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The Ethnophysiology of a Khyl Attack:

The production of catastrophic cognitions about


anxiety symptoms

Khyl Attacks (Part 1): Symptoms, Physiology, and Feared Consequences


Symptom

Correlated physiological state

Feared consequence

Dizziness

Khyl (and blood) surging upward in the body


to the head

Syncope and death owing to


khyl surging into the head;
khyl attack and khyl
overload" (khyl koeu)

Tinnitus

Khyl escaping from the ears as a result of


surging upward in the body (in the Cambodian
language, tinnitus is called khyl exits from
the ears [khyl ceuny taam treujieu])

Deafness; khyl attack and


khyl overload

Blurry
vision

Khyl escaping from the eyes as a result of


Blindness; khyl attack and
khyl surging upward into the body and into the khyl overload
cranial cavity

Khyl Attacks (Part 2): Symptoms, Physiology, and Feared Consequences


Symptom

Correlated physiological state

Feared consequence

Headache

Increased khyl and blood pressure in the head, That all the disasters
including the vessels
associated with excessive
khyl in the head will occur
(i.e., syncope, blindness,
khyl overload); khyl attack
and khyl overload

Jaw
soreness

That there is excessive khyl in the body

That khyl overload is


imminent

Neck
soreness

Increased khyl (and blood) pressure in the


neck vessels

Bursting of the neck vessels;


khyl attack and khyl
overload

Khyl Attacks (Part 3): Symptoms, Physiology and Feared Consequences


Symptom
Nausea

Feared consequence
Correlated physiological state
Excessive khyl in the stomach, often owing to That the khyl may rise
the blockage of the normal downward flow
upward from the abdomen
into the body to cause
asphyxia, cardiac arrest, and
various cerebral catastrophes;
that khyl attack and khyl
overload may occur.

Increased
salivation

A direct consequence of excessive bodily


khyl

That a khyl attack may


occur

Khyl attacks (Part 4): Symptoms, Physiology, and Feared Consequences


Symptom
Correlated physiological state
Palpitations Khyl surges upward from the limbs or stomach
to press on the heart and cause palpitations. The
limbs and other body areas have blocked
vessels, and so the heart must work harder to
pump blood and khyl throughout the body,
and this results in palpitations.

Shortness of Khyl surges upward from the limbs or stomach


breath
to press on the lungs and cause shortness of
breath. That the heart is weak: the heart powers
breathing, with breathing conceived as a pistonlike motion, so that if the heart is weak or
impaired, normal breathing doesnt occur.

Feared consequence
Cardiac arrest and all
disasters associated with a
weakened heart: poor
circulation in the limbs
resulting in coagulation in
the limbs that then causes a
surge of khyl and blood in
the body; that a khyl attack
and khyl overload may
occur
Asphyxia, concerns that the
heart is weakened, that a
khyl attack and khyl
overload may occur

Khyl Attacks (Part 5): Symptoms, Physiology, and Feared Consequences


Symptom

Correlated physiological state

Soreness in
Joint pain indicates that there is
the feet/legs
blockage of the flow of khyl
or hands/arms and blood flow at the joints
(sore joints are called plugged
vessels [cok sosai] or blocked
khyl [sla khyl]).

Coldness or
numbness in
the hands or
feet

Feared consequence
Death of the limb from a lack of outward
flow along the limb, and fear that the khyl
and blood, unable to move distally along
the limbs, will surge upward in the body to
cause the various disasters listed above
asphyxia, heart arrest, and cerebral
catastrophes. That khyl attack and khyl
overload may occur.

Blockage of the flow of khyl Death of the limb from a lack of outward
and blood in the limbs
flow along the limb, and fear that the khyl
and blood, unable to move distally along
the limbs, will surge upward in the body to
cause the various disasters listed above
asphyxia, heart arrest, and cerebral
catastrophes. That khyl attack and khyl
overload will occur.

Khyl attacks (Part 6): Symptoms, Physiology, and Feared Consequences


Symptom
Out of
energy

Sleepiness

Feared consequence
Correlated physiological state
Excessive bodily khyl; a serious The onset of khyl attack. A weakened body
depletion of the bodily energy
may cause a khyl attack; in particular, a
supplies
weakened body indicates a weakened heart,
and a weakened heart predisposes to khyl
attacks: the heart does not adequately
circulate the khyl and blood, resulting in
plugs, resulting in a surge upward in the
body of khyl (e.g., not only khyl and
blood may coagulate; cholesterol may also
form plugs if its levels are high)

Direct effect of excessive bodily That a khyl attack will occur


khyl
Chills or hot Direct effect of khyl
That a khyl attack will occur
flushes in
the body