52 views

Uploaded by DhanyaUnni

Dimensional Analysis

- Num Rich
- Fluent-Overview (1).ppt
- Major Test One Units and Dimensions and Vectors Upto Dot Product
- cv
- My Important Questions
- Ansys Flotran 2d Duct Example com
- Chapter 1 GeneraI Considerations
- Potential Use of Mango Leaves Extracts Obtained by High Pressure Technologies in Cosmetic, Pharmaceutics and Food Industries.pdf
- pressure
- Units
- Chapter 2
- thermo unit 1
- CFX-Intro_14.5_L05_PostProcessing
- Estimation-of-Natural-Frequency-of-the-Bearing-System-under-Periodic-Force-Based-on-Principal-of-Hydrodynamic-Mass-of-Fluid.pdf
- Buckingham Pi Theorem
- Sas
- Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
- Unsteady State
- Programme Sessions
- Fluid Dynamics Viscosity

You are on page 1of 20

Chapter 7

The Need for Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid

mechanics problems in terms of nondimensional variables

and parameters.

1. Reduction in Variables:

If F(A1, A2, , An) = 0,

Then f(1, 2, r < n) = 0

Thereby reduces number of

experiments and/or simulations

required to determine f vs. F

F = functional form

Ai = dimensional

variables

j = nondimensional

parameters

= j (Ai)

i.e., j consists of

nondimensional

groupings of Ais

3. Useful in data analysis and modeling

4. Fundamental to concept of similarity and model testing

Enables scaling for different physical dimensions and

fluid properties

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

Basic dimensions: F, L, and t or M, L, and t

F and M related by F = Ma = MLT-2

Buckingham Theorem

In a physical problem including n dimensional variables in

which there are m dimensions, the variables can be

independent nondimensional

arranged into r = n m

= m).

parameters r (where usually m

F(A1, A2, , An) = 0

f(1, 2, r) = 0

Ais = dimensional variables required to formulate problem

(i = 1, n)

js = nondimensional parameters consisting of groupings

of Ais (j = 1, r)

F, f represents functional relationships between Ans and

rs, respectively

= rank of dimensional matrix

m

= m (i.e., number of dimensions) usually

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

Dimensional Analysis

Methods for determining is

1. Functional Relationship Method

Identify functional relationships F(Ai) and f(j)by first

determining Ais and then evaluating js

a. Inspection

b. Step-by-step Method

c. Exponent Method

intuition

text

class

initial and boundary conditions

Select appropriate quantities for nondimensionalizing the

GDE, IC, and BC e.g. for M, L, and t

Put GDE, IC, and BC in nondimensional form

Identify js

Exponent Method for Determining js

1) determine the n essential quantities

of the A quantities, with different dimensions,

2) select m

dimensions, and use

that contain among them the m

them as repeating variables together with one of the

other A quantities to determine each .

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

necessarily in each one, but collectively); then the j

parameters are formed as follows:

1 A1x1 A 2y1 A 3z1 A 4

2 A1x 2 A 2y2 A 3z 2 A 5

n m A1x n m A 2yn m A 3z n m A n

Determine exponents

such that is are

dimensionless

3 equations and 3

unknowns for each i

each is dimensionless. This is accomplished by

substituting the dimensions for each of the Ai in the

equations and equating the sum of the exponents of M, L,

and t each to zero. This produces three equations in three

unknowns (x, y, t) for each parameter.

= m as the

In using the above method, the designation of m

number of basic dimensions needed to express the n

variables dimensionally is not always correct. The correct

is the rank of the dimensional matrix, i.e., the

value for m

next smaller square subgroup with a nonzero determinant.

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Dimensional matrix =

M

L

t

Chapter 7

A1

a11

An

a1n

a31

o

:

:

:

o

a3n

o

:

:

:

o

aij = exponent

of M, L, or t in

Ai

n x n matrix

Rank of dimensional matrix equals size of next smaller

sub-group with nonzero determinant

Example: Hydraulic jump (see section 15.2)

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

V1 = V1(, g, , y1, y2)

or V2 = V1y1/y2

Dimensional analysis is a procedure whereby the functional

relationship can be expressed in terms of r nondimensional

parameters in which r < n = number of variables. Such a

reduction is significant since in an experimental or

numerical investigation a reduced number of experiments

or calculations is extremely beneficial

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

1) , g fixed; vary

2) , fixed; vary g

3) , g fixed; vary

In general:

or

Represents

many, many

experiments

dimensional form

f(1, 2, r) = 0

nondimensional

form with reduced

# of variables

1 = 1 (2, , r)

Fr

y

V1

Fr 2

gy 1

y1

thus only need one experiment to determine the functional

relationship

Fr2

x x2

2

Fr x1 x

2

1/ 2

x Fr

0

0

.61

1

1

2 1.7

5 3.9

functional relationship through the use of a control volume

analysis: (neglecting and bottom friction)

x-momentum equation: Fx Vx V A

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

y12

y 22

V1 V1 y1 V2V2 y 2

2

2

2

y1 y 22 V22 y 2 V12 y1

2

g

continuity equation:

V2

V1y1 = V2y2

Chapter 7

in equation must

have some units:

principle of

dimensional

homogeneity,

i.e., in this case,

force per unit

width N/m

V1 y1

y2

y12 y 2

y

1 V12 y1 1 1

2 y1

g y2

due to gravity

y2 3

1 y1

y1

gy 2

V12 1 y 2 y 2

1

dimensionless equation

gy 1 2 y1 y1

ratio of inertia forces/gravity forces = (Froude number)2

note:

Fr = Fr(y2/y1)

and y1, only ratio to get Fr

Also, shows in an experiment it is not necessary to vary

, y1, y2, V1, and V2, but only Fr and y2/y1

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

(along free surface from 12)

V12

V22

y1

y2 h L

2g

2g

hL

y 2 y1 3

4 y1 y 2

flow energy equations

Exponent method to determine js for Hydraulic jump

use V1, y1, as

repeating variables

F(g,V1,y1,y2,,) = 0

L L

M M

LL 3

2

T T

L LT

m=3 r=nm=3

n=6

Assume m = m to

avoid evaluating

rank of 6 x 6

dimensional matrix

1 = V1x1 y1y1 z1

= (LT-1)x1 (L)y1 (ML-3)z1 ML-1T-1

L x1 + y1 3z1 1 = 0

y1 = 3z1 + 1 x1 = -1

T -x1

1=0

x1 = -1

M z1

+1=0

z1 = -1

y1V1

1

1

1

or

y1V1

= Reynolds number = Re

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

10

2 = V1x2 y1y2 z2 g

= (LT-1)x2 (L)y2 (ML-3)z2 LT-2

L x2 + y2 3z2 + 1 = 0

y2 = 1 x2 = 1

T -x2

2=0

x2 = -2

M z2 = 0

2

2 V1 y1 g

gy1

V1

21 / 2

V1

3 = V1x3 y1y3 z3 y2

= (LT-1)x3 (L)y3 (ML-3)z3 L

L x3 + y3 3z3 + 1 = 0

y3 = 1

T -x3 = 0

M -3z3 = 0

y

y

3 2

31 1 = depth ratio

y1

y2

f(1, 2, 3) = 0

or, 2 = 2(1, 3)

i.e., Fr = Fr(Re, y2/y1)

if we neglect then Re drops out

Fr

y

V1

f 2

gy 1

y1

functional relationship. Recall that previously we used

control volume analysis to derive

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

11

V12 1 y 2 y 2

1

gy 1 2 y1 y1

the actual relationship between F vs. y2/y1

or

Fr = Fr(Re, y1/y2)

dimensional matrix:

g V1 y1 y2

M 0

0

0

0

L

1

1

1

1

t

-2 -1 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

0

0

1

-1

-1

0

0

0

subgroup with nonzero

determinant = 3 = rank

of matrix

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

12

Flow Problems

Most common physical quantities of importance in fluid flow

problems are: (without heat transfer)

1

V,

g,

K,

p,

tension

change

n=8

m=3

5 dimensionless parameters

VL inertia forces

1) Reynolds number =

viscous forces

V 2 / L

V / L2

Rcrit distinguishes among flow regions: laminar or turbulent

value varies depending upon flow situation

V

inertia forces

2) Froude number =

gL gravity force

V 2 / L

Re

Fr

V 2 L

inertia force

V 2 / L

3) Weber number =

important parameter at gas-liquid or liquid-liquid interfaces

and when these surfaces are in contact with a boundary

4) Mach number =

V

V

inertia force

compressibility force

k / a

We

Ma

Paramount importance in high speed flow (V > c)

5) Pressure Coefficient =

(Euler Number)

p

V 2

pressure force

inertia force

p / L

V 2 / L

Cp

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

13

It is very useful and instructive to nondimensionalize the

basic equations and boundary conditions. Consider the

situation for and constant and for flow with a free

surface

V 0

Continuity:

DV

p z 2 V

Dt

g = specific weight

Boundary Conditions:

1) fixed solid surface: V 0

2) inlet or outlet: V = Vo p = po

p p a R x1 R y1

3) free surface:

w

t

(z = )

surface tension

Momentum:

U = reference velocity

L = reference length

V

U

x

x*

L

V*

tU

L

p gz

p*

U 2

t*

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

14

making the substitution

*

VV U

t * U

*

t t t L t *

i j k

x y z

x * y* z *

*

i *

j *

k

z

x

y

z

1

*

L

u 1

U u *

*

and

etc.

Uu

*

*

x L x

L x

* V 0

DV *

*

*p*

*2 V

Dt

VL

*

1) V 0

Re-1

p

V

2) V * o

p* o 2

U

V

p

*

gL

*

*1

*1

3) w *

p* o 2 2 z *

R

R

x

y

t

V

U

V 2 L

pressure coefficient

V=U

We-1

Fr-2

Result:

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

15

Flow conditions for a model test are completely similar if

all relevant dimensionless parameters have the same

corresponding values for model and prototype

i model = i prototype

(m)

i = 1, r = n - m

However, complete similarity usually not possible

Therefore, often it is necessary to use Re, or Fr, or Ma

scaling, i.e., select most important and accommodate

others as best possible

Types of Similarity:

1) Geometric Similarity (similar length scales):

A model and prototype are geometrically similar if and

only if all body dimensions in all three coordinates have

the same linear-scale ratios

= Lm/Lp

( < 1)

1/10 or 1/50

2) Kinematic Similarity (similar length and time scales):

The motions of two systems are kinematically similar if

homologous (same relative position) particles lie at

homologous points at homologous times

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

16

mass) scales):

in addition to the requirements for kinematic similarity

the model and prototype forces must be in a constant

ratio

Model Testing in Water (with a free surface)

F(D, L, V, g, , ) = 0

n = 6 and m = 3 thus r = n m = 3 pi terms

In a dimensionless form,

f(CD, Fr, Re) = 0

or

CD = f(Fr, Re)

where

If

Frm Frp or

Vp

Vm

gL m

gL p

Vm Vp

Froude scaling

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

Chapter 7

17

Vm L m Vp L p

and Rem = Rep or

m

p

m Vm Lm

3/ 2

p V p Lp

Then,

or

However, impossible to achieve, since

8

2

7

2

3.1

10

m

s

1.2

10

m

s

1

10

if

, m

7

Vm = Vp/

But, if 1 10 , Vm 10Vp ,

High speed testing is difficult and expensive.

Vp2

Vm2

gmLm gpLp

g m Vm2 L p

2

g p Vp L m

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

g m Vm2 L p

2

g p Vp L m

gm

1 1

2 3

gp

gp

gm 3

But if 1 10 , gm 1000 g p

Impossible to achieve

Model Testing in Air

F(D, L, V, , , a) = 0

In a dimensionless form,

f(CD, Re, Ma) = 0

or

CD = f(Re, Ma)

where

Chapter 7

18

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

If

Vm L m Vp L p

m

p

and

Vm Vp

am ap

Chapter 7

19

Then,

or

1

m Lm a m

However,

p L p a p

again not possible

Therefore, in wind tunnel testing Re scaling is also violated

Professor Fred Stern Fall 2013

1

c p p V 2

2

High Re

Chapter 7

20

See

text

In hydraulics model studies, Fr scaling used, but lack of We

similarity can cause problems. Therefore, often models are

distorted, i.e. vertical scale is increased by 10 or more

compared to horizontal scale

Ship model testing:

CT = f(Re, Fr) = Cw(Fr) + Cv(Re)

Vm determined

for Fr scaling

Cwm = CTm Cv

CTs = Cwm + Cv

same surface area

- Num RichUploaded byArte Machaca
- Fluent-Overview (1).pptUploaded bysid
- Major Test One Units and Dimensions and Vectors Upto Dot ProductUploaded bynitin
- cvUploaded byVenkatesh V
- My Important QuestionsUploaded byCharles Roberson
- Ansys Flotran 2d Duct Example comUploaded byKhusi1
- Chapter 1 GeneraI ConsiderationsUploaded byPatricio Canizares
- Potential Use of Mango Leaves Extracts Obtained by High Pressure Technologies in Cosmetic, Pharmaceutics and Food Industries.pdfUploaded byjidat lawak
- pressureUploaded bySuresh C
- UnitsUploaded byhpeter195798
- Chapter 2Uploaded byUmair Liaqat
- thermo unit 1Uploaded byEron George
- CFX-Intro_14.5_L05_PostProcessingUploaded byShaheen S. Ratnani
- Estimation-of-Natural-Frequency-of-the-Bearing-System-under-Periodic-Force-Based-on-Principal-of-Hydrodynamic-Mass-of-Fluid.pdfUploaded bykeepmoshing2
- Buckingham Pi TheoremUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- SasUploaded bysadi1988
- Fluid Flow Through Porous MediaUploaded bydeb
- Unsteady StateUploaded byThomas Santosa
- Programme SessionsUploaded byclimax1364
- Fluid Dynamics ViscosityUploaded byxcvers
- Zhong AUC2008Uploaded byklomps_jr
- Wiley 2009 EngineeringUploaded bymerve_acar
- Draft Notice JE 2014Uploaded byHeera Mahato
- Chapter+8Uploaded bylimi44
- A Unified Formula for Determination of Wellhead Pressure and Bottom-hole PressureUploaded byZarda Akramul Arby
- Section 2Uploaded byHAFIZ IMRAN AKHTER
- CollapsibleUploaded byMuhammad Nafi'ul Alam
- dynamic pressure HousnerUploaded byShreevardhan Khoat
- 63442182 Fluid MechanicsUploaded byoperationmanager
- N SEquationsUploaded byKristine Marie Javier

- Occupant Comfort.pdfUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Solar Radiation MetricsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Sky ConditionsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Weather Data in GBSUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Acoustic ComfortUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- R-Values of Insulation and Other Building MaterialsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- New vs Existing BuildingsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Psychrometric ChartsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Psychrometric ChartsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- TemperatureUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- InsulationUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Wind Rose DiagramsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- HumidityUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Reading Sun Path DiagramsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Solar PositionUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Architecture Resume Template (1)Uploaded byDhanyaUnni
- 39833Uploaded byAgung C Nugroho
- Flow of open channelUploaded bymr_sam91
- Green Building CostsUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- BitumenUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Tamil Words 1Uploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Resource UseUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Soil StabilizationUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- 07 Pi TheoremUploaded byaskinganand
- American standard for testing granular soils ( Lois angles abrasion value)Uploaded bySallam Mohammed
- Project Phases & Level of DevelopmentUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- 110125courses AECUploaded byDhanyaUnni
- 5515Uploaded byDhanyaUnni
- Buckingham Pi TheoremUploaded byDhanyaUnni

- Applications of Spin CoatingUploaded byFaris Shahin
- Design Two Phase SeperatorsUploaded byabhmars
- Pages From Perry's Chemical Engineering HandbookUploaded byMyxolidian Amri
- Review of Froth Modelling in Steady State Flotation SystemsUploaded byJuan Olivares
- Packed Column Design_Flow Through a Packed BedUploaded byWONG TS
- Tutorial Chapter 02_AnswerUploaded byFateh Hakeem
- BernoulliUploaded bySharoni Pavadhay
- SST Turbulence ModelUploaded bymatteo_1234
- 127353816 Domestic Water Booster Pump CalculationsUploaded byShishan Ahmad
- Subsonic Inlet SizingUploaded byNaveen Kumar
- Comparison Between PD and DynamicUploaded byStormreaders Book
- Numerical Modelling of Transient Air-water Flows within a Riser Downstream of a Trunk Sewer.pdfUploaded byBiao
- What is External Static Pressure of a FanUploaded bysahiloct11969
- 137943893406_2012_ValvesizingreferenceUploaded bysshastrimech
- 3.3 Capillary PressureUploaded byHind Lionne
- Exact Solution Tank Drainage.pdfUploaded byFelipe Cast
- FM42 - Complete ManualUploaded byFatin Fateha
- Reynolds NumberUploaded byAmit Jharbade
- WaterLoopCalcsUploaded byupadhyayparag01
- 12d Drainage Analysis HydraulicsUploaded byFaishal Khairul Umam
- ADHS paper 2011-2012.pdfUploaded byjk
- Effect of Roughness on airfoilUploaded bydee
- 1. AE-May-2015-04-BS-7Uploaded byumchem2
- Presentation on NPSHUploaded byronny_fernandes363
- Non-Linear ViscoelasticityUploaded byErkan Şamhal
- 11 GVF.pdfUploaded byRamu Nagulagani
- Gas Dynamics1stclassUploaded byJoe Scribd
- unit-66-tof-juny (1).docxUploaded byMohammed Rizwan
- 1 -Groundwater Engineering-Basic KnowledgeUploaded byShahram Hawrami
- Flender Gearbox Lubricant 7300 (en)Uploaded bysamer salameh