliff
kind of people?

There are barriers in how


design presents itself.
Design doesnt want to
look like an idiot while
everyone else does.
That destroys empathy.

Carl C.

Dan R.

Out of all the components,


business, design and tech
the holy trinity of startups
design is the most powerful
in creating that emotional
reaction. Its an impulse buy.

Startups eat
peoples passions
and dreams.
Dan R.

Startups are
about selling
a dream.
Carl L.

Carl L.

Designers are extremely difficult to find.


The ones that are not flaky and are professional
are one, expensive, and two, busy.
Carl C.

Pitching

Entrepreneurs on Startups

Entrepreneurs on Design

Pitching to investors is often a critical activity for startups. There


seem to be conflicting opinions within the startup community on how
its done, whats needed and what best practices are.
> Could pitching be taught like any other skill?
> Conversations with investors and venture capitalists may be needed
to gain additional insights into the role of founders and the design
of presentation decks in gaining buy-in.

Its clear that passion and dreams are the lifeblood of startups. One
interviewee expressed that team members belief in the startup is
more critical than customers to early stage startups.
> Designers tend to be passionate people. Why are they not
connecting with startups?
> Entrepreneurs understand the power of harnessing ideas that
people believe in.

These are just a sample of some of the issues raised by interviewees


around design and how it interacts with startups.
> Design may lack credibility with startups for a number of reasons
including financial accessibility, a need to be professional that
may conflict with a startups need to fail and learn.
> Empathy is essential to good design. Is design sabotaging itself by
being preoccupied with establishing credibility?

51

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Design Community Interview Insights


We need to challenge, not perpetuate, the idea
that creative services have to be fee-for-service.
Paul R.

It is difficult to
monetize or put a value
on what great design
can do for a product.
Nand D.

Design becomes a
connective thread.

They created a circus


act around not addressing
the problem.
Paul R.

Nand D.

In startups there
are too many tough
decisions. You have to
have skin in the game.

Design only has to be


good enough.
Paul R., quoting a professor

Where is the line


in design process
where good enough
has been reached?

Paul R.

Paul R.

You have to make something that


will work for your audience
that they can afford. More
importantly, that they need.

Design is when you can take away


everything so all that is left is the function
that a person needs.
Nand D.

Paul R.

Do enough to get
an MVP and get
product out. You
are not solving
anything with a
product drawing
on a desk.

Nand D.

Capital

Process

Quality

The design community also recognizes that there are challenges


with capital in the startup space. Adding the historic challenges that
design has had with valuation only makes the issue murkier.
> There may be an opportunity for design to become more ingrained
with startups by rethinking how work is valued and billed.
> Design may view itself as invaluable, but in a business context it
needs to become more adept at communicating value as that is the
language of business.

Design can be an essential partner in creating any enterprise and


through simplification appears to be an ideal partner for lean process.
It can also muddle process when it loses focus.
> The practice of design should solve problems, not create them.
> Design may need to rethink where its core skills are applicable.

Design and designers may be more flexible with quality expectations


than they are commonly given credit for.
> A more pragmatic approach to design may be essential to changing
the conversation with startups.
> Design is aware of affordability issues on multiple levels.
> Design needs to manage quality expectations, to move out of the
studio and into the world earlier in order to gain insights.

52

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Design Community Interview Insights


If I am going to invest,
I want to know you will
be the last one out.

I see two types of startups. Designers as intrinsic


partners or technicalwhere marketing and
advertising are tertiary.
Nand D.

Paul R.

There is a clear
narrative delivered by
great design.
Nand D.

Design requires balance


between humility and ego
and desire to learn
every day.
Paul R.

Statistics around success


rates tend to get lost in the
glamour of venture capital.
Focus on the business.
Paul R.

In startups you have to be


willing to ask for help, look
vulnerable, be super humble
and bluntly sincere.
Paul R.

Design is valuable in
startups because we
allow thinking about
what if?

The best design happens when you think


about things others dont think about.
Paul R.

Paul R.

Pitching

Designers on Startups

Designers on Design

The other side of pitching from a design perspective is how design


may detract from the core focus of a business.
> Design can put on a show for venture capital, but it should remain
focused on the core business not presentations.
> Is this an opportunity for design to practice good enough.
> Pitching is fine, but if design wants to be considered valid it needs
to be committed to a business.

There appears to be opportunity and a place to contribute for design


in startups from a designers perspective.
> Design needs new ways to partner with startups other than
ownership.
> Design may need to become more educational in a startup context
in order to allay the perception that it is unapproachable.

Designers see opportunity where others dont. The best designers are
curious and they can tell a great story.
> Designers innate abilities should expand possibilities for
collaboration not limit them. Balance is needed.
> Design tells a story. Startups need to tell their stories to attract
customers and capital.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PERSONAS & JOURNEY MAPS

54

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Persona 1

PAIN POINTS
> Not being able to find a designer to work with
> Past reliability issues with designers
> Balancing work and personal projects
> Not having enough capital to break out on his own yet

TODD MARTIN
28 years old
Single
App developer
Avid gamer and techie
Makes 66k a year
Lives in a town home with a roommate
Plays kickball
Enjoys craft beer
Favorite blog is theverge.com

NARRATIVE
Todd is seeking the big opportunity to create a killer
app that will help him to sprint to the next level in his
career. Hes doing fine financially, but wants to break out
on his own and define his own path in the world of tech
with a business partner or a startup that is innovative.
He knows that the company he is working for is good,
but he wonders if they will be able to stay ahead of the
competition in the long runbecause as they grow
he sees more and more bureaucracy creeping into an
organization that was once pretty lean.

SATISFACTION POINTS
> Developing apps for himself based on perceived opportunity
> Thinking about really making a name for himself in startups
> Looking to make a difference for the good of his community
> Following tech as an avenue for innovation

NEEDS
> A more diverse network that is cross-disciplinary
> Support for and critique of ideas from a network
> Effective collaboration with a designer
> A way to visualize his ideas more effectively
> A deeper understanding of how design works
MOTIVATIONS
> The freedom to express himself through code, almost like art
> Seeing opportunities to change how people interact
> To be challenged in his work

Figure 23. Portrait of a man. Reprinted from flickr, Y. Samoilov, 2009,


Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1grqvUa. Creative Commons Attribution
2.0 Generic by Yuri Samoilov. Reprinted with permission.

55

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Persona 2
ELLEN LAI
24 years old
Single
Recent graphic design grad
Aspiring foodie
Makes 34k a year
Lives in an apartment near campus
Follows the Buckeyes
Writes for a community newspaper
Favorite websites are Etsy and Pinterest

NARRATIVE
Ellen is social, connected to her community and is
actively pursuing many interests. She dreams of starting
her own Etsy store or having some kind of creative
business. Last spring she attended a Startup Weekend
and really enjoyed the experience, but wasnt sure how
she could really bring value to her team other than
designing a web page. Shes interested in social media
and technology, but has no developer or programming
skills.

PAIN POINTS
> Having a passion to create something new, but has limited connections
> Not finding an outlet for her creativity that is profitable
> Wanting to make more money so she can buy a condo
> Wanting to do more than production work at her job
SATISFACTION POINTS
> Expressing her creativity through cooking and writing
> Knowing whats happing in her community
> Staying connected with classmates who have not yet graduated
> Collaborating with people who have different backgrounds

NEEDS
> A stronger understanding of the value of design in a business context
> Exposure to more business models
> Experience as a graphic designer
> Opportunities to work on different types of design projects
MOTIVATIONS
> Being in the know on whats happening as social currency
> Getting to the next step in her career
> Working with bigger clients
> Collaborating with others on new projects

Figure 24. Silvia Pellegrino. Reprinted from flickr, K. Kesiak, 2011, Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1lBAqLk.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic by Kris Kesiak. Reprinted with permission.

56

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Persona 3
GARY BARTLETT
41 years old
Married
Entrepreneur with a day job
Background in design and business
Makes 104k a year
Lives in the suburbs
Still jams with the band from college
Augmenting his kids education with arts
Favorite website is qz.com

NARRATIVE
Gary has a diverse background in both the business
and design worlds. He is a managing director for an
architectural firm and believes he can make a difference
in his community by changing the way houses are built
for low-income residents. His expertise makes him
uniquely qualified to effect change, but his ability to
sell his ideas without a support structure around him
is limited. Ideally he would merge his day job with his
entrepreneurial pursuits.

PAIN POINTS
> Managing his day job and his startup
> Trying to find a developer with design sense
> The grind of pitching for investment funds
SATISFACTION POINTS
> Being able to pursue his startup dreams while working a day job
> Having the support of his family as he goes for his dream
> Connecting with other entrepreneurs at networking events
> Building a better future for his children

NEEDS
> Streamlined process for developing ideas
> A partner with complementary skills and a divergent background
> Startup capital
> Doers to implement his thinking
MOTIVATIONS
> Making his community a better place for all
> Giving back by using his experience for good
> Seeing his vision for how design can create value realized
> Being an example for his children

Figure 25. Darryl #1 Sharp Dressed Man. Reprinted from flickr, L.


DeLeeuw, 2009, Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1fUEMxA.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic
by Luc De Leeuw. Reprinted with permission.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Journey Map: Persona 1

Hearing about an
event from a person
with past experience,
even a stranger, helps
mitigate risk

28 years old
App developer
Makes 66k a year

> Good designers


are hard to find
> Designers are
expensive
> Entrepreneurs
need your skills

> I need a change


> I cant risk too
much for change

THINK & FEEL


HEAR

SEE
SAY & DO

> I have a great


idea for an app
> Reads tech blogs

> Theres a lot of


opportunity in
tech
> My company is
lagging behind
> Other startups
succeeding

Sees the same designer at Starbucks


the next morning and strikes up a
conversation about LaunchHour

SOCIAL
MEDIA

> Programs on the


weekends

No response from
the Twitterverse

Reticular activation
works to begin making
the unfamiliar seem
familiar and less risky

WEBSITE
OR BLOG HIT

GOOGLE
SEARCH

NEEDS
> A more diverse network that is cross-disciplinary
> Support for and critique of ideas from a network
> Effective collaboration with a designer
> A way to visualize his ideas more effectively
> A deeper understanding of how design works
MOTIVATIONS
> The freedom to express himself through code, almost like art
> Seeing opportunities to change how people interact
> To be challenged in his work

WORD-OFMOUTH

PARTNER EVENT
PROMOTION

TOUCHPOINTS

> I can create a


killer app
> I need a designer

HIGH TOUCH

TODD MARTIN

Spends a few minutes on website and


tweets his network to ask if anyone has
experience with LaunchHour

Todds orientation toward


change made him more
receptive to risk

Returns to the website


and signs up for the
next event

Sees the LaunchHour logo online and


clicks on a link for the website

BRANDED
STICKER
LOW TOUCH

57

Encounters a designer with a LaunchHour


sticker on his bag at Starbucks, but doesnt
recognize event name or brand

UNAWARE

Start: Trying to find a designer


to partner with on a project
DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3
Figure 26. Journey map of Persona 1. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Journey Map: Persona 2

Establishing trust with


potential team members
is important to create
conditions for action

24 years old
Recent graphic design grad
Makes 34k a year

> Startups will


want you to
work for free
> Startups offer
a great creative
freedom

> I dont know how


to add value to a
startup yet

THINK & FEEL


HEAR

SEE
SAY & DO

> Stays connected


via social media
> Buys newest iPad

> Other designers


working well at
SW events
> Her SW team
not following up
> Great design
innovation

Connects with another


designer who tells her
about LaunchHour

Reconnects with contact


from startup meet-up
who directs her to the
Conversation Blog on
LaunchHour

Attends a startup
meet up to try to make
new connections

SOCIAL
MEDIA

> I could design


that better than
whoever did it

The social interaction Ellen has


experienced enables her to
move forward with confidence

Checks to see if her


contact will attend
LaunchHour

WEBSITE
OR BLOG HIT

Checks out the


LaunchHour website,
but is still unsure

Follows LaunchHour Twitter


conversation blog for an afternoon

Returns to the website


and signs up for the
next event

GOOGLE
SEARCH

NEEDS
> A stronger understanding of the value of design in a business context
> Exposure to more business models
> Experience as a graphic designer
> Opportunities to work on different types of design projects
MOTIVATIONS
> Being in the know on whats happening as social currency
> Getting to the next step in her career
> Working with bigger clients
> Collaborating with others on new projects

WORD-OFMOUTH

PARTNER EVENT
PROMOTION

TOUCHPOINTS

> I want to create


for myself
> I need experience

HIGH TOUCH

ELLEN LAI

A single contact with the


startup community was not
enough to motivate action

BRANDED
STICKER
LOW TOUCH

58

UNAWARE

Start: Motivated by a latent desire to


solve the problem of failing to follow
through after Startup Weekend
DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3
Figure 27. Journey map of Persona 2. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Journey Map: Persona 3

The credibility of Garys


existing network allows
him to quickly engage
with this opportunity

41 years old
Entrepreneur with day job
Makes 104k a year
> I need help
> Ive got to find a
developer

THINK & FEEL


> People in my
> A lack of action
community
to help others
need affordable
>
His kids growing
HEAR
SEE
housing
up quickly
> You have to keep
> An opportunity to
working until this
be an example
succeeds
SAY & DO
> I have to secure
my kids future
> Attends events

A busy schedule prevents him


from following up

SOCIAL
MEDIA

> Together we can


make a difference
> Builds his network

Connects with his co-worker


the following day

Hears about an event


from a tweet shared
by a co-worker

WEBSITE
OR BLOG HIT

Reviews the website


and signs up for the
next event

GOOGLE
SEARCH

NEEDS
> Streamlined process for developing ideas
> A partner with complementary skills and a divergent background
> Startup capital
> Doers to implement his thinking
MOTIVATIONS
> Making his community a better place for all
> Giving back by using his experience for good
> Seeing his vision for how design can create value realized
> Being an example for his children

WORD-OFMOUTH

PARTNER EVENT
PROMOTION

TOUCHPOINTS

> I just have to


manage this long
enough to launch

HIGH TOUCH

GARY BARTLETT

BRANDED
STICKER
LOW TOUCH

59

UNAWARE

Start: Actively looking for new


opportunities to connect with
designers and developers
DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3
Figure 28. Journey map of Persona 3. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

RESEARCH FINDINGS AT A GLANCE

61

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Key Insights From Research

Can we have a coherent


conversation, gather some
ideas and get people
behind them?

KEY FINDINGS THAT INFORMED PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT


> E ntrepreneurs generally value the work of designers and
may have a better understanding of the challenges to
working together than designers do.
>D
 esign thinking should be wrestling with the concept of
good enough. Issues of approachability and affordability
must be solved or opportunities to do great work may
be missed.
> B oth communities are motivated by meaning making.
> T here is a persistent perception that design is feefor-service.
> S tartup Weekends are intense, three-day events. They
work well for participants and theres no need to try
to reinvent or compete. However, this 54-hour time
commitment may be a barrier to entry and could be
working against getting people behind ideas long-term.
> B oth communities would benefit from thinking of
design in broader terms, beyond visual communication.

We need to challenge, not


perpetuate, the idea that creative
services have to be fee-for-service.

Perfect is the enemy of anyone


trying to build anything.

Design becomes a
connective thread.

Design is valuable in
startups because we
allow thinking about
what if?

Out of all the


components,
business, design and
techthe holy trinity
of startupsdesign
is the most powerful
in creating that
emotional reaction.
Its an impulse buy.

In startups you have


to be willing to ask for
help, look vulnerable,
be super humble and
bluntly sincere.

Where is the line


in design process
where good enough
has been reached?

62

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: RESEARCH PLANNING & SYNTHESIS

Relational Visual Map

On selling the idea


A.K.A.
PITCHING

Were the
heroes!

Were the
stars!

SUMMARY
The relational visual map represents much of the data synthesis
to this point. Identification of how insights derived from research
inform opportunities will aid in the development of models of
belief for each community. This analysis will be used to create
prototypes to be tested with members of the startup and design
communities.

Why are designers so


expensive and busy?

Ive got a dream . . .


I need help!

Me too!

BOOTSTRAP
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION

ITERATION
INNOVATION
CHANGE
ORIENTED
PROBLEM
SOLVING

STARTUPS

EXPENSIVE
CLIENT-DRIVEN

DESIGN

We both need,
developers, capital
and mentors to
succeed in this space.

Why are startups


so chaotic?

We should
explore lean
design.

Whats
that?

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

Figure 29. Relational visual map. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES,
DESIGN CRITERIA & REFRAMING

64

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES, DESIGN CRITERIA & REFRAMING

Opportunities for Design


INSIGHTS

HOW MIGHT WE . . .

OPPORTUNITIES

Entrepreneurs generally value the work of designers and


may have a better understanding of the challenges to
working together than designers do.

How might we educate designers on where their blind spots


are and how they can adapt their approach and work flow to
meet the needs of startups?

There is an opportunity to reveal the true value of design in


the context of startups.

Design thinking should be wrestling with the concept of


good enough. Issues of approachability and affordability
must be solved or opportunities to do great work may be
missed.

How might we help designers to understand that output


quality should be flexible depending on context?
How might we empower designers to create work designed
to validate learning as part of the startup process?

There is an opportunity to redefine how designers work


with startups by opening the lines of communication around
critical issues that currently act as barriers to entry.

Both communities are motivated by meaning making.

How might we connect both communities around areas of


shared interest and motivation?

There is an opportunity to create shared value that extends


beyond monetization and into purposeful work.

T here is a persistent perception that design is


fee-for-service.

How might we re-imagine value creation by creating


alternate business concepts?

There is an opportunity to explore alternate forms of value


exchange, including partnership, equity or exchange.

Startup Weekends are intense, three-day events. They work


well for participants and theres no need to try to reinvent or
compete. However, this 54-hour time commitment may
be a barrier to entry and could be working against getting
people behind ideas long-term.

How might we create a low-barrier entry point for each


community to connect that feeds into experiences like
Startup Weekend?

There is an opportunity to create speed dating style events


where entrepreneurs and designers can meet, learn about
one another in a structured format and network.

B oth communities would benefit from thinking of design


in broader terms, beyond visual communication.

How might we reframe the context in which design is viewed


in order to create value for both communities?

There is an opportunity to increase the scope and relevance


of design and design thinking in the context of business.

65

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES, DESIGN CRITERIA & REFRAMING

Startup Model

QUALITY
> The approach to quality is more flexible and
often the highest quality work is concentrated
on consumer touchpoints

Takeaway for Designers

COMMUNICATION CRITERIA
After completion of development, testing and validation of the prototypes,
models were created to highlight areas of alignment and divergence. These
models informed the creation of the following communication criteria:
> The final direction needs to communicate the areas in which startups and
design align or diverge, and how each community can work to create shared
understanding and meaning
> Opportunities for collaboration should be clearly present for both communities
> It should be acknowledged that each community will need to acculturate and
create conditions conducive to this objective
> Context should be clearly conveyed as early stage startups and design that
support the creation of a range of startup-related needs that extend beyond
visual touchpoints to include business model innovation, operationalization,
systems, process, planning, user experience, conceptualization and prototypes
> The creation of a method for creating shared vernacular or translation of
terminology between communities should be explored
> The presentation of data should be revised to reduce emphasis on research
outcomes and increase focus on relevant cultural issues, e.g. the concept of
good enough, ego and empathy balance, vulnerability in collaboration

APPROACH

> Understanding the context in which startups


function and learning when good enough is
best is a key takeaway for designers

> Through iterative process, validated


learning is prioritized over consistently
high-quality production of prototypes

> A long-term view is taken where capital is


to be preserved through limiting expense
in quality creation during early stage
development

Takeaway for Designers


> Designers should collaborate with
entrepreneurs to identify areas where
quality is crucial to learning outcomes,
and then apply design principles to
design prototypes that maximize
validated learning

EQUITY

QUALITY

Takeaway for Designers


> There is a need to develop lean design
practice to support development in early
stage startups and demonstrate the value
of design

APPROACH

EQUITY
VALIDITY

LEARNING
> Validated learning is the primary output
startups seek as a result of activity

LEARNING

CAPITAL
COST

Takeaway for Designers

CAPITAL
> Startups tend to function in lowinformation, high-risk situations where
capital is often a scarce resource
> Careful management of capital is an
essential tactic for any startup seeking to
extend its runway

> Validated learning is the path forward


that can provide designers with the
opportunity to do original, meaningful
work of the highest quality

Takeaway for Designers


COST

> Value is placed on validated learning and is


therefore an essential core cost for startups

> Designers should work in collaboration


with entrepreneurs to identify
opportunities to apply lean startup
principles in design, apply design thinking
to aid in reducing risk and to create
alternate forms of value creation

Takeaway for Designers


> Supporting validated learning efforts by
developing lean design principles and practice
is an area of opportunity for design

Figure 30. Startup model with takeaways for designers. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

66

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES, DESIGN CRITERIA & REFRAMING

Design Model

QUALITY
> The level of quality in the work produced by
designers is crucial to determining the value
of the work

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs

DESIGN CRITERIA
Design criteria support the goals of communication and collaboration between
the two communities.
> The design needs to render the information presented and the experience
offered accessible to both communities
> Visual language should support easy identification and recollection of
information that represents the beliefs, values and attitudes of each distinct
community
> Models should clearly visualize data in context for each community
> The relevance of data presented should be supported by clear connections
between research-driven insights and opportunities for change
> Visualizations should act as entry points for conversations around
collaboration, mutual understanding and shared meaning making

APPROACH
> Through iterative process quality is
increased incrementally and ultimately
prioritized as the end result of the
design process

> Understanding that a designers training


informs the approach to quality can help
an entrepreneur identify how and where to
effectively engage with a designer

QUALITY

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs


> Learning to clearly communicate which
type of prototype is neededlow-,
mid- or high-fidelitycan empower an
entrepreneur to get what he or she needs
from collaboration with a designer

EQUITY
> Designers tend to focus on short-term
project deliverables and less on building
equity unless they are partners in a
business

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs


> Entrepreneurs should communicate the
value of long-term thinking and seek
to create opportunities for equity
partnerships with the design community

APPROACH

EQUITY
VALIDITY

LEARNING
> Validated learning is a component in
the iterative process of design, not the
primary deliverable

LEARNING

CAPITAL
COST

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs


> Designers generally work within the
framework of a creative brief where
ambiguity may exist, but iterative design
processes seek to enable successful
delivery of a defined product
> When designers do engage in highly
ambiguous projects, they often engage
in contextual research with design
researchers to create validated learning

CAPITAL
> Capital is generally readily available or
easily generated by designers because
they are working in a discipline with
established economic value

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs

COST

> Projects are managed to conform with


predetermined budgets that include hours
estimates and cost controls related to scope

> Designers are accustomed to working in a


fee-for-service model
> Entrepreneurs working to create alternate
forms of value creation should be flexible
and patient in their approach to engaging
designers who they are essentially
seeking to acculturate to lean startup
methodology

Takeaway for Entrepreneurs


> Clear definition and communication of
expectations can help entrepreneurs and
designers to collaborate more effectively

Figure 31. Design model with takeaways for entrepreneurs. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

67

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES, DESIGN CRITERIA & REFRAMING

Reframing
SUMMARY
Reframing the project to extend to exploration of how to create
conditions conducive to realizing the opportunities presented by
the process of research, analysis, synthesis and insight. This may
include deeper discovery of the issues surrounding perceptions
of the two communities and with a goal of increasing dialogue
before a model of collaboration can be effectively developed.
More input from the startup and investment communities may be
needed.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT
& TESTING

69

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Prototype Ideas with PMI Analysis


CONCEPT 1: Collaborative Workshops

CONCEPT 2: Startup Design Consultancy

CONCEPT 3: Speed-Dating Style Meetups

As a means of facilitating collaboration, one-day workshops


could provide entrepreneurs and designers with a forum for
beginning to collaborate.

Viewed as a business opportunity, a design consultancy could


create opportunities for design by engaging startups with
streamlined service offerings.

As a way to simply connect the two communities with a lowbarrier-to-entry event, speed-dating style meetups would allow a
wide audience to engage with minimal time commitment.

PLUS > Opportunity for meaningful connection


over a longer time period (+3)
> Acts as an experience for modeling what
a working relationship might be like (+2)

+5

MINUS > Longer time commitment might


deter participation for valid, working
participants (-3)
> Duplicates events already offered in
market at a smaller scale (Startup
Weekend) (-5)
> Significant time commitment to set up
and facilitate (-4)
> Possible venue expenses translate into
higher costs and additional barriers (-4)

-16

INTERESTING > Could be an effective business idea (+2)


> Could facilitate connection between the
two communities in a new way (+4)
> Market could be limited and require
sponsorship to be viable long-term (-3)

+3

PLUS > Expertise in design and design thinking


could create competitive advantage for
both the consultancy and its clients (+5)
> Could establish leadership in market
through innovative funding that creates
shared value (+3)
MINUS > Requires significant capital to engage and
retain expertise (-5)
> Capital requirements could make the
service offering unsustainable without
alternate revenue streams (-3)

-8

INTERESTING > Real-world opportunities to advance the


conversation around the value of design in
startups (+3)
> C ompeting in a white space market by
solving a problem (ZAG) (+4)
> Opportunities for collaboration with
existing incubators and VC groups (+3)
> Competition for startups capital is intense
in many markets (-4)

+8

-8

+6
+6

PLUS > Creates opportunity and redefines how


the startup and design communities
initially come into contact (+4)
> Creates a low-barrier-to-entry model for
interaction (+4)

+8

MINUS > Limited-time interaction could also limit


meaningfulness of interactions (-3)
> Requires a wide platform for message
diffusion and partners to host events (-4)

-7

INTERESTING > Could function in collaboration with other


startup and design community events (+2)
> Could create an opportunity to partner
with Startup Weekend and act as a
feeder program (+4)
> Empowers communities to connect
through advocacy and facilitation without
having to control the outcomes (+2)
> Opportunities for collaboration with
existing incubators and VC groups (+3)

+11
+12

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

EXPLORATION OF DIVERSE CONCEPTS

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Project Management Lens


HYPOTHETICAL STARTUP & DESIGN
COLLABORATION ISSUES

CHALLENGES FOR
COLLABORATION
in startup
and design

ST

MANAGING TIME
> Number of hours
> Number of designers
> Planning process
> Milestones
> Go/No Go decisions

1 See Chapter 1 of Stones Managing the Design Process: Implementing Design (2010),
showing constraints in project management.

SCOPE

TIM

Traditional project management as presented by Stone, based on


PMI practice, involves scope, time and cost.1 Using this concept,
I thought it would be useful to combine the issues around each
of these with some of the elements of research data. This
concept led to the creation of the triads on the next page.
Of particular interest are the challenges of project planning,
expectations of quality and the potential for a startup to pivot.
These contribute to the somewhat ambiguous nature of startup
work. While many designers are accustomed to working with
indeterminate outcomes in ambiguous workflow, in a startup
context this becomes challenging when overlaid with costcontrol issues, lean practice and the capital management needs
present in early stage startups.

DEFINING SCOPE
> Length of project
> Depth of project
> Number of touchpoints
> Features to be delivered
> Functionality
> Testing
> Potential for significant pivot

CO

71

CONTROLLING COSTS
> Bootstrapping
> Time commitment
> Number of designers
> Level of detail
> Quality expectations
> Form of payment
> Equipment needed
> Resources

Figure 32. Hypothetical startup and design collaboration issues. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Triads: Time
QUALITY

> Fee-based control


> Estimating is key
> Well-defined scope

RN

RN

TIME

in design
context

ST

ST

> Must be validated


> Essential to success
> Must build over time
> Contextual

> Expert approach


> Research based
> Usually rapid
> Contextual

LEA

TIME

in startup
context

ING

QUALITY

CO

> Bootstrapping
> Cost control
> Burn rate

> Significant initial quality


> Expected to improve over time

CO

The idea of mapping values into triads has been something I


have been thinking about since reading the Detailed Design
Project Management Triangle in Managing the Design Process:
Implementing Design earlier in the semester. This is rooted
in the idea that issues are often more complex than can be
efficiently mapped onto a continuum.
Two versions are shown here. The more detailed version
attempts to chart factors affected by time that each community
has in relation to quality, costs and learning. The simplified
version below them is another experiment with small multiples,
where a dot inside the triangle represents the level of
importance between the three elements to each community.

> Flexible approach


> Changes over time
> Applied to key areas
> Consumer touchpoints

ING

QUALITY, COST & LEARNING


IN STARTUP & DESIGN CONTEXT

LEA

72

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

Figure 33. Quality, cost and learning in startup and design context. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

73

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Process Lens
DESIGN PROCESS WITH STARTUP VIEW

TYPICAL PROJECT
ENTRY POINT FOR
DESIGNERS IN STARTUPS
> Concept and idea established
> Overall go/no go decision essentially made

After a meeting with Liz Sanders, a professor in the research


design field at The Ohio State University, in which we discussed
co-design as a potential area of exploration, I created this
process-based interpretation of how the design and startup
communities see iterative process.1 What was great about this
meeting was that Professor Sanders co-created the initial sketch
with me.
The model visualizes the difference between the typical entry
point for designers in the development of a project, versus the
entry point they are often brought in at in a startup context.

ADDITIONAL DATA POINTS


> MVP process in progress
> Validated learning

TYPICAL PROJECT
ENTRY POINT FOR
DESIGNERS
> Research
> Analysis
> Synthesis
> Insights

DATA COLLECTION PHASES

ADDITIONAL DATA POINTS


> Low- or mid-fidelity prototype testing
> Consumer feedback
> Insights and refinements

GO/NO GO DECISIONS
> High-fidelity prototypes
> Insights and refinements

ITERATIVE PROCESS PHASE

ENTREPRENEUR
1 See Chapter 1 of Sanders Convivial Toolbox: Generative Research for the Front End of
Design (2013), figure 1.4 showing the design development process.

DESIGNER

Figure 34. Design process with startup view. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

74

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Continuums
DIVERGENCE CHARTING
Continuums are effective in estimating each communitys
relationship to different values, attitudes and beliefs. Here I
have added notes that place each of these concepts in context to
demonstrate where the two communities diverge in key areas of
cost management, expectations of quality, iterative process, and
attitude and approach.

COST MANAGEMENT
Extend runway
Slow burn rate

EXPECTATIONS OF QUALITY
Increased risk
of failure

LOW
COST

Validated learning

HIGH
COST
Struggle to survive

Less learning

HIGH
QUALITY
Not good work

Great work

ATTITUDE AND APPROACH


More learning

FEW
ITERATIONS

Collaboration

MANY
ITERATIONS
Inaccurate

LOW
QUALITY

Profitable business

ITERATIVE PROCESS

Risk wasting capital

Validity

Indecisive

Cant hear designer

EMPATHY

EGO
Co-design

Cant hear user

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

Figure 35. Divergence charting of startup and design issues. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Theory of Change: Scenarios


STARTUPS

1 See the Theory of Change model in Kolkos Wicked Problems: Problems Worth Solving
(2012).

HIGH-COLLABORATION

> S tartup forms with a specific


idea
> L eadership has a single area
of expertise

> S tartup forms with a multidisciplinary team


> Areas of expertise represented
may include business,
technology and design

> P roduct with limited viability


or low validated learning
> S ingular focus on specific
features or feature clutter

> P roduct with more robust


opportunity to test and learn via
MVP model
> E ffective BML loop execution
> B alanced perspectives

> R educed validated learning per


prototype cycle
>A
 dditional cycles needed to
achieve validated learning
> F aster burn rate as startup seeks
to acquire skills/resources

>M
 ore validated learning
> F aster prototype cycles
> S lower burn rate enables
additional BML loops

> Shortened runway


>M
 ore failure cycles

> E xtend runway


> P otential to reduce the risk of
failure

LOW-COLLABORATION

HIGH-COLLABORATION

>D
 esigner working in isolation
> L imited or little ability to conduct
deep research

>D
 esigner works with a multidisciplinary team
> Areas of expertise represented
may include research, strategy,
and client collaboration

> R educed creative output


> F ewer options from which to
choose most promising concepts
>H
 igher chance of missing targets
>A
 dditional revision cycles

> F aster, more creative output


>M
 ore exploratory work resulting
in many concept options
> Increased chance of connecting
with target audience
> F ewer revisions, delegated

> F ewer opportunities


> L ess cost effective if scope of
work is not managed well
> P otential for attrition or churn
> F rustration

>M
 ore opportunities
> C ost effective if scope and
budget are managed well
>G
 rowing team members skills
>A
 dditional perspectives

> L imited growth as a design


professional, less diverse
> Potentially low margin
> S maller network, reduced
opportunity

>G
 rowth of team capabilities
> P otentially high margin
> L arger network, more
opportunity based in diverse
output

ACTIVITIES

LOW-COLLABORATION

OUTPUTS

While exploring the link in this unit to Jon Kolkos Wicked


Problems website, I came across a framework for his Theory of
Change.1 I took this framework and overlaid two scenarios for
each of my communities within it to produce short- and longterm outcomes based on low- and high-collaboration work flows.

DESIGN

SHORT-TERM OUTCOME

SUMMARY

LONG-TERM OUTCOME

75

Figure 36. Theory of change: Scenarios. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPING

77

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Chosen Concept: Prototype Overview


ENGAGE

PERSUADE

PECHA
KUCHA

TWITTERFED GUEST
BLOG

CONNECT

STARTUPS

ACTIVATE

DESIGN

STARTUP
COMMUNITY

LAUNCHHOUR EVENTS
Engage potential community members in a
neutral setting with a platform that offers a
wide reach for entering into discussion about
the challenges surrounding collaboration
between startups and design.

Persuade community members to consider


further engagement by involving subject
matter experts in debate around the
challenges.

Connect communities via low barrier to entry,


one-hour, speed-dating style events where
entrepreneurs and designers can connect.

Present additional opportunities


for engagement with the startup community
through various events like Startup Weekend,
Wakeup Startup or Sundown Rundown.

Figure 37. Prototype overview. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

78

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Test Prototype


Innovation Adopter Categories

SUMMARY
A Pecha Kucha style presentation will act as both a way to
introduce key insights and opportunities for the startup and
design communities, and as a platform for introducing the
concept of LaunchHour events.
Five slides showing key concept takeaways will be developed
to test the insights derived from research with each of the
communities and provide a means of feedback.

Are design people


really like entrepreneurs
are they leap off the cliff
kind of people?

Aha!

INNOVATOR

EARLY ADOPTER

EARLY MAJORITY

ENTREPRENEUR

DESIGNER

LATE MAJORITY

54 Hours

LAGGARDS

BLENDED

In November of 2013, I attended Startup Weekend. Design as a discipline was

Thats when I had the aha moment that design thinkers strive forwe have

So, I dive into the research and synthesis, and this was my first surprise.

Has anyone experienced Startup Weekend?

under-represented and so I decided to take a deep dive into researching the

a culture that applauds the rarefied company that makes design the competitive

Looking at this data visualization, we see entrepreneurs are generally earlier

I love Startup Weekend and I have nothing bad to say about it, but if youre not a

innovation adopters than designers.

natural innovator, how likely would you be to make this sort of low-information,

attitudes, beliefs and values of the startup and design communities in order

advantagethink Apple or Herman Millerbut whos working to change

to create a new model of interaction as my final project for my M.A. in Design

the culture in business now, so that the next generation of entrepreneurs

Management.

values design?

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 1

PAGE 2

high-risk decision to commit 54 hours to a startup?

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 3

Can we have a coherent


conversation, gather some
ideas and get people
behind them?

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 4

In startup stage,
team matters more
than customers
belief is critical.

Out of all the


components:
business, design and
techthe holy trinity
of startupsdesign
is the most powerful
in creating that
emotional reaction.

STARTUPS

DESIGN

HUMAN
BEHAVIOR
MENTAL
MODEL

MENTAL
MODEL
SHARED
MEANING

In other words, how can we lower the barrier to entry to get more designers

Lets rewind a bit. Heres a quote from an interview about how we might work

involved? And by lower the barrier to entry, I dont mean creating Startup

together as designers and entrepreneurs.

Because after all, we need each other.

I think we have to create a shared understanding

Afternoon. I mean how can we connect the two communities, create shared
meaning and increase engagement?

If we want to get to Yes so that we can collaborate more effectively,

of where we align and where we diverge in a few crucial areas:


After reflecting on that quote, right now, I believe the answer is Not likely.

quality, capital, attitude and approach.

As a design thinker, I dont like that result. How can we change not likely into
Yes?

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 5

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 6

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 7

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 8

Figure 38. Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Test Prototype. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

79

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Test Prototype


Time: Value creation sought
Minimal learning

Design is valuable in
startups because we
allow thinking about
what if?

Validated learning

FEW
ITERATIONS

MANY
ITERATIONS
Inaccurate

Valid

Validated learning

Risk wasting capital

LOW
QUALITY

Indecisive

L
STARTUPS

HIGH
QUALITY
Not good work

Extend runway
Slow burn rate

Perfect is the enemy of anyone


trying to build anything.

Increased risk
of failure

LOW
COST

Great work

HIGH
COST
Increased risk
of failure

Profitable business

DESIGN

Lets begin with approach. Design and lean startup methodology share a common

All this iteration costs time and time is related to money. How each community

These are Triadsa tool I created to visualize how a community assigns value

Understanding this relationship to quality is key because how and where time is

If designers can understand the context in which they are working and act more

Now, this is where we really diverge. One of the biggest constraints many startups

belief in the value of iterative process to produce valid results. Where they diverge

spends time and the value they are seeking as a return on that investment

to factors that affect its success.

spent to create quality is an area of opportunity for design.

like entrepreneurs in early stage startups, that creates greater opportunities for

face is capital. Where to get it, where to spend it, where to get more of it.

is around how much iteration is needed to establish validity.

tells us more about where they diverge.

collaboration and, by extension, design as a discipline.

So they bootstrap everything, including design.

After all, creativity blossoms under constraints.

Design is often at the opposite end of the continuum.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

Most of you have heard you can get design good, fast or cheap; pick two.
This is my version, except here we have quality, cost and learning.

Startups are trying to convert time into learning and have a more flexible
relationship with quality. Design is all about converting time into quality and profit.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 9

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 10

PAGE 11

Collaboration

We need to challenge, not


perpetuate, the idea that creative
services have to be fee-for-service.

EGO
Co-design

As a design manager, I believe opportunity often looks a lot like a challenge.

PAGE 12

In startups you have


to be willing to ask for
help, look vulnerable,
be super humble and
bluntly sincere.

Cant hear designer

EMPATHY

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 13

PAGE 14

Design becomes a
connective thread.

Cant hear user

Last continuum . . .

This is a quote about the interactions of anyone working in a startup,

So whats the solution? I think design, if it does what it does best,

I believe in this idea. I believe in it so much that Im now working on ways

If anything youve heard resonated, lets chat.

but I think it has wider application.

can solve that in collaboration with startups.

to lower the barriers to entry into the startup community for designers,

If you heard something that didnt, lets chat.

Its an attitude.

create conversation around the issues identified here

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 15

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 16

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 17

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 18

PAGE 19

and engage both communities in co-design of solutions.

Thanks.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V1

PAGE 20

Figure 38. Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Test Prototype. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

80

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Launch Hour: Conversations Designed for Startups


SUMMARY
Launch hour is a 60-minute event designed to allow
entrepreneurs and designers to interact and build their networks.
The format is simple: a catered lunch, four minutes of
introductions, a Pecha Kucha style presentation and 50 minutes
of speed-dating style conversation.
At the end participants can elect to exchange contact
information with others and will be provided with information
about other local startup and design events. Every participant
receives an event sticker and a call to action to follow the
Launch Hour Conversation Blog.

Facilitator
Entrepreneurs

Designers

Figure 39. LaunchHour events: Conversations designed for startups showing event facilitation setup. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

81

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Stickers
SUMMARY
Stickers: they can be conversation starters, badges of honor and
visible identification of tribe status.
Every Launch Hour Series will have a unique sticker, designed by
a Launch Hour alumni that will be distributed to attendees of the
event.
As a simple, low-cost touchpoint stickers will act as a way to
involve participants in shaping the identity of the brand, build a
community around the events and as a form of advertising.

Figure 40. Decals. Reprinted from flickr, D. Tan, 2013, Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1i7AUI5.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic by David Tan. Reprinted with permission.

82

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Launch Hour Conversation: Blog Wireframes


SUMMARY

LANDING PAGE

TWITTER DISCUSSION FEED

Launch Hour Conversation is a concept blog. Populated by


a topical Twitter exchange between an entrepreneur and a
designer or design thinker, its limited-character guest blogging
designed to offer readers a running commentary on issues
relevant to collaboration between these communities.
Exchanges would take place over a three day period, be limited
to 10 tweets per participant and would be brief enough that
readers could stay up-to-date with the blog during their lunch
hour smart phone time.

Figure 41. LaunchHour conversation: Blog wireframes. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

CONCEPT TESTING

84

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Concept Testing: Results


SUMMARY
Testing was conducted with two design research students from
The Ohio State University on February 21, 2014, and with an
early stage entrepreneur on February 24, 2014. Each participant
was provided with an overview of the project, the Pecha Kucha
presentation, blog wireframes and journey maps. 1520 minutes
were allotted for review of the prototype materials with limited
interaction with the facilitator. Post-it notes and markers
were provided to facilitate markup, feedback and discussion.
Participants were required to sign SCAD Consent forms.
Concept testing of the prototypes primarily focused on the
Pecha Kucha presentation, which contains the essential insights
and opportunities for startups and design. An overview of the
complete prototype experience, additional models that were
relevant to discussions, and journey maps were reviewed to
support discussions and act as a litmus test for validity.
The working wall shows the resulting marked-up test pages,
as well as sticky notes showing comments derived from postreview discussions with reviewers.
REVIEWER NOTES

FACILITATOR NOTES

ANALYSIS NOTES

Figure 42. Concept testing working wall. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

85

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Concept Testing: Analysis


OBSERVATIONS

TAKEAWAYS

Recurring themes that emerged from the review of the prototypes included:

Broad takeaways from testing include:

> It may be unclear in some touchpoints how startups and design are being defined

> Overall the concepts resonated with representatives of both communities

> Some of the models are too simple and some of the models are too complex

> Each community tended to focus on the areas of the prototypes that were relevant to its

> Some of the data points in the models may be redundant


> Financial measures may be convoluted and need clarification
> There needs to be a stronger connection between the classification of respondents

into Innovation Adopter Categories and the relevance to the behavior of designers
> Color-coding may not be overt enough for viewers
> Some presentation elements may need alternate visual support (photos)
> Presentation may be too focused on research
> Some additional concepts to consider: good enough, ego, asking for help

discipline
> Consideration of the reviewers perspective during prototype testing and analysis is crucial

to formulating relevant takeaways


> Continuity in models across the presentation (i.e. all continuums) is not as important as

creating models that effectively visualize the data in context for each community
> Less focus on the visualization of research outcomes and greater focus on presentation of

change opportunities in both communities could make the presentation more accessible to
a wider audience
> Revised design criteria based on prototype testing should be used to guide model revision

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Concept Testing: Validation


CORRELATION WITH RESEARCH-BASED KEY INSIGHTS

KEY INSIGHTS

Concept testing supports that there is a need to lower the barriers to entry into the startup
community for designers, and that there is an opportunity for designers to adapt their
approach to work in order to create value. With both communities, these themes were
broadly defined as issues of quality, capital, attitude and approach. After further analysis,
two mental models have been created to illustrate where the communities align and diverge
in order to inform the creation of final design criteria.

> E ntrepreneurs generally value the work of designers and may have a better
understanding of the challenges to working together than designers do.
> Design

thinking should be wrestling with the concept of good enough. Issues of
approachability and affordability must be solved or opportunities to do great work may
be missed.
> B oth communities are motivated by meaning making.
> T here is a persistent perception that design is fee-for-service.
> S tartup Weekends are intense, three-day events. They work well for participants and
theres no need to try to reinvent or compete. However, this 54-hour time commitment
may be a barrier to entry and could be working against getting people behind ideas
long-term.
> B oth communities would benefit from thinking of design in broader terms, beyond
visual communication.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Final Prototype
SUMMARY
The final direction based on prototype testing of LaunchHour is to primarily create a meetup
venue for members of the startup and design communities, where multi-disciplinary
networking can begin. This goal will be supported by live presentations, social media
exchange and event facilitation. The organization itself is intended to function as a lean
startup so as to be a real-world demonstration of the application of learning from this case
study. Initial Minimum Viable Product touchpoints will include:
> A revised Pecha Kucha presentation designed to educate and incite conversation and

collaboration
> A detailed design for facilitation of LaunchHour events
> Brand identity and relevant touchpoints as presented in journey maps
> Creation of mid-fidelity wireframes for the LaunchHour blog

Each of these touchpoints should aid in advancing conversation about the issues of quality,
capital, attitude and approach in the two communities.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Identity
RATIONALE

LOGOTYPE

CLEARSPACE

Our logo is not our brand, but it is a representation


of who we are. We are connected, collaborative and
curious.
We believe the stylized capital L overlapping the H is
both iconic and curiousa symbol designed to invite
inquiry and act as an identifier for those in the know
about startup and design culture. It is something to be
decoded, intentionally not immediately obvious, and
rewarding for those who are curious enough to uncover
its latent meaning.
A note on process: As a test of lean design process the identity
for LaunchHour was created, tested and revised in one day.

SIGNATURE MARK

Figure 43. LaunchHour Identity. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Typography
OFFLINE

STARTUP WITH
DESIGN

ONLINE

PRINT HEADLINES: FF DIN LIGHT & BOLD


ALL CAPS (LEADING = TO TYPEFACE SIZE, OPTICAL ALIGNMENT)

WEB HEADLINES: GOOGLE FONTS SOURCE SANS PRO LIGHT 300 & SEMI-BOLD 600
ALT HELVETICA & HELVETICA BOLD

Fuel the design of your startup


at LaunchHour March 13, 1pm.

Fuel the design of your startup at


LaunchHour March 13, 1pm.

PRINT HEADLINES: FF DIN MEDIUM


U/lc (LEADING = TO TYPEFACE SIZE, OPTICAL ALIGNMENT)

WEB SUBHEADS & MOBILE TITLES: ARIAL REGULAR


U/lc

We connect entrepreneurs and designers, help them to create


shared meaning and empower collaboration. Join us at Location,
Street, City ZIP ZIP to discover how you can startup with design.

We connect entrepreneurs and designers, help them to create


shared meaning and empower collaboration. Join us at Location,
Street, City ZIP ZIP to discover how you can startup with design.

PRINT TEXT: FF DIN LIGHT


U/lc (LEADING = AUTO, METRICS ALIGNMENT)

WEB TEXT: ARIAL REGULAR


U/lc

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Graphic & Color Standards


GRAPHICS

EVENT MAPS

CMYK PRIMARY PALETTE

0/90/95/0

0/0/0/100

0/0/0/0

RGB PRIMARY PALETTE

234/82/42

0/0/0

255/255/255

CMYK SECONDARY PALETTE

0/0/0/70

0/10/100/30

100/9/46/65

RGB SECONDARY PALETTE

109/109/109

191/165/0

0/77/74

COLOR HIERARCHY

CANDID BLACK & WHITE EVENT PHOTOS


Halftone screen treatment

STAMEN MAPS
Toner style

Figure 44. Candid event photo. Reprinted from flickr, ttnk, 2012, Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1frZ0ZI.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic by ttnk. Reprinted with permission.
Figure 45. Stamen maps 10th & Peachtree St, Atlanta, GA. Reprinted from maps.stamen.com, 2014, Retrieved from http://maps.stamen.com/toner/#16/33.7830/-84.3836.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported by Stamen Design. Reprinted with permission.
.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Storyboard: 14


SUMMARY
The final Pecha Kucha-style presentation has been revised to compress the
presentation of research data into key points and add emphasis on areas
of alignment and divergence between the communities, and to present
opportunities relevant to these insights.
The presentation will act as both a way to introduce these key insights and
provide opportunities for the startup and design communities, and as a platform
for engaging audience members in further discussion. This is not a sales pitch
for LaunchHour, but rather a forum for engaging in discussions that can broaden
the appeal of collaboration with startups for designers. The goal is to create
awareness within the startup community about designs ability to contribute
value in the context of startups and to help designers understand this context.

Aha!

Are design people


really like entrepreneurs
are they leap off the cliff
kind of people?

00:20
In November
of 2013 I participated in Startup Weekend. Design as a discipline
Slide
1
VO: In
November
ofand
2013,
I participated
in Startup
Weekend.the
was under represented
so I decided
to take a deep
dive into researching
Design as a discipline was under-represented and so I decided
the early-stagethe
startup
and design
communities
toattitudes,
take a beliefs
deep and
divevalues
intoofresearching
attitudes,
beliefs
and
values of
the
early
stage
startup
and
design
communities
in order to create a new model of interaction as my final project
in order to create a new model of interaction as my final
for my M.A. in Design Management.
project for my M.A.
in Design Management.

Innovation Adopter Categories


INNOVATOR

EARLY ADOPTER

EARLY MAJORITY

LATE MAJORITY

DESIGNER

Thats when
Slide
2 I had the A-ha moment that designer strive forwe have a culture
Vthat
O: Thats
I had
thedesign
aha ismoment
that designer
strive
applauds when
companies
where
the competitive
advantage, think
Apple or
forwe have a culture that applauds companies where design
Herman
Miller, but advantagethink
whos working to changeApple
the culture
in businessMiller
now,
is the
competitive
or Herman
but whossoworking
to change
culture in business
now,
that the next
generationthe
of entrepreneurs
value design?
so that the next generation of entrepreneurs values design?

54 Hours?

LAGGARDS

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

ENTREPRENEUR

00:40

BLENDED

01:00
So,3I dive into the research and synthesis and this was my first surprise.
Slide
VO: So,
dive
the research
andentrepreneurs
synthesis,are
and
this was
LookingI at
this into
data visualization,
we see
generally
earlier
my first surprise. Looking at this data visualization, we see
designers. adopters than
entrepreneurs are innovation
generallyadopters
earlierthan
innovation
designers.

01:20
Has anyone experienced Startup Weekend?
Slide 4
VO: Has
anyone
experienced
StartupbadWeekend?
I love Startup Weekend
and I have nothing
to say about Iit,love
but ifStartup
youre a
Weekend and I have nothing bad to say about it, but if youre
and not
innovator, innovator,
how likely would
be to make
thisyou
sort of
adesigner
designer
anda natural
not a natural
howyoulikely
would
be to make
this sorthigh-risk
of low-information,
low-information,
decision to commithigh-risk
54 hours to decision
a startup? to
commit 54 hours to a startup?

Figure 46. LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Storyboards. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

93

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Storyboard: 512


ENTREPRENEUR

In startup stage,
team matters more
than customers
belief is critical.

DESIGNER

SHARED
MEANING
MENTAL
MODEL

MENTAL
MODEL

01:40

Slide
5 words, how can we lower the barrier to entry to get more designers
In other
VO: In
other words, how can we lower the barrier to entry to
involved? To do this I think we have to create shared meaning by beginning to
get more designers involved? To do this I think we have to
understand
we align
where we diverge
in a few crucial
areas:
create
sharedwhere
meaning
byand
beginning
to understand
where
we align
and
wherethewe
diverge
a few crucial
areas:
iterative
approach,
value
of time,in
expectations
of quality
and capital.
iterative approach, the value of time, expectations of quality
and capital.

Iterative Process

Out of all the


components:
business, design and
techthe holy trinity
of startupsdesign
is the most powerful
in creating that
emotional reaction.

02:00

Slide 6
Because after all, we need each other.
VO: Because, after all, we need each other.

Startups
Slide
9 are trying to convert time spent in iterative process into validated
VO: Startups
trying
to convert
time
in iterative
learning. are
Design
is all about
converting
timespent
into quality
and profit.
process into validated learning. Design is all about converting
time into quality and profit.
In practical terms this means that startups tend to have

In practical terms this means that startups tend to have a more


a more flexible relationship with quality.
flexible relationship
with quality.

03:20
Understanding
Slide
10 this relationship to quality is key because how and where time is
VO: Understanding
this
relationship
quality for
is key
because
spent to create
quality
is an area ofto
opportunity
design.
how and where time is spent to create quality is an area of
opportunity for design. If designers can understand the context
inIf which
are working
and act
morethey
likeareentrepreneurs
designersthey
can understand
the context
in which
working and act more
in early stage startups, that creates greater opportunities for
like entrepreneurs in early stage startups, that creates greater opportunities for
collaboration
and, by extension design, as a discipline.
collaboration and by extension design as a discipline.

02:40
Validity 8
is important to both communities, but it plays a crucial role in the life of a
Slide
Vstartup.
O: Validity
is important to both communities, but it plays
How each community spends time in pursuit of validity and the value they
a crucial role in the life of a startup. How each community
are seeking
as a in
return
on thatofinvestment
more
aboutitwhere
they diverge.
spends
time
pursuit
validity tells
andusthe
value
is seeking
as a return on that investment tells us more about where it
diverges.

In startups you have


to be willing to ask for
help, look vulnerable,
be super humble
PECHA and
KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2
bluntly sincere.

We need to challenge, not


perpetuate, the idea that creative
PRESO DRAFT V2
services PECHA
haveKUCHA
to be
fee-for-service.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

03:00

02:20

Slide
7 with approach. Design and lean startup methodology align around a
Lets begin
Vshared
O: Lets
begin with approach. Design and lean startup
belief in the value of iterative process to produce valid results. Where they
methodology align around a shared belief in the value of
diverge
is around
much iteration
is neededWhere
to establish
validity.
iterative
process
to how
produce
valid results.
they
diverge
is around how much iteration is needed to establish validity.

Perfect is the enemy of anyone


trying to build anything.
PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

Design is valuable in
startups because we
allow thinking about
what if?

03:40

Slide
After all,11
creativity blossoms under constraints. And, one of the biggest constraints
Vmany
O: After
all, creativity blossoms under constraints. And, one
startups are navigating is capital. Where to get it, where to spend it, where
of the biggest constraints many startups are navigating is
get moretoofget
it. Soit,they
bootstrap
everything,
includingto
design.
capital.toWhere
where
to spend
it, where
get more
of it. So they bootstrap everything, including design.

04:00

Slide
So, with12
all of these divergent goals and values, what can each group do to create
VO: So,
with all of these divergent goals and values, what
shared meaning that enables collaboration in the startup space ? As a design
can each group do to create shared meaning that enables
manager I believe
often
looks a? lot
challenge.
Its an attitude.
collaboration
in opportunity
the startup
space
Aslikea adesign
manager,
I
believe opportunity often looks a lot like a challenge. Its an
attitude.

Figure 46. LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Storyboards. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

94

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style Presentation Storyboard: 1320


Iterative Process

04:20

SlideFrom
13 a design perspective, there is a need to become more versatile
VO: From
design
perspective,
there
is aandneed
to become
more
by pushingapast
the boundaries
of Creative
Suite
into other
existing tools
versatile by pushing past the boundaries of Creative Suite and
iteration.
into other existing tools that
thatspeed
speed
iteration.

04:40
In the online
Slide
14 development space Balsamic is a great example. Its essentially drag
VO: Inandthe
online
development
space,
Balsamic
is a great
drop
visual language
for creating
low-fidelity
wireframes.
Brilliant.
example. Its essentially drag and drop visual language for
creating low-fidelity wireframes. Brilliant.
Whats the customer journey map version of this?

Whats the customer journey map version of this?

05:00
Theres
Slide
15also a need for the discipline of design to grapple with the concept of
VO: Theres also a need forGood
the enough.
discipline of design to grapple
with the concept of Good enough. We need to balance our
ingrained need to always seek the highest quality, with an
understanding
that
startup
thesewith
We need to balance
ourwithin
ingrainedearly
need stage
to always
seek thecontext
highest quality
tendencies work against success. Good enough is a valid
an understanding that within early-stage startup context these tendencies work
design
decision in this context.

05:20

Slide From
16 a startup perspective, entrepreneurs need to understand that
Vpart
O: From
startup
perspective,
entrepreneurs
toinformation.
of what adrives
designers
in iterative process
is that they need
thrive on
understand that part of what drives designers in iterative
Information
to a designers.
Good designers consider context as
process
is thatis crucial
they thrive
on information.
a key element in their decision process.

Information is crucial to a designers. Good designers consider


context as a key element in their decision process.

against success. Good enough is a valid design decision in this context.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

Can we have a coherent


conversation, gather some
ideas and get people
PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2
behind them?

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

05:40
So dont
Slide
17hold back. Share everything you know about the project. This type of
VO: So
dont hold
back.
Share
everything
youandknow
about
collaborative
approach
prevents
duplication
of effort
preserves
capital.
the project. This type of collaborative approach prevents
duplication of effort and preserves capital.

06:00
Startups18
also need to be more transparent about capitalization and more receptive
Slide
VtoO: Startups
also
needexchange
to be more
about
alternate forms
of value
with thetransparent
design community.
Some alternate
capitalization and more receptive to alternate forms of value
models
include
for equity,
royalty agreements
and licensing.
exchange
with
the work
design
community.
Some alternate
models
include work for equity, royalty agreements and licensing.

PECHA KUCHA PRESO DRAFT V2

06:20
As a closing
Slide
19 thought, heres a quote from an interview about how we might work
VO: As a closingtogether
thought,
heres aand
quote
from an interview
as designers
entrepreneurs.
about how we might work together as designers and
entrepreneurs.

I think we can.

I think we can.

06:40

Slide
20now working on ways to lower the barriers to entry into the startup
So, Im
VO: So,
Im now working on ways to lower the barriers to entry
community for designers, create conversation around the issues identified here
into the startup community for designers, create conversation
engage
both communities
in co-design
solutions.
around theand
issues
identified
here and
engageof both
communities
in co-design of solutions. If anything youve heard resonated,
lets chat. If you heard something that didnt, lets chat. Thanks.
If anything youve heard resonated, lets chat.

Figure 46. LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-Style


Storyboards.
Authors
image, March 11, 2014.
If you heardPresentation
something that
didnt, lets
chat. Thanks.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Conversation: Mid-fidelity Blog Prototype


SUMMARY
LaunchHour Conversation is a concept blog. Upon review
with test users, it was well received and remains unchanged
from prototype with the exception of moving from low-fidelity
wireframes to a mid-fidelity mockup.
Populated by a topical Twitter exchange between an
entrepreneur and a designer or design thinker, it is limitedcharacter guest blogging designed to offer readers a running
commentary on issues relevant to collaboration between these
communities.
Exchanges would take place over a three-day period, be limited
to 10 Tweets per participant and would be brief enough that
readers could stay up to date with the blog during their lunch
hour smartphone time.

Figure 47. LaunchHour Conversation: Mid-fidelity Blog Prototype. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

96

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Events: Conversations Designed for Startups


SUMMARY
LaunchHour is a 60-minute event designed to allow
entrepreneurs and designers to interact and build their networks.
The format is simple: a catered lunch, four minutes of
introductions, a Pecha Kucha-style presentation and 50 minutes
of speed-dating style conversation.
At the end, participants can elect to exchange contact
information with others and will be provided with information
about other local startup and design events. Every participant
receives an event sticker and a call to action to follow the
LaunchHour Conversation Blog.

Facilitator
Entrepreneurs

Screen or TV

Designers

Figure 48. LaunchHour Events: Conversations Designed for Startups. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Events: Facilitation Plan


OVERVIEW

KEY IDEA

LaunchHour is an hour-long, speed-dating style event designed to help participants connect and create
a shared understanding of how entrepreneurs and designers can collaborate. By briefly presenting four
key themes for discussion and then providing 50 minutes of time in which participants can make 5 new
network connections, were creating conditions for collaboration and change.

LaunchHour provides an opportunity for initial engagement between entrepreneurs and designers that
supports learning and features a minimal time commitment to create a low-barrier-to-entry event that
introduces entrepreneurs to designers, and designers to the startup community.

SUPPLIES & RESOURCES


> Catered lunch
> Name tags
> 5 tables & 11 chairs

> Laptop
> Projector or TV
> Partner event slides

ACTIVITY PLAN (See Appendix for Detailed Design)


STEP

TIME

FACILITATORS INSTRUCTIONS

PARTICIPANT ACTIONS

1. Pre-event welcome and sign in.

10 minutes

Welcome participants, sign them in, instruct them to help themselves to lunch and find a seat.

Sign in, grab lunch, find a seat.

2. Introduction to event and format

2 minutes

Introduce the event, its format and goal.

Lunch and listen.

3. Theme presentation

6 minutes

Present Pecha Kucha-style presentation of background and discussion themes.

Lunch and listen.

4. 10-minute participant interactions (x5)

50 minutes

Provide instructions, time exchange sessions, provide 1-minute warnings.

Meet fellow participants, discuss themes of their choosing,


change seats when cued by facilitator.

5. Partner promotion and wrap-up

2 minutes

Present potential next steps and startup community opportunities,


thank participants and wrap up event.

Listen to event wrap-up and exchange information


with new network contacts of their choosing.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

LaunchHour Stickers & Buttons


SUMMARY

C
CAP

ITY KICKOFF

As conversation starters, badges of honor and visible


identification of tribe status, stickers and buttons are an
economical and iconic tactic for building brand recognition.
Every LaunchHour Series will have a unique sticker, designed by
a LaunchHour alumni, that will be distributed to attendees of the
event.
As a simple, low-cost touchpoint, stickers will act as a way to
involve participants in shaping the identity of the brand, build a
community around the events and be a form of advertising.
Buttons provide another collectible touchpoint for the brand.

Figure 49. LaunchHour Stickers and Buttons. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Business Model Canvas


FILLING IN THE GAPS
SWOT analysis of each of the Business Model Canvas building
blocks revealed additional opportunities for collaboration around
shared value creation and, in particular, a specific partner that
could benefit from content creation, as well as the creation of
new market opportunities that could complement their core
business.
The analysis also revealed gaps in planning that most startup
ventures need to address, including making financial projections
and areas of resources and activities that could effectively be
outsourced to a partner.
Clearer focus in the areas of aligning Customer Segments,
Customer Relationships and Channels also resulted.

Figure 50. Business model canvas. Reprinted from Business Model Generation, 2014, Retrieved from http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported by Business Model Foundry. Reprinted with permission.
.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Executive Summary


LAUNCHHOUR
LaunchHour is an event concept intended to facilitate connection, collaboration and shared
value creation within the startup and design communities. It has its roots in a case study
conducted by a design management graduate student into the values, beliefs and attitudes
of each of these communities, and is intended to create an entry point into startup culture
that can act as a gateway to deeper engagement.

To support these efforts, high-touch, personal assistance customer relationships will be


pursued and augmented with social media and guerrilla marketing tactics. Integral to
the business model is the creation of strategic alliances with existing startup and design
communities. We are not looking to create competitive events, but rather to contribute to the
overall good of each community in a social entrepreneurship role.

Research-based insights revealed key areas of opportunity to create a low-barrier-toentry experience for designers and entrepreneurs that would facilitate creation of shared
understanding between these communities, offer networking as a value add, and act as a
forum for advancing knowledge around the value design and design thinking can bring in
early stage startups through conversation and collaboration.

The long-term vision of the project is to create a scalable movement that can be replicated
nationwide, feed into events like Startup Weekend, and that will ultimately make meaning
by engaging a young generation of entrepreneurs and exposing them to the value of design
and design thinking as an innovative way to change the fundamental relationship between
design and business in the future.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Executive Summary


MANAGEMENT PROFILE

WHY WE ARE A WINNING TEAM

Startup Lead
An MBA graduate of The Ohio State Universitys Fisher College of Business, our startup lead
has worked as a concept director, social media strategist and a successful entrepreneur.
With deep expertise in consumer packaged goods, banking and social media spaces, she
brings a unique perspective to the business that is informed by more than 15 years of
experience. Her most recent startup effort is currently in beta testing with 1,000 users.

We have a passion for startups and design. The team brings deep, relevant subject
matter expertise backed by more than 30 years of real-world experience to the creation of
LaunchHour. Combined, we have created four successful startups and are currently involved
in two more.

Design Lead
Our design lead created his first startup in his late 20s and has worked as a designer,
creative director and entrepreneur. His brand-building experience spans the education,
financial, healthcare, insurance, professional sports and restaurant verticals. He is a
graduate of Savannah College of Art and Designs MA Design Management program and
runs a successful design thinking consultancy in Columbus, Ohio.
Facilitator
A self-professed startup junkie, our facilitator has attended or organized more than
20 Startup Weekend events, and has worked as a professional facilitator for 6 years.
Her previous experience as a founding member of a successful startup in the social
entrepreneurship space, and her experience as a user engagement manager, make her a
smart addition to the team. She is a graduate of Purdue Universitys Krannert School of
Management.

We are integrated with the local and national startup and design communities, consistently
demonstrate thought leadership as bloggers or guest bloggers, and have worked as
organizers of Startup Weekend.
We also believe in the principle of multi-disciplinary collaboration, and bring together a team
with a diverse background and a wide range of professional experiences that span multiple
industry verticals and markets.
In short, we are serial entrepreneurs. We understand the big picture challenges that startups
navigate, as well as the intricacies of running lean. And, we believe in the power of design
and design thinking to create competitive advantage.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Business Model


VISION

VALUE PROPOSITION

Our vision is to support design as a catalyst for success in startups.

For entrepreneurs and designers who are seeking ways to collaborate in order to create
disruptive innovation, our events offer a new model for interaction designed to dissolve
barriers and facilitate connection.

MISSION
Our mission is to create greater collaboration between entrepreneurs and designers by
facilitating connection, supporting learning, and continually adapting our approach to create
meaningful connections that result in the creation of competitive advantages in the startup
space.

VALUES
We believe in the power of design and design thinking to create competitive advantage.
We value multi-disciplinary collaboration, continual learning, lean practice, intuitive thinking
and logical action that supports the creation of shared meaning and value creation for our
communities.
We provide opportunities for the startup and design communities to connect, collaborate and
create shared value.

We do this by facilitating a maximum number of connections between entrepreneurs and


designers in a structured, informative format that requires a very limited time commitment.
Unlike other organizations that operate in frameworks primarily dedicated to either
discipline, which tend to stratify participants by function, our approach is based in research
that revealed the underlying mental models that each group holds in relation to the other in
order to suggest opportunities for how we might change our perceptionsso that we may
increase the odds of success in startupsby integrating design and design thinking as a key
competitive advantage.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Business Model


HOW OUR BUSINESS MODEL WORKS
Our model works by creating value for two niche
communities in a multi-sided platform model through
problem solving and by facilitating connections. It offers
key partners an opportunity to create strategic alliances
and joint ventures.
The business is designed to support social
entrepreneurship and is ultimately meant to be scalable,
and is designed to be replicated in other communities.
It may support consultancy efforts for the founders, but
ultimately is meant to benefit the startup and design
communities by sharing knowledge about design
thinking and lean methodology in order to create new
opportunities for design within the startup space.

Figure 50. Business model canvas. Reprinted from Business Model Generation, 2014, Retrieved from http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported by Business Model Foundry. Reprinted with permission.
.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: External Environment


THE ECONOMY

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS

The local economy as it relates to startup activity is vibrant and growing. TechColumbus
offers access to multiple sources of venture capital, including the Technology Concept
Funda $1 million fund that is a joint venture of The Ohio State University and Ohio Third
Frontier. Fundable, an active business crowd-funding platform, is also based in Columbus.

Competitor analysis revealed a robust local startup and design community. While there are
areas of overlap in the strategic offerings of these organizations, no single entity is currently
doing what LaunchHour is proposing in the market. It is believed that rather than view
these entities as competitors, they should be viewed as potential collaborators. An in-depth
competitor analysis can be found on pages 1022 of the process book.

MARKET ANALYSIS & KEY TRENDS


Within the market, there are organizations that offer a diverse range of services and
experiences including: access to advising and mentors, collaborative space, education,
design, ideation, industrial space, licensing and patent consulting, networking events, office
space, pitch platforms, capital and workshops. No one organization specializes in design
thinking as a core discipline.
Key trends include:
> A recognition of design as the competitive advantage, as evidenced by the cultural
phenomenon of addressing needs consumers never knew they had via design thinking
process.
> General and growing interest in startups and innovation from a heterogeneous population
of entrepreneurs, engineers, scientists, designers and developers as evidenced by the
popularity of events like Wakeup Startup, Sundown Rundown and Startup Weekend.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES
By positioning LaunchHour as an organization intended to create a flow of potential new
participants from the design community into existing startup community events, LaunchHour
both targets white space within the existing market and creates the opportunity for strategic
alliances that support its partners core businesses.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Roadmap
PROJECTS

MILESTONES

Financial Analysis
A detailed financial analysis that includes a break-even analysis, financial projections,
capital spending, operating costs and funding requirements must be created to support
pitching of the concept to strategic partners or investors.

> Creation of a presentation deck and supporting financial analysis to enable pitching of the
LaunchHour concept.

Brand Refinement
Continued refinement of the brand and its identity is recommended before consumer-facing
touchpoints can be used to promote the concept of LaunchHour.
Additional Pecha Kucha-style Presentation Testing and Refinement
Testing and refinement of the Pecha Kucha-style presentation should be conducted with a
wider user base to validate initial learning and inform refinement of the message. Separate,
audience-specific presentations may be needed to effectively communicate the idea of
LaunchHour in contexts appropriate to each community.
Pitch Creation
A pitch oriented toward strategic partners and investors should be created to support further
development of the concept.

> Creation of strategic alliances within the local startup and design communities to support
further development of LaunchHour.
> Identification of, and partnership with, a local organization to produce an inaugural
LaunchHour event.
> Presentation of the LaunchHour concept at local Pecha Kucha, Wakeup Startup or
Sundown Rundown events.
> Completion of four subsequent LaunchHour events that produce validated learning through
lean methodology to inform final concept prototype beta testing.
> Successfully pitch LaunchHour to an incubator or startup event organizer as a viable
extension of its core offering.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Implementation: Risk Analysis


LIMITING FACTORS

SPECIFIC RISKS & COUNTERMEASURES

Limiting factors in the development of LaunchHour include the possibility that there is a
finite local market for events, and that the ability to scale up to other locations will depend
on the level of support and exposure partner organizations are willing to engage in.

A very real risk for LaunchHour is that it will be perceived by other organizations within
the startup and design space as a competitor. In order to counteract this possibility, key
stakeholders in the startup, design and venture capital space should be engaged to create
strategic alliances that will support the development of LaunchHour as a partner.

Another limiting factor could be that there is a market saturation for events oriented toward
startups and that LaunchHour would need to prove its value proposition before garnering the
community support that would lead to wider adoption and diffusion of the concept.

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS


Critical to the success of LaunchHour is the need to clearly communicate its value in the
context of early stage startup design.
The need to gain alignment and support from key local stakeholders in each community, and
then the ability to convert that support into action.
The ability to use early events as lean, validated learning opportunities that can then be
used to support pitching the concept to a national event producer as a complementary
experience that feeds into national startup culture events such as Startup Weekend.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT: CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

QUALITY
> The level of quality in the work produced
should be matched to the target audience,
learning outcomes sought and cost
considerations

Takeaway for Collaboration

COLLABORATION MODEL: LEAN DESIGN


Engagements between entrepreneurs and designers should connect quality
and capital management to validated learning to facilitate discussions about
approach, equity and cost management issues. Creating these conditions for
clear understanding are the initial steps toward the types of meaning making
that will inform collaborative working relationships in a startup context.

APPROACH
> Iterative process should be designed
to serve the objectives of any project
in which entrepreneurs and designers
collaborate

Synthesis of data revealed areas of convergence and divergences that lead to


insights about the beliefs, values and attitudes that motivate behavior within
these communities. These insights revealed opportunities for the creation of a
new model of interaction informed by shared understanding and value creation.
The final prototype, LaunchHour, is designed to create conditions for
engagement and innovative collaboration between the communities, rather
than attempting to apply design thinking to solve the specific challenges each
community will grapple with. Individual awareness and discussion of these
challenges are the first steps toward greater collaboration.

QUALITY

Takeaway for Collaboration

EQUITY
> A shared vision for both short- and longterm objectives creates meaning and
context when managing quality
expectations and equity discussions

Takeaway for Collaboration

> The focus of collaborative projects


between entrepreneurs and designers
should be the outcomes, not the
process itself per se

> Getting on the same page about the


value sought through collaboration is a
good place to start for entrepreneurs
and designers

APPROACH

FINAL THOUGHTS
The genesis of this case study was curiosity about why there was not more
visible collaboration between designers and startups. By engaging both
communities in research an opportunity for mutual learning and connection was
created. One tangible initial outcome has been the creation of a connection
between the organizers of Startup Weekend and CSCA resulting in promotion of
Startup Weekend to CSCA members via event emails.

> Clear, detailed communication about the


level of quality required to meet objectives
is essential to success

EQUITY
VALIDITY

LEARNING
> Understanding the context and outcomes
being sought is essential for creating
validated learning

LEARNING

CAPITAL
COST

Takeaway for Collaboration

CAPITAL
> Discussions about capital should be
transparent and frequent, to maintain
lines of communication between
entrepreneurs and designers

Takeaway for Collaboration

> A framework that connects quality and


capital management to validated learning
provides context for both entrepreneur
and designer

COST

> Defining scope while remaining flexible in


ambiguous workflow, where there is shared
equity, makes cost management a priority for
both entrepreneur and designer

> Effective management of capital creates


opportunity for the startup and for design
as a discipline to connect design practice
to innovation in a tangible business
context

Takeaway for Collaboration


> Creating shared equity also creates focus on
cost management for all collaborators and
can help to guide decision making

Figure 51. Collaboration model for entrepreneurs and designers. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

109

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations
SUMMARY
There is opportunity for design management as a discipline to create the conditions for
meaning making and innovation by engaging a young generation of entrepreneurs and
exposing them to the value of design and design thinking as the pathway to change the
fundamental relationship between design and business in the future.
It is recommended that both communities work collaboratively to create lean design practice
that supports validated learning, new shared-value models that create equity for designers
as integral to entrepreneurship, and methods for advancing and disseminating this learning
as a means of driving startup success by leveraging design as the competitive advantage.
Readers of this case study should:
> Use, or seek out designers who use, and understand the value of lean design tools, e.g.
Balsamiq Mockups, GraphicBurger.com
> Support the creation of Creative Commons material like the Business Model Canvas
> Consider startup opportunities to create resources that facilitate lean design i.e. drag and
drop visual language tools, rapid prototyping, improved online surveys
> Explore tools that facilitate collaboration at a distance, e.g. Mural.ly, Huddle.net

As a final recommendation, the ideas presented here should be shared. In lean startup
practice the minimum viable product is designed to aid startups in shipping quickly to
generate validated learning. LaunchHour should function as a lean startup. In doing so, it
has the opportunity to not only act as a forum for advancing knowledge around the value of
design and design thinking in early stage startups, but also as a real-world demonstration of
how collaboration between entrepreneurs and designers can create shared value.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

REFERENCES

111

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES

Annotated Bibliography
ALPHABETICAL WITH SUMMARIES
Bann, C. L. (2009). An innovative view of the entrepreneur
through exploration of the lived experience of the entrepreneur
in startup of the business. Journal of Business & Economic
Studies, 15 (2), 6282.
SUMMARY

This phenomenological study examines the lived experiences


of entrepreneurs in early stage startups and provides a wealth
of first-person quotes to support the identification of eight
Emergent Entrepreneurial Themes found in the research. These
include areas of motivation, self-perception and identity,
societal interaction, values and empowerment. This provides
a framework for viewing the emotional and rational aspects
of entrepreneurship, an understanding of the challenges and
rewards entrepreneurs experience, and an insight that they are
motivated by a need for meaning making and value creation.
Beaudine, B. (2009). The power of who: You already know
everyone you need to know. New York, NY: Center Street.
SUMMARY

Mentorship and the theory of spheres of influence is the


focus in The Power of Who. Core to the idea is that everyone
has an inner circle of 12-3-1: Close friends, trusted advisors
and a best friend. From there, spheres of influence radiate
out to include Friends, Allies, Advocates, Acquaintances and
Fans. Understanding the power of each of these groups will
enable people to achieve their dreams and goals, according to
Beaudine.

Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design


Issues, 8 (2), 521.
SUMMARY

Wicked Problems in Design Thinking establishes historical


context for how design and other disciplines (arts and sciences)
think and relate, and the role of design in contemporary society.
The key concept of Rittels wicked problems is introduced and
reveals the indeterminate nature of much of the work designers
and design thinkers do, i.e. not linear, problem/solution type
thought but rather seeking to understand the relevance of
knowledge from other disciplines, and then conceive and plan
for a future that does not yet exist. Design thinking must be
integrative in its consideration of ideas about products, their
operational logic and how a persons desire and ability to use
products relate to their personal and social views.
Chrisman, J. J., & McMullan, W. E. (2004). Outsider assistance
as a knowledge resource for new venture survival. Journal of
Small Business Management, 42 (3), 229244.
SUMMARY

Chrisman and McMullan use data from a longitudinal study of


an outsider assistance program to support a theory that these
programs act as a unique knowledge resource for entrepreneurs
by providing both tacit and explicit knowledge to support higher
survival rates and better performance. A key concept presented
in the article is that knowledge often has value only when
presented in context of a specific venturing decision. It assumes
entrepreneurs often have a knowledge gap that needs to be

overcome in order to succeed. Four areas are identified as


potential gaps: know-why, know-what are explicit and can be
shared and are unlikely to support competitive advantage; knowhow and know-who are tacit and, as such, have the potential to
support the development of sustained competitive advantage.
The article supports these assumptions with quantitative
data culled from the study and concludes there is a causal
relationship between outsider assistance and long-term survival.
Christensen, C. & Overdorf, M. (2000, March-April). Meeting
the Challenge of Disruptive Change. Harvard Business Review,
March 2000, 103129.
SUMMARY

Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change examines how


resources, processes and values can limit a large companys
ability to manage the disruptive change (innovations) that smaller,
more nimble organizations often introduce into established
markets. Sustaining innovations are the playground of these
large companies, but disruptive innovations cause the markets
around them to change and, therefore, fundamentally change the
types of problems large companies are adept at. Whats more,
the predictable, process-driven nature of established companies
does not have a routine process for handling these intermittent
changeswhich is disruptive. A model for addressing these
types of changes is outlined and presented as a 2x2 that
measures an organizations values and process to map what
type of teamlightweight or heavyweightand what type of
approachinternal or spinoutis appropriate.

112

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES


De Bono, E. (1973). Lateral thinking: Creativity step by step. New
York, NY: Harper & Row.
SUMMARY

Lateral thinking is De Bonos framework for approaching problem


solving in which a thinker changes perceptual thought in order
to change patterns. Skills include intuitive leaps, iteration, nonsequential logic, holistic consideration and a focus on whats
possible and probable.
Dubberly, H., Evenson, S. & Robinson, R. (2008) The analysissynthesis bridge model. Interactions, 15 (2), 15.
SUMMARY

In this article by researchers Dubberly, Evenson and Robinson,


several models of design process are presented, most in a 2x2
format. These include the Robinson, Beer, Alexander, Kumar,
Kaiser-IDEO, Suri-IDEO and Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Models.
Each model presents a unique perspective on how designers and
design thinkers move from the concrete to the conceptual.
These models provide insightful and versatile tools for framing
RAS process.
Duck, K. (2012). Executing strategy: What designers can teach
project managers. Design Management Review, 23 (2), 2836.
SUMMARY

This article compares traditional approaches to project


management in the context of complex, highly ambiguous
projects with design-based methodology. A key insight is that
project managers are skilled in working on projects that function
in an environment of certainty and control, where risk can be
managed and minimized. Criteria are provided for identifying
a mismatch between project environments, examples of five
misguided approaches to problem solving in these situations are
reviewed and five new approaches derived from design practice
are presented. These include fostering belief; simplifying and
visualizing complex issues into a holistic, layered, physical, living

view that facilitates focus on significance; holding lightly to


plans while being flexible enough to respond to new information;
carefully naming project scope elements (agreeing on scope
and focus) as these often define solutions and when working
with wicked problems this can be detrimental to validity;
collaboration and conversation as central to constructing welldesigned team interactions that result in effectively addressing
big open questions in the context of the project. As an
approach to project management, the potential conflict with
senior project managers who believe their value is in knowing
all the answers is acknowledged. Designers are admonished
to realize that they need to take an ongoing role in complex
projects and the question of good enough is raised. The
ultimate goal is identified as delivering work with confidence
(relevancy) as opposed to simply with control.
Gladwell, M. (2013). David & goliath: Underdogs, misfits, and the
art of battling giants. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
SUMMARY

Gladwells David & Goliath delves into the concept that what
we have traditionally thought of as advantages can, at times,
actually be disadvantages. He offers a variety of cases from
multiple cultural viewpoints to support his hypothesis.
Godin, S. (2007). The dip: A little book that teaches you when to
quit (and when to stick). New York, NY: Penguin Group.
SUMMARY

Godins premise is that in order to truly succeed (be the best in


the world at something), people need to change how they quit.
He introduces the concept of the Dip: the long slog between
starting and mastery and the Cul-de-Sac: more or less a deadend. He urges readers to become strategic about their decisions
of what to start and when to quit (not in the Dip).

Godin, S. (2012). The icarus deception: How high will you fly?
New York, NY: Penguin Group
SUMMARY

Godin theorizes that we have been taught only part of the myth
of Icarus. That there is in fact a second part, rarely taught, in
which Daedalus also instructs Icarus not to fly too low as sea
spray may saturate his wings and cause him to crash. From this
worldview he builds a framework around every person being
an artist when they engage in the art of pursuing meaningful
work and genuine connection.
Greene, J. (2010). Design is how it works: How smart companies
turn products into icons. New York, NY: Portfolio Penguin.
SUMMARY

Design as the ultimate competitive advantage is the focus


with case studies of some of the most iconic brands operating
todayacross a variety of industry verticals in Design is How it
Works. As Greene weaves the stories of these brands together
across case studies, he builds a compelling case for how design
is more than just decoration and at its pinnacle it is design
thinking that informs the world-class design practice.
Heath, C. & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things
when change is hard. New York, NY: Random House.
SUMMARY

In Switch, Heath and Heath create a framework for managing


change. Beginning with the truism that for change to happen,
someone has to start acting differently. They frame the core
problem as one of personal conflict in which even if a persons
situation or environment is conducive to change, it is often
impeded by disagreements between heart and mind. They create
a framework that involves three key metaphors: The Rider,
The Elephant and The Path. These represent our rational side,
emotional side and our situation respectively. In order to effect
change, an effective appeal to both sides needs to be made and
these need to connect to a path that is clear.

113

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES


Hudson, R., Schroeder, D. M., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1984).
Designing new business startups: Entrepreneurial,
organizational, and ecological considerations. Journal of
Management, 10 (1), 87107.

stage development, but that in the long run these firms may
be more successful due to the effects of having more diverse
development (skills) as a result of collaboration.

SUMMARY

Johansson, F. (2006). The medici effect: What elephants &


epidemics can teach us about innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School Publishing.

The perspectives in this article are derived from a study of


the startup process from three approaches: entrepreneurial,
organizational and ecological. This is somewhat unique data
because it combines knowledge derived from more than one
approach. Five stages of development are identified within the
context of startups developing educational software. These
include: gestation, planning, contract, proprietary and multiple
product stages. Average time lines are established for each.
The article identifies key factors from the entrepreneurial
view that lead to success as being diverse backgrounds
and experiences possessed by the founder, a relatively low
perception of risk based in having a high internal locus of
control, a broader understanding of the business idea in context,
and a correlation between levels of personal investment and
levels of success.
In the organizational view, most followed the basic steps of
a PPM model, but more successful entrepreneurs paid less
attention to formal and careful documentation and more
attention to external factors, including having a broader network
of potential customers and consultants as well as a tendency
to begin by developing a market niche. Once the startup moved
forward, these entrepreneurs had greater personnel stability
in their organizations, had been almost twice as effective in
preserving capital in early stage development (bootstrapping),
had a single leader as the controlling manager, and tended to
work harder and allocate time more effectively.
Finally, the ecological view compares two approaches: the
population ecology model (competitive) and the collective
action view (collaborative). Each model has advantages and
disadvantages, but in the end it was found that the collective
action approach tended to put startups at a disadvantage in early

Kawasaki, G. (2004). The art of the start: The time-tested, battlehardened guide for anyone starting anything. New York, NY:
Penguin Group.
SUMMARY

SUMMARY

The Medici Effect makes a case for multi-disciplinary


collaboration as a means to produce innovation. The book
presents compelling case studies that highlight the power
of heterophily to spark insight, break down barriers between
disciplines and ignite change. As a practical guide, it also
recommends that to achieve the effect a persons network may
need to evolve and change.
Johnston, G., (2011, October 28). Doing rapid ethnography.
Retrieved from http://anthrostrategy.com/2011/10/28/doingrapid-ethnography/
SUMMARY

A brief article on how to best structure rapid ethnography


for success, Doing Rapid Ethnography includes principles for
creating a concise field guide and field book to focus research on
the why in question, seeking outliers or liminal group members
who may have generated keen insights into behavior, and
consideration of using multiple techniques that might be unique
methods to quickly generate triangulation.

The book on startups, circa 2004. Most of the principles and


practices outlined are directed at entrepreneurs and contain
salient topics, which include the principle of having a balanced
approach, causation, the concept of making meaning, pitching,
bootstrapping, recruiting, raising capital, partnering and giving
back. These ideas and a few others are elegantly organized as
Causation, Articulation, Activation, Proliferation and Obligation.
An essential resource for acculturation to how the startup
community thinks and (should) act.
Korunka, C., Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Mugler, J. (2003). The
entrepreneurial personality in the context of resources,
environment, and the startup processa configurational
approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28 (1), 2342.
SUMMARY

This interdisciplinary study uses a configurational approach to


analyze the personality of the entrepreneur in the context of
resources, environment and the startup process. The data shows
that within the configuration of the group studied that members
were characterized by strong personality traits, including a
need for achievement, locus of control, personal initiative and
a medium risk-taking propensity. They were more motivated by
self-realization than by a need for security. The study clustered
entrepreneurs into three categories. The most successful of
these was C3: The Networking Nascent Entrepreneurs with Risk
Avoidance Patterns, which is characterized by a person having a
good preconception of the conditions for the startup, a positive
position of security, strong resources and little outside pressure.

114

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES


Laurel, B. (2003). Design research: Methods and perspectives.
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
SUMMARY

This is an in-depth look at the practice of design research that


includes the concept of the Fuzzy Front End and the Advanced
Development Funnel (similar to Martins Knowledge Funnel).
Practical methodology of divergent and convergent thinking are
covered and the issue of indeterminacy surfaces in the form of
how disruptive change often involves the low-information, highrisk decisions that lead to innovation. Tools such as scenarios,
models and prototypes are espoused as helpful in lowering the
information barrier.
LeCompte, M. & Schensul J. (1999). Designing and conducting
ethnographic research. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
SUMMARY

An essential guide for the design of effective ethnographic


fieldwork. The book focuses on how to plan and execute
successful ethnography, provides examples of various methods
and approaches based on the types of qualitative data being
sought and as a practical guide to feasibility.
Linder, J. C. (2004). Transformational outsourcing. MIT Sloan
Management Review, Winter 2004, 5258.
SUMMARY

This article focuses on three areas of business where


transformational outsourcing is an effective change strategy. Of
interest here is its application to startups. In this context, it is
useful to facilitate significant, rapid change as an organization
scales up. In the example business provided, TiVo has mastered
the ability to have open-ended dialogues and investigative
problem solving within the realm of customer service. Within
this context, the company outsources this capability in order
to preserve first-mover advantage, gain benefits from flexible
capacity and variable cost without having to use capital and
management time to build this capacity from scratch internally.

Martin, B. & Hanington, B. (2012). Universal methods of design:


100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative
ideas, and design effective solutions. Beverly, MA: Rockport
Publishers.

opposing ideas in mind while working to create a new, better


mental model that solves the weaknesses in opposing models
while retaining their individual strengths.

SUMMARY

Meyer, M. H., & Marion, T. J. (2010). Innovating for


effectiveness: Lessons from design firms. Resource-Technology
Management, 53 (5), 2128.

Universal Methods presents an array of the most time-tested


and experimental methods of conducting research, analysis and
synthesis in the design processan invaluable resource for
design thinking.
Martin, R. (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is
the next competitive advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business
Press.
SUMMARY

Design of Business makes the case for design thinking as


integral to solving the tendencies of business to overwhelmingly
seek reliability at the cost of validity. Centering on the concept
of the Knowledge Funnel, Martin breaks down the typical path
businesses take in creating value, and unpacks why established
businesses and MBA programs train managers to seek reliability
and shun validity even though this practice ultimately leads
to irrelevance. He then proposes a new model that balances
the quest for reliability with the quest for validity with an
organizations structure, processes and culture.
Martin, R. (2009). The opposable mind: Winning through
integrative thinking. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
SUMMARY

In The Opposable Mind, the idea that integrative thinking, a


balanced left-brain/right-brain approach, is introduced along
with a model for developing the necessary components to
become an integrative thinker. Martin calls these components
the thinkers Personal Knowledge System. The system is
comprised of the Stance, Tools and Experiences of the
practitioner and enables him/her to effectively hold two

SUMMARY

This article reports the findings from a study of innovation


practice within design firms. The article identifies several
advantages derived from this approach. First, the use of
contextual research, empathic design and deep, focused
interviewing often lead to the uncovering of latent user needs
that lead to innovation. Second, thinking bigcreating an
entire use case and focusing on business model or process
transformationand then once large scale issues are tentatively
settled, shifting focus to every detail of the design in order to
move from just good to great. Third, by having flat, meritocratic
organizations design firms leverage multi-disciplinary teams to
create communities of expertise. Fourth, these firms approach
work in an agile, fluid manner that facilitates quickly building,
testing, improving and retesting in order to maximize learning
and minimize time to market. Finally, successful teams were
self-governed and used balance and judgment to navigate from
the fuzzy front end of design through to completion.
Neumeier, M. (2007). Zag: The number-one strategy of highperformance brands. Berkley, CA: New Riders.
SUMMARY

The collective brand strategy wisdom of Neumeier and many of


his contemporaries is assembled here as a quick guide to what
is termed ZAG: an approach to branding based in the idea that
companies must find white space to occupy where they can
establish onliness and operate in the good/different quadrant
of consumer experience. The book outlines ZAG as a 17-step
process for ensuring differentiation.

115

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES


Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation:
A handbook for visionaries, game changers and challengers.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

in traditional MBA programs to solve. Therefore, creativity, as


evidenced by design thinking, is necessary to innovate.

SUMMARY

Rode, V., & Vallaster, C. (2005). Corporate branding for start-ups:


The crucial role of entrepreneurs. Corporate Reputation Review,
8 (2), 121135.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York, NY:


Free Press.

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

This article outlines the results of a qualitative case study based


in a theory-generating mode of inquiry. It examines corporate
brand as a sum of corporate identity and image. Identity being
the internal elements of corporate culture, design, behavior and
communication, while image is the result of external interactions
with the companys audience.
Within the realm of corporate culture, a clear articulation
of the companys core business, values and market position
are identified as essential while operating within the highly
uncertain environment of startups. A lack of financial resources
were often cited as a barrier in this area, as is the propensity for
early stage startups to experience considerable change in these
areas as a company matures and responds to market conditions.
Corporate design is an area where startups are particularly
unstable. Everything from logo design to company names
experience significant churn. Often this is driven by the need for
something to quickly communicate the companys presence in
a market. The most successful company exhibited significantly
different behavior in this area the most successful company
engaged a professional agency to develop a corporate identity
that was developed collaboratively and documented.
Data about corporate behavior reveals a lack of experience on
the part of many entrepreneurs in developing HR management
process, salary systems and recruitment.
The most critical factor in corporate communication is
transparency and openness as a means of maintaining employee
motivation and identification with the company.
A key insight from this article is the finding that sustainable

The definitive work on innovation and how innovations diffuse


within society. Rogers supports his framework of the diffusion
of innovations with case studies and research.

A book that models what is possible when multi-disciplinary


groups collaborate to create a framework for understanding
business models. The resulting Business Model Canvas is a
powerful tool for understanding the interconnected nature of
the building blocks in any business. The book also covers the
patterns of organization (categories) that most businesses
follow, practical approaches to using the canvas to design
a business, tools for strategic evaluation of models and an
overview of the entire process.
Prather, C. (2009). Managers guide to fostering innovation and
creativity in teams. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.
SUMMARY

Prathers book is part theoretical approach to problem solving


and part practical guide to managing innovation process with
teams. There is a focus on abductive and modal reasoning (a
part of Martins framework as well), ideation, pattern breaking,
focusing on the right problem and creating a climate that is
conducive to innovation. He also unpacks the theory of Coping
Energy as it relates to a continuum populated by agents of
stability at one end and agents of change at the other. This idea
is based on the work of Dr. Michael Kirtons work, AdaptationInnovation Theory that divides peoples problem-solving
approaches across the continuum.
Pink, D. (2006). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule
the future. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
SUMMARY

Pinks seminal work theorizes that right-brain thinking skills


are essential connectors to the future. That the complexities of
our current world are too large for L-directed thinking taught

corporate design requires alignment of visual elements with


the defined business concept, values and philosophy, while
considering budget constraints.

Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: How todays entrepreneurs use


continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses.
New York, NY: Crown Business.
SUMMARY

The Lean Startup represents a shift in emphasis for startups


compelled by current economic realities and rooted in the
lean manufacturing practice developed by Ohno and Shingo at
Toyota. The book presents a framework for rapid development in
startups that centers on principles like the build-measure-learn
loop and the pivot.
Schensul, S., Schensul J. & LeCompte, M. (1999). Essential
ethnographic methods: Observations, interviews and
questionnaires. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
SUMMARY

The focus on observations, interviews and questionnaires makes


this book a practical guide for how to design specific elements of
research and how to functionally approach execution.

116

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: REFERENCES


Stone, T. (2010). Managing the design process: Concept
development: Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers.

Yamashita, K. & Spataro, S. (2004). Unstuck: A tool for yourself,


your team and your world. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

A practical overview of the design process from concept through


completion that includes relevant data on research, strategy,
exploration, development and refinement, as well as production,
manufacture and launch. These processes are divided into 4
broad phases: Discover, Define, Develop and Deliver, with the
final, 9th step being completion.

A practical guide to managing change in an organizational


context that is part workbook, part philosophy and part
case studies. Developed by Sandra Spataro, a professor of
organizational management, and Keith Yamashita, co-founder
of SY/Partners, an organizational management consultancy, the
book is rooted in work created by the authors for an MBA class
focused on how to flex leadership and communications skills in
complicated times.

Stone, T. (2010). Managing the design process concept


development: Implementing design. Beverly, MA: Rockport
Publishers.
SUMMARY

This companion book to Managing the Design Process: Concept


Development applies a lens of project management and business
to the subject. It includes practical topics related to the process
including: project management, setup, planning, budgeting and
team dynamics. It also covers management of creative people,
clients and a short chapter on profitability in design. These topics
are supported with case studies from real-world projects.
Tufte, E. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information:
Second edition. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
SUMMARY

Tuftes renown in design circles is legendary. The Visual Display


of Quantitative Information acts as a touchstone for the design
and presentation of data in both an efficient and ethical manner.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDICES

118

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX A

Figure 52. Gantt Chart. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

119

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX B

Creative Brief
BACKGROUND (Overview & Summary)

PROBLEM

TARGETS (Drivers, Audience)

The idea for exploring this problem arose from personal experience
an inability to engage a group I worked with at Startup Weekend to
continue pursuing a promising project with an interested market.
While at SW, I witnessed a disproportionate number of tech
and business people to designersa ratio of approximately 3:1.
Conversations revealed that the startup community may have a
challenge engaging designers, and virtually no one seemed to know
what design thinking or design management is.
After thinking about this challenge, a connection was made to a
recurring theme in design thinking and business books: Everyone is
saying design is the competitive advantage, but how are we moving this
theoretical advantage forward? In startup terms, we need to figure out
how to ship.
As a culture, we idolize Apple as the paragon of design. Business leaders
such as A.G. Lafley are interviewed, studied and praised ad nauseam
were enamored with these outliers, but too many business people
simply dont understand design or design thinking. As a discipline, we
simply dont have the numbers to change this.1 We need an ally.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to engage the startup community,
contribute to mutual learning, facilitate connection back to the design
community and raise the profile of the design management discipline
as an essential partner in developing innovation. If the concept is
successful, then there will be greater collaboration between the design
community, design managers and startups. There will also be a broader
understanding in the startup community of the discipline thinking and
how it can contribute to the success of startups in the future.

Groups like Startup Weekend facilitate multi-disciplinary collaboration,


but still many startups fail. How could engagement with the design
community and design managers positively influence this trend? How
can we increase the odds of success?

The target audience for this ethnographic study includes established


entrepreneurs, seasoned creatives, startup leaders and designers who
are seeking a way to collaborate in a meaningful way in order to create
more successful startups.

OPPORTUNITY

FOCUS

An opportunity exists to conduct research within the startup community


in the Columbus and central Ohio markets, as well as within the design
community. By employing design thinking and management process to
identify potential opportunities, a new model for engagement is sought.
This study can contribute to both communities in two ways:
> Act as a road map for entrepreneurs and designers in how to
effectively engage one another.
> Raise awareness of the discipline of design management and its
ability to drive innovation.
> Create a framework of understanding for testing how design thinking
can increase the odds of success in startups.
Big picture benefit: An opportunity to make meaning by engaging a
young generation of entrepreneurs and exposing them to the value
of design and design thinking as an innovative way to change the
fundamental relationship between design and business in the future
(longer term).

The focus area is how the startup and design communities in central
Ohio currently function in relation to one another, and how through RAS
process opportunities can be identified and a new model of interaction
could be established.

1 See Chapter 5 of Martins The Design of Business (2009), showing that American schools produce
about 1,000 MFAs versus 140,000 MBAs annually.

SCOPE
The scope of the project is roughly defined as engagement with active
members of the Columbus, Dayton and Cleveland startup communities
and the Columbus design community.
The startup community includes members of several startups,
representatives of The Ohio State Universitys Technology
Commercialization and Knowledge Transfer Center, TECH Columbus and
a representative of the Columbus District SBA.
The design community includes members of the Columbus Society of
Communicating Arts (CSCA), working design professionals and members
of The Ohio State Universitys Department of Design.

120

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX B

Creative Brief
KEY OBJECTIVES

STRUCTURE (Deliverables, People)

> Research each group to establish existing models that inform behavior.
> Create a new model of collaboration based on insights gained through
analysis and synthesis of data that can be shared with each group.
> Stretch Goal: Create cross-pollination by encouraging each group to
attend the others existing events.
The following information will be considered in the design of this
ethnographic research:
Patterns
> Low representation of designers at startup-focused events like
Wakeup Startup and Startup Weekend.
> Low representation of entrepreneurs at design-focused events like
monthly Columbus Society of Communicating Arts meetings.
> Trend of designers to enter traditional work roles upon graduation in
the field of advertising, branding, or marketing in print or online space.
> Brightest and most entrepreneurial students leaving college before
graduation to pursue business.
Influences
> Growing popularity of Startup Weekend as measured by increased
attendance and frequency of events.
> Presence of an active startup community in region as evidenced by
growth of TECH Columbus, Ohio States TCO and CCADs Mind Market.
> Desire for open, collaborative sharing of new knowledgePecha
Kucha, TED, TEDx.
> Ohio State establishing a dormitory specifically designed to foster
collaboration among 40 entrepreneurial undergrads.

Deliverables
1/19/2014 Research & Synthesis
1/26/2014 Positioning, ZAG Process & Value Proposition
2/2/2014 Research & Synthesis
2/9/2014 Midterm Video and Concept Exploratory
2/16/2014 Concept Testing & Prototype Development
2/23/2014 Business Model Canvas SWOT
3/2/2014 Final Model
3/9/2014 Business Plan & Video
3/12/2014 Process Book & Grad Poster
Entrepreneur & Startup Community
> Dan Rockwell
> Doug Sapp
> Jordi Arimany
> Carl Lewis
> Derrick Brazeal
Creative & Design Community
> Paul Reeder
> Liz Sanders
> Fumi Ariga & Karl Hein
> Kristen Harris & Catherine Lang-Cline
> Nand Dussault

121

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX C

Target Audience
Group 1
Established Entrepreneurs

Group 2
Seasoned Creatives

Group 3
Startup Leaders

Group 4
Designers

Age Range: 40+


Gender: Any
Ethnicities: Any

Age Range: 40+


Gender: Any
Ethnicities: Any

Age Range: 20+


Gender: Any
Ethnicities: Any

Age Range: 20+


Gender: Any
Ethnicities: Any

Occupation or Industry:
Entrepreneurship, incubators, venture capital

Occupation or Industry:
Design, creative direction, strategy

Occupation or Industry:
Startup founders, partners, key staff

Occupation or Industry:
Designers, art directors, freelancers

Characteristics:
Successful leadership of several startups
(founders or partners), viewed as a mentor,
team builder and expert in lean startup practice.
Understands startup culture, how to connect
people and how to invest. This group has a
diverse set of experiences and backgrounds,
which inform their approach.

Characteristics:
Deep understanding of agencies within the
brand, strategy, advertising or design space.
Viewed as a mentor, team leader and expert in
design and strategy. Understands design thinking,
process and implementation in order to create
competitive advantage for clients. This group has
specific expertise and varied backgrounds, which
inform their approach.

Characteristics:
May have started and failed in one or a few
startups, viewed as an entrepreneur, may be
learning how to assemble a team and manage a
business for the first time. May be or may not be
familiar with lean startup practice. Focus is likely
on a particular user or customer segment, product
development and how to secure investment. This
group has a limited experience and is seeking
growth through their approach.

Characteristics:
Likely work in a design studio or agency, viewed
as a designer or art director, may be a freelancer.
Understands design from a functional viewpoint
and has practical expertise and skills to support
the creative process. This group is developing
or has developed specific expertise in a narrow
domain and has a background and eduction in
design, which informs their approach.

THINKING

PRIMARY FOCUS OF WORK

DOING
Figure 53. Target Audience. Visualizing target audiences.

122

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX D

Research Design & Planning


RESEARCH QUESTIONS

WHAT DO I
NEED TO KNOW?

WHY DO I NEED
TO KNOW THIS?

WHAT TYPE OF DATA


IS NEEDED?

WHERE CAN I
FIND THE DATA?

WHAT TYPE OF
DATA COLLECTION?

WHO DO I CONTACT
FOR ACCESS?

WHEN DO I
NEED TO KNOW?

How could the startup and design


communities interact to increase the
value of design and design thinking in
business?

Whats possible?

How might we change


the existing dynamic?

Qualitative:
What are the beliefs,
values and attitudes that
inform each communitys
existing mental models?

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

> Open-ended Interviews


> Semistructured
Interviews
> Survey

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

January 31, 2014

How does the startup community currently


interact with the design community?

 ow are they
H
connected?

To understand each
communitys current
behavior

Qualitative:
Examples or stories of
interaction

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

> Open-ended Interviews


> Semistructured
Interviews

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

January 31, 2014

How does the startup community view the


design community?

What mental model


exists?

> T o understand the


opinions, beliefs,
values and social
norms at work within
this community
> T o establish baseline
data

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Ethnographic and
psychographic data that
can be triangulated with
aggregate trends

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

> Open-ended Interviews


> Semistructured
Interviews
> Survey

> Gatekeepers
> Members of both
communities
> Online community

Qualitative:
January 31, 2014

How does the design community view the


startup community?

Quantitative:
January 27, 2014

How do members of each of these


communities address failure, learning
and risk?

What is the tolerance


for risk and what role
does failure play?

> To gain insight into


how flexible each
culture may be when
testing new ideas
and models of
understanding

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Ethnographic and
psychographic data that
can be triangulated with
aggregate trends

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

> Open-ended Interviews


> Semistructured
Interviews
> Survey

> Gatekeepers
> Members of both
communities
> Online community

January 31, 2014

Do both communities, as assumed, have an


interest in innovation?

Does an area of
common interest exist?

To identify an area of
overlap that could drive
interaction/collaboration
between communities

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Ethnographic and
psychographic data that
can be triangulated with
aggregate trends

>M
 embers of both
communities

> Semistructured
Interviews
> Survey

>M
 embers of both
communities
> Online community

Qualitative:
January 31, 2014
Quantitative:
January 27, 2014

123

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX D

Research Design & Planning


RESEARCH QUESTIONS

WHAT DO I
NEED TO KNOW?

WHY DO I NEED
TO KNOW THIS?

WHAT TYPE OF DATA


IS NEEDED?

WHERE CAN I
FIND THE DATA?

WHAT TYPE OF
DATA COLLECTION?

WHO DO I CONTACT
FOR ACCESS?

WHEN DO I
NEED TO KNOW?

> Semistructured
Interviews
> Survey

>M
 embers of both
communities
> Online community

Qualitative:
January 31, 2014

What value do these


communities place on
innovation?

To establish strength of
interest in an area of
potential overlap

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Ethnographic and
psychographic data that
can be triangulated with
aggregate trends

>M
 embers of both
communities

Who are the agents of change within these


communities?

Who are the stakeholders and what positions


do they occupy?

To understand who
might be interested in
collaborating

Qualitative:
Social structure and norms

> Gatekeepers

> Open-ended
Interviews
> Survey

> Gatekeepers

January 31, 2014

Who are the active venture capitalists in the


community?

>W
 hat projects have
they funded?
>H
 ow successful have
these efforts been?

To understand how and


where the business
side of the community
assigns value

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Who is involved and what
are they doing?

> Gatekeepers

> Open-ended
Interviews

> Gatekeepers

January 31, 2014

What organizations currently work to connect


the two communities?

Who else might be


working toward similar
goals?

Who are the potential


allies for change?

Qualitative/Quantitative:
Who is involved and what
are they doing?

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

> Open-ended Interviews


> Semistructured
Interviews
> Secondary Research

> Gatekeepers
>M
 embers of both
communities

January 31, 2014

What quantitative data is available about the


success of startups?
> What percentage of startups move forward?
> What is their lifespan?
> How many succeed in obtaining funding?

How has the


community performed
in the past.

To understand the
context in which the
startup community
operates

Quantitative:
> Performance metrics
> Historical data
> Trends

> Online
> SBA
> Kauffman
Foundation

Secondary Research

> Gatekeepers
> SBA Representative
> Kauffman Foundation

January 27, 2014

How engaged with innovation are each of


these communities?

Quantitative:
January 27, 2014

124

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX E

Survey Questions
TARGET

QUESTIONS

The survey will be open to members of each of the target audience groups.

1. Online Consent Form


I voluntarily agree to participate in this survey performed by students at the Savannah College of Art and
Design. I understand that this survey is being conducted by J. Spinks in order to identify opportunities for
design as part of DMGT-748 M.A. Final Project, Winter 2014.
I grant permission for the evaluation data generated from the above methods to be used in an educational
setting. I understand that any identifiable information in regard to my name and/or company name will be
removed from any material that is made available to those not directly involved in this study.
By completing the survey, you are agreeing to participate in the research. Confidentiality will be maintained
to the degree permitted by the technology used. Your participation in this online survey involves risks
similar to a persons everyday use of the Internet.
Please select one:
O I agree
O I do not agree

BACKGROUND
To understand the beliefs, values and attitudes of the startup and design communities, a single survey has
been designed to gather data that will be used to inform the creation of existing mental models and to
serve as a method of triangulation for the data gathered in open-ended and semistructured interviews.

VALIDATION
Establishing the mental model the respondents hold of themselves will be the key method of validating the
subsequent responses to the survey questions. Validation will be performed in Question 1. This data will
also be used to map respondents into the target categories.

SURVEY TOPICS
> Startups, Design, Design Thinking
> Iterative Process
> Relationship to Quality
> Risk Tolerance, Failure, Change
> Bright Spots: Areas of success
> Ambiguity: Areas of challenge

2. Im a:
(check all that apply)
O Designer
O Writer
O Researcher
O Inventor
O Entrepreneur
O Programmer
O Investor
O Other (Text Entry Box)

3. In my work, I am motivated by the


opportunity to:
(check all that apply)
O Create something new
O Meet expectations for a well-defined deliverable
O Make sure everything runs smoothly
O Learn from experience
O Establish a new system
O Collaborate
O Create value
O Other (Text Entry Box)

125

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX E

Survey Questions
4. Opinions About Work
Never | Almost Never | Sometimes | Almost Always | Always (Likert Scale)
> Doing great work leads to more work
> Sometimes good is good enough
> The end goal is more important than the steps along the way
> Its critically important to get it right before revealing it
5. Attitudes Toward Risk
Never | Almost Never | Sometimes | Almost Always | Always (Likert Scale)
> Id rather risk failure than not accomplish my goals
> Its not a risk unless you have skin in the game
> A companys reputation and number of years in business make it less
risky to work for
> The size of the risk is proportional to the size of the reward
> The opportunity to learn and grow far outweigh any risks when
working in a startup

6. Beliefs About Startups and Entrepreneurs


Never | Almost Never | Sometimes | Almost Always | Always (Likert Scale)
O Most startups are searching for funding via venture capital or angel
investors
O Its more important to ship and learn than to get it right out of the
box
O Startups have their own language that makes it difficult to understand
their work
O Early stage startups cant afford to pay a designer for what the work
is worth
O The founders passion for the startup is the most important part of
selling ideas to investors
7. Beliefs About Design and Designers
Never | Almost Never | Sometimes | Almost Always | Always (Likert Scale)
O A startup should wait to work with a designer until they have funding
O Design is expensive and often too slow to be effective
O Designers have their own language that makes it difficult to
understand their work
O Design is not relevant to early stage startup work
O Well-designed presentations sell a startups ideas to investors

8. When I hear about something innovative:


O I want to jump in and try it as soon as possible, no matter the cost
O I want to use it and create an informed opinion I can share with my
local network
O I want to learn more about it so I can then put it to effective use
O I want to know that it has worked for others before I make a change
O I want to continue to use what I know works until the innovation has
become the norm
9. What organizations are you a member in or events do you
attend:
O Startup Weekend
O Wakeup Startup
O Startup Grind
O Code Day
O Ignite Columbus
O CSCA
O AAF (Adfed)
O AIGA
O TEDx
O Pecha Kucha

126

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX F

Open-Ended Interviews
TARGET

INTERVIEW TOPICS

Gatekeepers are representative members of the startup and design communities. These are the
established entrepreneurs and seasoned creatives target groups.

> Startups, Design, Design Thinking


> Iterative Process
> Relationship to Quality
> Risk Tolerance, Failure, Change
> Bright Spots: Areas of success
> Ambiguity: Areas of challenge

BACKGROUND
It is important to quickly build trust and understanding with the gatekeepers that represent the startup and
design communities in order to facilitate greater access to their core audiences. Open-ended interviewing
techniques will be used with this audience to allow them greater freedom to elaborate and express their
opinions on the topics of focus for the study. This audience could be considered outliers in that they
represent the highest levels of achievement within their respective domains.

VALIDATION
Establish the background and experience level of the interviewee by reviewing resumes and by listening
for cues to the following information in the course of the interview:
> Higher eduction degrees earned, areas of focus, research
> Previous work experience, companies, network
> Locations, date and scope of work experience
> Industry segments and sectors worked in

POTENTIAL QUESTIONS TO GUIDE CONVERSATION


1. What is the current perception of how startups interact with design and design thinking?
2. What are your thoughts on the similarities and differences in iterative process in design and with lean
startup MVP methodology?
3. Tell me about the importance of quality, and when and were it might be more or less important?
4. Have you ever risked your professional reputation to pursue an innovative idea you believed in? Did
you invest your own money in the idea in a startup context?
5. How do you react when you fail? Provide an example from past experience.
6. Talk about where youve seen successful collaboration around design, design thinking and startups.
7. What do you view as the biggest challenges in integrating design and design thinking with startup
culture?
8. Who do you view as a person who can effect change within this arena?
9. Who is actively funding startups in Columbus and central Ohio?

127

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX F

Semistructured Interview Questions


TARGET

QUESTIONS

These are the startup leaders and designers that represent the active doers within the target groups.

1. Tell me about your education and your current occupation.


2. a) What is your perception of how startups interact with designers?
b) Are you familiar with the concept of design thinking? If so, how do you perceive design thinkings
role in startups?
3. What are your thoughts on the similarities and differences in iterative process in design and lean
startup MVP methodology?
4. a) How important is quality to the work you do?
b) Under what circumstances might you relax your expectations about quality?
5. a) How much personal risk to your reputation would you be willing to take to pursue an innovative idea
you believed in?
b) How likely would you be to invest your own money in a promising startup?
c) How do you react when you fail? Provide an example from past experience.
6. Talk about where youve seen successful collaboration around design, design thinking and startups.
7. What do you view as the biggest challenges in integrating design and design thinking with startup
culture?
8. Who do you view as a person who can effect change within this arena?

BACKGROUND
Semistructured interviews are an effective tool for consistently and efficiently guiding the conversation
with leaders in startup organizations and busy working professional designers.

VALIDATION
At the beginning of each interview, the interviewees will be asked specific questions about their
educational background and current occupation.

INTERVIEW TOPICS
> Startups, Design, Design Thinking
> Iterative Process
> Relationship to Quality
> Risk Tolerance, Failure, Change
> Bright Spots: Areas of success
> Ambiguity: Areas of challenge

128

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

Initial Business Model Canvas


SUMMARY
The initial business model canvas is focused on developing
LaunchHour as an event-based organization that partners
with local startup organizations to facilitate collaboration
opportunities within the startup and design communities.
This model was useful for initially exploring how the Revenue
Streams and Cost Structure of the organization might function,
as well as in exploring elements from prototype 2 (Startup
Design Consultancy) that might extend the reach of LaunchHour
via Key Partners. This also exposed other potential Customer
Segments, helped define the types of Customer Relationships
that would be beneficial, and revealed that the Key Activity of
problem solving aligned with the overall vision of the project.
In the SWOT analysis that follows, these ideas will be explored
further.

Figure 54. Initial Business Model Canvas. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

129

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Customer Segments


BLOCK
> A diverse and segmented customer base exists
> Entrepreneurs recognize the value of design to
their startups
> Ability to bridge communities to create shared
value across domains

SUMMARY

> Unproven concept with little track record in


connecting communities
> Churn rate could be intense
> Lack of research to prove need outside of
boundary of case study

> Providing deep knowledge of one community to


another community

The customer segments for LaunchHour could be


viewed as either niche market or a multi-sided platform.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

After reviewing the SWOT analysis of this block in


relation to the business model as a whole, it is believed
that MVP methodology should be followed to establish
demand for events before a consultancy is established
that would function as a niche market business.

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> Opportunity to meet a need for facilitating


connection, as evidenced in research from
representatives of both communities
> Offer niche service that creates value for other
customer segments such as incubators and VC
> Ride wave of interest in startups and activity in
local entrepreneurial community to scale up

> Other existing hybrid incubators that offer design


and design thinking capabilities could enter the
market from other locations
> Market trend toward building in-house
innovation teams could limit consultancy
business

130

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Value Proposition


BLOCK
> There is assumed alignment with the needs of
customers based on research
> We provide value by networking
> We have begun to establish a reputation that
is based in expertise and genuine interest in
creating collaboration

> The value proposition relies on the assumption


that by lowering the barrier to entry into the
startup community that designers will engage
> This assumption is untested and is based on
insights grounded in research

SUMMARY
The value proposition relies heavily on a perceived
barrier to entry for designers into the startup community
based on several factors uncovered in research.
Ultimately, the central idea that there is value in
connecting entrepreneurs with designers in a limitedtime commitment, collaborative environment would
need to be tested with a potential partner using MVP
practice.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> There is an opportunity to explore partnership


with organizations like Startup Weekend
> Recurring revenue could be generated through an
integrated offering to event participants in the
form of a consultancy practice
> Value could be extended by offering design
services with key partners or staff

> There are existing options for both communities


to connect in other venues like Startup Weekend

131

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Channels
BLOCK
> The proposed channels offer efficient and
effective reach matched to Customer Segments

> Economy of scope may be difficult to realize


unless events scale up

> The idea of the LaunchHour blog is an innovative


approach that fits the ethos of easy engagement
and limited time commitment

> Some prospects may fail to notice touchpoints


in some channels based on general lack of
awareness

>M
 ultiple touchpoints offer diversified channels of
delivery matched to Channel Phases

SUMMARY
The chosen channels of delivery for early stage, realworld testing of concept are matched to the Customer
Segments and the desired Customer Relationship model
of Personal Assistance and Co-Creation. Upon gaining
validated learning these channels may need to be
reviewed to attain efficiency in order to scale up.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> There could be an opportunity to extend reach


by creating partnerships as complementary
channels

> Channel relevance is assumed. Focus on two


specific channels, Awareness and Evaluation,
needs to be assessed once initial validated
learning is gained

> Channel effectiveness could be improved by


scaling up to increase awareness and reach

> Other organizations with established delivery


channels could co-opt concept

132

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Customer Relationships


BLOCK
> Customer relationship quality is aligned with
Customer Segments and Channels
> Strong existing relationships have been fostered
within the design community

> Brand is unknown and will need to be built


> It is unknown if existing relationships will
bind customers to other organizations due to
switching costs

> Initial relationships with members of the startup


community are positive and growing

SUMMARY
Customer Relationships are essential to the concept
as evidenced in the high-touch nature of many of the
interactions within the customer journey map. Further
establishing credibility and extending the growth of
relationships is critical to early stage success.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> There is an opportunity to strengthen existing


relationships and tighten ties with some
potential organizational partners
> T here is an opportunity to ride the wave
of startup interest in order to create new
relationships and scale

> Some existing organizations could view this as


a threat to their business model and would need
to be identified and engaged effectively to foster
collaboration

133

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Revenue Streams


BLOCK
> Revenue streams could be diversified by serving
multiple Customer Segments with specific niche
offerings

> No financial statements or projections currently


exist on which to base margin analysis
and profitability; therefore, revenues are
unpredictable
> The size of the market and sustainability of the
business model are unknown and will need to be
MVP tested before revenue can be generated
> It is unknown what customers are willing to pay

SUMMARY
Essentially, LaunchHour is a startup organization.
As such, Revenue Stream data is based purely on
projection and judgment, and would need to be modeled
and tested using Lean Startup methodology to establish
relevance and validity.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> Licensing of intellectual property or equity


partnerships could offer innovative revenue
streams
> Sponsorship of events could allow the use of
other peoples brand equity to extend brand
while generating revenue

> It is unclear if there is demand for this offering


that could not be easily co-opted by competitors
> This could threaten future revenue

134

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Key Resources


BLOCK
> The Key Resources are both human and
intellectual, making it difficult for competitors to
replicate

> Potentially susceptible to low demand

> Deployment of resources is on-demand and


therefore predictable and timely

SUMMARY
In early stage work, the Key Resources are the
experience and expertise of the founder. Areas of
the business model that fall outside of this should be
examined for outsourcing. An example of this is venue
and catering services.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> Venues and catering for events are resources


that can be outsourced to key partners
> E arly stage design work could be outsourced to
a partner or network of partners with bandwidth
and appropriate skill sets

> Careful vetting of key resource suppliers for


events is needed to ensure alignment with brand
values and goals

135

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Key Activities


BLOCK
> Key Activities in early stage testing will
be efficiently executed using Lean Startup
methodology

> Initial Key Activities will be almost exclusively


in-house and will need to be rebalanced as
business scales

>Key Activities, based in Key Resources that are


knowledge-based, would be difficult to copy

SUMMARY
Key Activities in early stage work include establishing
content for the Pecha Kucha presentation, creating a
format and detailed design for activities, identifying
opportunities, building network contacts, scheduling
presentations, and creating the brand and its
touchpoints. These activities can all be performed inhouse. Once the concept is ready for testing, other key
activities can be outsourced.

> Quality of execution will be matched to


validated learning objectives in customer-facing
touchpoints
STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> Key Activities will be standardized as validated


learning is attained, e.g. presentations and event
facilitation

> Key Activities could be disrupted if there is a


change in work flow for founders or there is lack
of demand for events

136

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Key Partnerships


BLOCK
> The focus of early stage work is clear and
potential partners are likely to be receptive
based on previous interactions

> Clear conversations still need to occur with


potential key partners

SUMMARY
Key Partners could provide access to Customer
Segments, venues and resources for shared value
creation. One potential partner could benefit from
content creation for an existing workshop series as well
as from activities complementary to their core business.
Others have natural channel access and facilities for
hosting events.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

> There are opportunities to leverage partners


natural audiences within partner Channels to
create momentum and cross-selling
> Potential partners complement the value
proposition as demonstrated by Channels,
Customer Segments and quality of service
offerings

> Partners may choose not to collaborate


> There may be unknown competitors for
collaboration space

137

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX G

SWOT: Cost Structure


BLOCK
> By following minimum viable product
methodology the cost of initial startup will be
minimal and cost-efficient
> Early stage operating costs will be scaled in
parallel with revenue streams

> It is unknown if the revenue streams and cost


structure will match the business model until
real-world concept testing is implemented and
projections can be established

SUMMARY
As with any startup venture, bootstrapping will be a key
success factor in order to control costs while seeking
validated learning from testing.

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

A cost structure that scales with revenue streams


is essential and will be value-driven in nature, as
evidenced by a business model that relies on Personal
Assistance and collaboration.

> Costs in early stage startup will be controlled


through utilizing existing resources and expertise

> Venue costs are unknown and need to be


explored in the context of partnership

138

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX H

LaunchHour Detailed Design


LaunchHour Event Facilitation

Time

Startup with Design

1:08-1:18 (10)

Problem Statement

Participants

Many entrepreneurs find it difficult to connect with members


of the design community and often there are misconceptions
about design and how designers work.
Many designers do not understand the context in which
entrepreneurs work as they create startups and how to
effectively engage with them to create shared value.

12:50-1:00 (10)

1:00-1:02 (2)

1:18-1:28 (10)

1:28-1:38 (10)

Method and Steps

To allow participants
to enter venue, get
lunch and find a seat

Welcome participants upon arrival and


sign them in to event

Provide instructions to participants to


help themselves to lunch and find a seat
based upon their role (entrepreneur or
designer)

Materials
Catered lunch
Name tags

Set-up
Tables set up in
design charette style

To introduce the

discussion themes
for the hour

Set-up

Instruct participants to begin

Tables set up in
design charette style

To provide an
opportunity for
participants to meet
and network with the
next participant

Instruct participants from the design


community to move one chair to the
left

Tables set up in
design charette style

To provide an
opportunity for
participants to meet
and network with the
next participant

Instruct participants from the startup


community to move one chair to the
right

Tables set up in
design charette style

To provide an
opportunity for
participants to meet
and network with the
next participant

Instruct participants from the design


community to move one chair to the
left

Tables set up in
design charette style

To provide an
opportunity for
participants to meet
and network with the
next participant

Instruct participants from the startup


community to move one chair to the
right

Tables set up in
design charette style

Provide a 1-minute warning when


session is about to end

Provide a 1-minute warning when


session is about to end

Provide a 1-minute warning when


session is about to end

5 tables
Chairs

1:38-1:48 (10)

Facilitator introduces himself/herself and


explains the format for the hour:

Provide a 1-minute warning when


session is about to end

A brief Pecha Kucha-style introduction

Five 10-minute opportunities to meet,


discuss themes and network with others

1:02-1:08 (6)

Materials

Designers, art directors, creative directors

Intent

To set up the format


for the hour-long
event

Method and Steps

To begin discussion
between participants

To introduce them to
others viewpoints

Entrepreneurs from early stage startups

Event location and date TBD


Time

Intent

Present event themes in PK style

1:48-1:58 (10)

Laptop

Projector or TV

Ensure screen is
viewable for
participants

Provide a 1-minute warning when


session is about to end

LaunchHour Event: Startup with Design

March 3, 2014

Page 1 of 3

LaunchHour Event: Startup with Design

March 3, 2014

Page 2 of 3

139

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX H

LaunchHour Detailed Design

Time

1:58-2:00 (2)

Intent

Present potential next


steps and startup
community
opportunities
Wrap-up of event

Method and Steps

Present and invite participants to the


next three startup events available for
participants from partner organizations
Suggest that participants exchange
contact information with others

Materials

Set-up

Laptop

Projector

Partner event
slides

Thank participants for attending

LaunchHour Event: Startup with Design

March 3, 2014

Page 3 of 3

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 1: Working Wall Update

The initial working wall ecosystem map links the


Thinking, Methodology and People that constitute the
elements of the project.
Thinking represents the core ecosystem required for
the project outline. Methodology and People were
added to the working wall to add context, but have
not been included in the digital version in order
to facilitate clear connections between the main
concepts.

NOTES

140

Figure 55. Working Wall Update 1.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 2: Working Wall Update

This weeks working wall developed along the lines


of the assignments to include secondary research,
some models based on readings and conversations
with gatekeepers, and an outline for target audience
classification.
Im planning to revisit my ecosystem map now that
the research has gained clarity. More exists in each
of these areas, but is still being developed and will
be added once the ecosystem map is revisited to
provide context.

NOTES

141

Figure 56. Working Wall Update 2.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 3: Working Wall Update

The majority of my time this week was spent in


interviews with startup community members and
scheduling additional interviews.
My working wall update this week is primarily
focused on researching the competition and
collaborative space in Columbus. I discovered new
connections and links in this process that I think will
enhance my revised Ecosystem Map.

NOTES

142

Figure 57. Working Wall Update 3.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 4: Survey Synthesis Working Wall Update

Hand mapping survey data to synthesize respondent


categorization.

NOTES

143

Figure 58. Working Wall Update 4.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 4: Survey Synthesis Working Wall Update

NOTES

144

Figure 58. Working Wall Update 4.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX I

Part 4: Interview Data Working Wall Update

Interviews for two representatives of each


community have been reviewed and synthesized to
gain insights. Additional interviews will be reviewed
and synthesized.

NOTES

145

Figure 59. Working Wall Update 4.


Authors image, March 11, 2014.

146

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX J

Consent Form
Informed Consent Form

I voluntarily agree to participate in an interview/inquiry performed by students at the


Savannah College of Art and Design. I understand that this interview/inquiry is being
conducted by _______________________________, in order to identify
opportunities for design.

I understand that the evaluation methods which may involve me include:

1. the recorded (audio and/or video) observations of my work


2. my completion of an evaluation questionnaire(s) and/or
3. my participation in a 30-90 minute interview.

I grant permission for the interview/inquiry to be recorded and transcribed, and to


be used only by _______________________________for analysis of interview data.
I grant permission for the evaluation data generated from the above methods to be
used in an educational setting.

I understand that any identifiable information in regard to my name and/or company


name will be removed from any material that is made available to those not
directly involved in this study.

_______________________________________
Research Participant Name
_______________________________________
Date

Informed Consent Form

147

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX J

Online Survey Consent Form


QUESTION 1: CONSENT FORM

Figure 5. Question 1: Online Consent. Authors image, January 28, 2014.

148

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX K

Synthesis Test of Survey Question 4


OPINIONS ABOUT WORK (QUALITY)
Initial attempts to use the Innovation Adopter categories to reveal patterns
in respondent data resulted in too many data points to be efficiently
synthesized, based on the focus of the case study being the startup and
design communities.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

> While orientation to innovation may be relevant to understanding the


relationship of each community to innovation, it did not reveal useful
patterns of opinion relevant to quality as it pertains to how the two
communities interact.

NEVER

ALMOST NEVER

SOMETIMES

ALMOST ALWAYS

ALWAYS

4A. Doing great work


leads to more work

4B. Sometimes good is


good enough

4C. The end goal is more


important than the
steps along the way

4D. Its critically


important to get
it right before
revealing it

Respondent #10 did not answer questions 4C, 4D.

Figure 60. Synthesis Test of Survey Question 4. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

149

ART OF THE START

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX L

KAWASAKI (2004)
> Startup mindset
> Meaning making

Literary Concept Map

THE LEAN STARTUP

RIES (2011)
> New model, BML loop
> Rapid, iterative innovation

DIFFUSION OF
INNOVATIONS

MEETING CHALLENGE OF
DISRUPTIVE CHANGE

A WHOLE NEW MIND

CORE IDEAS

PINK (2006)
> Rapid change
> Innovation requires new thinking
> Left Brain/Right Brain
Balance = Advantage

DESIGN OF BUSINESS

MARTIN (2009)
> Knowledge funnel: Mystery,
Heuristic, Algorithm
> Balanced thinking
> Abductive reasoning/logical leap
> Mastery

CHRISTENSEN/OVERDORF (2000)
> Immense resources, process and
values as limiting
> Values dictate cost-structure
> Susceptibility to market shifts/
innovation

WICKED PROBLEMS

BUCHANAN (1992)
> Determinate/Indeterminate
nature of work
> Design thinking

DAVID & GOLIATH

LATERAL THINKING

GODIN (2007)
> Strategic quitting
> Focused starting/best in world
> Space between start & mastery

DE BONO (1973)
> Learning to see the unseen
> Thinking differently than trained

INTENT

THE MEDICI EFFECT

JOHANSSON (2006)
> Multi-disciplinary collaboration
> Fostering innovation
HEATH & HEATH (2010)
> Managing change
> Integrated analytical, emotional
and situational approach

TOOLS

OPPOSABLE MIND

MARTIN (2009)
> Models
> Stance: Tools, Experience,
Mastery
> Integrative/Design Thinking
> Methodology/Theory

GLADWELL (2013)
> The unseen advantage/limits
> New models are possible

THE DIP

METHODS

SWITCH

THE ICARUS DECEPTION

GODIN (2012)
> A changed world
> Connection
> Meaningful work
> Our mental model of the world
may not reflect new reality

ROGERS (2003)
> How innovation happens

DESIGN IS HOW IT WORKS


GREENE (2010)
> Design as competitive advantage
> Design thinking
> Iconic brands (best)

UNSTUCK

YAMASHITA & SPATARO (2004)


> Diagnose stagnant culture
> Managing change

ZAG

NEUMEIER (2007)
> Onliness, differentiation, white
space of brand as competitive
advantage = innovation

FOSTERING INNOVATION
& CREATIVITY IN TEAMS

BUSINESS MODEL
GENERATION

OSTERWALDER & PIGNEUR (2010)


> Integrated holistic view of any
business

PRATHER (2009)
> Practical process for managing
innovation
> Agents of stability/change

VISUAL DISPLAY OF
QUANTITATIVE INFO

TUFTE (2001)
> Ethical, aesthetic and efficient
data display

STANDARDS

THE POWER OF WHO


BEAUDINE (2009)
> Creating connections
> Spheres of influence

FRAMEWORKS

ESSENTIAL
ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS

SCHENSUL & LE COMPTE (1999)


> Practical guide to ethnography

DESIGN RESEARCH
LAUREL (2003)
> The Fuzzy Front End

MANAGING DESIGN
PROCESS

JONES (2011)
> Concept through completion in
design process

THEORETICAL

THINKING

PRACTICAL
Figure 61. Literary Concept Map. Authors image, March 11, 2014.

150

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: APPENDIX M

List of Figures
Figure 1. Startup incubation capabilities matrix depicting competitor and
collaborator capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Figure 20. Synthesis of beliefs about startups and entrepreneurs data by


response visualizing survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Figure 39. LaunchHour events: Conversations designed for startups showing


event facilitation setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Figure 2. Startup & design collaborative ZAG steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Figure 21. Synthesis of beliefs about design and designers by response


visualizing survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Figure 40. Examples of stickers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Figure 4. Ecosystem map depicting interaction between startup and design


and supporting concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Figure 22. Synthesis of innovation adopter categories data by response


visualizing survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Figure 5. Question 1: Online consent form showing consent to terms of


survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 147

Figure 23. Todd Martin persona image.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Figure 42. Concept testing working wall showing analysis of prototype


testing results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Figure 24. Ellen Lai persona image.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Figure 6. Question 2: Self-identification of community affiliation showing


survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Figure 25. Gary Bartlett persona image.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Figure 3. 2x2 Axis chart of organizational focus showing opportunity space.. . . 24

Figure 7. Question 3: Motivation showing survey respondents answers. . . . . . 33

Figure 26. Journey map of Persona 1 visualizing interaction with touchpoints


across a 3-day period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Figure 8. Question 4: Relationship to quality showing survey respondents


answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Figure 27. Journey map of Persona 2 visualizing interaction with touchpoints


across a 3-day period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Figure 9. Question 5: Relationship to risk showing survey respondents


answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Figure 28. Journey map of Persona 3 visualizing interaction with touchpoints


across a 3-day period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Figure 10. Question 6: Beliefs About Startups and Entrepreneurs. Showing


survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 29. Relational visual map visualizing key concepts revealed in


research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

Figure 11. Question 6: Beliefs about design and designers showing survey
respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Figure 30. Startup model visualizing values, beliefs and attitudes within the
startup community.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Figure 12. Question 8: Adopter categories showing survey respondents


answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Figure 31. Design model visualizing values, beliefs and attitudes within the
design community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Figure 13. Question 9: Community affiliations showing survey respondents


answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Figure 32. Hypothetical startup and design collaboration issues visualizing


challenges in terms of scope, time and cost through a project management
lens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Figure 14. Synthesis of self-identification data visualizing survey respondents


answers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Figure 15. Synthesis to categorize respondent data visualizing survey
respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Figure 16. Synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data visualizing survey
respondents answers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 17. 2x2 Axis chart synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data
visualizing survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Figure 18. Synthesis of opinions about work (quality) data by response
visualizing survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 19. Synthesis of attitudes about work data by response visualizing
survey respondents answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Figure 33. Triad models of quality, cost and learning objectives in startup and
design context.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Figure 41. LaunchHour blog wireframes visualizing prototype elements . . . . . . 82

Figure 43. LaunchHour identity final brand elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89


Figure 44. Candid black and white event photo visualizing half-tone
treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Figure 45. Examples of map graphic treatment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 46. LaunchHour Pecha Kucha-style presentation storyboards
showing final brand elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92, 93, 94
Figure 47. LaunchHour conversation: Mid-fidelity blog prototype showing
final brand elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 48. LaunchHour events: Conversations designed for startups showing
event facilitation and functional elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Figure 49. LaunchHour stickers and buttons final brand elements . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Figure 50. Business model canvas visualizing LaunchHour business
model development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99, 103
Figure 51. Collaboration model with key takeaways for both communities. . . 108
Figure 52. Gantt chart showing project planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Figure 53. Target audiences created to support creative brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Figure 54. Initial business model canvas visualizing LaunchHour business
model development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Figure 55. Working wall update 1 visualizing the project ecosystem.. . . . . . . . 140

Figure 34. Design process with startup view of data collection and iterative
process phases.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Figure 56. Working wall update 2 of secondary research and stakeholder


identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Figure 35. Charting areas of divergence between startup and design culture
across continuums.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Figure 57. Working wall update 3 of competitor analysis work.. . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Figure 36. Theory of change: Scenarios used to chart low- and


high-collaboration work flows.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Figure 59. Working wall update 4 synthesis of interview data.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Figure 37. Prototype overview visualizing prototype elements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77


Figure 38. Pecha Kucha-style presentation test prototype visualizing
prototype elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 79

Figure 58. Working wall update 4 synthesis of survey data.. . . . . . . . . . . 143, 144
Figure 60. Synthesis test of survey question 4 visualizing respondent data
with multiple color codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Figure 61. Literary concept map connections across literary sources. . . . . . . . 149

M.A. FINAL PROJECT

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

152

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Dedication
I dedicate this work to my girls. You are the central characters in the storyline
of all of my dreams and have graciously sacrificed many hours of family time
so I could pursue one part of that dream. It is my sincerest hope that the gift of
time you have given will be returned tenfold as a lifetime of experiences made
possible because your father and husband had the moxie to never settle.

153

M.A. FINAL PROJECT: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgments
A deep and heartfelt thanks to my mentor, David Brincks, for encouraging me
to pursue my degree and for spending endless hours listening, encouraging,
questioning, and providing the perspective and boundless wisdom I needed
as I endeavored to make meaningif we only knew then what we know
now. Im ready for the next chapter and I look forward to writing it with you.
To the members of the startup and design communities in Columbus that
were so receptive and supportive of this project, I extend my gratitude. You
know who you are. I look forward to collaborating with you in the future as
we work to make the vision presented here a reality.
To my classmates at SCAD, who have jokingly referred to me as their Most
Intimidating, Most Pedantic and Most Visible Classmate, this part may be
done, but know I am always here for you.

Sandra Cooperman, my editor, contributed untold hours wading through the


initial draft and stuck with it at crunch time. Thank you.
Special thanks to the Peterson brothers for all of the love, laughs and timely
breaks during the last 18-plus months.
Much love to my parents, John and Cheryle, for always supporting me in the
pursuit of my dreams, regardless of how far or wide they ranged.
And finally, many thanks to my professor, Dr. Regina Rowland, who not
only supported the development of this project and guided my thinking in
countless email and online conversations, but who also contributed personal
time to help me develop a vision for my work. It will act as a touchstone and
guide that will inform my path as I move forward.