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bsnl traning report

Monday, December 6, 2010

Training report in
C-DOT MBM Exchange
BSNL Paonta Sahib (HP)
Since time immemorial, a man has tried hard to bring the world as close to himself as possible.
His thirst for information is hard to quench so he has continuously tried to develop new
The world we see today is a result of the continuous research in the field of communication,
which started with the invention of telephone by Grahm Bell to the current avtar as we see in the
form INTERNET and mobile phones. All these technologies have come to existence because
This project report of mine, STUDY OF TRENDS TECHNOLOGIES IN
COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING has been a small effort in reviewing the trends
technologies prevailing. For this purpose, no organization other than BAHRAT SANCHAR
NIGAM LIMITED could have been a better choice.
This engineering instruction describes the general features & facilities provided by CDOT MAX-XL

2.1 C-DOT DSS MAX XL is a universal digital switch, which can be configured for different
application as local, transit or integrated local cum transit switch. The hardware architecture of
C-DOT DSS MAX XL utilizes state of the art microcircuitry & modular packaging. It utilizes
advanced concept in hardware design such as duplicated & distributed microprocessor based
control, hybrid integrated circuit & single chip digital signal processors for MF& DTMF
receivers. The software has been written in high level language(C) & the man machine interface
language is a simple English like language. Now CDOT DSS Exchange can upgrade to provide
ISDN service by adding minimum additional hardware units.

2.2 The system employs a T-S-T switching configuration and is based on a 32 channel PCM
structure. It uses a basic rate of 64 Kbps & 2 mbps primary multiplexing rate. Basic memory unit
has been implemented as a 16MB dynamic RAM board with 256 KB as basic dynamic RAM
chip. Single chip digital signal processors are used for implementing DTMF & MF receivers.
3.0 Basic Modules.
CDOT DSS MAX-XL exchanges can be configuired from four basic modules.(Figure- 1)
(i) Base Modules.
(ii) Central Modules.
(iii) Administrative Modules.

(iv) Input-Output Modules.

(v) Line Modules.
4.1 BASE MODULE- BM-XL is the basic growth unit of CDOT DSS. It interfaces the external
world to the switch. The interface may be subscriber lines, analog & digital trunks, CCM & PBX
lines & digital links from remote modules & line concentrators. Each Base Module can interface
up to 2024 terminations. The numbers of BM directly correspond to the exchange size. COT
MAX-L & CDOT MAX-XL can contain maximum 16 & 32 BM respectively. One BM contains
four TUs, one BPU & one TSU. Base Module can be remotely located as a RSU, parented to the
main exchange using PCM links.
4.1.1 Function of BM.
Basic function of BM areI. Analog to Digital conversion of all signals on analog subscriber, trunks lines and interfacing
digital trunks.
II. Switching calls between terminals connected to the same BM
III. Communication with the AM via CM for administrative & mtce. functions and also for
call processing functions.
IV. Provision of special circuits for calls processing support e.g. digital tones, announcements,
terminal tester, and MF/DTMF controller etc
V. Provision for local switching & metering in case of RSU application in standalone mode.

In stand-alone application (i.e. SBM) the BM acts as an independent switching system &
can provide switching of up to 1500 lines & 100 trunks. In such application, it directly interfaces
with the IOM for bulk data storage and operation & maintenance function. The BM itself carries
out the function of the AM. Clock & synchronization is provided by source within the base
BM can be act as a remote switching module & communicate with host exchange via
digital links. Speed of digital link is 2 Mbps. Even when digital links fail between RSU and main
exchange, local call processing function will not be affected within the RSU.
The BM hardware is spread over following type of units.
1. Analogue Terminal Unit Analogue TU is used for interfacing analogue lines & trunks &
providing special circuits.
2. Digital Terminal Unit - Digital TU is used for interfacing digital trunks.
3. #7 Signaling Unit Module to support SS7 protocol handlers and some call processing
function for CCS7 calls.
4. ISDN Terminal Unit- To support termination of BRI/PRI interfaces and implementation of
lower layers of DSS1 signaling protocol.
5. Time Switch Unit - TSU used for voice and message switching and provision of service
6. Base Processor Unit BPU used for control message communication and call processing
Terminal Unit (TU 1)
Terminal Unit (TU 2)
Terminal Unit (TU 3)
Terminal Unit (TU 4)
Base Processor Unit (BPU)
Time Switch Unit (TSU)
4.1.1 Terminal Unit - TU provides interface to ordinary subscribers, CCB subscribers, PABX
subscribers, interexchange analog& digital trunks & Digital links from remote concentrator or
remote BM. One TU can support a maximum of 128 terminals & employs two TIC (one active &
other standby) for managing the processing functions. Each TU consists of 26 slots. TU frame is
equipped with Line circuit cards, TWT cards, power supply units, E & M four wire trunk cards,
Announcement cards lines & trunk cards & duplicated control cards namely Terminal unit
interface cards, TIC cards & signaling processor cards. Each line card contains eight-termination
circuit. The lines & trunk are offered BORSCHT functions on the Terminal card.

BORSCHT stands for B battery feed, O over voltage protection, R ringing, S

supervision, C coding& decoding, H hybrid & T - testing.
BM also defined the TEN number of subscriber. 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 5th digit of Terminal
Equipment Number shows Rack No., Frame No., Slot No. & Terminal Circuit No. Of particular
BM respectively. While 1st digit of TEN shows particular BM No. Of exchange.
BM No. Rack No. Frame No
(1-32) (1-3) (1-6)
Slot No. Termination circuit No.
(1-26) (1-8)
4.1.2 SS7 Signaling Unit Module (SUM)- Any one of the ATU or DTU in a BM can be
replaced by SUM frame to support CCS7 signaling.
4.1.3 ISDN Terminal Unit (ISTU)
One of the four ATUs/DTUs in a BM can be replaced by ISTU to provide BRI/PRI interface in
CDOT DSS. The only constraint is that ISTU has to be principal TU i.e. directly connected to
TSU on 8 Mbps PCM link . The ATU/DTU cannot be used in concentration with ISTU.
4.1.4 BASE PROCESSOR UNIT BPU is the master controller in the BM. It is used for
I. Call processing function (call processing subsystem software)
II. Administration function. (Admn subsystem software).
III. Maintenance (mtce subsystem software).
a). Fault detection (Detect faulty unit).
b). Fault localization (locate particular faulty card).
IV. Database All data available in memory card of BPU.
V. Operating System Manage all schedules of program.
It is implemented as a duplicated controller with memory unit.
BM-XL is modified at Base Processor shelf to cater for increased BHCA capacity. The
conventional BIC & BID cards are eliminated & only Base Processor Controller (BPC) card and Base
Memory Extender (BME) card having 16 MB memory are provided in MAX-XL exchange. The power
supply card in BPU is KO5. BUT of BM-XL is implemented as a duplicated 16-bit controller with memory
units. These duplicated sub units are realized in the form of the Base Processor Controller (BPC) & Base

Memory Extender (BME) cards. BPC controls time switching within the BM via the Base Master Switch
and the Time Switch Controller. It communicates with the Administrative Processor via BMS for
operations & maintenance functions. BMS is said to consist of MSC & MSD card whereas in XL
Hardware, BMS consist of HMS card. In SBM configuration, BPC directly interfaces with the ADP & IOM.
Figure 2 summarizes the various units and sub units of the BM. Nowadays 32MB High Performance
Processor Cards (HPC) used instead of BPC to support 8,00,000 BHCA.

4.1.5 TIME SWITCH UNIT (Figure 3) Basic function of TSU are I. Time Switching within BM
II. Routing of control messages within the Base Module & across Base Modules.
III. Service unit for providing call processing supports services like MF/ DTMF circuits, answering
circuits & tones etc. Service Unit - Service Unit is integrated around three different cards as Tone Generator with
answering circuit (TGA), Service circuit Interface Controller (SCIC) &MF/DTMF Controller (MFC) card.
MF/DTMF Circuit is implemented by using single chip, 4- channel digital signal processors. Two MFC
cards are grouped to form a terminal group. Up to four MFC Cards can be equipped. The TGA & two
groups of MFCs form three terminal groups towards service circuit interface. Base Message Switch - BMS routes the control messages within the BM, across different BMs &
also AM via the CM. It is implemented as a duplicated MSC (16-bit microprocessor) with six direct HDLC
links and the message Switch Device (MSD) card implementing 16-switched HDLC links. As a unit 22
HDLC channels are implemented for communication with the Base Processor. Time Switch Controller,
SCIC, TIC within the BM and the four CMS complexes in CM. It acts as a message transfer points
between the Base Processor and these controllers. It receives messages from the Base Processor and
transmits them towards the appropriate controllers. Time Switch The Time Switch receives the following PCM links & performs time switching on
them for switching within the BM.
- Four, 128 channel multiplexes from four different Terminal Units.
- One 128-channel multiplex from the service Circuits Interface Controllers.
- Three 128-channel links to support on board three party conference circuits.
It multiplexes these 128 channel links to from 512 channel, 4Mbps multiplexed bus towards the
CM. The individual buses are called Bus 0& Bus1. Besides this it also provides network switched path for
message communication between BMs between BM & CM.


The basic function of CM is
I. Bus Termination.
II. Space Switching.

III. Space switching control

IV. Administration
CM is responsible for space switching have inter modules calls & communication
between BMs & AM. For this function, CM has a space switch, space switch controller and a
central message switch. CM-XL provides connectivity to up to 32 BM-XL. Each BM-XL
interface with CM-XL via two 512 channel parallel buses each operating at 4Mbps. It provides
control message communication between any BMs for operation & mtce. Function. It also
provides clock & synchronization on a centralized basis.
4.2.1 Space Switch And Space Switch Controller
MUX cards extract time slots 0& 1 from Bus 0& Bus 1 from the BMs. These Time Slots
carrying control information are simultaneously extracted by the two MUX Cards for higher
reliability. Since each MUX cards receives both Bus 0& Bus 1, it extracts total 4 time slots.
These time slots from each BM are sent to the CMS. The CMS sends these time slots to
the Space Switch Controller on a 128-channel link. The SSC controls the space switching based
upon this information. Space Switch is implemented on three cards two MUX Cards & a space
Switch card.
4.2.2 Central Message switch
CMS is the central message transfer point of switch. It is implemented as four different
message switches, working in load sharing mode. All CMSs are used for routing of messages
across the Base Modules. On the other hand only CMS1 & CMS2 interface with the
Administrative Processor for routing control message between Base Processors & Administrative
Processor. This communication is used to access office data for routing inter-module calls and
administration and maintenance function.
Bus Termination Unit (BTU)
Space Switching Unit (SSU)
Space Switching Unit (SSU
Bus Termination Unit (BTU
Space Switching Controller Unit (SSCU)
Administration Processor Unit (APU)
AM performs system level resources allocation and processing function on a centralized
basis. It performs all the memory and time intensive call processing support functions and also
administration & maintenance function. AM-XL consists of a duplicated 16/32-bit controller
called the Administrative Processor Controller. It communicates with Base Processors via the
Central Message Switch for control messages and with the duplicated Input Output Processors in
the Input Output Module for interfacing peripheral devices.


IOM-XL consists of a duplicated Input Output Processor. Input Output Processor VH consist of
single VHC card as against HOC, IAS, PER & SAC cards of IOP-XL. Input Output Processor is, to a great
extent, a 32-bit general-purpose computer system that interfaces peripheral devices like disk drives,
cartridge tape drive and floppy drive. It support printer and up to 24 serial ports for video display units that
are used for man machine communication interface. IOP-VH is controlled by the Administrative
Processor for data communication and code and data loading during module or system initialization.


Alarm Display Panel (ADP) is a microprocessor based hardware unit, which is attached
to the BP (in SBM configuration) or AP (in MBM configuration) via HDLC links for providing
audio-visual indication of system faults. It is a three-card implementation. A matrix of LEDs is
provided to indicate the maintenance status of the switch units and their level of initialization. A
seven-segment display shows the count of links and trunks currently faulty. Keys are provides
for manual acknowledgment, initiating self-test and selective audio disable.
5. SYSTEM CAPACITY The capacity of CDOT MAX-XL is defined in terms of the
following parameters.
I. The termination capacity as lines & trunks The CDOT MAX-XL can support up to
40,000 lines & 5500 trunks or up to 14,500 trunks depending upon its
configuration as local exchange or TAX exchange.
II. The amount of traffic that can be switched The traffic capacity of CDOT MAX-XL is up to 8000
erlangs. This figure is based on the ideal traffic of one erlang / switched circuit. Normally a figure
of 0.8E traffic per circuit is considered to be practical & the above capacities may be reduced
accordingly. Capacities are reduced to not less than 7,500 Erlangs.
III. The number of Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA) that can be processed Base processor has
the capability of handling 12,500 BHCA, which can be increased to 30,000 using
upgraded processor card. The CDOT MAX XL exchange with 32 BM handle up to
3,00,000 BHCA. By upgrading the processor card, it is increased to 8,00,000 BHCA.

Various exchange configuration & their traffic capacities are given in below table.
SN Exchange Configuration Termination capacity
1. SBM-L
1500 Lines + 128
Trunks or 450 Trunks
2. MAX-L
16 BMs-L
20,000 Lines + 3,000
Trunks only
3. SBM-XL 1BM+2LMs
1500 Lines + 128




Medium size rural


Medium size rural


40000 Lines + 6000 3,00,000




Trunks or
Trunks only
2000 Lines


capacity switch for

Metropolitan area
Remotely located

6.0 CCS-7 Signaling Feature

Apart from handling CAS schemes, CDOT MAX-XL also supports CCITT (ITU-T)
Signaling System No. (CCS 7). The implementation of Message Transfer Part (MTP) is such
that the C-DOT MAX-XL can function both as a Signaling Point & a Signal Transfer Point. The
STP function does not affect the call handling performance of the switch. Presently, among the
level 4 user parts, the Telephone User Part (TUP) & plain telephony services of ISDN User Part
(ISUP) have been implemented. Later software releases will also incorporate the other features
of ISDN user Part (ISUP), signaling connection Control Part (SCCP), Transaction Capabilities
Application Part (TCAP) etc. as per CCITT (ITU-T) recommendations.
The ISDN traffic is of two distinct types
I Circuit switched voice & data.
II Packet switched data.
In case of circuit switched voice & data, the traffic is routed through ISDN/PSTN network. In case
of packet switched data, the packet traffic is routed /circuit switched to PSPDN where packet processing
takes place.

In CDOT MAX-XL architecture the ISDN interfaces are terminated on a new add on
terminal unit as ISTU. A max. of 256 bearer channels are provided by integrating one ISTU,
which can be configured to support any combination of BRI or PRI interfaces. If the requirement
of BRI / PRI interfaces are more than 256 bearer channels one or more ISTUs can be integrated
in CDOT MAX XL with the option of equipping them in the same BM or distributed across
different BMs in the exchange. One of the ATUs/DTUs in a BM can be replaced by ISTU. The
only constraint is that ISTU has to be principal TU i.e. directly connected to TSU on 8 Mbps
PCM link. The ATU/DTU cannot be used in concentration with ISTU.
In CDOT MAX-XL, the entire PSTN feature available for analog subscriber is also
available to ISDN subscribers.
8.0 RSU Status
Remote Switch Unit is an integral part of CDOT MAX-XL. For connectivity of RSU, the
normal switch can be modified for remote location & communication with the host exchange via
2 mbps digital links.

If ESL card is provided in CM-L one local BM & one RSU can be connected. ESM card
is required for in CM-XL Exchange for connecting remote switch unit. Total 16 numbers of
PSM/ESM cards are provided in copy-1 Base Termination Unit. Hence the number of RSUs is
limited to 16 nos. only in case of remotely located BM. For RSU working a minimum of 4 PCM
s and a max. Of 16 PCMs (2 MB streams) are required. As per the traffic condition and the
number of terminations at RSU the PCM links between the MAX-XL and RSU can be added by
software commands.
9.1 Basic Services






- Subscriber can dial local, national, international calls.

- Push button dialing services provided to subscribers to use push button telephone sets
employing DTMF signals.
- Ordinary & STD Coin collecting Box lines are provided.
- Number Identification service (Calling line identification presentation, Calling line
identification restriction & Calling line identification restriction override)
- Call forwarding facilities.
- Multi- Party (conference) services
- ISDN Supplementary services.
- Hot line Timed & without timed out services.
- Morning alarm facility.
- Call restriction services.
- Call forwarding facility.
- Conference facility.
- Malicious call identification facility.
- Dialing by TEN.
- Trunk offering Facility.
- Priority Subscriber.

- Subscriber controlled call restriction services.



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venkatesh kadaliMay 21, 2014 at 12:27 AM

venkatesh kadaliMay 21, 2014 at 12:28 AM
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