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To the Memory of my Sister Mis'adi

ix

(Introduction for the student)

~Lbl.J ~:a_.

r!. "~:a..

xiv

~I U~ : \ r-lJ U"'J.JI

~.J ~ ..::,.~1.~~1 J~l :'( r-lJ U"'J.JI

\1

~L......J I :f r-lJ U"'J.J I

''

t~\JI r~i :t r-lJ '-""J.JI

"(}.

u.....J I J_,._.!. : o r-l J '-"" J .J I


~l,u.....JI J~

:"\ r-lJ

'-""J.JI

The Definite Article, the Sun and Moon Letters :.ul_,.i

~I :Y r-lJ U"'J.JI
The Construct UW..YI :.ul_,.i

rv

illW I :A r-l J '-"" J .J I


The Singular, the Dual, and the Plural :.ul_,.i

"":"'y!J I.J JS\' I :\ r-lJ '-"" J.J I


wi_,J\fi.J ~Y..ll : \. r-lJ '-""J.JI
0\

" r-l J '-"" J .J I


~~ u:.t..& :~1

(\) ._,:.u..JI

c.,? ~.J 0 1o~ : JI~


~~~ : i.,AI

possession : .u I_,.i
oA

\ '( r-l J '-"" J .J I


~J"'" : ~I

("<) _,:.u..JI c.,? ~.J 0 1.1

: JI~

0 I,r.oJ. J. _,.J..A :l.,AI


Having with~ :.ui_,J

'r r-l J '-"" J.J 1

'\"(

~1 : ~1

o~ Ju..... c.? olo~ : JI~


J~.~ ~u :l.,AI

H r-l J '-"" J .J I

'\A

.:JJ~~~~~ :~I
J~ l ~ I ~L:.JI

c.,? 0 1o~ : JI~

ol... J.Ll !~L:..II .::.1}.-:!'..... :i.,AI


Wanting with~ :.ul_,.i

\o r-JJ V"J..UI
lS:~I J U..... ..,.~

~
:~ I
.>-

cJ..:....!. ~

J~' ~ ul.l :JI_,.

. ~.,a.JI J_,.l.JI:l_,..il
Subject/Person Markers

.ul_,..

Verb Types
Having with e-"
Moving to the Past with 0 lS:

\"\ r-JJ V"J..UI

A\

J~~~~..,..!oU_,:~1

Ju.....JJ ~UJI ~ 0 1.! :JI_,.

~.,a.JI rJWI :i_,..il

Negation

.ul_,..

L.~

The Arabic Sentence

Non-hwnan Plurals

\Y r-JJ V"J..UI
~

_.1-;.L
..,.---=

: ..........I
.>I..

( \) ._,...b_,..!..l I t:-'" JtJ...ll ~

ul.l : J 1_,.

~l:i_,..il

Conjugation of4-i

.ul_,..

Object Pronouns

(The Relative Adjective)

~I

The Cases

\Ar-JJ V"J..UI

.. 0

~I~ ~_,~..,..!o : ~l

(Y) ._,...b_,..!J I e-" JtJ...ll ~ 0 1.! :JI_,.


4..:!.!_,._.11 :l_,..il

Verb-Subject (Dis)agreemcnt :.ul_,..

\\ r-JJ V"J..UI

\.T'
J4-:!)ll U..!. ~ ~,

u_,1J:.J4 ~..,..!o ~ ~ :~1


~ .,:,1-"!' ~ ul.l :Jt_,.

Jl.,a.ll :l_,..il

followed by the verb in the perfect .U :.ul_,..

'\'. r-JJ V"J..UI

\\'(

~-' U..!. c.rll iJ4-JI ~ :~1

~ ~ 0 1.l j~ J~l...a,... :Jt_,.

4J.,..... :l_,..il
followed by the verb in the imperfect

ii

: .u I_,..

'"

y \ r-l J

I.>" J.J I

IS......!.
. .J~ IJ-!
1.i<
'r!'
r-=. .....L->- :............... I
F l c.? .:_. l.l :.)1.,..

.:..~
Subject/Person Markers on the Imperfect Verb
The Comparative and Superlative

:i_;al
.u.l_,.:i

.)~~~:~1

yy r-AJ I.)"J.JJ

\YA
_,i~ J.:!~ I

c.,? ~-'-' ....i.:!~ :~I

.:_, I.U U".W I ~ ~ J.,;.&.ll....lJo.,... : JI~

.:,J}'JI :i_;il
Sound and Broken Plurals :.u.l_,.:i

\'\"0

Yr' r-AJ

I.>" J.J I

.I.:'J ! ~_,L.:...e : ~I

J.,;.&.ll

v-e ....i.:!~ ~~ ~ .:_,IJ : JI~


:1_;;1

.J-'"""'A

.:,SL.. . ~i

.~

.u.l_,.:i

The Ordinal Numbers

Y! r-l J

I.>" J .J I

_,i~ c.,? ....i.:!~ ~ V.:OI ~ : ~I

.l.:'J!

c.,? U:.WI J4.>J .:_,IJ ~.l.:' ....i.:!~ ~~

: J I~

oiJ_,.......II :i_;;l

The Imperative

.u.l_,.:i

The Imperfect of Assimilated Verbs in ~

'0.

Yo r-lJ '-"'J.JI
_,.c~

v-e lS~I ~I ~..H ....i.:!~ : ~1


.I.:'J ! .:..~

u....-... c.,? .:_, IJ : JI~


._,....:._,:. :1 _,.AI
.......i-~~1 :~1

Y\ r-l J

\0"\
~I

I.>" J .loll

c.,? ~.,.:JI J_,~ ....i.:!~ :e:---1


....i.:!~ ~~ U:.u

t-" .:_,IJ : JI~


_,:.1~1

:i_;il

yy r-lJ '-"'J.JI

\'\'\"

~J~ I

v-e ~..H ~~ :e:---1

u..i...!._, ....i.:!~ ~IJJ :JI~

iii

"(A ,._l.J

\'\\

U"' J .l.11

rt =~'

....;~ ~.J .Hl 0~ Jl,...,....J ~~

~~ -Ht ~~~I~ I :JI_,..


~La.:.....

:1_,.ll

.)4-1- 4(,F~ :~i


"( '\ ,._1.) <.)"' .) .l.11

W'\

lS~I ~ ~~ U..!. :~I


~..,..1 i_,.J : Jl_,..
~ : l_,JI

Conjugation of Doubled Roots

.ul_,.;i

Passive Voice in~


Person Marlters in~

r . ,._1.) <.)"' .) .l.11

\AY

., c-:--= .....;....>-.. :...- 1

~ . J .:.. .L.

!~ ~ 0

~ :JI_,..
Jl~ :i_,.ll

The Resumptive Pronoun :.ul_,.;i

r ' ,._1.) <.)"' .) .l.11

\AA

~~-Hl:~l

o'J,J .UI.i.

r' =.),,....

~J :l_,.ll

Passive Voice in Levantine = ~l_,:i

r "( ,._1.) <.)"' .) .l.11

'"

~~rt=~'
~1-Ht J4-.J ~~ -Ht.J oiJ :JI_,..
..:..,J~ :i_,.ll

..:...J~~~IJI./J~ : ~i

rr ,._1.,

Y.r

<.)"' .,

.l.11

<.)"' .)

.l.11 .

dll~ : ~l

~I.J t.....IJ.UI V.C 0 1J

J"-:! ~~-HI

:JI_,..

0 L.....c :i_,.ll

r t ,._1.,

Y.A

Jl,...,...:~l

~..,...

o'J :J1,....

V".u.JI :l_,JI

iv

ro ~J V"'J.JI
~_,...i ~ t......IJ..UI_, ~J.,..._JI ~ J..-11 :e--'1
~t:o..ll Jt..............

e--- t)IJ_, ~.,ro!.~l :JI~


i ,>AliJ I :i j l I

e--- and~ :.u I_,.J


t..~l~~ : ~i

r' ~J '-""J.JI

"''

J,....JI ~ ~~ :e--'1
J,....JI ~ l.)IJ : JI~

(",_1._,.;.J I :i j l l

rv ~J '-""J.u 1
(\) v-=-JI J..4.- : e--' I
t)~ vll ~~ ~ l.)IJ : JI~
~,.:; :i_;il

(The Accusative of the Absolute) J.l..lo..11 J_,a.til :.ui_,.J

r'A ~J V"'J.JI
( Y)

v-=-JI J..4.- : e--'1

~_,...j ~ t......IJ..UI : JI~


>al~l :i_;il

r\ ~J

'-""J.u1

(\) ~_,..JI '-"'-'.JJ-1 ~IS :e--'1


~;.,.'il ..::.L-4-JI :JI~
.~1 JI..UI :l_;il

L ~J IY'J.JI
(Y) ~_,..JI V".1JJ.1 ~IS :e--'1
t)J.)'i l ~ l.A.Jij ~I VSL..'il ~ l.)IJ Jt.~ J~ : .)1~

l,l"'"~! t.r.~ ~.)l:i :i~l

f\ ~J '-"" J.J I
(\) J.,&JI_, c,.,!.~~_,JI :e--'1
~_,a.i ~~ J.1J i.J4j ~ t)~~ J~_, l.)IJ : JI~
::.)~~~ : i~l

Roots and Stems :.ui_,.J

t Y ~J
(Y) J.,&JI_, c,.,!.~~~l :e--'1
~y!.J ...,.._,~ : .)1~

r~rt :1~1

IY'J.JI

t Y' r-JJ

HA

V" J.J I

<'era~ '-:-'4 v. ~ ~) ~ =e--'


~V.....i..:!~~~~c)I.1 : JI~

~ JS ~ ..,...wr ~~

v. J,.:..11 J4 ~J ~ :!_,.11

"'"

H r-JJ '-"" J .J I
t.l...i.JIJ ~

:e--1

~~I : JI~

~I~

w.

J4 :!_,.11
to r-JJ V"J.JI

(~J'il

u.,... u.,...) ~ =e--'


IS~I~~I : JI~

c.ra41 Jl~ :1_,.11


The Forms of the Arabic Verb: I, II, and V :.ui_,J

t ' r-JJ '-"'~.JI

WA

(~J_,Ji ~~J~II_,l~)~ :e--1


~~'il
~..>'!"

U.U4 ~.~La- : JI~

t-". ~V:!~I ~L..o1 ~t.!.u ~ :1_,.11


Fonn IV :.ui_,J

tv rolJ '-"'J.JI

J4- ~J ~ =e--'
~,:JIJ .~La- : .,1~

~J~:i_,.ll

Forms VI and VII :.ui_,J

tAr-JJ V"J.JI
J_,....JI v-II '-:-'l.Al.ll

~~ c:,IS

YJ~J ~

:e--1

l,jl 0 1.1 J'~ J~

:.,1~

~ J~ '-:-'L.a.:..:al :1_,11

Fonn VIII :.u I_,l

\ r-JJ V"J.JI

"(\O

~J~ :e--1

J_,....JI ~ J~J cjl.l :JI_,..,.


~J~ :1_,.11

Form III :.ui_,J

T.Y

o r-JJ '-"" J.J I


.,L.....JIJ ~IJ ~ :e---1
~L:JI~_,...

t-" ~I.L :.,1~

~.~JL..!, ~~ :1_,.11

vi

r.,

0'

(!till

r-iJ U"J.l.ll

.w. ,.:,1) ~ :t--"1

t..)L.... .._L..~

t-"

~Li.... :JI.,....

~.jJ.J .J_,......... :i.,.;l

Fonn X :.ul_,:;

0" r-iJ '-"' ,;.1.11

nr

u_,.;..:.s :t--"1
,ji.J t-" ~Li.... :).,....

~.JJ.J .J_,......... ~ ~ u.JJW. :i.,.;l


Noun Patterns :.ul_,:;

n.

o'f r-iJ U"J.l.ll

w,_,.;..:.s :t--" I
~I ~I ~1.>-!1

t-"

~Li.... :JI.,....

~~ L:.i ~ ~ :i.,.;l

nv

ot r-iJ U"J.l.ll
w,_,.;..:.s :t--" I
,.:,L.L... ~ t-" ~Li.... :JI.,....
(.,f.>-!>""~.) :i.,.;l
00

r-iJ U"J.l.ll

w,_,.;..:.s :t--" I
Ju......J.I ~L:.JI ~ ,ji.J :JI.,....

(.,f.>-!>""~.)~ :i.,.;l

(Appendices) ~)lll
rt.
T'o.

(Reading and WritinP) ~l.:iS.JI.J i.l_,.i.JI . \


-=-l.:.L...:....'ii.J .<!bl..._,La..... ~I -=-IJI_,..JI

t L...:.......'il c.J"".,.......:. .Y

(Texts of Listening Selections and Dialogues, Jeopardy Games, and Tests)

f. f.\

(Grammar Summary) .ui,&JI ~ :.!.JI!.JI ~I

f.Ao

(Verb Conjugations) JW'il ~,.,.....:;:~I~ I ~I

f. \A

(Arabic-English Glossary) l.,f~~-~~

vii

V"_,...u

=v-ela.~ I ~I

Acknowledgments
I would like to express my gratitude to Dick Feldm~ Annie Hoff, and Andrew Page of the
Language Resource Center at Cornell. As the director ~f the Language Resource Center
and the local representative of the Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning, Dick
has been a strong supporter of Arabic instruction at Cornell in numerous ways. He played a
central role in the production of the audio and video materials which accompany this and
the other textbooks I have written and in the publication of the present volume. Annie took
a leading role in shepherding the book through the final design and printing stages. Andrew
spent many hours in the audio and video labs setting up equipment, teaching me how to use
it, and doing a good deal of the work himself.
Micah Garen gave his time and energy wholeheartedly to the task of bringing my imaginary
characters to life with humor and cultural authenticity, making the book more useful and
enjoyable.
I am also grateful to Ragy Ibrahim, Muna Aghawani, Muna Barghout, and Shada El-Sharif
for generously giving time from their busy schedules to assist with the audio recordings.
Ragy's keen eye caught many of the typos that I had failed to catch myself.
My wife, Rebecca, spent countless hours discussing with me the problems of teaching
Arabic and the solutions implemented in this book. The book has greatly benefited from
her insight and critical thinking. Her insistence on quality was often frustrating, but in the
end it was always rewarding.
Finally, my deepest gratitude goes to my students at Cornell University, who over a
number of years served as enthusiastic participants in my experiment with a new method of
teaching Arabic.

vii!

INTRODUCTION (FOR mE STUDENT)


This textbook integrates an Arabic colloquial dialect with Modem Standard Arabic (MSA) in a way that
reflects the use of the language by native speakers. Arabs communicate in the colloquial in everyday
situations, and use MSA for reading, writing, and formal speaking. For example, when an Arab reads a
newspaper, he reads MSA, but when he discusses its contents with his friends, the discussion takes place in
the colloquial.
Arabs from different parts of the Arab world speak different dialects, but MSA is virtually the same everywhere.
This is why the majority of Arabic programs prefer to teach MSA. However, students who learn to speak
only MSA will not be able to use it in conversation; not only will they sound ludicrous, but they will also find
it difficult to understand what is being said to them.
I believe that teaching a spoken dialect for everyday conversation and MSA for reading, writing, and formal
speaking is the most effective way to prepare students to function in Arabic. I also believe that if a student
masters any Arabic dialect well enough, he/she will be able to function in other dialects, just as native
speakers from different areas of the Arab world do.
The Arabic spoken dialects share most of their vocabulary and grammatical structures with one another and
with MSA; that is why they are considered dialects of the same language rather than different languages. This
textbook builds on these shared features and attempts to bridge the gap among the different language
varieties.
The colloquial Arabic dialect used in the textbook is Levantine Arabic. It is the Arabic spoken in Syria,
Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan. It is one of the major Arabic dialect groups that most speakers of other
Arabic dialects are familiar with through contact with its speakers and through radio and TV programs. The
variety of Levantine introduced can be described as educated Levantine. In choosing words and structures for
inclusion in the book, regionalisms and localized features have been avoided whenever possible in favor of
the more common and more "standard spoken" forms used by educated speakers of the dialect.

Suggestions for Using the Textbook


This textbook includes activities and exercises geared towards developing all language skills simultaneously.
Humor, illustrations and pictures, and different types of vocabulary-building activities aim at making the
acquisition and retention of language elements both enjoyable ~d effective.
The book can be divided into tqree parts: Lessons 1 through 10, Lessons II through 55, and five appendices.

U.l-10
The goal of the first part is to introduce the Arabic writing system, the numbers, and about 150 high-frequency
words related to personal identification, school, time, weather, home, family, and work, food, and clothing,
which are then used as a basis for further vocabulary (and other skill) building. A lesson in this part consists
of three main activities:
a. Introduction of new words. (The number ranges from I 0 to 25). This is done by the teacher in the
classroom with the help of illustrations, pictures, maps, and other teaching aids in a communicative manner.
b. Listening exercises. The goal of these exercises, which take the form of short dialogues, and short
descriptions of places, _people, and events, is to provide a context for using the new words introduced in a
given lesson and to recycle those in previous lessons for effective acquisition and retention. They are all
recorded on the COs that accompany the textbook. The student listens to the CD recording and answers
questions in the book in English.
c. Reading exercises. The goal of these exercises is to help master the reading skill quickly and painlessly
through the use of words that have been introduced before and through the extensive use of illustrations.

ix

LL. 11-55
In this part of the book, the focus is shifted toward developing the skill to listen and read for comprehension
without deliberately introducing the words at the beginning of each lesson and without expecting full mastery
of new words. The lessons in this part generally have a similar format and consist of three basic activities
(listening, speaking, and reading) and a varying number of additional activities. Each of the basic activities is
1
accompanied by a list of new words and a set of comprehension questions.in English. Only the texts of the
reading selections are presented in the main body of the book; the texts of the listening selections and
dialogues are found in an appendix for reference only. (More on this below.)
The additional activities include different types of vocabulary-building exercises, songs, writing exercises,
and extra readings. Since the focus of the book is on real communication and developing the different skills
by using the language in meaningful contexts and not on the study of grammar, the number of grammar
exercises and explanations in the book is kept to a minimum.
All listening selections (with the heading e---"1) and most of the reading selections (under i.,.A~ are recorded
on the CDs that accompany the textbook. In the first ten lessons, the readings that have been recorded are
marked by a CD icon (0). In LL. 11-55, all the reading selections have been recorded with the exceptions of
those presented in tabular form. The dialogues of LL. 11-55 have been acted out and videotaped on location
in Jordan and are available in DVD format. All these audio and video materials are included in the set of
CDs and the DVD that accompany the textbook.
The book has been designed in such a way that most activities can be worked on outside the class with the
help of the book, the CDs, and the DVD--at home, in the library, in a park, or in your car, where you have
more time and where you are more relaxed and rested. Class time is reserved for activities for which a
teacher/native speaker is really needed: speaking practice, improving pronunciation, explaining grammatical
structures and concepts, offering guidance, and making relevant resources available. Considering how little
time is available in the classroom in comparison with the time available outside of it, you can imagine how
much you can accomplish on your own in terms of mastering the language. Your progress would be quite
limited if you restricted your learning to the classroom.
Following is a discussion of the different activities in the second part of the book and suggestions on how to
handle each activity.

Listen e--'
The first 30 listening selections tell the story of Sharif, a Palestinian/Jordanian student at Cornell University:
his trip to America, losing and finding his luggage, checking into a hotel, eating in a restaurant, etc. The
selections also include introductions of his family members in Jordan. The last fifteen selections tell a
number of stories starting with President Bush, Sr. on a visit to Egypt and enjoying Egyptian fava beans, and
ending with a four-part Arabic folktale.
The purpose of the listening selections is to help you develop the ability to listen to Arabic and tp understand
the gist of what you listen to. All selections include language material that has not been fully covered in the
class, and you are not expected to understand the details of every selection, but you are encouraged to guess
the meaning from context. The focus is on develQPing the skill of listening for comprehension. Words are
repeated in subsequent lessons and in varying contexts, and you will gradually start recognizing and then
internalizing these words, to varying degrees, of course, with more language input. The questions on each
selection focus on the main points, and, if you are able to answer these questions, the goal is achieved. Listen
to the selection as a whole as many times as needed with minimal help from the vocabulary lists, which
should be used only to aid comprehension and not for memorization.
The questions that accompany the listening selections (and di~logues, see below) are presented in English in
Note that in word-lists, the symbol "+" is used to indicate that a word is used only in the written language, MSA,
while the symbol ..... indicates that the word is used in Levantine, but not in MSA. Urunarked words, which make up
most of the language, are shared by the two.
1

LL. 11-15, in both English and Arabic in LL. 16-20, and only in Arabic in the rest of the lessons. This will
give you the chance to master the Arabic question words and gradually move to an Arabic-only listening and
speaking environemnt. But even when the questions are given in English, the discussion in the class should
be conducted in Arabic. Starting with L. 43, you will be asked to retell the short story in the listening
selection in your own words.
The texts of the listening selections and the dialogues are included in Appendix 2. Use these texts only as a
reference in case you are not getting all you expect to get from listening to the recorded selection. However,
they should NOT be used as reading exercises.
Dialogue Jl~
The dialogues are intended for oral comprehension and production. Watch the dialogue on the DVD as many
times as needed until you can answer the accompanying questions and are able to act out the dialogue. I am
not suggesting memorization of the dialogue, but rather, understanding it and using it as a basis to develop a
dialogue in class with another student that deals with a similar situation, using as many words from the
dialogue in the book as you wish as well as words and expressions you have acquired previously.
The dialogues tell the story of an American student, Dan, who meets Sharif at Cornell, travels to Jordan to
take a summer Arabic course at the University of Jordan and meets Sharifs family in lrbid.
Readi~l

In addition to buidling your reading skill, the reading selections serve as an introduction to the modem Arab
world. L. I 5 provides a Jist and basic statistics about the Arab countries (area, population, capitals, rulers);
LL. 16-27 include descriptive passages about the Arab world in general and 11 major Arab countries starting
with Yemen in the east and ending with Morocco in the west; LL. 28-39 present descriptions of 12 major
Arab cities from San'a in the east to Casablanca in the west; L. 40 provides a timeline of major events in
Arab-Islamic history starting with the birth of the Prophet Muhammad and ending with the American
occupation oflraq and the arrest of Saddam Hussein; and finally LL. 41-55 include biographies of important
Arab political leaders, writers, poets, and singers as well as the texts of songs, poems, and short newspaper
articles related to the biographies.
The reading selections, excluding the songs and poems, have been prepared with the goal of developing the
skill of silent reading comprehension. Thorough comprehension should not be the goal in reading such
selections, nor should the skill to read aloud or the skill to translate Arabic into English. Questions that aid
comprehension are provided in English. However, discussion of the material in class should be conducted in
Arabic only. Listening to the selections before reading them will make understanding them easier.
Three poems and two songs are included in place of the reading selections of four lessons. They represent
examples of the work of some of the most famous Arab poets and singers ofthe twentieth century. Since the
language in them has not been simplified, English translation are provided next to the Arabic text. The texts
of the poems as well as the texts of all the other reading selections of LL. 11-55 are recorded on your CDs.
The songs, however, are not, but are widely available.
Use these songs and poems (and the songs in the Additional Activities, see below) to improve your Arabic
pronunciation, to Jearn new words and expressions, and simply for enjoyment. You should be prepared to
read them aloud in class and to memorize parts of them for recitation.
Grammar Notes
Emphasis in the approach followed in this book is on intelligibility rather than on grammatical accuracy. As
long as you understand what you hear or read and can make yourself understood when communicating a
message, then discussion of grammatical structures should be avoided and class time used to work on the
other language skills.
However, an explanation of grammatical structures may be necessary, especially when you need it to help
your understanding of spoken or written materials. This is why grammar explanations are provided at
xi

different points in the book and a grammar summary is included in an appendix. The grammar material is
intended for you to read on your own. If you have trouble understanding a point or a concept, your teacher
can help you in the class or during office hours.
Some grammar drills and exercises that are deemed helpful in building your language skills at this stage
accompany the texts of the listening selections and dialogues. Your teacher will introduce them in class as
be/she sees fit.

Additional Activities ~t....I ..:.U..u...:..J I


Lessons 11-55 are accompanied by additional activities. They are intended as vocabulary-building exercises
and as reinforcement of what you have learned in the core parts of the lessons. They should be used as a
source of learning and enjoyment. The vocabulary used has appeared previously and is presented in a new
context to help you master it. Most of the activities can be worked on outside of class so you can spend as
much time on them as you need.

Dictation, Translation, Writing ~t.:.S.ll 4~1 ~~1


Dictation exercises can help you improve your spelling,. learning of vocabulary, and listening and reading
comprehension. You should study the dictations at home, and the teacher will read them to you at normal
speed in class while you write down what you hear.
The translations exercises are closely related to the topic of the reading selection of the same lesson and use
similar vocabulary. You have more freedom than in the case of the dictations, but defining the topic and
limiting the range of the vocabulary you are expected to use should make the task manageable.
The writing exercises give you more freedom than either the dictations or the translations. This can make
things harder, but also more fun, since you will be able to use vocabulary and structures that you choose and
that you are more comfortable with and not dictated by the teacher or the text.
You will not be expected or required to write completely free compOsitions even towards the end of the book.
The range of topics and vocabulary is limited to the topics and vocabulary that have been introduced to you:
Arab countries, cities, and important people.
You will find the writing exercises quite challenging, possibly the most challenging of all the activities.
Writing involves knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, and spelling, and the ability to employ this knowledge
actively. The most frustrating aspect of such exercises, however, may be the desire to produce something that
is error-free. Although writing correctly is important, it should not be your main concern. Try to communicate
your message as well as you can, focusing on the idea rather than the form. Errors are unavoidable, but the
more you listen to Arabic, and the more you speak, read, and write it, the better your compositions will be.
Think of writing as a way to help you use and retain words and structures that you have learned and to.
express yourself using simple language.

Crossword puzzles, Fill-in the blanks, Selecting the correctfor ofthe word, Opposites, Synonyms, Plural-singular
exercises
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Instructions for these activities are given with the individual exercises. It's worth noting, however, that they
should be done for the most part outside of class, and teacher involvement should be minimal and limited to
offering guidance and answering difficult questions.

Songs

c.;au'J I

The texts of a number of popular Arabic songs with their English translations are included with certain
lessons. These particular songs were chosen for their relatively simple language, their relevance to the themes
in the book, and, at least in some cases, their "catchy" tunes. In addition to helping you Jearn and remember
new words and expressions, these songs can play an important role in improving your pronunciation, particularly
in the correct syllabification of words and phrases. You will .be surprised how long you will remember some
of the lines of these songs.

xii

Extra Readings i.;l!


A limited number of additional readings are included in some lessons. The themes and vocabulary of these
readings are similar to those of the main activities in a given lesson and consequently provide you with
another opportunity to learn words and expressions introduced in that lesson or in a previous one and to
improve your reading skill in general.

Roots and Families .:..)~.:.WI_,

J-'~ 1

The goal of these exercises is to develop the skill of recognizing roots of words and relationships between
different words. Words which share the same root share a similar meaning, so if you know the meaning of a
given word and you are able to tell that it shares a root with another one, you can make a prediction about the
meaning of the new word. Knowing the roots of words is also essential for looking up words in an Arabic
dictionary, since words are listed by their roots.

Roots, Basic Structures, Verb Forms, and Noun Patterns ,j I j}'J 1_, J-'~1
These exercises appear only in the last 15 lessons of the book. They are aimed at developing further your
skills of predicting meanings of words from their forms, recognizing relationships among words derived from
the same root, and understanding how words are derived from each other. Such skills are essential for
developing a rich vocabulary and strong reading and listening comprehension skills.

Cooking ~j
Recipes of four popular dishes, some of which referred to in the main activities of the book, are included.
They are written in English because they contain unfamiliar words or words that are not important for you to
learn at this point They are all healthy, easy to make, and representative of what Arabs in the Levant and
probably other areas of the Arab world eat. You can prepare the dishes and eat them at home, or your teacher
might plan a class activity that involves preparing one or more of these dishes.

Appendices
Five appendices are found after Lesson 55, the last lesson in the book. These are:
Appendix 1: Reading and writing. It provides a short reference for the Arabic writing system with a listing of
the alphabet, notes about special symbols, and pronunciation, in addition to a number of lists of frequently
used words such as the days of the week, months of the year, numbers, Arab countries and their capitals, etc.
Appendix 2: This appendix includes lists of the words introduced in the first ten lessons, the texts of the
listening selections and dialogues, oral exercises, and Jeopardy-type games. This appendix is designed for
use by the teacher. Use it only as a reference and only if you have trouble understanding the material on the
COs or the DVD.
Appendix 3: This appendix consists of a summary of all the grammar points raised in the book brought
together in one place for ease of reference.
Appendix 4: Verb conjugations. This appendix includes all the verbs introduced in the book. Sample conjugations
are presented, which are followed by a listing of the rest of the verbs and an indication of the sample
conjugation each verb follows.
Appendix 5: A comprehensive Arabic-English glossary that includes all the words introduced in the book
arranged by root.

xiii

(INTRODUCTION FOR THE TEACHER) ~ L':M..


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f'

(;.o

.f~r;:,
c...
f : ~f

r c.
\.t ~~ ~f.- 1
1 ~ t.

- C
c...
C
~ V\
tc" i c . . C .

c:

1 f l.. <f:
<r...cr~,._[ -

.~

g ~ E f ~ :~

~
t
~ ;, 1, _:; 1- }

C..'

~ "- ~
E ~.. ...

c:.:. ..;.

lr \.

.r

[-"'t

"'~ <:~~L.
.r E ~

~ Ef ~ ~
1' ~ ~ 1: ;.;-

1,
"' 'l
~ .t

;~ r. :: .f -

:f f' c: c.-:

rtGr

r::-.c

[; ~ 1:} f ~ t

l l':

t. .c ~

J;

~1 ~
'c:

~E~~\. \.

rr

r- t:r d :ti t'

t l"\:.r1'

[ 1.

~ ~ \. t ~ [{tt~

0/:

~ c.- E ~ "'- ' . -. ~- <;l . <..Et:.


f ~) !. .~<t... t-l. c...-l
1- <..- ~ - c: 't\. 1. -

~.

oC

~~t \.d~

'f \ . f~ ~

1: ~ r: ~

t of: :- 1'

[; r: ~ l'

r:. (." \ .

t.

l:1 t-~ \L~

~ ~ ~. ~

oe

fl
E . -t

1:
~ f::
c.. t ! (.

~r{

~ ~ ~

'

r t

f ' f.

.. l {"~
~1 i l

r;.-

'y-

<f.:..

<:,:

II\

F:
.E' t '1.

<r.:..

t_

tf '\. ~ t \

1: .

<": t:.

t. rr::rtf
1- \.

oC

1.

'

.E' -

..:, 'r::(..

t:.

~ ~\

~~

r.
I

..; \

l~
~ r
C...f'

,..-

!. ' c;~

t .

C..

L\. z f ~.

-c

'"

\ . <..

- <..

- -

f t~ ft~. ~ f.[ { f}.t{.t ~-

\ . 1 ..

<":-

U'!. 1-fl~Gt ~f~


1;1. .1- ~ ~c! r
1- r
"' _ 1 ~
t.
1- cr r ~ .
~ t J' ~ : t. .[ .f J . t l \-

~ f. .f.

~ ~

c..

r.c..._
<t...
.-

r
f'-

r~ t:

\-

[1
xc.. c"

';,;!:

(;; -

f ~ f r ':- \.

f~ (

E\ { t. ~

-;

r :(r\(
f.

<..-

'.

(.'t

~ dff f.
.t'
~ rf
l [r: 1\:
~ t - f
:: .t'
~ ~

\.

t.;_.[" l
~ ~ r: ~ \ ~ f
.[" \ f ~ ~

~:

\.

g
-

r:.

:[

l:.

~ ~

'

<:

<.,

<;

F~ .["oe :t~ ~f 1. ~: ~:

.t ~ (. (

V\

C'

r;~ ~
~
(

<r.:..

E:

t -

(1

c.. c.-

V\

(t?

~: r:.r~fj

'"IE1' }~ I t

'h ~ r ;, ~ [' r-: {

oL

.~ ~ ~'\. ~ ~
f \: f. <t }. t; t~
\ . c..- ~ f . . . ,(" .
8
r~ .:..!1~<..
- f'i "' t
-_
l::s. -'< ;r'"
f~.,~\.
i.f :r ~~f
<..'r.[--

Eft

~\-f.- ~\.
.
~: 1 t: .

r
:

- (
ft ~ : ~ t

t~tt'-1~
~ ~
~
<[o

\ :} 1 \.

t f.t

c..

t t . L,f l"' ,E' l

~- ~f

~.
JI

fi

-~~ ~ ~t; 1::~ fr.


l~~.;~ t ~

f~ \-t Lf \n~l-

r:: 1 [
.J {: ~:, .~ { <..:

r-

(Listen 1) \ ~\
(the numbers 1- 10)

Y~\
You will hear seven sentences. Each sentence contains a word that corresponds to one of the following
pictures. Write the number of each sentence under the corresponding picture.

'

How many doors does the room have?


How many windows?

t~\
Which page should Nadia open the book to?

0~\
1. How many male students?
2. How many female students?
3. How many teachers?

Reading Arabic
Unlike English, Arabic is written and read from right to left.
(Read I) \

.\_..,t\..

The following are the numbers I though 10. They are in the right order in the first line, and scrambled in the
second and third. Read them and try to associate the symbol with the number and the sound it stands for!

. ..

0, \_..,t\
The following is a basic list of the Arabic letters and their equivalents in English, when such equivalents
exist. Pay special attention to those with no English equivalents, which are marked by a . (A more
comprehensive list and a detailed discussion are found in Appendix 1 (Reading and Writing)). Your need to
refer to this table and to the Appendix will decrease as your reading skills improve.
Note that Arabic letters are connected to one another. All letters connect to those preceding them, and six
letters do not connect to following ones. Note also that eight letters have one shape each, three letters have
four shapes each, depending on their position in the word, and the rest (17) have two shapes each, one initial
and medial (both connected and unconnected), and another final.
Listen to the CD to hear the way all the letters of the alphabet are pronounced. Listen to the pronunciation of
the letters once or twice and start doing the reading exercises. Do not wait to master all the letters before you
start reading.
The reading exercises that follow are based on words that have been introduced in class. This and the
illustrations should make these exercises manageable.

1
(The Arabic numbers above and the numbers used in English (and many other languages), which are called Arabic
numerals, have their origins in the same source, i.e. the Arabic alphabet.)

The Arabic Alphabet


Sound

Word-finally

a (cat)
b

Word-initially and medially


NC
I

<-:J

..:.

_.

th (thin)

.!,

_...

lt*

c
t

...:i..

6
7

ch inBach*

...

NC

th (the)

NC

,j

r (trilled as in Spanish)

NC

.)

10

NC

.)

11

..

12

V"

......
.........

emphatic V"'

VA

......

14

emphatic J*

vA

.......

V"

sh

13

emphatic ..:.

J.

15
16

emphatic .:.

.Ji.

17

(initially or after NC letter)~

18

(after NC lettet) t

t(after NC letter) t_

(initially or after NC letter)...

(after C letter) ~

(medially after C lettet) ..a..

.....

....

20

emphatic<!.!*

...i

21

<!.!

..s

..J

22
23
24
25
26

(after C letter)

French r in rouge*

,j

(afterNC letter)
(after c letter)

w(was)
oo (moon)
y(yes)
ee (meet)

(medially after C lefte9 ...a..

....
...:.
(initially or after NC lettet) _.
(medially after C lefte9 +
NC

19

27

_.

28

C=connecting, i.e. connects to a followoing letter. NC~n-connecting, i.e. does not connect to a followoing
letter.

Read the following words. The individual letters that make up each word are shown in parenthesis.

r t. (when connected) and (when unconnected) is a feminine ending. It is found only at the end of a word. It
is called taa ' marbuuta in Arabic grammar. For now, pronounce it as a. See Appendix 1 for more on taa'
marbuuta.

_J
~

..s

.h

..

.....t.lol

...a

tV'
.
.

...a
~

(Write I) '~
Copy the numbers 1-10 in your notebook. Remember to move from right to )eft and top to bottom .

'

Copy the foJlowing three words. As with numbers, the movement in writing the letters is also from right to
left and top to bottom. Remember the point about connecting letters: all letters connect to those preceding
them and all except six connect to those foJJowing. The Jetter 1, found in the three words, is a nonconnecting
Jetter:

'

( the numbers 11-2q ' ~'

y~'
Write in English the names of the Arab countries and cities you hear in each sentence.
1.

2.

3.

4.

6.

7.

8.

9.

5.

1. Where is Waleed from?

2. Is Halab the capital of Syria?

1. Where is Yousif from?

2. What does Nadia do?

Oe-\
1. What are the names of the people talking?

2. What do they do?


3. Where is Halab (Aleppo)?

'( \\ \A \ V , \ ' \ o H

'\.;\
\ r . \ '( . \\
.\

\\ ,\V ,\o ,\r ,\\,'(.,\A,\' .H ,\'(

.'<

" o ' ' " ' ' '" 'LA r

.r

I~

', --w(i'

.,__~_

J:gypt

\.

USA

\tv4~~ .

.) ......0-0

I
.

~~ .

that appears by itself or above a vowel letter stands for the glottal stop (hamza in Arabic). It has the same
pronunciation as the glottal stop, tanscribed here as ', found in the Cockney dialect of British English as in wha ' (what)
and bo 'I (bottle). More on this in Appendix I: Reading and Writing.

lO

- - .J ~.,....,

.-

~~.J 4J.J-A-U

~~~~.J .J '-""...:. _,....::;

~~...:.~.J_, '~J.J ........

~.J4J,......
~ ~~~.J .J '~ J , .........

,~_,~..,....,

IJ...:...S_, I..S~J-1

\.

II

12

Match the names of the countries and states with the maps by copying the name of the
country or state under the corresponding map.

4J~ '

~1 . !

(,)"~

w~.J4J~A

Read the sentences and answer the questions.


Where is Maryam from?

Where is Saleem from?

Where is Damascus?

'"

.o

13

Where is Suzanne from?

What does Saleem do?

from

v.o

in

..b

.J

(.)

(taa' marbuuTa) i/4..

(hamza) I

.f

Copy the following in your notebook.

''
I~

\A

\V

u L.W
.

,.,.

''

\0

'~

" '

14

(the numbers 21-30) \

e-''

e--'

Match the picture with the sentence or phrase you hear by writing the number of the sentence under the
corresponding picture.

1. What name or names are mentioned?


2. What time is it?

1. What time did Waleed come?


2. What time did Nadya come?

15
0~,

I. Which state is Youseffrom?


2. Which city?
3. Is the city big or small?
4. Where is it located?

r.

,.,-y ,'('\ ,'(o .n ,'('f ,.,-.,- ,n

.\

''(~ I '(V ''( 0

''('f ''(\

. '(

\A,,'(,\t,'f. ,,o,'(. ,.,-,,, ,o, ,

.'f

,.,-~,'(A

'(. ''( '( ''( t ''('\ ''(A ''f.

'V , V , '\ , '('\ , ''\ , '('( , H ,A , 'f , "

.t

Match the picture with the corresponding phrase by writing the number of the phrase under the picture

t"!.J.J ~~ .'f
b~

'il

~~

.'\

,t-!,..J 'i I ~~ . '(

b~.J~'

b~'il~.o

b~.J ~.

When the letter J is followed by I, the two letters are joined together fonning one special symbol, written as 'i. The
combination is often considered another letter of the Arabic alphabet. (More on this in ApP.endix I : Reading and
Writing.)

'0

16

r\.}\

.v-:a.,.:; J~ ~ . '
Where is Libya?

Where is Lebanon?

Where is Sudan?

~J~ I

J.,_.!. Jl-!. ~~I . f

Where is Kuwait?

Match the name of each city or country with the letters 1't ts
. madePof.

- .

..J .) <.S

1.-J

u .J ~
urc.sJI
J I Jt_ ~

Jl~
~

IJ"

~..J~

v-=a~

~
(.)

('.J.Ja..;tJI
J J. r J
"J ~

~I

.) (.)A

"
uLA

r_,_~o~'

'rt

ulu~J

"

~
4

~J

17

JL.o.....!. ~

i.; .! .'

< ~.l-A ~ . ~ ~.l-A 0-.o L:ai . ~U, L:ai . ~~I

4..)_,_,...
~ ~u, J~ . J~ llA__, ~ ~~ ~l_rb ~ j L.::a......,j ~ ~ llA

~~~~..,~~..1..o

1. What does Saleem do?


2. What does Ali do?
3. Where is Mahmoud from?
this

(l.lLA) l.lA

1\.)\

.J

.J

...::a.

:.

.....a

.
.
u

.....a

.....a

"-'

..b

.....a

.....a

..)

'
..)

.J

J
(ij..A.A) i

\V

.t

18

..

V\.j\

Your teacher will read one of the letters in each pair in the following. Circle the letter you hear.
.J~.r

...:ic....J . t
~...s . A

.J..

.v

.s.J.~

_.!,c....J.,

...l....::i .o

Copy the following in your notebook.

r.

~A

~v

~'

'A

.\

19

(the numbers 10, 20, 30, ... 100) \ ~\

Y~\
l. How many days does she go to the university?
2. Which days?
3. What is today?

,.~,

Days of the week: write in English the name of the day or days you hear in each sentence. Some sentences
do not contain names of days.

l.

5.
9.

2.
6.

3.
7.

4.
8.

t~\ .
1. How many Yemens are there now?
2. Where was South Yemen?

\ .. ,\.,A. ,V. ,'\ . ,o. ,L

\ .. r.

,r .. ~. ,\.

,o. ,V. ,\.,\ .. ,A.,'\ . ,L

.\

.~ .

.~

,o,\

.r

' .. , 'v ,~'\ , ''\ , '~ ,~' , ' , A , r , ''

A'\,'\~,\,\ ,'\V,'rA,A~ .~A.A,'r

.o

\A,,\'\,H,r.

\\

,\\,~ ~.\.

20

,v,

Match the nwnbers in the two columns.

'

ww

~.)'

.J..:~.I_,

"\

v
A

'.'
rl}'
Circle the number you hear.

VY ,"\Y -

L ,to-r

o.,\o -Y

r . , Yr _,

VA,"\A -A

"\A ,A. -V

\Y,Y-"\

"\Y ,Y"\ -o

rY, Yr -\ .

vr .rv -\

Y.

21

O\_)\

~ ~t~"' ~ r~ J~i .-...... ,, r~ '


What is the first day of the week in Egypt?

What is the first day of the week in America?

What is the first day of the week in Lebanon?

What is the last day of the week in Libya?

What is the last day of the week in America?

Word search: find the following words. You can go down or right to left.

J...!...o..l ,~_,s.JI .~_,~ JI~I .~I~~


u

'i

1!1

"
'i

'i

..

.b

'-""

.b

'-""

Y\

..

"
r

J
..)

.......

'i

22

Match the name of each country with its capital by drawing Jines connecting the two.

ij-AWI

<J.lJ'i I

..:;.,.J~

~.,....,

<Jt:..e

~J~

.ll~

v-=a.,.:;

~I

~
(.)

<JI.l_,.....Jl
r_,..~o~l

~.l_,a-Jl

~fiJI

Jl.,>Lfl

L .J-''I

~fiJI

Circle the word you hear.

'
"
.r

~~

~w

. . .. I

.;.

.t

~w

.o

'"

~)

,..__..____.
j
v.--;J

ta...w...

'.V

~~

.A

ta...w...

.\

'.

23

\\.}\
j

.
.

:.

....a

....a

....a

c.

c.

..)

.\

..)

.r

_J

J
....a

+'-'

.
.

....a

'-'

(1..>---A) j

\. "\_.1\
Circle the letter you hear in each pair.

......,,J:. .!

0 ..... .v

...i ._s: .A

' ..

..IJ"

' '\ 'A . 'v. ''\ . ' O ' ! . ''\" . '" . ' ' . '

The font used in the previous line is called Geeza (i~); the following font is called thuluth aswad(black
thuluth)

24

\~\
l. What does Nabeel Hassan do?
2. Where is he from?
3. When did be come to the U.S.?

before

1. How many pages are there?


2. What is the total cost?

Translate each number and the noun it refers to (e.g., three books, two months, etc.).
1.

2..................................................... .

3..................................................... .

4. .....................................................

s. .....................................................

6. .....................................................

7. .....................................................

' .r ... ,Y ' . r . . .'< ' , \.


V\ , "(V ,\V , to ,\Y' .r. ,\\ ,AV ,VA ,VV ,\\ ,\\ ,"(\ ,\\ , \"(

.\

Y\ r.\.Y.Y .Y.\ . v , \ . o , \.Y , \ . \

.r

\ \\ , \ \\ V , \ \ o , \ \ YY' , \ \ \ , \ "( \ , \ "( , \ \

.t

\\ . , Y' H , \\\ , \\\\ , \\A. , Y\ V , \\ Y'Y , Y'Y , YY'

.o

.Y

25

Circle the number you hear.

t \. H . o

o\,\o . t

"(V

vv ('\'\ . '.

r . .A . \

\Y" ,or .A

,\V .Y"

\"(

(" .

"(o , \ o . \

"(

rv.vr .v

"(V,"(\ .\

Circle tbe word or phrase you hear.


~~

~~

.
i ~~
~J,J

~J~f

~J..,......

.r

.t

J.o!.-o.l

4..L.:iJ

.o

t~'

.\

~~

"'~~ ,

.v

...

~~,J

.J~i ''-:-'i

'

ww

."(

.j;u u'~~ 'J~i u' ... .: 'Jtji ..b~ ~~ u~~ :~r J_,.....__..!.
J~i u~LS ~~ ~~ .J~i ~~

Translate the following sentences into English.

. ~\"(~'~ '
. J~i ~~lilA . "(

. ~ J~i ~~ u~LS .r
. ~ yi.i J~i u~LS .t
r~"' ~lllA~.o

"(O

26

,.

(map~~)'\ '.J''

~~.lJ'i10.lll ~ ~#-14 .::.Ut.....J.I)


0~

...
.l.J..I.:JI

"

TA
\\A

"\to

nA
TT'\

4ia-JI
4ll _,..J I .l.J .J.:J I

T.\
T\\

f\Y

A\

~J!

TV

O\

..;.~

\\A

d fiJI

tTt

YTV

\H

yov

Y\O

oYA

\W

.,.,.,.

YT"\

\T\

o.

T.

.J...1-J I

Y\A

"(,"(

To\
T\Y

ToT

\T

A\
Yo

\t

\t

~J~I .l.J..I.:JI

YTT

\T\

O\

\"(

T.A

Tf\

YT

. UJ.)JI

c:,t.......

dfi.J I

...,.~

~.)!

.l.J..I.:JI

4ia-JI

0~

.J...1-J I

..

~J~I

4li_,..JI

What are the distances in kilometers between:


1. Amman and Irbid,
2. Amman and Jerash,
3. Ma'an and the Iraqi border,
4. Aqaba and the Syrian border,
5. Al-Karak and Al-Salt?

~Note that when the letter J is followed by

rthe two often appear as..l.

c:,t.a...

27

(Choose the font you like to copy with the names of the months.) ~\

' ~ ~ . ' ' ~ "\ v ' '~ 0

' '

~ ""' ' '~ '

' ' " ' ' ' " ' ' '

. J~i ~~ .J~i ''-:-'i .:;;::.. 0 '~~ .;~i 0~ .;lji .1.4--!o ~~ 0_,.:,ts

J.,i 0_,.:,ts ~~ ~~

,J~\ t:r? ,J~\ '0 0~ 'u~J>- ~~ 'u~ ~\;\ ,_1,~ ~~"c uj\)

J) o;\5' ~~"c c.r?

The phrase~~ I &--~I till ~ (In the name of God the Compassionate the Merciful)
in different forms.

"v

.\

28

' e"""''

1. What is the population oflthaca?


2. How is the weather in the summer?

3. How long is the winter?

I. How is the weather in the winter in Florida?


2. How is the weather in the winter in California?

I. What month is it?


2. What is he complaining about?

I. What is the weather like in the summer in Syria?


2. What is the weather like in the winter in CaJifomia?
3. Where does snow fall in CaJifomia?

. . ':(' J

~J

La.

29

Match the words with the pictures by copying each word under the corresponding picture.

'

..

Read the sentences and answer the questions.

What is the last season mentioned?

When is it cold in Ithaca?

.~_,JI_, ~~1_, ~'G...!..JI ~


How is the weather in Alaska in the faiJ?

JJ4lS.....:J'I ~~I . Y'

30

~' 0~~_,)\

J ..)'41'~ ~>..,.._l\ o~) tv'


~>~

~~~~

~'

( Y\ 'r) '( A-\ o\\

~IIJ"'_,J

(". ") rt Y-r A

~<i.J~I_,

(Y \ Y) Yo Y-YVL

d.)~~

(V\'r) VAo-oovv

.::..
IJ"'~ v--.r::--

...... ..

~_,Al:J\~~
("'' ") \v . - Y\rr
(Y\Y) \0\-V\Y .

the United States

i~ I

..::..4~ _,J I

consulate

(d!' e plural) .:!'...'e


zero~

What are the telephone numbers of the Saudi consulate in Houston and the Egyptian consulate in New York?

Circle the word or phrase you bear.

,.L:...!JI

~I

. w
~

ww

~I_,

.-

'

"

.r

~..,~)

~ J I.J u..-..:;

.!

o.JJ'i I

~)

.o

~~

.\

.V

... ~ ta_, j
. .J
.J

.....
._. j
...,_~ .) .J

r.

~.)

j .J

~.J

31

Circle the letter you hear in each pair.

ct

,._j. 0

~ J '

.r

I 'i . "\

....i n!.f .A

~<) '

~
~ ..>-11-' "~1_, ~~1_, . e ,;.,11 :~I J~ .i
i~l

JJl:a ~I ~

(Grammar) ~\.,i
~

The Deflnlte Article, the Sun and Moon Letters


Definiteness in Arabic is expressed by attaching the prefix Jl "the" to nouns and adjectives:
big door

baab kabiir

the big (the) door

ilbaab ilkabiir

~ '":-'~

'-:-'4-l I

~I

(Note that ~ '":-'4J I is a full sentence that is translated as "The door is big.")

If J l is followed by a sun letter, it is assimilated to (becomes the same as) that letter, which results in a
doubled consonant in pronunciation but not in writing. The sun letters are the following:

u .J ..Ji. .J. 'vA ''-'"'" o!- ''-"' j ' J ,,j .I .!..

.;:..

the sun

~ms

~I

the watch, the hour, the time

issaa'a

~L....JI

Tuesday (th as in thin)

Wbalaa.thaa'

J remains unchanged before moon letters, which include all the consonants not listed above:
3

ilKamar

_,....ljl

Wednesday

il'arbi'aa'

~~J~I

Thursday

ilkhamiis

~I

Kuwait

ilkuwait

~fiJ I

the moon

Question
Each group of consonants (the sun letters and the moon letters) has something in common. Can you tell what
it is?
r K here represents J, the emphatic counterpart of ..!I (k).

32

1. Does he live on campus?


2. Is the house big?
. 3. How many bedrooms does it have?
4. Is the house far? How far?

1. How many bedrooms are in Abdalla's apartment?


2. Is the kitchen big or small?

1. How many bathrooms does he want?


2. Does he want a dining room?

t~\
1. How did he go to New York?
2. How long did the plane take?
3. How long does the bus take?

0~\
1. Is the house close or far?
2. What street name is mentioned?
3. Is the house on the right or the left?
,~,

According to the dialogue, is San Francisco far from Los Angeles?

33

Match the words with the pictures by copying each word under the corresponding picture.

r.,.:a u~ .r

~ -"

tJW. .'

r~.o

U"~u~ .

~
ta....o~

."\

.\

~ - '"

i)-~...... . A
~

bJ4-b .''

JSi

.v
u..!. .' .
u~
~

~L:a

.,...,..

. ,.,..

34

\\.}'
.~4JI

4.J.c ~.J ~~I.\

Is the house far from the university?

What is the address of the house?

~.,>l ~ ~ ~ ~L...,~ .~J-:H ~ ~J~LS" ~4- ~

~., ~,., r~., ''-""~

:,t:,..,..,i

~~

.r

u,re.., r,.:, ....i.;- ~) ~~ ~ ~ .t....-4J'&--

.~r., tJw."'r =~~'0'~ ~tJW.~~~~ ~


1. What does Yousif do?
2. Where does he live?
3. How many bedrooms does Yousifs house have?
4. Is the street where Yousifs house is big or small?
5. What is the address ofYousifs house?

on~

from~

(!),.

~ 01.J.,....JI JL....!..J ~ J~ ~

.l.:i.:.ri!

J~ JL....!. ~ i~ ~~

~.l..o i,>AWI .i_,.Al.:iJI ~.l..o ~ ~Lc .JI,;a-JI

4.J.c

.'..1'-

u.,_, ~

i~.J ~.~,.._._JII)-o ~_,.i

~
According to the paragraph:
1. Where is Egypt?
2. Is Egypt far from Iraq?
3. Is Cairo a big city?
it, she~

Circle the letter you hear.


J " . 0
c.:,.,~~.\.

.,.!

J.~.r

~ ''-"" .\

t.tA

.~

35

Read aloud.

. 0~ .J 4 J~ . l
<.)'-' ~

. ..;:.,4-JUa. .,!.,~

u..,.;. _, r.,:a u..,.;. . t

. ~ r~., ~ ~ '

.~fi.l 1_, J 1~ 1 . r

. 6~ ~.roi 6}~-

.o

. ~1 <-? 6}~....JI .A

. ~ ~ l.l.A .V

. 6~ ~Jo.t.A.o ~4- ~ ~- ~4- '

. ~4-11 0 1~ "

Y~t,i\
Join the letters to form words and sentences, then translate the sentences into English. The words are
separated by "/". Follow the exxample.
Example:

I am a student and you are a teacher.

J 1 <.)'-'

.t

- "'="' J

(.S

"! _,;0 "! "! '


. 6 t r [ J I _,/ ~ I t "'="' J i J I _,/ 0 "! 0 ..!.~ ! J I . l
. 0 1 ., _, <.)'-' J 1 _,; J cJA r _,;1 "! "'="' "! J .r
J I _,/ ~ I ..;:., J. J I _,/ ._j (.S J t J I J/ ._j (.S cJA J I . t
(j ..;:., "! "'="'/ "! ._j I 0 ~ I <.)'-'/..;:., 0 i .o

The Construct (UW..'fl)


When two nouns are closely associated, as in the case of possession or something being part of something
else, they form a special grammatical construction called the constroct (UL..,;,.!). Uppercase in the transcription
of Arabic sounds indicates an emphatic pronunciation.

the student's name

ism iT-Taalib

the capital of Yemen

' aaSimat il-yaman

university street

msan'

iljaami'a

~LJ...JI
~I

r--1

t....-l.

~4-JI

t )-.!.

The following two points about the t......AL.w:.! are important to remember: first, the~ ofU.~.).f -L.:..J I is
pronounced like any other ...:.. in the first part of the UW..!:

36

bedroom

&hurfat noom

r..... u~

the capital of Syria

'aaSimat suurya

4..)~~

the state ofCalifornia

wilaayat California

~..)#lS ~'i,J

a hundred students

miitTaalib

~u.~

. Cairo University

jaami'at il-Kaahira

._,..w1 4..-.4'

Second, the first part of the Ul.....l.! never takes the definite article; it is made definite by association with the
second part:
a bedroom

r..... u~

the bedroom

r,.:J' u~

Cornell University

~..Jfi4.....4-

But not,

('..... U,.>AJI
1'
~..).,..
.<

t&...WI

37

, e---'
I. How many houses do they own?
2. Where are his parents now?
3. When did they go to Florida?
4. When do they return to New York?
after~

1. How many brothers does Yousif have?


2. How many brothers and sisters does the other speaker have?

!.Where is Sa'id from?


2. Does he have a house in Amman?
3. How many people are in the whole family?
4. What is Sa'id's mother's name?
5. Where does his father work?
6. What does his mother do?

1. How many children does my sister have?


2. How old are they?
3. Who lives close to my sister's house?

I. What does Yousirs father do?


2. What does his brother do?
3. What does the other speaker's father do?

rv

before

J.;:;

38

Match the words with the pictures by copying each word under the corresponding picture.

t....,J~ .A

.r
,
... -., .... y
u,

ill~.'"

~.,s..... ."

~i

ri . t

e
~

JA l2 .
. f1

~M\

-~
.

fA

~ "

.,.b .'\

~'

.1.1,,J

V"~

.'

.o

~.\

39

Circle the phrase you hear.

L...u.J
-.- , L-J..,......

c.) l.:a..;J ,

~~v..o ~

- -

~J..,......J~JI~I

~~

~,

'

~'":-'~

. '(

0-o ~

.'\"

. - Loa - L.u_J
~~v..o -- ~ -'":-'~ c.).J}il

.t

~.;a~,~

I!~J..,......&-o ~
. -
. .<'j L...u.J

4 J..,......

I! J-'A-0

4J..,......

.o

'.v

"I
~JJ~

V\

(pluraVsingular .~~/~) Y

The words in the right column are the plurals of those on the left. Match each signular word with its plural.
4...:a......
~~

Read aloud.
~I

t! u~
. tS

~J..,......

('~i

('~

~4"i,

1.-.iJi

~~L...

ti

~~~i

~L...

~I,.:.......

..J,

._j~

~"i,

.....i"i i

~~

~
,

.J"i,i

u~

I I
u~.

~Lb

~~

~j

J,.._.!.

,. \.}\
.
r'
.'
"i

Cai

~i

ti

0-o
,

~~

('~

~Lb

JJ~

~~

~
,

; .

..

~
,
uu.J
.
'(\

-,

~I

. '(

'"'="~
.J~

.'\"

.t

40

Y~\.j\
Join the letters to make up words and sentences, then read and give a translation of what you have written.
The words are separated by "/".

. _, t I .J/"-:J I ~ d . \

_, 'i t "-:JI J

1 .;

t J 1 .J/"-:J <.! .; J/0 (" <.! J

V" ., 0 r/J r c i

I y

J I .J..f'i J t .r
. .) 'i '-;J df J .J .,; .) IJA r .JI .) 'it. ~JA! J .J .,;0 ., .) i J 1 t
. ~ .J .; 'i "-:JI'i ...Jfi 'i d 'i.; r i J lji t r I ~ J I . o
"-:J J I .l./1 0 i .Jfj I ~ V" ij.J . '
.J/"-;J

The Singular, the Dual, and the Plural


A noun in Arabic can be singular, dual, or plural, and an adjective can be singular or plural.

The singular

A book or one book is expressed as ~I .J '":'~ or simply '":'~ with the number following the noun it
refers to or no number at all. (Note that'":'~ ~1_, is ungrammatical.)

The dual
The dual is expressed by attaching the suffix~ (een) to the noun. If the noun ends in U.-H~I . L:i.JI,
then the t of

U.~_,.ll ..L:J I

is pronounced when the dual suffix is added.

two books

kitaabeen

two female students

Taalibateen

(Note that'":'~ ~~ is ungrammatical.)


The plural
Nouns and adjectives are pluralized in a variety of ways, but for the most part they follow general patterns.
At this stage, I suggest that you try to remember the plurals of individual nouns as they are introduced; you
will develop a feel for the plural patterns later.

The following rules concerning number are particularly important to remember at this stage because they
involve frequently used constructions and because they might be counter-intuitive to speakers of other
languages.

41
I. For the numbers 3-10, the plural form of the noun is used and the noun foiJows the number. (Note that the
U....H>" ~ ~ of the number is dropped before the noun.)

three books

1bllalh kutub

four books

' arba' kutub

ten books

~tw

kutub

three pages

tfplalh Saitaat

seven pages

sabi' Safttaat

ten pages

' amar Safttaat

2. For the number 11 and above, the singular form of the nouns is used. (Note the addition of the suffix .r
ar to the numbers 11-19 when a noun follows them.)
itdas}pr kitaab
eleven books
~L:.S ,r-!.1~I
L:.S
..
twenty books
' iiDiin kitaab
~

t...H~

a thousand books

' alfkitaab

~L:.S J.Jj

fifteen pages

xamisTamar Sa8ta

~ ~ b .ei

a million pages

milyoon Safha

~0~

3. After ~ ..how many", only the singular form of the noun is used:
How many boys (children) do you have?
How many rooms are in your house?
How many brothers and sisters do you have?

~ d~

~~ ~

.l.l_, ~

U,ri

~ d~ ~i.,

ti ~

42

,~,

1. Does Nadia like the dorm?


2. Why?
3. Is the sisters apartment big?
4. Where does the sister eat?

Y~\
1. Where does Waleed eat?

2. Why?
3. Where does the other person eat?
,..~,

1. How much is a kilogram of apples?


2. How much are the bananas?
3. How many kilograms of tomatoes does she want?

t~\
1. What does he have besides lamb meat?
2. How much is the lamb meat?

3. How many kilograms did she want?

0~\
1. What did he have for breakfast?
2. What did he have for lunch?
3. What is he going to have for dinner?
to eat lunch

~.lA..:;

to eat breakfast

;J,.:Ai

to eat supper ~

43
,~,

I. Who is he talking to?


2. What time is lunch today?
3. What time is it now?
lunch ~ ~~

Match the words with the pictures by copying each word under the corresponding picture.
~l..b...a

....;_,__p.

~
~

~
~

"'

i_,..:i

~4-.l

.)_,_,.

..........J.:..

b~

~,_,:.

.)~

b.).J~

J~ ~

, ,

44

Join the letters to make up words and sentences, then read what you have written and translate it into English.
The words are separated by ..,..

.J

1 J..;:.,..) ~ .J

1j

.J

r .J It

. ' .b 1 .b ~ .J 1

. J .J .l

c.)~

I J '! vo t

r J If'! .....i '


..) J ~ lr t J .J I~ 1 ~ .l .J I~ r""'"' "
.J .l c.:, ~ 1J ~ r 1..) 1uA tlt ~ .Ja. r J If'! .....i r
J J ~ lr t J .J l.....i .J J t lr t J .!
1 .....i

..;:.,IJ ~ rl

~ 1 .J .....ilt ~ .b

'! vo t .J IJ I J..;:.,..) ~I..)'! vo t 0


J .JI'! I c.J. .JI~'!J t .JI..>'!vot '

.J It I .....i..;:., I J
.-. .J

like, as J!.,..

45

. rt ~~~ ~L......o . ~i ~~ ~ i~ ~~ U_,J (JJ}il

, ,
~.>-0 ~ .....i.JI

(4 . oWl)(.)~

..

L'\

.,.

i~14~:JJ\'I (JlJ.I i.J-o .L.........:a ~)I.... 4 .... .;. ~~~ ~l.S....., J.U.J
. ~ 1_, "l.:iJj.ll_, J-u!J

'-:"'~I &-oJ ~J~I_, Jl~l J~l i.>--.J 4J_,_..... JL........!JI i.J-o (JJJ\'1 ~
0' b,. l i.
-

~1
-

........ 1

--

i~oWS'
\

~,

'

itsarea ~t......:.

square t-! ..>-"

..
(it) borders

person, soul

t.....:...::.
,

population

0 ~ .J~

cities (plural oH..4.;!.J..o) o.J..o

1. Where is Jordan located?


2. What is the area of Jordan?
3. What is its population?

4. What are some of the largest Jordanian cities?

5. What borders Jordan from the west?

"'

(Chickpeas) ~:(cook) ~l

~ (chickpeas)

1 can (15-16 oz.), drained and rinsed

Garlic

1 clove, crushed
l/3 cup

0 ~ ~(lemon juice)
t.:.....aJ. (taltina: sesame seed paste)

1/3 cup

Salt

112 t.

Olive oil
paprika, parsley, olive oil to taste

1 Tb (optional)

Mix first five ingredients in food processor (or blender) to form a slightly grainy paste.
Save a few chickpeas to use as you garnish with paprika and parsely.
(Add the Tb of olive oil if you want the paste smoother and less dry.)
Spread on a plate, place the few whole chickpeas in a little pile on top, and garnish with paprika,
chopped parsley, and (more) olive oil.

Can you think of otber words related to~~?

46

,~,

1. What was the boy wearing?


2. What was the color of the girl's dress?
3. What was the color of the boy's shirt?

I . What color shirt is the mother wearing?


2. What is the father wearing?
,..~,

l. Where is Saudi Arabia?


2. Where is Turkey?
3. Which sea is large?
4. Where is the city of Jedda located?
5. Where is Egypt located?
6. Where is Libya located?

t~'
1. When did he go to the market?
2. What did he buy?
3.Forwbom?
4. How much did the shoes cost?

47

0
I. What time did he enter the house?
2. What color were his pants?
3. What color was his shirt?
4. What was the color of his car?

Match the words with the pictures by copying each word under the corresponding picture.

~
(,)

tV

e--'

48

Locate the following seas on the map below by writing the name of each sea next to or inside il

~~~ vA-!:-/YI ~I

~~

..

49
( Crossword Puzzle i.J,~ oWJ")

'. '

'

'


down ~>_,..s,

JI~I t....-~
,

.\

~)l.J.. ( singulat) J ,;L . "

~~~ - '"
(spoken Arabic) ~W'-:a ""J" ~. t

:r ~'., \j\

'

r
i
0

'v
A

'
'.

..

across~\
u~t....-~ . ,
J.,......i~

. .,.

4 .J.J-- t....-~ .r
(pronoun)~

.t

~_,..1 Jt.-!. ~ o~ ~~ U_,J. '"\

~ ~~ u.,J .o

(backwards.L~) ~~ .V

4--i~~~

4--i ~~ ~ ~ ~~ U_,J .A
~~.C\

~~~-'

~ ~;e u.,J .v

4--i

~~~

J.J'-:a~ .A

~~~-'
~(plural) ~

. \.

50

(opposites)~\:\

v'

Match each of the words in the first column with its opposite in the second. One word in the first column
does not have a match.

~i
,

J~i

JL-.!.

~i
~

.-

0 Yt,J\

~.J JI~I J~l U.... LA~ .4--i ~~ ~ ~ ~~ U.JJ ~J~


~'JI ~~.J c.J~.J ~1.>-'-"1 ~.,...AJI &-o.J c.JJJ'JI ~~~ &-o.J l:-S~ J~l
. L~I
:C

.c.)~ \V L._:,tS......, J..1...C.J '~..>-0 ~ ~j V\ ~~~ ~J~ ~L.-.

,
-.l...a...t
-~

. i~.J ~J~I_, ~.J ~.J (~I) ~J ~J_,....., ~ i~l 0 .s.J.I U....

. t.:o!l ~ ~~,J ..~~ ~ JJ~~J_,.....,~~~


i~Lu"
..,..L....=~.)L....
1. What borders Syria from the west?
2. What is the area of Syria?
3. What is its population?
4. What are some of the largest Syrian cities?
5. What is the weather like in most of Syria in the winter?
(Arabic Jeopardy) ~\.._,lA. ~
(Suggestions for conducting this acitivity, a Jeopardy-type game, are found in the Arabic introduction. The
questions are in Appendix 2. Make sure your teacher does not forget to do it in class. )

o.

51

,..

n
1. What does Sharif do?
2. How old is he?
3. Where does Sharifs family live?
4. How many brothers and sisters does Sharif have? What are their names?
5. How old is Sharifs father?
6. What does Sharifs mother do?

engineering (......~
to have~

... ~

to study tJM~~-tJM~J
in other words ~
housewife ~ ~-J

This lesson marks the beginning of the second and main part of the book. There are two parallel stories, which you
should keep separate. The listening selection tells the story of Sharif and his family, and the dialogue the story of an
American student named Dan traveling to Jordan. Both activities, listening and speaking (dialogues}, are to be prepared at
home ahead of the class meeting. For more on this, please read Suggestions for Using the Textbook in the Introduction.
To help you with your dialogues, lists of the most common Arabic greetings and question words are given at the end of
this lesson.
2

See Having with ~in Lesson 12 or in the Grammar appendix..

52

1. Where are the two young men?


2. Where are they going?
3. Where is the American young man from in America?
4. How long does it take by car from New Yorlc to Ithaca?
S. What is the population of Ithaca?

-.
~~

of course
about, approximately

t...;J.
,

~_;&:>-~ 1.'-

going

~IJ

which ~1
only~

oY

53

ri ~_,j ~ ~ . ~ o' ,.~ JLL..... ~ ~~ . ~~ ~;

tlA

~ ~ ~ ~ ,y, .4-J.J}JI ~ ~J! ~..1-o ~ .Jt.......... ~-'ill I~ ~1_, ~.,_.!.

~J!

~ ~ ~ . ~ o \ LA~ ~'~;~~~ . ~~
-

I.

or

..

ri ,..l,A

~ ~ J ~_, ~J! ~ L+a~

54

.~J,......JI

f'!l

4.A..o4- ~ ~Ut y. .~ "' ,.~.~WI~~ ti


~A~

,UJI~ ll.A

d:au t-o~ .d~~~

I. What is Sharifs mother's name?


2. How old is she?
3. How old is Sharifs father?
4. How many brothers and sisters does Sharif have?
5. What are their names?

i~oWS'
this, f. lA

this, m. ll.A

his wife ~.J,j

he lives~

second (think of ~~
"I) l!

he works~

ot

,.

55

~~
...,.,
Possession
Possession in nouns is expressed by attaching a pronoun suffix to the noun:
his book
kitaab-u
her book

kitaab-ha

~t.:os:

~+ ~t.:os:

~t.:os:

LA+ '"="t.:os:

their book

kitaab-hum

~t.:os:

~+ '":-'t.:os:

your, m.s. book

kitaab-ak

~t.:os:

d f- '":-'t.:os:

your, f.s. book

kitaab-ik

~t.:os:

d + '":-'t.:os:

your, pl. book

kitaab-kum

~t.:os:

~+'":-'l.:os:

my book

kitaab-i

t.:os:

<r'":-'l.:os:

our book

kitaab-na

L:a...t.:os:

L:.+'":-'l.:os:

If the noun to which the pronoun suffix is attached ends in U..H..rl l -L::.J I (t.), then a ..:. appears in the
place oH..J...H.rf.l - L:J I:
his room

ahurfi-t-u

~~

~+U~

her room

&hurti-t-ha

4=--A~

LA+ U~

their room

&hurti-t-hum

~~

~+ U~

your, m.s. room

&hurfi-t-ak

d.:...A~

d+ U~

your, f.s. room

&hurti-t-ik

d.:...A~

d+ U~

your, pl. room

&hurfi-t-kum

~~

~+ U~

my room

ihurfi-t-i

c?~

<rU~

our room

&hurfi-t-na

~~

L:.+

00

u~

56

.,

(Additional Activities)

Y~\

"

..

o\l:tl!J

Fill in the empty cells in the following table~

~1

4i .~.

c..lU.....i

i,;~

c..H

'

La.....,

-.

J -

~I

r, . iS: o

d~U.....I

c.i:u l
..

~
;

their

r-A-r-A

your, f ..s.

~
~I

L&.......

J -

...

.i-::...:.1
d.-~ I

, ,

your, pl. rS-~


1

~I

LA-~

rS: .i S:

rS.lU.....I

'

~-y.

her

your, m ..s.

L.......

J -

his

my

our

~i
~I

Write down the names of your family members and, if possible, their professions. In case you forgot, the
following professions have been introduced to you:
_..
- <. ..
.
L . -
~ ~ J ~~ 'c.J"~ ' '. '.! ! ,JU.....I , ~Lb
When Arabs write foreign words with sounds that have no correspondences in their language, they generally
use the Arabic letter that represents the Arabic sound closest to the foreign one. The following table shows
some of the English sounds that have no Arabic equivalents and what Arabic speakers generally substitute for
them:
English

Arabic Substitute

gas in English, Congress

pas inpepsi

4...:-' '-1 ,

vas in vitamin

~= ~~

ch as in match

~~Lo

3 m.s.=masculine singular,

or

t_:
It

c.J" _,.a..:.,s:J I 'LS~ I


.:

f.m.=feminine singular, pl.=plural

O"\

51
What Arabs perceive as short vowels are not nonnally written:

Bill

J..:.

~J

Rebecca

They represent what they perceive as o-sounds with _,:


Theordore

Morgan

Paul

Robert

They represent what they perceive as ay-sounds with <.?:


Casey

Rachel

Greetings

i is the greeting and '-:-' is its response.


On you peace. r)l...JI ~.J '-:-'
Peace be on you. ~ r)l...JI .i
(This greeting is generally more fonnal than the following three and is used at all times.)
Good morning. J,.:J I C. 4--

.'-:-'

Good evening. J,.:JI ..L........ '-:-'


Hello, Welcome.

Thank God.

)4_., ;u_i '-'

c.4- .i

Good morning. ~I

Good evening. ~I .. L........ .i


Hello, Hi.

4-o--;.. .i

ill.J...ooAJI .._. How are you (masculine)? ~ dJL.. ~ . i

Good, fine. ~)'.


Well, fine.

How are you (feminine)?~ d.JL..

(See Possession above.)

Good-bye. L)l...J I t-- .'-:-'


You're welcome. i~

Good-bye. L)l...J I t-- .i

.._.

Thank you. i ~ .i

Who~

How many, How much ~~ .~

" Why~

What ~l

Question Words

When

~.

- I

Where ~J

Which ~i

How ~

ov

58

I. How old is Maryam?


2. How long does it take to get from her apartment to her parents' house?
3. How long did she study in school?
4. How many children does she have? How old are they?
5. What does Maryam's husband do?

to get married c;:~.>:i


teacher ,jL.:&.....i=~

husband C::-'j
when

language W

oA

59

l. What are the names of the two people speaking?


2. What does Dan do?
3. How many students attend Cornell University?
4. Where does Dan's sister live?
5. How many brothers and sisters does Ali have?

welcome, hello
4

;u. i

polite way of asking the name

~~I

r--t'

you (m.s.) doJ..-;:;

honored, pleased to meet you w~

but (~)~

people, family J,Ai

masculine singular. Note that'-:' is prefixed to the verb J..._...:;. More on this under Subject/Person Markers in the
Grammar appendix.

60

..,!-...,.......,

J..)'#..,. ~.,

o~ir

c:4.-JI ~ ' :T'O ~L...JI ' *la.-u'JI

.)I~

~.lJ'JI (:<i'll ~~I J.~l

..>+k-JI ~ t :'\'. ~L...JI .~1

i.,..l:i.J I

ul~~

c:4-JI~ \. :'f' ~'II

~~I

:i.:i.:~l ~~I J.~l

..>+k-JI ~

r :\.

~L...JI.~'JI

~.)4

t 411 ~ ': 'f' ~L...J I ..:.a.:-J I

i.,..l:i.J I

' I~~
. 1-t..........;,
HIt..-~
--'1 J..
L .: 'I
..
,J~

'-"""'

~.lJ'JI (:<i'l I ~~I J.~l

..>+k-JI ~ \:\o ~L...JI .~1

J........,'JI J~l 4_,1~

..>+k-JI ~ '\':'\' . ~L...JI .~'JI

~l.,.a.JI ~~I J.~l

What is the arrival time of the foUowing flights?


l. Air France .................
2. Egypt Air .................
3. Iraqi Arilines ................ .
4. Middle East Airlines ................ .
S. Royal Jordanian Airlines from Baghdad .................
i~oWJ"

coming from

v-- t...JU

morning C: t..;..
middle ~.,i

~-

;;

airline~~ J._,J...A.=4_,I~ ~~

arrival time

,
J.,.....,J I ~.,

afternoon .>+Ji.,J I ~

61

Having with

The word ~ is used to express possession in a way that parallels the use of the English verb to have in
sentences like:

Masculine and Feminine Nouns

an~

I have a Japanese car.

-~44J4-~~

He has two sisters.

. ~i.~

he has

'ind-u

.~

she has

'ind-ha

LA~

they have

'ind-hum

r--~

you, m.s., have

'nd-ak

..:J~

you, f.s., have

'ind-ik

..:J~

you, pl., have

'ind-kum

~~

I have

'ind-i

~~

we have

'ind-na

l:.~

Adjectives

Nouns and adjectives are generally made feminine by atttaching the U..~..>A .. L:; to the masculine form:
student, m.

~U.

student, f.

~U.

my older brother ~I ~.,ai


my older sister i~l ~i
Ayman is living (a resident) in a house ~ ~ USL... &-:!i
Maryam is living in an apartment :c i -~- ~ t:.SL... ~..>A

(Additional Activity)
Translate the following into Arabic:
I. He has a car.
2. She has a brother and a sister.
3. I have a big aparment.
4. They have a small car.
5. We have a big house.

''

~W,l j,\ ,::.e

..

62

1. What does Ayman do?


2. Where did he go to school?
3. How long did he work in lrbid?
4. Where does he work now?
5. Where is Jedda?
6. What does his wife do?

totake ~i

Think ofsafari.

married

~_,.>=o--

then~~
to travel

heworks

;.t....

now

history ~.)
L;j

also

~~

63

~'
1. What is Daniel's father's name?
2. How old is Daniel?
3. What is his address in Jordan?
4. What does he do?

profession

hotel

J~

pilot

J4J.

64

;:. -.,"\t)\ 4.>}J\ ~\


~\J)\ i..)\).,
~_,i-.> i..)'! !-:c;

'!~ :"':"\'t,......t

~l.l :,......yt

~~~~

~.J :U.:.WI ,......1

~.,..t .d.>~~ : .1~_,.!1 u tS..o

:r\11 ,......1

\O..VY'/Y/YV : i.1~_,JI ~.>t.:;


~.,...1 : ~1

"'. f\JV :.>_,.l.oA.II utS..o., ~.>~..:;

V'"(oY'

v- '!.1 vJ.-.:...!.1.J

: ~1 jl~ ~.>

~u. :~1

u~

.u--J..:.\11 J~ :u.1}JI vl u i,.WI


,)~ Y' :i).':!j.Jii~

I. What is Dan's father's name?


2. What is his mother's name?
3. When was Dan born?
4. Where?
5. What is his address in Jordan?
6. How long will his visit to Jordan last?

I.:;

i.l~ .J

date

nationality ~

place

passport _,L, .) I~

number

~,)

issue

.>.J.l.IA

birth

..

.,

penod, durat1on ~

~,)

uts:.

visit i)-~)

''U

65

r---1
'\

~I
' '

~~~'-:"'~w~-~~~

0 1~1

"\\\YH'

w,.&.W I ~.)

~I

r---'/1

.,..-J I
0 ~-<.r.jA-ll

d:a..:J 1

"\\V"\0"\
4

.,J,

0 1~1

w,.&.W I ~.)
~I

.)t..........~ till~

r---1

U.....Y\

.,..-J I

~ Ul.i..:a '-:"'_,.i-~~li}.~I-~J!

0 1~1

w,.&.W I ~.)

~I

.. . . :.11 L..l ... 1...

.J~r-r-<r
0

J..-..,.

~I

~....JU..
I

~~;~

~1

U.....Y\

.,..-J I

~,)J\'1 ~4-JI-~1

(k

0 1~1

"\"\\Yo\

w,.&.W I ~.)

t..JU..

~I

1. How old is Suleiman Abdelqader?


What is Layla Abu-Zayd's address?
3. What does Abda11a Samara do?
4. What is Layla Abu-Zayd's telephone number?
5. How old is Jamila Qasim?
6. Two words in this reading selection are related to two words you already know:~~ "close, near'', and
2~

"doctor, physician"? What are these two new words?

(new words) i~

ow.r

neighborhood, quarter of a city i ~L:..

accountant . , ..~

collegeofmedicine ~~4~1<

grocery store U l.i.:a

r
66

Fill in the empty cells in the following table. Ignore the cells marked with an ''x".

u~

ill~

0~

~jl~

r-'""'

~I

4-=J.:a~

,...._:a I_,..:a..c

~~
L.:a.:a I_,..:a..c

her

LA-~

their

~
r---r--

your, f ..s.

d~jl~
,

'--_,.A

~I your, m ..s. d-~1

~~
d::J..:a~

his

~~~jl~

~l_,..:a..c

''

, ,

your, pl. ~-~1


my

d.-~1

our

<:?L:ai
L:a-~1
,

67.

~.Y
Pretend that you are traveling to Jordan to take an Arabic summer course that will last two months.6 Fill out
the following form accordingly.

;! !-,~ 4>}~\ ~'


~\~i.)\)J

Jy>i~\:i

:'-:"'\'1 r-""''

:r-""''fl

:U:.Wir-""'1

: r'il r-""'1

:iJ'i_,.ll 0 LS...

:iJ'i_,JI

~JL.:;

::i " . .,II

:~lji~~J

:4 1
:uJJ'il

vA ul,.:.a.JI

:iJ4..>JI i~

Remember that in order to make a noun 'dual', you just add the suffix~ More on this in the Grammar appendix

under "Number".

'\V

68

1. When did he come to America? How?


2. How did he go from lrbid to Amman?
3. Where did the plane stop on the way from Amman to New York?
4. How long did the plane take from Amman to New York?

how~

I want to tell, speak about ~i c.~~

before~
to fly, take off .;U.

'\A

lcame ~

Alia International Airport

v!_,..t.ll .. ~ .;U.:.

69

1. Where is be going?
2. Where is he from?
3. Where did he learn Arabic?
4. Cornell a big university?

Is

i~~oWS'

welcome to you v~ -~_, -~~

you learned ;.J.:..

See "Pronouns Attached to Prepositions" in the Grammar appendix.

please, go ahead ~
you, m.s. speak

70

~_Jt)). ~ ~U... .;,t ~\:J\ O'.J~ i_,..\

- \N)
~ -

_\.

v-

.ll.;JI-u~

'1'

~~~ ..::,~~ .._i.:i_,...-u~


0

J..L....JI

'
't

c.}.~

'-u!
PllJj.ll
~Jt...

'(

"

What is the taxi fare from Alia' International Airport to: downtown Amman, Jerash, Ma'an, Aqaba?

to J= +~I
downtown ~I

fare, rent i~i

fils (there are 1000 fils in one .;~J) ~


stop~;.
,

v.

71

,;,)\..s, J>\.a
0~

0~ c.i_jlll ~

.,.,,

L.........-!..JI
-

"nL

w.

iio\W

.,..,.,

t......4JI r__,W.

iio\Y\

Wo

.!..~WI _,I_,J.ll-.:,~ ~

if \Ti'

'f'VA

~I

iW\o.

1.,-'

~-~It
~j

1.,-'-

~~_,.JI~.J.il

ii ..

.,..

_,U.....

'~ , II

iiO\i\

~L..JI _,I_,J.li-.J~ ~

A\o.V\

~_,.UI ~4k

c.r-'

*****

*****
"..
.. ****
' .... ****

.,..

Ao\ ...

~~

.,..

****

JJ,:.AII ..........\
..::..~_,L..-.:,~

.J! ~.~~_,A
J:.:.l.,.a ,._L....J~ - ._,...WI
J~~.,:...:.l

.j.J}il

J........._,"iiJ~I

...,..-i4 ~j-~j _,..-:;


-4k~ l~

.J.J.Jl..-4--1-

~I

i_,.....: J,.L...;

1. What do you think the word 4 J.J stands for in this context?
2. How many rooms does the Holiday Inn have?
3. What is the address of the Holiday Inn?
4. Where is the Bawwabat Aliaa hotel located?
5. What is the phone number of the Middle East hotel?
6. How many rooms does the Ambassador (As-Safrr) hotel have?
number .J~

Y\

72

Wanting with~
The word ~ is used in combination with a pronoun suffix (the same set of suffixes that are used to indicate
possession) in Levantine Arabic to express the equivalent ofthe English verb to want:

Translate the following into Arabic:


I. I want an apartment.
2. He wants a big car.
3. She wants a passport.
4. They want a nearby house.
5. I want to write (I wri~i) a book.

V'(

'
~

he wants

bidd-u

she wants

bidd-ha

LA~

they want

bidd-hum

~~

you, m.s., want

bidd-ak

..t~

you, f.s., want

bidd-ik

d~

you, pl., want

bidd-kum

~~

I want

bidd-i

~~

we want

bidd-na

l.:a~

73

. -~ ~
~ .:...=.:i;
- \..,. .~
..

_CJ__

1. How long was he on the plane?


2. What happened to his suitcase?
3. What did he leave at the airport?
4. How far was the hotel from the university?

~~~WJ"
noon

.,..J.

it (she) arrived .::.X..~

I was .-~

tired u.

vie ~

after~

it(she)went ~ IJ

suitcase ~

I said ..:.J.l

they said I_,Jl.i

I looked for

Ileft

we don't know

....;~

L.

I took ..:..~i

vr

74

1. When did Dan reserve a room in the hotel?


2. Did he want a room with a bathroom?
3. What happened to Dan's passport?
4. What is the number of the room where Dan will be staying?

toreserve

. .

you know ....;,...:;


Can I leave....?

~ .... ~1 ~

Mr.~

V!

service

if you please ~ (>.A

t..~

,.-., : ... _,.1

I had it (it was with me)

v- 0 1S
take!!~

75

"

..

4Jil\ J~~ =v'


..

..dJ~~

-.

~\

o\St..JI~

(tY..?#'~)

<o~~)

i..rAWI

~~ .........

' .."
'(o . o

V\

rv

l.)l.l_,....JI

'1'Y'A\

Y''(

1~1
~
.

~I~
~

r~~~

u...J..i..:i
. jAJ I ~
~..>-!

1~1
~
.

~4,.,.J I

HV

Y''(

'-:-'~ 1

.ll~

trv

'( o

JljA-1 1

L,.,.J I

\\"\\

\\

~J_,......JI

J~

J..!...o.l

\Ao

\V

~L..c.UJI~~

~ l.a...:.....o

o'(A

uk
~
..uWI

'-""!

~J

(.)4A-I~

"t

~.ll......~l~

~.lli...o

"\Y'A

'.
'.A

4J>-'-"

~Iilli~

~I,.,.Jo

\ V"\.

"\

\V

"\

I.)J}JI

'.

t
t

u L..W
.

uuJL..JI

J~
~L.J...b
.

.)AJI ~
UJI~
..>-!
'-""!

.l......:'JI

..

..

~-

..
k

~WIUJI~

J~~!

~,J~

(c.Jjl.o ~i) c.)"4-c .),...........

'-"" .l.i.J I

"\

~I
~~

JL._,.._JI

-.-

u....&ll) ~ b ,.t;
(..,>. t LJ...'i.J (._,
. .,a.J I

~ i ~ .1.1 ,J ~,Jl.a...o

~~l_,.:a

u
'-""! '-"" ~

. 4f.:.
u.

Lj . ,

'. Y'\

"'"

Ji .l..ol
' u.Li.
.. JI.H
..

~ ~i

c~ l ~'JI..H4-

~fiJI

\A

~Ji~.
~
~
..
'-""!

~,J.1.ll

U#J i ~~~

LWI

"'

~L._,..,..,i ~ lji
~,..~~Lo.......l

"\Y'

"

~,JJ.,...

'(Y'

~~

vo

r
r
r

"
'
'
'

'

w~
- .J.J-A

u ~
~~I~IJL.~I
~_,s.JI

~I

__,......i.J I J~
.
~~

76

I. What is the smallest Arab country in area?


2. What is the largest Arab country in area?
3. Which Arab countries have the same number of inhabitants?
3. In what order is the table organized?
4. What are the capitals of the following countries: Yemen, Bahrain, Mauritania, Libya, and Oman?

~~WS'
West Bank ~.>*JI ~I
"

ruler ~l.a

Gaza Strip i~ t. 1..1..i

the Comoros (islands of the moon) ..,......aJ I J..).:!.

Subject/Penon Marken
Arabic verbs have two tenses: the perfect and the imperfect The perfect corresponds roughly to the past tense
in English and generally indicates completed action, and the imperfect corresponds to the present tense and
indicates actions that have not been completed. At this point, only the perfect tense is introduced.
Subject/Person Markers on the Perfect Verb

Different persons are expressed on the perfect verb by attaching different suffixes to it, except in the case of
the third person masculine singular (the one corresponding to he), where no suffix is attached:
~
(.,_A)
he wrote
katab
she wrote

leatab-at

:-.-_.-.<

they wrote

katab-u

I~

you, m.s. wrote

katab-t

:-... -.s:

you, f.s. wrote

katab-ti

you, pl. wrote

katab-tu

..:...

..
1_,

(~)

..:...

(~I)

..:...

(~I)

I~

I~

(~1)

I wrote

katab-t

..:...

we wrote

katab-na

L:.

Notes
I. The conjugations of~l and L:.i are identical.

2. The I at the end of I~ and

I~ is

(......)

not pronounced; it accompanies plural _,.

(L:.i)
(L:...!)

77

Verb Types: Sound, Hollow, and Lame1


Arabic words are divided into three categories: verbs, nouns, and particles. Particles are words or parts of
words like prepositions, conjunctions, the definite article, question words, and other "function" elements.
Verbs and nouns form the major categories, which include the great majority of words in the language. All
verbs and nouns derive from roots of three- or, less commonly, four-letter roots. Four-letter roots will be
excluded here because of their rare occurrence in this book.
Arabic verbs that are based on three-letter roots behave in distinct ways depending on their structure. Three
verb types that are quite common are sound, hollow, and lame.

Sound verbs have three consonants in the three consonant positions, no doubling of any two consonants, and
no _, I, or t.S in any of these positions. Verbs like ~ "he wrote", .....; ~ "he knew", and ~"he heard"
are sound verb.
Hollow verbs have I in the second root slot in the perfect te~se of the verb: 0 LS "he was", C: IJ

"he went",

rL:. "he slept", Ju "he said".


Lame verbs are characterized by the presence of t.S less commonly I, as their third or final element. The CS
which looks like <.!minus the two dots and which is known as .),......._. J.Ji, is more common than I in this
position. There is no difference in pronunciation between t.S and I. Examples of lame verbs are ~ "he
walked",~ "he left, let".

Whereas persons or subjects are indicated simply by attaching a suffix to the verb in the case of sound verbs,
certain adjustments are made to hollow and lame verbs when the same suffixes are attached, as shown in the
following table.

Hollow

Sound
katab

(_,A)

katabat

(c,rA)

Kaalu

Ju
.::.Ju
I_,Ju

katabu

I~

(~)

Kult

katabt

:-... ;<

(~I)

,-=.J.:i

katabti

(~I)

Lame
rna~

..
,_,.........,.

Kaal

rna slat

Kaalat

. I~

mashJ

maiD;:eti

Kulti

mameetu

I - .. ,

Kultu

rnameet

..
..
I,:J..:i

Kult

katabt

(L:.i)

Kulna

t.:.U

katabna

L:.......:::.s:

(1..:..:..!)

ma~t

~
,

maiD;:ena

~
,

katabtu I~ (~1)

Notes
1. The conjugations of~l and L:.i are identical.
2. The I of hollow verbs is dropped in the second and first person.
3. The t.S of lame verbs is dropped in the third person and changed to<.! (ee) in the second and first
persons. ___________________
1

Technically, the terms sound, hollow, etc. are used to refer to roots not verbs. They are used loosely here

to refer to the verbs derived from such roots. So a sound verb should be understood as a verb derived from a
sound root, and so on. For a fuller discussion, refer to Roots and Patterns in the Grammar appendix.

yy

78
4. More complete tables of verb conjugations, including those of exceptional verbs, are found in the
Grammar appendix.

Having with e'


Like

tA is a preposition that combines with a pronoun to indicate possession. The prepositional

meaning oftA is "with". When used for possession, tA indicates having something with a person at a
particular time. This meaning can be contrasted with that of ~ which indicates general possession
or ownership.
,
He has (owns) a large house.. ~ ~

.~

I have twenty dollars with me, on me. J "i .J.l ~~

v-

The following table shows tA in combination with the different pronouns:

.
,

u...

he has

ma'u

she has

ma'ba

they have

ma'hum

..
,..._

you, m.s., have

ma'alc

you, f.s., have

ma'ik

you, pl., have

ma'kum

I have

ma'i

we have

ma' na

~
,

~
v.
,

Moving to the past with 0 LS::


~l.S (with its conjugations) is used to "move" the time of an event or a situation to the past, as shown in the
following examples:

hehad

.~ ~lS

he has

v- ~lS

I have

I was tired u.
1.-.:a ~ L:al
it was necessary, ought tor j"i ~lS

it is necessary that, must

I had (with me)

VA

v-

I am tired ~~ L:al

rj 'I

79

Fill in the empty cells in the following table. Ignore the cells marked with an "x".

<..)" J.l

0~

u ~

he

'

she

I_,..:a~

,,......J.l

_,.A

~-~

..

1..,_-~

they

you, m.s. ~-::...:.1

.-..<.,

~-~1

you, f.s.

'

'

'~

'~

you, pl.

..::...-....J.l

'

1~-_,.::ul

-L.:ai

L.:a......J.l

we

L.:,..- L.:a.::. I
'

V\

80

Fill in the names of the following Arab countries in the map.

u~
. .0

'-:-"_,.ti I . \\

4J~t
_;al~l . ' .

A.

JI~J .r ~J~'"

~1.\

~~ C\

ui..1,_....J I .A

~ -Y

81

II
.. . -... .- . .:-. --~-..-.1
.
..
~-;. -.. :- - ~ -';: :
... . ... . . - . . ...

, .. .

,...

, ..

'

~~,s ~L.:. L.. ~ . 'I'


~wit--~ L.. .lA-! ~ ~

t-- .t

~~l.:JI ~i ..:..:.IS ,.S

~ J~l.,? U_,&JI ~i

..:..:.IS ,.S . \

n~t ~ i:.t w'i (Ju) ~ y. .r


~~

'

c:,IS Jt.J....ll . o

I. How much was the room in the hotel?


2. Why couldn't he sleep well?
3. Did he tell his family that he had lost his suitcase?
4. Who did he talk to after talking to his family?
5. Was the airport far?
6. How much did he pay for the taxi?

i~~oWJ"
second, next ~~

to sleep

rL:.

early C!J~

to wakeup~

tolose ~

tobehappy ~I

JL....

after~~

to ask

82

"e:!'.J ~.J <)IJ . \


" 0 )U j 0 1J ~I .:..A~~ . 'I'
"~j<JlS~ . T'

1. Where is Dan going?


2. How do you know that Dan is upset?
3. Why was he upset?

-.

i.w..- ol.lS'
upset

o~j

why~

o!

sony ....&......i

God willing ill I ~ w.

lost and found box ..::.l.1~,ll J.J~

83

u-=JI ~~I J.J..UI . ~..rt! y-A \ .J


-

.;1

4-u-f y-A \'\'

,4J.JJ '\''\'~~I ~WI y-A

..

0 ~., i~l ~~I ~1}-~I.J ~.J ~.>-~-~JI.J ~fi.JI.J Jl.ra-JI ~ ~i ~


~~ I ~,raJI J.J..UI.J . 0 ~., 4->,_,....J ~ b,.l ;._, 0 J}ii.J ~J.J ... II_, ~I_,
~~.J I.:!.: !.J ~I J~.J JL..~I.J

<.:?.J:.: "!.J 0 1J,_....JI_, ~ ~ ~rt!


. ~~.>,_..J ~~I.J _;ai~I.J

a.

..

#I

""

..,:,SI ~.J 't-!.J-0 ~~ 0~ \r ~ ~~ ~L......o ~ ~~~I ~WI


.~ ~~~J_,......JI~L-..o~ 1.\A_,~~L-..o~ '/.\ . ~~j ~ .~ 1~
0.J .1,.

.;

'

~~ ...-~~ .L..........:a 0~ "' ~ <..r.~l ~w1 0LS..... J.u ~~

~ Jl~l ~~~ ~ ~' 'jh"il &:o .:.:. !j&- ~ ~'"}ii,J :4 ".:,.! ... -o ~t'jhi ~~.J
0' .~. .: .~.11., ~->.:~.11., 4->.,......., 0l..:...:J ~ ~->"il ~~! JL.......!. ~ .>-:'~1 .JI~I

4->..,......., 0J->"il ~

1. How many Arab countries are in Asia? How many are in Africa?
2. What is the population of the Arab world?
3. What is its area?
4. How much of Saudi Arabia is desert?
5. Which non-Arab minorities are mentioned? Where do they live?

i~~ow.r
~I

world ,J~

most of it o ~i

more than ;.,...


_,!.Si
,

for example )e.:.

desert (think of Sahara) - '~

r-A ~i

to exceed ~ ~~-.1 lj

~ ..:~t..::.

Christian~

Muslims r 0 _,....L.....
minority ( ...:.l'.:i ej plural) :o~hj

the Kurds .11 ~I

not, other than ~

u~ I

the Circassians ~~I

that, which (f.)

most of them
there is, there are

the Chechens

The sutTtxes l.J.J in l.J_,..J......... and .::..1 in ..::.4lli are plural markers. See Sound Plurals under Number in the Grammar

appendix.

Ar

84

Negation
Verbs are generally negated in Levantine Arabic by inserting L.. before the verb to be negated:

I did not sleep well in the hotel. . J..lo4i.l I

vA ~,S. ..:,.....; L.. L:.i

They said "we don't know" . . ...J~ L.. I_,Jll

Non-verbal elements (nouns, adjectives, prepositional phrases) are negated by


noun, adjective, or prepositional phrase:

inserting~

before the

Their apartment is not far.. ~ ,_;.... ~


Jedda is not the capital of Saudi Arabia. ; ~.,~_,.......JI ~ ,_;.... ~
But I am not from the city ofNew York. . .:J J~~ ~..u

o-- ,_;.... L:.l ~

The main exceptions to these rules are the high-frequency words: .La.e "to have",~ "to want", t"A " with as a

preposition and in the sense of to haw!', and ~ "there is, there are". These words are not verbal but follow
the verbal negation pattern, i.e. by using L...

I don' t have a big house.. ~ ~ '!.La.e L..


He doesn' t have a lot of money.

.~

There is no airport in lrbid . ~ .J!

vw.,U u... L..

vA .JU.... ~ L..

She doesn't want to go. t.J~ LA~ L..

When L.. directly follows the words ~ "after" and

J.:.....i "before" it does not have a negation function; it

serves as a "buffer" between~ and J.:....l (and a few others, see the Grammar appendix}, and the following
verb. So~ L..

translates as "after I spoke".

The Arable Sentence


Arabic sentences are of two general types: those with verbs and those without verbs. Sentences that have
verbs are called verbal sentences, and sentences wi~t verbs are called equational sentences.

Equational sentences
The Arab world is big.
. ~ c.,r.~l ~WI
Note the absence of the equivalent of the English verb to be. The Arabic sentence literally translates as: The
Arab world big.
Equational sentences often have a pronoun that agrees with the subject in number and gender where a verb to
be would be found. This is particularly true when the predicate of the sentence is a noun rather than an

Af

85

adjective:

.~,:.J.I ~"JI ~I o-iJ. (_,.A)o~ <-~I


The weather in Lebanon is the weather of the Mediterranean.
This pronoun is called pronoun ofseparation, and the sentence is grammatical with and without it.
In an equational sentence that consists of an indefinite subject and a prepositional phrase, the prepositional
phrase precedes the subject:
There are 22 countries in the Arab world . . U J.l Y'1' IF_,a.J I r-JW I <-

Verbal sentences
There is a certain amount of flexibility in the word order Of verbal sentences: with the exception of certain
constructions which dictate a specific word order, a verb may precede or follow its subject. The following
two word orders are grammatical:

.~ u~
. ~ o~

*',

, ..

..

"' ~ ~F_,a-~1
r-JWI o~ .)~ .l.:!~
,
., ,

r\ .

"',

~ .l.:!~ IFjA-11 r-JWI 0 lS...... .)~

Non-human Plurals
Non-human plural nouns, particularly in written Arabic (also known as Modern Standard Arabic or~)
are treated as singular feminine nouns for purposes of verb, adjective, and pronoun agreeement:

...~~I_, ~_,s..JI_, JljA-11 ...... L:_..-i <-~I ~jA-Il J_,~l

(Dictatio~

_'j..,.. .\

Practice writing the dictation exercise at home. When you come to class your teacher will read it to you
twice, sentence by sentence or phrase by phrase at normal reading speed, while you write it down.

~1)-oti.J ~.J &;a~ I_, ~fiJI_, Jl~l ~ ~i ~~I ~~I J_,JJI

",

.iJ~.J 4J_,.....,.J ~b ... !;._, i_,.J}il_, ~.J_,........JI_, ~I_, o~.J i~l ~jA-ll

Ao

86

Fill in the empty cells in the following tables.


Possession

J~

r-iJ

u'~

._,.&...... jl~
<I

<I....L:iJ

ib a.~.

_,.A

LA._,.&-.... j I~

..,....

r+=a'~
~ .....

,li b

~I

a.~,

.:..:.I

~-._,.&...... j I~

_,:..:.1

rS-=a'~
~~

L:.i

L.:a.:i~

~I

Subject markers

JL:i

"'
~

rt..:a

"'
~

rt..:a

J..-.J
he

~.J

..::.JL:i

she

they

I,_.L:a
"'

~~

I_,;a!-.., you. pl. - _,:..:.1

.:.J.-..,

~~

"'
t .:;:,

A\

..

~~-,....

you, f.s. -.::.:.1

.::.......:,

I_,:J.l

~-~

you, m.s. -::...:.1

~~o

_,.A

~ -t.:ai

weU.-~1

87
(Fill-in the blanks) 0\&:.~~\

.r .

Without looking at the reading selection of this lesson, fill in the blanks in the following using the words
below.

JJ.JI . ~~! ~ \ J ~i ~ \'\' ........................ '1''1' ~.,-..11 r-JWI ~


~l)....o~IJ~J~~~J~fi.JIJJI~I~~i~ ....................... ~~~

.;~J JL.o_,_._.JIJ ~~J wiJ_,_....JIJ ~~ .......... ..... ........ ~~I~~~

.~l.:a-:,a.;~J ~.;-iJ.IJ ~I~IJ ~_,;.J ~J ~I

,.
.
~..>--0 ,;-::.....o~ w~ \Y' ~ ~~ ~L..-..o ~ ....................... ~~~ r-JWI

.,

,.

..

/.\AJ ....................... ~l....-.o 0-o /.\ . 0-o ~I ~ . ~ I~ &~I ........ ; ....

(Ship of the Desert (crossing))

AY

88

~"A.-A~ - ~ ~
~_,.-

~.:.......... ~.JlJ-1' '


HS.'!'.,..\14-l ~I .Y
~U".J~~I .r

~ u~.Jol!o

uiS (~ c}J') .....~.:!~ . t

I. Where is Muhammad from?


2. When did be come to the U.S.?
3. What does be study?
4. Was Sharif(the speaker) hungry?

i~.:- oWS'
tomeet ~-~1
hungry ~Lc~

one day ("~\'1 v-a ("~ ~


be asked me ~t....
let's go!

AA

! ill~

89

._ .J_,JJ t

J::a \..>- ~-

~ _,.L... jl~ ~ 0 1.J ~I . \


~ 0 1 .J~1 ....... 1~I . Y
~ _,.L... jl~

,.._;J _;S~ 0 1.J. T'

~~JL:..JI ~I~ 0 1.J _,.L... j l~ J-'~ 0 1S... ~I

.t

1. When did Dan lose his passport?


2. What is Dan's father's name?
3. Does Dan remember his passport number?
4. Where was Dan's passport issued? When?

to remember

--

.fi~-_fi,j

ISSUe

letme

J.J~

yes, can I help you


unknown

+....i.J.>A--- ~

--

to sit down .I.Li..:,o- ..La.l


to see ....i~-.JW.

3 See "Negation

in~" in the Grammar appendix.

A\

' 90

u~

o -t..a....:....~

~~'

~
<:::::::::>

":'~~

u.J.

~~~ J~I

J..ts.J I ('-"My I

~I ~~~ ~ I.J~ .(~. WI) ,.La.W

t.........:.
II .lll
- ..)" 1,)

ti.UI

~_,a.JI

.UI

r;......Y'

J4.,JI

f.V"(

J _,s'lll

f. "(\

..!,l.:.1

u...a..JI

",

J,.,..!JI ~~~ ~ . ~~~ ~~~4...!.~~ ~~~ ~.,.c U_,-1~1

.~)'1 ~I ~~I &-o.J ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~_, ~.l~l JL....!JI &-o.J w~


....

Ill

"' ,

J~l_, ~.JJ.J'~ I&-- o.::.J~I dl...:..A_, w.J . I , ~.J--C ~I wl..S- ~I

. .l~l_,

ib ,:_, ~.ri-JI

c.,? ~L.... 4 ib .:

:~I

"'

c.,? ~l.:L... ~l.:L... ~~ ~l...:..A

. .1~1 J~ u-i ~_,1~ Hb . _, .~L...JI Hb .11 J~ (':~

fiib ',ll ~ u...-11 ~4i ~i

i.:bl_, .~WI:iib"''

. ~,.,t~l

c.,? ~~,J ~~~I


Hb ,II c.,? :_.4-_, ~~_, . ~1

91

l . What borders Yemen on the south?


2. What minorities are found in Yemen?
3. How many climatic areas is Yemen divided into? What are they?
4. Where is the mountailous region located?
5. What is the weather like in the desert region?

..

i~~ oWJ"
republic ~ J~

full, complete J,...ts:

main~~

city

'

(u';_. . d ~;..

currency~

religion ~.J

literate~

ratio, percentage ~

., , , -

-.

females .!..l.:.l

males J,Sj

the Arabian Peninsula ~ _,.aJ I i ..H~I ~

introduction L~

Indians

.. ,

,'
.J~

'
geography ~~~
area (~t.:..:.

.d ~

.,. ,

to border ~-~
Jews .J~
climate (related to almanac) ~tU:.

mountainous ~

coastal

the country U _,.l.li=.J~ I

Gl.a.L....

desert-like <::S-'1.,......:..

humid~~

hot

dry :...~

V"'"6.=+~J6.

pleasant, nice ~,S=~

~~
Conjugation of \..,\ (he came)
became

'aja

she came

'ajat

they came

' aju

you, m.s. came

jiit

you, f.s. came

jiiti

you, pl. came

~i
,

(_,A)
(~)

l~i

(~)

(~I)

(~I)

jii-tu

I~
-

(~1)

I came

jiit

we came

jiina

(t:.i)
(t.:-!)

Object Pronouns
The same set of pronoun suffixes that are attached to nouns to show possession are attached to verbs to
4

"plural"

''

92
indicate the objects of these verbs. The English equivalents are words like them, her, me in sentences like I
saw them, He visited her, My son called me, etc.
Note the following:
1. The object pronoun follows the subject marker. So think of the verb with the object pronoun as being
constucted in two steps:
a. construct the verb with its subject marker:
.:..Ji......=..::..+JL.... "I asked"

4.:i.Ji......=.+.:..Jt..... "I asked him"

b. attach the.object pronoun:

2. The object pronoun for me is ~ not just ~ as in the possessive: ~t..... " he asked me"
3. The I at the end of the plural forms of the verbs, which is silent, is dropped when the object pronoun is
attached:
~_,Ji......=~+I_,Jt..... "they asked"

4. When the object pronoun is preceded by a long vowel as in the word I_,JL...., the second person singular
feminine and masculine are distinguished by a i J

.,

< (_:-) after the d of the pronoun in the case of the

feminine conjugation: d_,Jt..... [sa'luuk] "they asked you, m.s."; ,d_,Jt..... [sa'aluuki] ''they asked you, f.s."

5. The final short vowel of the second person femine singular, as in .:..!L... (..::......>1), is lengthened to(S when
'
'
an object pronoun is attached.

The following table shows all the possible combinations of the object pronouns exemplified by the verb JL.....
"he asked" in the eight subject pronoun conjugations:

Wt......,

..::.Ji.......,

I_,;Jt......,

..::.Ji.......,
'

..::.Ji.......,

I_,Jt......,

..::.Ji.......,

Ji.......,

bWt......,

dt.....

b_,;Jt.....

~t......,

dt.....

b_,Jt.....

dt.....

4...Jt.....

.)A

L..Wi.......,

4-=iJi.......,

L.._,;Ji.......,

~t.....

4=Ji.......,

LA_,Ji.......,

4-=iJi.......,

4Ji.......,

,....wt......,

~t......, ....,._,;Jt.....

~wt......,

dilL...

~wt.....

d:JL....

'

'
#

rSWt......,
X

~t.....

"
"

~t.....

~t..... ....,..,..,t.....

~t.....

~t.....

....,.

~_,Jt......,

dilt.....

dit.....

;. ..;I

~_,JL....

d:Jt.....

dJt.....

'

"

"

"

~_,Jt.....

~t.....

rSJl....

~I

~_,;Jt......, ~t.....

~t.....

~_,Jt.....

~t.....

~t......,

~1

~t.....

u:Jt.....

~_,Jt......,

u:Jt.....

"
"
"
~_,;Jt.....

'
#

~I

Wt..... ~I

93

~ (Tbe Relative Adjective)


Many adjectives are derived from nouns by suffixing the ending':S (fern., ~) to the noun from which they are
derived. lfthe noun ends in a vowel orU..~..r-- ~l,j, these letters are dropped when the adjectival suffix is
added If the noun has a definite article, that is dropped too.

Masculine

Egypt-Egyptian

.
~~

C:S~

America-American

~.
- __ral

~_rai

~_rai

Saudi Arabia-Saudi

~J.,-...

C:S,)_,_...

~,)_,-...II

climate-climatic

~L.:....

L.:....

tt..:.:.

mountain-mountainous

agricultural

~I.).)

Feminine

c.F"'

<rl.).)

~I.).)

Cases

Nouns and adjectives in written Arabic~) may have one of three cases, depending on their function in
the sentence: nominative, accusative, or genitive. The rules of case assignment are numerous and can be quite
intimidating to the Ieamer. However, since'-' ,. i is used in this book for reading and writing, as it is in
fact used by the overwhelming majority of Arabs, and not for speaking, only a limited number of features of
the case system are relevant, namely those features that influence the shape of the written word.
Masculine singular nouns and adjecdves

When a singular indefinite noun or adjective is in the accusative case, it is marked by the ending I:
,

.U-.11 ~ .)...1.1 ,.L... V..l~ V'C. ~l_,a 4-:!J..e J~_,


About 720 millimeters of rain water faJt on it per year.
~
,
'
Morocco became part of the Arab Muslim state. . ~)l.....YI ~_,a.J I U_,.J I
1.. ~ '-:-'.,>i-11 ) ..-_,

v.-

The city became an important center .l.LA 1~_,..~.l.ll

Sound plural nouns and adjecdves

.-., .... !_,

~-'.J-''Jiv.- d)ii <!.IL.:.A_,. 4i~ '-:-'~ ~14JLS:.. _;.s;

Most of the population ofYemen are Arab Muslims, and there are minorities ofEuropeans.

-U!!r:._, '-:-'.> ~ ~ <!.IL:..A ~" 4J.,...J...- '-:-'.> Jl.,a.JI w~ _;.s;


Most of the population oflraq are Arab Muslims, but there are non-Arab Muslims and Christians.
Remember that case endings are " ornaments" that have no bearing whatsoever on the meanings of words. So
each form in column\ has the same meaning as the corresponding fonn in column ~ in the following:

94
"':-'

I~
1.. ~

I~_,..

~.,..

l.u

ru

..~

o,..L.-

~.JJ.J'i l

o~.JJ.J'il

U! .:,.:

o.J:, : .

With ref erence to the table on p . 92, translate the following short sentences into Arabic. In case you 've
forgotten, the three verbs used in the exercise are listed below.

She knew him.


You, m.s., took me.
Iknewber.
You, m.s., took them.
I lost them.
We knew her.
We lost them.
They took me.
He lost you, f.s.
You, pl., lost us.
he knew

...i.,>

betook

~;

helost ~

.. '

~ . ~~~ ~~' ~ '-:'~ '-:'~ ~ ~~

u,J ~~

J~'

o-- ~~

'-:'~I

'
0--.J ''-:'~I~ '-:'~1 0--.J . ~J~I ~~I ~I JL.....!...ll 0--.J .)~
._,.-\'1 ~I

95

JJ .J)_.. ,

~~LA J(t;

. ~~t.JS'I

i..::;..- VJI -

\."'.J ~_, ~ c.1..:;1 ~-

~
~~~.lr-S ~~ uts:~' '
~ 1.. I

. ':<'

r--~~ <..JM

L:. ~
- c.J lS: . "\'

~ ...,..~..,..JSi ~~~~

.r

~ ~~&-ol.:i..i ~~J_, ~v-ol.:i..i ~~~ ~ .

1. How far was the restaurant?


2. Were there a lot of people?
3. What did he (the speaker) eat and drink?
4. What did they exchange?

J>eOple '-"'L.:.

toenter ~J
toretum

~J

96

YJ.,.ISJI cjiJ,.......I

~I . \

~C:,IJ~l ,.......1 ~I . Y
~~I~I .T

H~..,...\'1 i).LJI ~ ~~ c:,LS ~.AJI ~ . f.


~ ~~~JllcjiJ~I . o
Y ~ c:,IJ.l Jll ~.AJI ~I '

I. What is Dan's full name?


2. What is Dan's father's name?
3. What is the problem?
4. Why did the policeman want to talk to the American embassy?
5. What did Dan tell him to do instead?
6. Did the policeman agree to do that?

i~owr
full J..lS

thank God

~ ~I

.l:lo.I.J ~

middle J..:....~

towait ~t

OK~

picture i ~.,.....

embassy i~U:..

everyone

97

~..1~,~~1~1

....L,Lh.JI . ~..U I, :i<'o . 6~ (~WI) oA4.,.JI

J..o~ l ~~l
fi

:u:\,.JI 0..UI

~~I

ti.UI

V' )r~~~

..UI
c..H

~..1~ I J4.,.J I

~I

/.Y'(

JfilJ I

~ oi.:JI ~

'/.0

. ~ U_,..~ ~j ~_, ~~I 6~~1 ~ c..rA ~..1_,.._._l I ~~I w...J.I ~

~,ra.JI ~IJL...o~l_, ~_, ~~1_, ~)-i.JI/~,ra.JI ~I J,.,_...!.Jit)-o LA~

JL....!...II <.>-oJ , ~\'1 ~1_, 0..1}il ~._>i.JI <.>-oJ .~1_, 0~ ~~I (.r.oJ . 6~1
. JI~ I_, ~fiJI

'\Y

98

~i J~ o..- t.' . ~w, ~~ J...:.i


*

, ,

v-- ~J,...

.~;&:;~WI J'J..; ~ &-- J:~ ~~ t..........:i. '->--

,II 0 t.S..... 4J-A


~~~
""
~i ~J,....._JI ~ ~_, . l.!i.:~!_,

t.'

tCJ." yvJ:.l
J.bWI_, .F IJ ,

.o

J41 ~L....... 4J-A ;1.\A ~~~ ~J-' ,II o-A) ~j


~

~C!J~I ~j &---' . F~I ~ iJ)~_,, i.:oll ~ U4-_, I~ iJL:.. ~_,1~1


~

.. 1~ ~J,....._JI
~ J4;.-JI ~j ti:a

~~~ ~~~ ~ ~t.:JI ~~r F1~_, .Jt.-!...11 ~ .:s~r

~~~ ~ ~ 4 i

L.-..

~_, ~_,.i.J I ~ j~l :4 i '- .


1 1 L . . t:<
-:
L. I
.~ r_,,.,......,,
1

u\'1

~ ~ L.

. : L II
~~~,

~_, '""' t:&.......~J_,~I ~~~ ~ i~U_,J~J~I..:....:alS


. :.~.;. U_,J

1. What borders Saudi Arabia from the west?


2. What borders it from the east?
3. What is the ethnic make-up of the Saudi population?
4. What is the percentage of Muslims among Saudi citizens?
5. How many foreign workers are in Saudi Arabia?
6. What is the percentage of the land of Saudi Arabia that is not suitable for agriculture or habitation?
7. What is the weather like in the Saudi desert?
8. Where is the Empty Quarter located?
9. What is the weather like in the Asir region?
10. When was oil discovered in Saudi Arabia?
11. How did the discovery of oil change Saudi Arabia?
12. What do you think the two words (..ll and i~ mean?

99

islocated

kingdom

gulf~

origin J,-i
countries

.J~

worker

land v6~t
habitation ~
petroleum, oil

JJ~

J...~

all~
not suitable, unfit
the Empty Quarter

until~
now

u.l..:.

.,

+~L.w. ~
~~I ~.)I

tobe 0 ~

SL.=+0 tJ I

discovery

.....i~l

Verb-Subject (Dis)agreement
As was mentioned earlier, Arabic sentences may start with the verb or the subject. In '-' ,

i, if the verb
precedes the subject, then it (the verb) remains in the singular even when the subject is in the plural.

More than five million workers work in Saudi Arabia. J:~ ~~ ~ ~ ~i ~.J,a.-J I ~ ~
If the subject-verb order is used, then the verb agrees in number with its subject:

(Where 0 ~ is translated as "they work".)


Other examples of this type of disagreement are:
The Muslims are divided into Shii"a and Sunna.
The Algerians attempted independence from France.

.~I

~I
If . I II
-:...
If'-'~~

.t.......:.~ ~
J)l.i.:.......YI 0~..>-'
t~
'- 11J J L.,.

100

Possession: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.


~

b.;.,.,-

J-i

v-A)

~.)_,.,_

~.;1

41--oi

. _ .-.b .'

'b.;U.....
_,.A

l+i.;U.....

~i

I"

r-A
~.;i

~.)JNO

::.UI
~.;U......

cla b -~

r-<--'- .......

..::.:.1
~

- I

~i

L:ai

~.)JNO

~.;i

W.;U.....

~I

Person-Subject markers: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

..

Ju

~.)

~.l

_,.A

~.)

~.l

.:.Jt..:i
I~

r-A

:- ...,

~.)

..::.:.1

l,.:a:a

~I
..:.J...i..l

I, , .':.

L:ai
~I
~

101

(Fill-in the blanks) 0~~ ~' Y


Without looking at the reading selection of this lesson, fill in the blanks in the following using the words
below.

....................... ~.J ~~I b_H~I

ill.....l.l ~

~~I.J ~.;Wij. ..... . .. . .. ........... ~I J~l ~LA~ .I ' : e U.JJ

.;-b.l.J
0--o.J

4...!. ~ ~J~I ~~I

II.J cjl

c '-:-"~1 0--o.J . ....................... ~~I..:...I.;L---11.J

. JI,.>-Lli.J ~fiJI JLA...!JI ~.J ,~)'1 ~I.J c)J.;)' I ....... . ........... ... .

t..:r...r&- ~i ~ ~J~' 0 LS...... ....................... I ' ~~~


LJ
. - II ~
. _A ~.. v" ~
...__.I " L......i
J~ :....,......-..... I. ' .
......,---- ... ..,............
.. .. ..r-,.v
..

.J

~)l..
... ..
I

'

4, .

;.

.....

.......................

' J .J~
.".. II U ' 1 '"" "
f

<1

.... .... .... ,, ... , .. ,,,

"b .)

*
,
.; ,
. ~~ r-JW I J~ ~ ~ ~l..c
"
'f "'-I
:I
II ~~
I ll'
A
_JJ. .~J.J t

.:(_. .;. U.JJ

'. '

I!'

wYl ~.J , \1\r"\ ......... ........ ..... .

102

tl'"'

,:[~ -~.)u...
0\.>~_,l.\ J~

wt....L... ~i

~~ ,.-L.

,.),_...; 4.:.,.1 ..& ~.,

.".l'J]'j.J ~'j... ~ ~~ .~_,SJI .4J.WI :wi,.:..AJI

-~ 4-=a,J ~ ~ ~ . y
. ~_, ...i.J~ J.:.-:.1.) r--4 ~..>Ai ~ .JI~

.r

-~ ~,.~ ~4-.J ~4- .


. -l,_...i ~,.1 . ~ .;L/ rJ.l o
.~WJI ill I~ ~f""'""'-:o "w_,..I.)Ui ~.)~ wl~ ~~ '

1. Who does the big black suitcase belong to?


2. What is written on it?
3. What color is the handbag?
4. Who does the passport belong to?
5. What color is the jacket? Is it a men's or a women's jacket?
6. What color is the "Parker" pen?
7. What do you think the word wI_,:..c. means in this context?
8. Translate the phrase w_,.I.)Ui ~ .;~

written ~~

Mr.~

hand

'"

clothes

'-"";!~

103

,1

1/j,

0..

~tiJ

'1-..,,

11 i

, l.

il

06

What time did Muhammad call?

~ ~~ ~ ~

l.-... ~L.... ~~

.\

What did he ask Sharif? ~ ~~ J'L..... l.-... ~~ .Y


Who is Walid? ~ .J ~ .r
Did Sharif know what "roommate" meant?

if l,j l
friend

night, evening

J.:.J

~l...o

to find ~~

r) "i

to like ~-:;.

have to, must

' .r

~roommate~ ._j~ ~~ .

104

Where was the passport?

~ _,l.-.11 jl~

What was the problem?

0 1.S ~.J . \

~ ~~ ~ ~~ . Y

What names are written in Jordanian passports? ~ lri'J J ~I _,l.-.1 I j I~ vA t.;..,:.S... <r"L-1 ~1 .T
Is there an elevator in the hotel? ~ J~ I vA ~ ~ .f

i~oWS'
policeman

~~

grandfather ~

key

c.L.:o.L
,,

straight t..!~J

\.

problem~

tothink

fo

to understand ~
elevator~

105

~I
-II~
- --11
- ..> .)~

J,..otSJI

i~l ,I.!Jfi~ ~.;! ,J-~1 (~WI) Jl~

4 ..'"".!\.>-11 0..UI

~)ll , t:u,....t~l ,~J~I ~ ~~~

..::..li.UI

(/.r') 4 ..'.,..',.II ,(/.\ V) (')l....,l I


U....JI
-

.)

~ 0J}ii..J ~.;_,_.......J

Jl

"
,
.t:. II~ 4-S~..J J,.,_.!.JI

.;,S lJ I

/.V \

~'il

u-' 01~1

. ..JI

UA..AJI
'1

~oJ,,JI~

~ Jl~l ~

~~~ ~ <:F'""/Wij<:r-'~1 ~~..J~fi.JI..J ~J~I..J '-:-'~I

' . 0

106

:;.J 1,. 11 1.... i ..: . :;t.S.......I 1 i.J..o ;.o.. v ~ 1~ ~ 1,. 11 ~.J .;.vo <) 1~ '-:"'.,..._J 1 ~
,

.:;t.S.....JI ~i :.i.:t:.JI.J .~I.J :.i.:'" ~I

..

:;~I.JJ.SJI.J :;L....S..r-=JI.J .JI~I Jl~l ~~~I~ ~~'/I


. .l~l

JL-!. ~ ~~~h"'/1
......

b.l.A ~j ~.J .&...;"'ii.J :;~.;,_.!.~I.J

<\1

(>A/.'\'. <)I~ ) ~~~~I ,r.t-SI .JI~.I.J


..

.. ..

&;o

''
<\1
.:;.J .I,, :;l.S~I.J
ell~. I
~

\.t

~~LA ..U.J . i~ :.i .:, .:"' ~4J.ll ~J~ I.J :;~.;,_.!.YI.J :;~l.liS.JI.J, :;LS.......JI

.~~~ :;)JI (>A ~l!JI,


.,.

j ,o ',IJ
,

u--i ~..)-Oj.J ~.JJ.Jj

I. What borders Iraq to the south?


2. What percentage of the Iraqis are Muslim?
3. What is the biggest non-Arab minority in Iraq? What is its ratio to the total population?
4. What is the religion of the Chaldeans?
5. When did some of the Christian minorities emigrate from Iraq?
6. What is the percentage of Arabs to the total population in Iraq?
7. Where is the rich agricultural land located?

8. What is the weather like in the northern areas of Iraq?

'.'

~~ ,..+a-o

107

between~

Chaldeans

location

0 ~1~

Annenians

to be divided ~~I

V:.)

Assyrians

u.H J_,...!.i

..

to emigrate ~LA
century

e;..

(see note in the .l.CI_,.:; section below) ~

u:;:.

half ~=~
agricultural ~I J)

fertile~

..:..I~ I

river ;;:.

~.l

lands ~1)

moderate J~

it differs varies . i (,; -.

middle~~

another, other (feminine of ~i) (S~j

the Euphrates

the Tigris River

'

When the particle .Ai precedes a verb in the perfect, it simply affirms that the action has taken place; it does
not translate into anything in English.

- ~~~ u~l

o-o ~WI.

t.a.!l ~ ~.roi_, ~J.;Ji ~I~~ .>=!-LA


Many of them ~migrated to EuroP'e and Arnerici in th~ second half of the twentieth century.

'. v

..u_,

108

~'""' i..>'J-'
~0'.}~
.,,~ ..>~

\ \\ \ IVIV

o\1:...

.)~ f!.,.Jti

'H \\"V~)~'_,.i.)

~fi=J I ~~ ~ ~ r~~ ~'J'

~fi..:i-4-_,aJ I i.>'J~ o\1:...

\ \ rv1 I" A i.>'J~ f!.,.Jc

-~.J~~.J
. ~'
.,1~-'!.J~I ~ 1 L\i~' o\1:...
~\V"\J~

.... -'
~ ~-"

~ ~''-".?

\.A

109

~ ~L...~_,.J'.,.......,
~~-4-~ I i.>~_,l\ .:JISt.

'\rv

i.>~_,l\ ~.Jc

,_... \Y.

...

J_,k)\

.....-" ,.,_,

~~''-".?

~i ~.;,)_;

,)~_,~,

~'
..,Sj

i.>'i_,)\ .;,)\St. i.>'i_,l\ ~.Jc


.JI.l.L

\\"\j\j\A

.,.......'i,
.. , ,

..

<.!~

,
~
,

.,Sj

.JI.l.L

\\"\"\joj\V

.JI.l.L

\\"\Y

l..:a~

~i

.JI.J.L

\\"\\

~.)

a.

.JI.J.L

\\Y"

ULA

a.

~I

1. Where was the passport issued?


2. When was Saddam born?
3. What does Saddam do?
4. What color are his eyes?
5. When was Sajida Talfa born?
6. Where was she born?
7. How many children do Saddam and Sajida have?
8. When were Uday and Raghad born?

centimeter

J i . . . .

=r--

residence

Lu!

sex~

110

Possession: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

~~

~t...o

~IS:.~. o

c:. ~

<I iiS:.~.

~~
~L..o

~~

. ,als.~.

::.UI

~~

~~

41al~.~
,

~~

~~

y.

..:.a.:a I

_,:ul

~L..o

l.,jj

~L..o

U:..l
,

Object Pronouns: Translate the following short sentences into Arabic. In case you've forgotten, the three
verbs used in the exercise are listed below.

I. She found him.

2. I understood them.
3. I lost you, m.s.
4. He lost you, f.s.
5. They found you, pl.

6. They understood me.


7. We understood her.
8. You, m.s., found us.

helost ~

he understood

"

f+'

hefound

~.J

Ill

(Roots and Families)

0~~_, .)~ t ~ t,i\

Rewrite the following words grouping them into related families. A family is a group of words that derive
from the same root. As was mentioned earlier. the great majority of Arabic roots consist of three consonants;
a small minority consists of four. All the roots in this exercise consist of three consonants, with the exception
of one four-consonant root. Identify the root of each family and give its general meaning in English. Follow
the example:
~

to live, reside

~~4 '(.)"JJ ~~ '~J I~ ~~L.b H~~~ <~..)-4 '(.)"~ '(.)"JJ


,L...,J.l-4

~ ~~~

, ~;l , 4 , '!II.~~ 'V"J~ "'~J)'I .~Lb ,L...,~ .~1 ~::!-U t~i


~) ~

4..4-J ~ 4

.;:asi

: ,o ;II ~-:1-dJjJI ~IJ)'I_, .~ l.rAJI ..>-+=a~~ ~JIJ, ,all ~WI~


.~y!J I J~l ~~I J.,bl.:J.I_, .~1,;-i.JIJ

'"

lt2

What time did he walk to the university? Y4......4-iJ ~ ~L... c.F1 . \


Where did he meet Muhammad and Walid? YJ.:_J_,_, ~~I~" . Y
What did they drink? Y~~~ ~~

.r

How did they go to Walid's apartment? ~ J.:_J_, U.!J I_,.IJ ~. t

How many bedrooms did Walid's apartment have? How many bathrooms?

rl.... rS YJ.:_J_, U.!. v.A (",:. U~ rS .o

Was the apartment far or close to the university? Y4......4JI '->-" ~,>l J1 ~ UAJI '
What was the monthly rent? Y~I ~ U.!JI ~1 rS .v
Did Sharif decide to live with Walid? 'i'i _,1 J.:_J_, t"" ~ J~ ~.,...!. . A

..

i~oWS'

cJA4 ..J.l;.

toride ~J

cheap, inexpensive ~~

clean~

bus stop

plus, in addition to .La I j

rent i~i

todecide J~

electricity 4~

113

~~.> ;,.,~,.:;..- ~J_,

~~
... ,.

v-

t:_... t..:-

J,..,,

_,----l
--"- -r--

. '

---~ ..,.._,:ai F

<ii . '

'i(')L.....JIF~~~~"
'i ~.,:;.:. .,:....

'iJ~I

_,i

rS 'i ~ ('Y--J I F

.r

~~~(')L.....JIF . t

1. Which restaurant is closer?


2. How is the food at As-Salam Restaurant?
3. How far is As-Salam Restaurant?
4. Is As-Salam Restaurant on the right or on the left?

closer ._.,;..;
to reach J-~-J-~

which? ~ ~i
cleaner

~i

excellent

:,t..:....:.

114

~J_,.....JI ~,.>A-11 ~J~I

J,...LSJ I r--~ I

6~ ,~jYJ I ~ ,~ (4 . ol..a..J 1) ~--.l

:i:w:\,JI u..U.I

~.IJ~I.~~~.~J~I.~.l~I . ~.;JI.~,.>A-11

~Li.UI

V'.) 4:, : .. 'I(/.' ) r)L..,~I


~J,.....Jia~l

'/.AA

. Jfi.:U I

~ -dl ~

f."\ .

Jl-....!..ll &-o.J

JI~I J~l &--LA~ . ~i ~~ ~ ~~ U.J.l ~J..,.......

. .b......_,;J.I ~~I ~I.J ul.:...:J__, ~1..>-'""1 ~_,i..JI &-o.J u.lJ~I ~~I &-o.J ~~~

~ ~ }i I.!IUA__, . ~.,.s.J' u.u1 u,J .k;: u-' ...... ~~ ~J.,....., utS....... ~i


&--J~I.J .llfi\'1 ~!h~l ~lA &-o.J .:i .t,,'. ~ ~.:A}ii,., ~~

\H

115

t\:J.\.) iJ\A\
,:i~l .''?'II Hb .II_, , ~L.....JI 4 ib .t I~ '~J_,.... ~ :i~;L.:a..o <J-b~ ~) ~W...
. ~_,1~1 Hb .t 1_, ,:(:ciJ..>JI J~l :iib-, o_,

""

"'

4-=a~l .J_,J.:JI ~~ Jt-...!...11 ~ ~.r=JI .J_,.J..:JI&-o ~L...JI 4 ib ',II~


~

4J.J ~\_, 10l:t.....!J I~~~ ~4J.J \ . _,A :i i b .II o.l.A ~ iJI..rJI 4J.J .b........_,_:i....o_,
"" "

. ~I~ ..,.b.ll 10l.o

,
0-o IJ i

o,:l o V~. ~~~

4-tk J~_, ..

,
i,: .oil~~~

-..

UJ,.,~,

'-:-'~1 u-11 JL......!..1 I i>-o ~-' ~L....J I :i i b ,II J~ :i ~' ."?'II

. 10l..:i..!J I J~ ~ 4 i b .II o.l.A

b ,II ~
~

uk ~I J~_, .LA;:i
., ,

""

:i i

""

o:U._, . ~IJj.JI J_,.......JI :i ib . o u-l ti..JI_,JI ~.UI ~ ~J_,.... ~lS...... ~j ~

*-' ~l,.,_a.JI ..>+=a 0-o ~ "Lo ~-' '~J,_.... ~ :i~ .,.:\)1 ~IJ..>JI

:i

ib

,If~

4J.Jr'( <)1~ :.i eb.tl o.l.A ~ i,: .oil~ iJI..rJ14J.J~~ ~-' . ~WI

~J.J H <)1~ ~'l..:i..!JI ~-' ~~

..

~~(d:J.\

.J_,J.:JI ~I '-:-':,.iJI ~ ~IJjJI J,.._....JI :i ib .


.t..ciJ.>!J WL- ~ ~) ~i,., ' '":-'~I
~

~~ 4J.J f'\ u-11 ~_,IJ ,. .oil

:i

0-o ~_,IJ, .oil 4 i b .t I~

u-i
- ~.JJ\'1 .J_,~I_,

J..,_.!JI ~ :.i~ ef,.,..._JI

ib ,II~ . i,: .oil~ iJI.r=JI 4J.J ~

.u_,

. (~4-=a..J+i ~J,J \\O ~l,p)

\\ O

116

I. What borders Syria from the west?


2. What are some of the non-Arab minorities in Syria?
3. How many climatic areas does Syria consist ofl What are they?
4. What is the average temperature in the coastal area in the winter?
S. When does snow fall in the mountainous region?
6. Where do most Syrians live?
7. Where is the desert region located?
8. How high does the temperature go up in the summer in this region?

to speak ~-~=~-,Js:o

this, these (feminine) lA

toextend ~~~

plam (J..H- ,d J.-

temperature (degree of heat) i.JI~I 4~~

borders J,J~

L..=.

L..

to fall J~-J~

to live v---:~
< - < - - -~..>"l

also 1.) L..S::i....ut


-

the Orontes River ~WI .,..:.

located ~ 1_,

water
,

celsius~

to amount to, reach

may reach (see note in the~~_,... section below) ~ ~

~-t4

land, soil ~~i

When the particle ..1.-l is followed by a verb in the imperfect (present/future, see L. 21 ), it is translated into
English "may" or "might".
The temperature may reach 46 degrees Celsius.

~''

~4S~ J~l v-a.J ,JI.,>-A-11 J~l v-a LA~ .~i ~~ ~ ~..,..c U_,J 4J,_...,
- ~~~ ~'JI ~I_, ~~.J ~1.>-'-"1 ~_,i.JI

"'

v-a.J

~~JJ'JI ~~~

v-a.J

..\._1\. .y

117

(~J_, cJ"~! u~>"';_, J.,t.s:~_, '~ ..::..u~ ~)

(...l_,~ ~~) ~' u~' ~.,..J.. " .


HAo. <!1.,~~ , I.S~!

,,V- roV- L \\ u_,.;..L;;

"'-~~'

.)~,>)

ro

l:.....iJf

0.

l:.....iJ I

.)~.>)

tJ -

0.

'

o.
o.

.J-!-'

J.A)U
~ t""'

u .J-!-'
.-

'

t:"'

J.A~

r;_4-J~4S

0.

~ t:"' J.A)U

(u...L...._, ~_, ~ t;.a) J.A~

r;.~~~

Lo.,_,w.
~_, ~ t""' ~ .-1
(~ ~)

0
0

0.

ol!.,..,x-Jl
.)~,>)

.)~,>)

4.F" '~~
r;_4-Ju...L....

0.

r
r

vo
vo

~.-~
tJ..L...

u...L...,

r~~,......' tA..
- -->-"'.) -.
~

0
0

ro
ro
o.
o.

~_,..:.

'-E"y_.
UU.....IUJ.....
~_,.,UJ.....

0~\
.)~.>)

'
"
'
"

.)~~

0.

~.,.c

0.

.,.,..:.

o.

J_,..-....

0.

~LJ..:i

'
"
"
'
"
\\V

~
._,~

0.

0.
0.
0 .

-. _, .
~
)l.i....

~' ~4~
t:. ~ F_,..!J4

J_,.-..

~'~4~Uo..i

118
1. What is the address of the Sarkissian Restaurant?
2. What credit cards does the Restaurant accept?
3. How much are the following dishes at the Res.taurant?
a falafil
b. falafel with hummus
c. baba ghannouj
d shawinna (gyro)
f. chicken kebab
e. tabbouleh

4. How much are the following sandwiches?


a beef
b. salami
d. chicken salad
c. tuna salad
e. egg salad
f. Russian salad
g. cheese
5. How much are the following desserts?
a. large baklawa
c.ma'moul
e.qatayif

b. nammoura
d. ma 'moul with chocolate

sandwiches ..:..~_,..LL.w

dishes

J4J.i

salad u.L...

sweets ..:..4,!a

Possession: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.


4i

.~.

~4-

u-A)

Hb

.,...

U.....'-=!le ~.;

.~.

~..)I

. (;,

r-A
;~.;.1

.b.

d.:..L.o4-

~I

L. .
r--
<~ ~

_,;.;.I
L:.i

~I

I ;, .b.

\\A

119

'-...

W.....\

i~~o\.JJ"
there .!II.{.
r
me~~_.
,
anothe 0
~

\\\

..ro

cousin (f:ather's side)

~
, I
I~

expen.
SIVC

._,JU

120

~ .JS..W~~
. .. ~~ ......\OU . r:~ ... ~~~..,- -~ar-

~
'i( at tirs9 J~'il ~":",_,..!.~I.\
'i~4-"',_J tA

) ..-.. ~ .Y

'iul"' (askfor, ordet) ~~I

.T'

'iui"'JSI ~ -c.r-'~1 .t

..

i~~oWS'
found, available

"'.Y'!'-;...

thing, something -~

:,J

vegetables Jl.....&.i..

rice
fava beans

J.,..

baked, grilled

~~

togive ~-~1

name of a dish ~

something sweet ,.h ~

otbertban ~

121

~L.:a...J..J
- II
I ~.J~

,,

~..)~~~,I~ ,~1.;-b (~W 1) ..:::,_,~

<i_, ... _,\)1 ~..UI

~.;"'il . ~,>AJI ~~~~~ ~~~~

..:::,li.UI

(IfA) 4i.:.,.: ,. II ,(/\ .,-) (')l.....~ I

. ..UI
1...>-!

~~~~~~

'

_,

;1.\ t

.;.,Sl.ll

;1.\.

..!..w'J I

~I

~oJ,,!I~

""'

~.;,_...., JL...o.....!.JI_, J~I4J-4 ~~ ~ . ~i ~~ ~ ~~ U_,J ~~

. .b...u.~l ~"'il ~I ~_,.i.J14J-A_, ,~1.,.,.......1 ~~14J-4_,

J.:.-o ..J'Ji ~) ~~~ ~L......o ~~L.....ll ~ ~~~ J_,..UI ~j ~ ~~

... ..
., ,
. ..b..i...t ~ ..>-"

122

.~~~~~'&..ar-J'~i 4 ... .o~'"'~o~o~J~ ~~


. 0 L.:a~t_, ~~~\'t_, J'~'" &..-}Jt_, ~.: .: b ,.I 11 ~~' &..- ..:..~i ~~ VSJ_,
4

~h\'1 LA~_, (0lS.....JI V..0 {.\. '='.JI~) 4 :.. 2 L ,.It II 4 ~h\'1

!./' ..::,1 ~j ;'JI ~i_,


.(/.o ~~~) 4~ .J\'1

~ ~j

t?'-' . 0~1

J~ V..O /.Y'A~I~ 0 l...:...;J ~ ~~, 2 .,11 ~ F


.{.\'\' ~~~ ~ .1,.11 ~ ~_, - ~~~ r-JWI ~

.-

...~~ ~ ~.) t,-ifJJ i,:-oJI

iu
..:. II ': LWI ~
' _. --~I .)~
~ ' _. . L I I . ': <'j J ..
- ..>-- ~
~ ..>- .,.,......
~
,
c;1~ t......oWI..:.._,~ ~~I ..L... J_,_;;a JJ..L.A F.J .~ ~ 4.: 'i,.,_.!JI ~WI
I~

(J*-

J~
. . "' "

J~ I

(..)-A

.t:a.-.11

~ (~,' Y'\) I~'".

~ ~ J.Hi _y._, {.H~) ~WI 0 _,.:.~ ~ ~ i.JI~I 4.JJ ~_,.:....F.


'\'A~~~ (w .. b ,. ci) ~i ~ ~" (~4-:a..>+-i oA) ~~ 4.JJ H c;1~ .~I
(~4-=a..,.... A'\')~_,:..... 4.JJ

1. What borders Lebanon on the west?


2. What is the total area of Lebanon?
3. How many geographical regions does Lebanon consist ofl What are they?
4. What is the weather like in Lebanon in general?
5. Where does most of the rain fall in Lebanon?
6. What is the average temperature in Beirut in January?

123

~~oWS'
wL:.~ I

only ~- +b i'

the highest ~i

after it, her t...~

tt.yl

narrow~

the Greeks

the Biqaa' (Valley)

1 -

wann

U:iiJ

average

J;:..

humid~~
rainfall

-~I J.J.J.=a

Subject/Person Markers on the Imperfect Verb


Different persons are expressed in the imperfect verb by attaching a prefix or, in some cases, both a prefix
and a suffix to the verb:
he writes, is writing

yi-ktub

-....

(,~)

-...:.

she writes, is writing

ti-ktub

they write, are writing

yi-ktub-u

(~)

I~

1.,-S!

you, m.s. write, are writing

ti-ktub

,-

-....

(~)
(::..:.1)

you, f.s. write, are writing

ti-ktub-i

cs-...:>

(~I)

you, pl. write, are writing

ti-ktub-u

I~

1.,-...:.

(~1)

I write, am writing

'a-ktub

~j

-i

(L:.i)

we write, are writing

ni-ktub

-w

(~1)

.-

Note that the conjugations for~ and ::....1 are identical.


The prefix b- is attached to the imperfect verb in Levantine Arabic when such a verb is not preceded by
another verb:
He studies, is studying.

IJ"J~

.J-11

He likes to study at night. .~I ~ IJ"J~ ~ .J-11

Note also that in place of the English infinitive Arabic uses fully conjugated verb forms (without'":-'):
He likes to travel. (He likes he travels.) . ..,.a~.....:!~
She likes to eat in the restaurant. (She likes she eats...)

FI ~ JSb ~

We want to visit Egypt. (We want we visit ...) . ~

J.J~ L:.~

124
Hollow and Lame Verbs
The same affixes are attached to the imperfect verb conjugation regardless of verb type. However, in hollow
and lame verbs, it is not always clear what vowel is used in the imperfect conjugation in place of the I or I.S of
the perfect conjugation. At this point, try to remember for each verb what the vowel of the imprfect conjugation
is. Statistically, however, .J seems to be more common than l.j which is more common than I. In fact, the
only two verbs that you witt see in this book that have I in their imperfect conjugation are r~-rL:a ''to steep"
and ..J~-..Jl.A. "to be afraid".
The verbs J~-JU ''to say", r~-rL.:. ''to sleep", and~~ "to tell, narrate" are used in the
following table to show how hollow and lame verbs are conjugated in the imperfect:

..

~
~

r~

J~

(~)

rL:u

(~)

~~

,... -

J~

t u.,

t_,J ~
-

~
~

J~

~~

(~')

I~

rL:u
1."L:u
I,_.L:u

(~)
(::..:.1)

I_,J~

(,.:UI)

~i

rt.:at

J,.at

(L:at)

rt..:.:.

J.,&:a

(t:...:..l)

Note that in tame verbs, the she, you, m.s., and you, fs. conjugations are identical.

The imperfect of~i


The verb 41 "he came" is probably the least regular of Arabic verbs. It has only one stable element, the
consonant~ Exceptional behavior of high-frequency linguistic elements is a familiar phenomenon in all

languages. Think of English come-came-come, go-went-gone, among others. The following table shows the
conjugation of this verb in the perfect and the imperfect.
Imperfect
Perfect
yiiji

~i

(~)

'aja

~
yiiju '~
tiiji
~
tiiji ~

'ajat

(~)

'aju

(~)
(::..:.1)

tiiji

jiit

(~')

jiiti

tiiju

I~-

jiitu

aaji

~j

jiit

niiji

jiina

(,:..:.1)
(L:.t)
(t:...:..!)

Pronouns Attached to Prepositions


The pronoun suffixes that are used to indicate possession on nouns, wanting with ~. and having with ~
and t-- can also be attached to other prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs to express the equivalent of
English constructions consisting of a preposition and an object pronoun such as on it, in them, to you, etc.,
or a conjunction and a subject pronoun such as but he, because they, that we, etc. Examples used in this book
are the following. (A more complete Hst is found in the Grammar appendix.)

125

in it, him

in it, her

on it, him

on them

from it, her

l+a-o

between, among them

~
~

but be
because I

..'i
I.E'

The Comparative and Superlative


The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives have the same structure: ~i ('at"' at) of the corresponding
adjective:
"big-bigger, biggest"
_;.si-~

.l~i-.l).~

"cold-colder, coldest"

The comparative is generally followed by the preposition &--=

"Syria is bigger than Jordan in area." . ~L-.14 I.J.lJ'i I V..

,r.oSi 4 J,....

The superlative is directly by the noun compared:


The largest minority is the Palestian minority. . (:\:b . .li 'I

(h'i I vA .::.(.1-e'il ~i

Most rain falls in the winter months. . ~~I J.,._.!. ~ ~I ~i J~


Lebanon is one of the smallest Arab countries in area. . ~L-.1 I ~ ~,.>A-1 I J_,.l-11

_,a,..i V;- ul.:a..:J

.~~~ ~~~ &-- r-A~i .:li ... 0~ r,' uk 0l.:a..:J 0l.L .l~ ~~
. <Jw~J_, 1.!11~'/1_, Jl,.,s'J 1_, ,j-A.;'/1_, ~: : b ... li II ~~I

\Yo

,j.A ..:JI} ;j I.!IUA

~-'

126

Person-Subject markers on the imperfect: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

l::i.i
,

..

l::i.L:

.....;~

-....,

.....;~

--.....,
.
~-~

r..., .s: ... ~

I,..~

.<.,;

I_,l::i.~

1.., .~.- -

.' -

:~-..;.1

~....,

:...:::....:a I

1_,--~

'I

:_,..:ul

-I

.....;~,

~I

:r-A

-....,

'.J

..

1_,--~

..

l::i.l..:i

:_,.A

:L.:ai

-...., :L:a.:..l,

Without looking at the reading selection of this lesson, fill in the blanks in the following using the words

below.

~L......J.I,dl.:..A ''-:"~.~.~'II 0 t.S...... .JL......!J.I_,

..................

<II

J~l ~ !,)~ ~ .~i

................

~ ~J-C

a.J_,J

!,)~

. .b.....,_,:J.I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ I ~,>iJ I ~ _, , J.:..:a I>""" I ~~I ~ _, , 4

.J,.....

....i'Ji ~) ~~~ ~L........o ~ ........... ..... ~ 4~!~1 J_,.UI ,ri--i &;o !,)~
... "

<II

.Ja....ij ~..)A ~

~_,_..a.JI

&-o

f-6~i

,:c ,. !,)~

r ,,

~ !,)~ ...... ...... ... J~ ~~

Jl~l_, &-o}il_, ~: .: b ,.I; II ~,.,._.-JI &-o ~~j ........ .. . .....

VSJ_, ~~~I

. !,)l.:a~ I_, ~I~\' I_,


I ...-,
c.r-

~_, '!,)~

, v-o
.,.'"'A
I I
, 1."II ~ u'-'-:'-1

J~

...
:. I I-:
U!:
, :. .. II
. ... ............. c-:-

c.r-~1 t-~WI c.,?~

\'\'\

127

(Uncle Bou-Mas'oud (Composed by Elias Rahban~ >_,.._.. Y. ~ :i.: ~

c:\

J.,......... ~ ~

Uncle Bou-Mas'oud

J~.J

His eyes are big and black

J4S 4...:.~

He eats, never gets full

L..

~~~

Uncle Bou-Mas'oud

J.,......... ~ ~

What did you have for breakfast

('~I ..:;_;j~_;:. _,....!.

Uncle Bou-Mas'oud?

J.,......... ~ ~ 4

Ha. ha, ha

... LA .LA .LA

I had for breakfast fifty eggs

~ ~ ..:;_;j.J_;:.

And I drank a barrel of milk

~ J:...~ ~~.J

And 16 bowls of jam


And I am still hungry.

~..>-" c::,..-.-

".J

. c:,L~ ,_r.~.J

...

J.,.........~~

What are you going to have for lunch


Uncle Bou-Mas'oud

~J.,.........~~4

Ha. ha, ha

... LA .LA .LA

I am going to eat ten sheep


And I want to drink a river of water

~JI_,..;.. ~

:;. *

JSi c::.'J

'-:'~' f.!~.J

And eat a hundred lemons (oranges)

~~ ~JSi.J

And I am stHI going to be hungry.

.c:,l~ ~i c::.'.).J

\~Y

128

~ J.:-l.J ~L.. ~ ~.J . \


~~~ v-- ~~....A.:!_,..!.~~ . y

~ ~~ (they started the trip) Ua..,J I 1_,~ ~L....I./1 ~ .T'


~~~ 1_,1-_, ~I .

~~~~~I~ ~.J ....A.:!_,..!.~ .o

~~-~J

to visit .J.J>: Jlj

same~

to ride ~~-~J

to buy <!~<S>W-1

trip U:.J
,

toretum

quickly

\'\'A

~~

129

~V" .WI ~ ~_, . \

~ ~~~ ~ l.i.~rS "


~V" .WI ~

..,;l ~I~ .r
~ ~~~ .

~ r~ I ~ ...,? JS~ (decided) J~ ~ . o

i~~o\..J.r
especiatly L..~
like~

better, the best

v:,_i

tastier, the tastiest ~i


as you wish

~ ~

130

~4JI~J}JI~I

J...lS..l I r---1 I

~I~~~~ J-ul '"uJj..JI (~WI) ~~

4 .: ... / ~ I ~ .U I

~~I

UUI

..1.1 I

(/.') 4 .."".:,..I I .(;!.\ t) \~1 I

I
J l:u..1.1
..

;/.\ t

JfilJ 1

tl...A..JI

.!.jlf

;/.At

~J,...._......JI_,

Jl_;..ajl

~ ~~}il ~ .4-i ~.,ri ~ bj,! i

~JJ. ,..II_, ~,r-AJI

'=""

~~ ~JJ ~J}il

b,..Ji,_, ~.1..>-""1_, ,JI .~.II'="" ~J,_...._,

J~I ~

~~~ '="" ~\'1 ~1_,

~
.-

-(

~.

f..1.

1 l

tr

,...

. r
-):
.~

c
[

~1

c_

._
,__

l (.

(;.,

~: <c.. ~

<.

J [ ; .

f'7 rtl !r.

- .

't

<:

fl..
~

t:
-

(;\

<.

~J \

<.

.t f'

f.~; ~ 1- :E 'P1: ~~

-t \ .

.t' \ . \~ tA- .t1. .


~ . 1. '1:.. l " c-.. t t'

- c_ l

it~ fI~

-~

' Lo

1.~ ~ ~ ~ E
t'{ .(: \.IL .
\ . ~ :t t f. .(

~lf' [~l

l
-

~ C:
> J..
t'L ~ ,

f; 1'
.r :t- r
~ t E

t.ft.

F. ~.f.l

~i-f::{.\

f.

1:

'\.
~ l-

f
l .-;

.t

' 'f

l 1''
_ <.t.,
t..

'\.
~r
<.

t lt

l'L

~t

t'""' ~.

,...

~~ [.'
.t ~
~

~:

(;.,

.t '

-t
''L..
\.t t~~

'L-

~ t\~
t :1'' 1:

i t

t. \

r. ~

fl",

t .: E

t. \

~,

-~..

J' -

\."tlE
l 1 ~ ~
T.
f
.tf

'E; <t

.t'
.c. ':<'-:.
~ \ .[
<.

""' , 1'

.t '. <:

t.

<.

<.

t.,

ff

~
t.

.~

~l

(:

<.

,. .

' (.

f.J. ~

1:~

'L

'(;

..

l:

[7,

t'\.-

<.

.c,

E
<:

f t'

c;_

r1-fJ
~r

:1'
'f

f 'L_

~: ~

-r-1"

1"

...

1"

<.

.t

t.

132

1. What borders Jordan from the north and the west?

2. What is the population of Jordan?


3. What percentage of Jordan is desert?
4. How is the weather like in the desert region?

S. Where is the mountainous region located?


6. Where do most Jordanians live?
7. What is the weather Jike in the mountainous region?
8. What distinguishes the Ghor (Jordan VaUey) from other regions in Jordan?
9. Where is the Dead Sea located?

a lot, greatly I~

the Jordan Valley _,_,a.J I

night~

daytime _,~
,

some~

elevation t

u:a_,1

above

J";l

sea level ~I~


forexarnple ~

that, which

the Dead Sea .:...:J.I ~I

low

under~

depression, being low

t<i.:J I

.......
,
~

uA~I

Sound and Broken Plurals


Plurals are of two main types in Arabic: sound and broken.
Sound plurals
Sound plurals are of two types, too: masculine and feminine. Masculine sound plurals are formed from nouns
of masculine gender by adding the suffix ~ (iin) to the noun.

teacher-teachers

Christian-Christians

U!.!"'.!'et~

Muslim-Muslims

~-~

Feminine sound plurals are formed from nouns offeminine gender, generally ending in U.~~l ~L.....:..JI by
adding the suffix .::..I aatto the noun and dropping

t..L.~~I

.. L:J 1:

teacher-teachers

.::..L.1--~

student-students

.::..4JLJ.-.4JU.

page-pages

.::..~

133
Some nouns that have a feminine sound p lural do not have U..~_,J.I ~L.:...JI, as in .>U...... "airport", which is

pluralized as ..:..I .>U.......

Broken plurals
These plurals are fonned by changing the vowels of the word; the consonants are usually not affected. Think
of the English words WXJSe-geese, foot-feet, woman-women. The use of the tenns sound and broken to refer
to plurals might be misleading, since it might suggest that sound plurals invlove the majority of nouns. This is
not the case, however. B roken plurals are at least as common as sound plurals and involve the most common
types of nouns.
Broken plurals follow patterns, some of which are more widespread than others. Some of the more common
types are represented by the following words:

r:cU......-~

restaurant/restaurants

office/offices

~lS...o-~

kitchen/kitchens

. 1 U......-~
C!'
,

house/houses

..::..~-~

month/months

shop/shops

vULS.J-oLS.J

week/weeks

~L...i-t~i

book/books

~-'-:"'L:oS

boy/boys

.J"i _,i-.J~

city/cities

, -.
0 .J.A-~..1-A

door/doors

'"="'~i-'-:-'4

.)~~

,,

'

Person-Subject markers in the imperfect: Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

'-"" J..l

.) l j
.).J~

V" .)~

..

~_,.:;

~_,.:;

I _,.......-..
.. -

1~_,.:;

'-"" .).Ji

..

!.J-A

-~

I.J J .J..>-!

~ .)

-~

:...,-A

I.J-~

:r-A

..

---,....,

::::....:.1

':!'~

:..:.a.:.
I
,

I .J-~ :_,.:..:. I

-i :L:.i

J.Jji

~~

-~

: ~1

134

#"j.t' "
~

4JJ ~~ ,L......oWI,~L-...c ~~ .. i_.b 14 _.r:'?'ll


"'

til

"

"'

;c

ib '.II ~~I

~ i)~l 4JJ L~_, .~_,.:a.... ..::..4-JJ A~~~ ~WI ~~LS ~ ~ iJI~I


~~ 4 J J '1'0 ~~~ j;..:.. ~

.L,f'- .r
~\t)\

4.>;~, oo...J.\

..r--1' i_J.\.>~\~ i..,\j,


;..,~ i~

w..., ~ J.,...U ~
iJL-...~ Ull~ ~~'
~ u~ '-:-'.,.:;-~,.>A.JiiJWI-.a..ul ao~

.a..:aJ! ti.>~-"' ~

\W'\' f\f\o ti.>~_;l &.Jti

J_,......i ~ o.Y

.,s.s

~A'

I. When was Abdalla born?


2. What color eyes does he have?
3. How much does he weigh?
4. When was the application submitted?

i~~ow.r
male ~:,

.-

grocery store u~

eyes~

hair~

0~~

height J_,.J.

weight

\Y'f

135

~'

--

...

~~_,s ~.)! ...... ~ ....i..:!~ utS ~ '


c;~

t)_,..!..JI <r"L....I ....i~

ui.S. 'I'

'i~J!~....i..:!~~~.J 'I"

'i~l ~ <)JI 0 tS~I r -1~I . f

'i(which you are looking for)~~ <)JI ~I (to find) .l.:!-_,;; ~ ~..>-"j ~ (".J'i ~l.o

i~~oWS'
because I ;:.'J
name (<rL...i ~) l""""'l
,

shop ( ~lSJ . ~)

"',,

l.)lSJ

main ~J
bakery

before

J.:..:i =L.. J.:..:i

a long time ~_,..L. -.:;.,.


address (~.J~

I.)I,.:..C

neighborhood, quarter (of a city) JL:..


until

one, anyone, someone ~J,.,=i~

136

----

~~~~~-'
~~ c.JI.l~.J .'\'
~r~' c.,~~..;.... c.JI.lu4J

.r

~~~.)_,A ~1 . !

letter UL.......;
thank God for your safe arrival Lo)l.....ll

ill

~I

mayGodkeepyousafe(answerto L~l ~ill~~ ~ illl


fine

busy

J_,a...!...

therefore

u,j!

137

-~..>-'
'I

~~J~

J..olS..II ~~ I

' . i~l '~J~~I .(t........aWI) iJ-AWI


~J~ .~1 I~

4 -"".!\>.JI w..UI

~~I

U.UI

(/.') 4.:.,.: ..'1 .(!.\.)

r~~~

<:?~1~1

J.ll

u.-JI

, '
U! .!.-,II~

~ "'7.,>eiJ I iJ-o LA~ . ~.rJ! J~ JL.-.!. ~ ~~I ~ ~J~ ~


JL.....!J 1 &-o.J U! b ... r .J ~ 1>-""'!.J ~'i 1 ~ 1 J~ 1&-o.J 0 1-'_,..._J 1 '-7~1 ~J
. .b......_,:J.I ~'il ~I

\Y'V

>

--1

t f..f ~

f ~I ~

tf' '~- .~ ~. rf
t r ~- 1\
'-. 't ~ t' ':

- ..:

t ), .r t ~
1: 1: '=- k(.,
~~\-

1~

r : ~ :i

't

..

~ ,-:;t.-r_.

~- ~

'

':\I.

1;. .

tl

t.

!e.

1..

[_ ~

[_ .t'._ .t'.. \< \ . ~r- t. t.. [ )


~ \ ~
r
(
.
,
~~ ;: - - '- . ~
'\. ~ [ t 1 ~ l
1- [: t t
t '\. - ! : ..: .(t. ;:- r. l 1" '
l ~. \- t "- ~ : ::- ~
t- [ 't
"i.: r f t. l t ~- 'l
't '\. ~ '\.. -: f l t 1". "i.. t. ~ ~:
~[ f

tl ~:'-, '\.r.'tt.' t.'~ f..E

f
~
'f ~ ~ -:;. . !..
_ t. f 1. t .r E . :t r f 1

- .t '

~ (., \ .

fI '\..
l- E
t
- ~ ll f t, ._ t"i.. '(.:
- 't ..: [~ t.~ f
l- -
c.. c..
. ~ ~

1;

_ (.,, ,

t '- .: 2 t
"i.. r "i.. ~ t r
f ~ :~ \ "i.. ~
~

1~- t. l.
l I t'~~f rf

=- . f '\. ~
t.(., ~-E '" <--:
~ .t,

.. t

~l-<..
t 1 t~ .f 'f.~.- J~ ~ f: E_t.r ~--t

-t~ t ~ -t ~ 1,. 1'

'r,,

1
<:: l: ~~ ~t. t ' 'f: l .''\.
r t ~ - [ r

c \
l:--)

i.,.. t.E.(~.E .t. -:- E

:'t J ~. rt i'

;_

r'\. ),

:g.t
- - . f
f. l-t ':I"( -~t .f

!,

f'. .-f

; f

~ r f!

't

t~
;.:-.}
'\..
~l
1 (";

. (;

"t

<:l

':

~-

}:;

1-

iii

139

Indicate whether the following statements are true (I) or false (F).
I. The Mediterranean Sea borders Egypt from the north.
2. Egypt is the largest Arab country in population.
3. Egypt is the largest Arab country in area.
4. Most of Egypt is desert.
5. Some of Egypt's land is among the most fertile in the world.
6. Egypt has two seasons only.
7. The temperature may reach zero celsius in the winter in some regions of Egypt.
8. The average annual rainfall in Egypt is 200 milimeters.
9. The population of Alexandria is a little under four million people.
10. The city of Suez is located at the Mediterranean entrance to the Suez Canal.

iJ,~oWS'

..

most fertile ~j

close to 0-.o ~)s='-:'")

zero (think of cipher and decipher) )....

season~

foranumberofyears ..::..1~ i:W

may not +'i ;:;

iW

entrance~~

the Suez Canal '-""":'_,.....J I

end~~

vs-i

Whereas~ (I lived, resided), and


(I live, reside) are verbs, the related word ~L...... is not. It is in
fact a noun, an inhabitant, although the English translation may render it as verbal: "living, residing". It is
grammatically treated like a noun or an adjective and not a verb:

pl. fern.

pl. mas.

"teacher"

..::..L.J.......

"living, inhabitant"

..::..t..:.SL....

(More on this under Noun Patterns in the Grammar appendix.)

sing. fern.

w......

sing. masc.

~L....

~L....

~L....

r1-

140

The Ordinal Numben


Ordinal numbers from 2 to I 0 are formed following the pattern ~U
(faa"it):
,

. .. ,
c.rU-~
~~-~~

~~r~)
v-L:i..-~

c.J".L..-t:a.....
~L....r-~
v--~-~w
.1-: c---~

Note that ~~ has that shape because it derives from the lame root~~-..!.. and that c.J"JL....... is not
regularly derived from

o~~J.J~
Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify tbe root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient Identify the one word that is not part of a family.

.,

uoi ; . ~,.,.:i . ~ r';

"'
"'
,
.. .b......_,i .~IJ.J .L.u.....
~,.,.:ti .b.....~.~ r-1~

~_,J ,.b.....,_, .J~ ~'J.J

- ,
.J,;.:a 'v0~~ ","o.;j J,Jj.:a ~.l.i JJ..a..A tJ~

~ L.,:.l.S..- ..1-l. ~~"' .tJ_,.l-11 t....-u ~"' .,>AUJt ~ ~ vl ~.,_. ,r.a.Si


..
,
_. JLi:j
.L .J ~~I
~.1-A . . . <'II t..a .. -1 : .Ut : ....... . :c ,. ~)l.. :c
~ ~- ,---
~
-~ .....
.....---.J
--

_ij'

...

. .J...:.._,.:a1 ~'i I ~I ~ ..1~ I JL-!.

H.

141

'.

.v
.A
.\
'

'.

'-!>,.s-

(in Fusha ~4) SlA ~~ (.;..l) ~.l-o

vA~,~ . \

ulS.......J' .l~ ~~ u_,.l ~i . "

J~ ~ . Y
ui ~.; ....

,.,.. ~

4J,_....~t.c

~ .r

.r
.E

(backwards Lfi- .prepositio~ ~ ....;>"" ~~ ~

".l)~~ . o

.E

(Lfi- , season) J,......; .'

~~ . v

~~~u.,.l .A

~L.....i~)~ . A

"J:..l" ~ '

~..>-"i &-- . \

")....~r~ '

~~L.~.\ .

U\

142

. ~ ~o~
'-V

i.u....- .i;~ .i.u..r ~

..Sf~\~' ..It~~ '+i~~'-"'-' 0~ ~


if,~\

~' ..Y'-'.-1'~

t.....4- 4......JW4 .. 1~1 td..... JS!r~ JS

,J.:o,.l_, J~J

~'
..

(.)"~

V:!J~J

~1_,4......JW4 . ~~~ t.et-JS/r~~

~L:.J 0

~I

~J!

J~J

,.,.

ia4- t:...t:...~lfr~ ~
ia4- t:...t:...~lfr~ ~
la4- ~lj.. ~~l_, ~I

J~J

,.,.

La4- ~IJ.. ~J\'1_, ~~I_, ~I

Jl~

la4- ~'" t........L::;Jij~l_, .. ~~'" ,J..:o,.\'1


L..4-~,_,~lj.. ~~l

~J

~L:.J A

~L:.J

J~J\ V

l. When is the first bus to Irbid?


2. What is the bus fare from Amman to:
Ma'an
Baghdad
3. How often does the bus go from Amman to:
Jerash
Jedda
4. What time or times does the bus depart to:
Irbid
Aqaba

!,)I.a...

J J-!-1t.:a......r

Istanbul
Damascus

Baghdad

Damascus

Ma' an

~ow.r
beginning(at)

.. 1~1

departure times i J~U.:. ~I;..


sixth (.)".L..

143

ct~_,...:. ~ 0-!' ~c.? ('.,:0 u~ rS.'


'i~'r':U~~~~.Y
'i~_,...!.~ 0-!' ~

.l.l.,rS .Y"
H.~JL:. ~ rS .t

'i JJU..:........... <.ij


'i ~ -: -: .

'

~ ~.>-'"" ~

guest (...A~

..,A .o

. It:.. . .
\
1-H
.JJ ~.J.

.c;:) ~

residential ~

behind ~I J.J

yard~~

~I

in front of ri..U

class, grade ~

trees~

that, which

wife 4.J.i

,,

private

t:.Li.

144

c:!~l !-! D~l:-1\ "U). ~~/


. C!_; ~ ljw.'=' cr J:L- ~

~ ~.,J ~ ~_,....!. -'":'i ~ u '~ ...J~ u'J .'


~ ~..,...t t>-' (mentioned) ~.i ~ . '\'
~~

C-'>:! ( in order to) ~ uIJ (to help) .u~ ~1., ~_,....!.-'":It ~ .Y'
~ej.i4- ..::..~ ~ . f

~ ~.>t ~ ~~H~t.- rS JS .o
~ ~.,t u~ '->-- vo-4J 1 l.i.~ ~t.- rS '

i~oWS'
station

U.....:.

coming

fast ~>""'

\H

145

w
.....

\M.J"
.. ..

0 1J~~~J~

J.,oLS.JI ~~I

~ wiJ_,_....J~ 0 LoJJ (';(~WI) (',.b~l

4.:, _:'.)I w..UI

J:a4-i-JI-=.,W_, ''!-'~ l.:i .~_,..:JI (~.)I U.UI) ~~I

-=.,l.iU I

.'il

~..>-A.

..UI

(/.o) 4 1 ., 1 ,.11,(/Yo) ;; .!!bll bJ~ .(I.V.) (')1.......~1

~~J~I~I

/'U

J~.l.JI

u......JI
'It

~olill~

/'iA

b-W'-' ef_,l.\
<:r-~1 ~WI~ U_,J ~i ~_, ~~! J~ J~ ~ ~~ U_,J wiJ~I

0--oJ .~~!-'~\II ~I J~l 0-.o wiJ~I ~ .~L....J.I ~~.,_a!~-'


. Ho

146

'-:-'~I &-o .J , ~_,J I ~.)..l! ~ .;~ .J .,~L!....:; '-:-'.;-iJ I &-o .J , I .! : .! I.J .J-""A-4 JL-...!..1 I

'-:-'~1 ~~ JL.....!.JI &-o 0 I..1_,......JI J_,_b .~I~..UI _,A.:a~l ~.J~.J I~.Ji.J 4


~.J~ &-o ~.J ~I,.,..._:.~ .J.:.- \ ... '-:-',;i.JI ~I J.,_.!JI &-o.J ~ \'\' ~~~
. 0 1..~_,......JI

&-o

...
...
...
~ . ..:..4U.J 4 .!1: ~ ~l..:a...o.J (..~...d.;j J,..._...,.J ~.J~~ ~L7a...o 0 1.,~_,_._JI ~
"'
"'
"'

t..a.L..:JI
'!LWI .J
- .. ~

.~1
-

,
........:.~.....A~I
IIJII
,JL.....!JI ~
. .....i~_,J 1-II -:LWI
..,...
. ~ - .)~
~ .J
~ ~

<-a u-W I . '-:-'~1 ~ ..:..4Li..J I ~.J . ~~I ~I '"="'.,r:i' J~ I ~.J '-:-'._>-i..J I ~


~~~~'' j.!.all.;~~~ ~ ~J~.Jc;al~l '-:-'~l4jb o

.(_r.a_1) J~~~ ~~ ~.J (~.r.ai)

~~~ ~ '"="'.r-JI ~F. .L.........:a ~~ rv ~ 0 1..~_,....,.JI 0 tS...... ..~~ ~.>=

.(!.Y. ~~~) O.Joo!. .. oi..I,.....JiotS...... .;isi ./0'\' ~~~ ~.!i.!,>-i~l ~.J .jY'\
<-a o.J .~. .! ~.J ,:. .! : b II ~.J~ (1.'\'o ~~~) <ii4J1.J ,;o ~~~~~,.!.,II~

F.J

. ..IY-tJ I '"="'~

1. What borders Sudan from the east?


2. What is Sudan's length from north to south?
3. Where are the agricultural plains located?
4. \yhere are the forests located?
5. Where does a lot of rain fall in Sudan? Which months?
6. What is the percentage of Arabs to the total population in Sudan?
7. What is the percentage of Muslims to the total population?

Central Africa Republic ~.,J I I .! i

.!..ri! ~ .)~

the Democratic Republic of Congo


., #

tribes

4J-1 ~.l.l I _,a.:a,s.J I ~ .)~

length J,J.

to pass (through) ..>A:..;-o


forest

remaining, rest

~u

c,?4

nature ~

J;a4l

branches, tributaries
tropical

toworshtp

t.J..ri

<iaI-'?-'
~- ~

147

The Imperadve
The imperative fonn of the verb is derived from the imperfect form following two steps:
1. drop the imperfect prefix,
2. insert a vowel if the resulting form begins with a two-consonant sequence.
See, look!

,.

..j_,..!r..j~

,.

,.

~~-~-~

Write!

The pronunciation of the inserted vowel depends on the stem vowel of the verb. The stem vowel is the vowel
between the second and third consonants of the root. If the stem vowel is: (u}, the inserted vowel is
pronounced as.: (u), and if it is ,_ (i) or .:. (a), then the inserted vowel is_
(i).
,

Write!

uktub

~I

Walk!

imslj

~!

Listen, hear!

isma'

~!

Although the two verbs ~i,"he took," and JSi ,"he ate" generally behave like sound verbs in the perfect and
imperfect conjugations, their imperative fonns do not follow the rules above, as the following table shows:

~I

_,:...:.1

..:.,..:.1

1.,.:,..;..

'!.:,..;..

.:,..;..

li.i

1,4

~j

The verb 4-i has no imperative fonn from the root itself. Its imperative counterpart is based on the stem JU.:.
in both Levan tine and ~:

J~

~I

~~

.:.a.:. I

_,:...:.1
,

I_,.I~

The Imperfect of AsslmUated Verbs In

Three-letter roots whose ftrst element is .,, such as tl.J "to be located",

J-.J "to arrive, reach", and ~.J "to


find" are called assimilated. One characteristic of verbs derived from these roots is that they lose the initial .J

in the imperfect fonn of the verb in ~ but not in Levantine. So in the reading passages, you have se(ln
and wilt see fonns like ~-~ and J.....,.a.:.-~. These words derive from :

HV

J-~tl~

,..

J-,:0 tl,:0

..,..

148

With reference to the rules ofthe imperative discussed in this lesson, fill in the empty cells in the following
table.

_,;..:a I

...:.a.:al

; ..:.I

~w

4-i
,
l:i.

l:i.i

I_,.IS

..

1~1

JSi

.. -

...

...

~I

lfol

~JI

J,:i.J

~)

e-.;

c: 1.;

I~.JJ

~.;1

~.)

JL...I,

Jl....,

'!_;....!.I

c.s_;.....!.l

..1A-i

'!..1A-il
I_,...L.:a

rt..:a

-~\

.Y

I.F-'~1 r-JWI ~ U_,J ~i ~.J ,l.:i.:,.,...l! J~ JL.o....!. ~ ~~ U_,J uiJ.,.....JI

&-o.J ~~~!.J ~'il ~I J~l &-o uiJ_,_....JI ~ .L..L.....ll ~ ~.,._;! ~.J


~.J ~ JL....!JI

UA

149

(Opposites) ~ r
Match each of the words in column\ with its opposite in Column ':' There is one extra word in the second
column.
~

.Jl+a

'

.Jfij
..

[~

.)~

~~

J.)~

..!JUI

J.::J

J_,_A

~~

~~

~..u

~4-

~_,.:i

..

_,;u

.,

150

~ L.. ,;" rut 'i~, ul:W ~


.~~~~~~.,s

~_,i~ ~ Ua._,JI ..:...la-1 t&l- ~ . \

~~~~~vlJSlL.~_,...!.~ . Y
,~_,1 .JU.... ~ ..:...JU. i.J4J..J1 ~I .T

~(at first) J~'il ~ ~I..:.JU ~l . l

~t~ .JU.... vl J~ i.J4J,.JI ~I.J ~l . o

hostess~

trip~.)

-!~

tobear ~

lunch

to land J~-J..;.:.

\o.

151

/ ,LL.J
~-

II I [_ _

'i~..>-"i.:,.... U...J..ll ..::...:.LS

. ~_,J.~.

'i~..>-"j.:,.... U..._,JI ...:..l:i.i ~l-

r-S .\

'ii}~.J...J I ~ C:,IJ c:,LS ~L- r-S .Y

H}~J...JI ~.J .:..IJU....... ~i ~ .r


'ic:,l-J LS~I.:,.... ..>4-J...JI v-U~ ~l- c:,IJ . f

to stop .....li_,

\ 0\

not bad

J U...:.. ...,......
,

152

G......:a~ IJ ~ -. -_,,
- ~ .J~

J,..o~l

,........'i'

L...~ . ~~jLII.~U...C. . (~WI)~~

:. .! ... /~I

u.UI

~~1.(~~1 UJJI) ~jLII


(/.')

~l.il.JI

'->~j u~Ji_, ~J~ I .(!.\) :.~, .!"' 11 (/.\A) ('~'i I


. - ~ 'I

U-a..U I

~~..)-

/.A!

..UI

.Jfi.l.ll

u......JI
'I

I)! olajlf

/.''\0

- 'I L\~- .~~ " . ~I ~


- .If ~
L L....,
~ ~

4>--o ~1~1, ~~I ~~I

,j-o I.! .' 2 1,

1... LL ~I
,_r- - -~

,JI

JL.-!,.'-:!
_. ~.,..,
. - ~....~
~

.~.11, J~l4>-o ~,_::J.I ~'il

.~L......ll ~ <r.'jLII ~_,.til j_,J ~ tJ_,J

,.,.a.-i ~~ . ~._,.i.JI

153

tl:J.\JY~'
. ___a

I.:!

:.aL.:-.. J L.:-. ~ L

. -: 'I

\' I ~
. - . II

..,........ ~

.. :A L ...
~~

Lh.L...J
I~
': LW I '-:!'"'~
. . :A L 'I
~
,

:t>JI~ ~I .J~I

0-o

~~~ J-bWI u-lJ .c:l..::a...!JI u-l ~LoJ J~J. i.:all

..
~
"' , ,
*
.,
""
~,.,_:; ~.r-JI ~ .J.:.UI ~ L..a~J "'~I~ ..1)-~,J . i.: .all~ 1-i4 JL..
.4.:il..e.,JJ.,)..o,J

0-o bJ

~L)..:ai ~l..:a.-6,.,

l.AJ~j b~,J ~) ~~ ','.'"'.'. "'~' ~~

o,J

ol '"

~~ ~,.,_:;

olL.. 0-o !.'\A 0-o

~j

. .J~ IJ ~,JJJ\1 I ~ ~.:.,.:,.II

~,JJ,Jj 0-o ~~ ~,J .:.il,: o~ll ~l_,_.!,,j i,:bllll. ouib .' bJ~ ~~

~,JJ,J"il c.'~' Lo~,., c.'~'~~ .J~ l.AJ,J~ dJj.J

Indicate whether the following statements are true (lJ or false (F).
1. The mediterranean borders Tunisia from the east.
2. Tunisia is the second largest of the countries of the Maghrib in area.
3. It rains a lot in the winter in the coastal areas of Tunisia.
4. The Arabs call Tunisia "Green Tunisia" because of the abundance of desert oases in it.
5. There are no Jews living in Tunisia.
6.. Most tourists who come to Tunisia are from Arab countries.
8. The nice weather in Tunisia attracts foreign tourists.

i~~ow.r
rainy

.rL-L..

green(f.) .. 1~
fertility ~,.......:..
trees J~i
tourism

~L...

dry

to call (think ofr--1)

..

:_;4,

~-,.,.....

becauseof ~

i)S
..:..Lc_,J;..

abundance
cultivated crops

shores, beaches ~~~

famous J~

+dJl.l

beautiful ~

L.....~

tounsts c::.l_,.....

for that (reason)


especially

..

Europeans ~JJ.Ji

154

Fill in the empty cells in the following table. ~L..=perfect, t.J~=imperfect.


~

ots

J~

e:--

~
0~

~IS

..:...J~

-~

~L...

t.JL.&..

t.JL.&..

.,_A

I_,.I~

r-A

t.JL.&..

..:....:.s
J_;,.:..:;

-~

..:....:.s
~.,s.::.

t.JL.&..

I_,.;:;.-.....,
I_,.:..,S.::.

I_,.I~

~~

(:.!;;

:-:..:.1

1.,.............

.:,.;.I

~L...

t.JL.&..

~I

t.JL.&..

e:--1

t.JL.A...

~L...

t..)L.&..

(Translation)

L:.l

t.:......l

1....:-.,;. Y

Translate the following into Arabic:


Libya ~ .! : .! 1) is a large Arab country in northern Africa. It is bordered from the east by Egypt and Sudan,
from the west by Algeria and Tunisia, from the south by Niger~ I) Chad (JL!.:i) and Sudan, and from
the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The capital of Libya is the city of Tripoli ~I_,J..), which is located in
the northwest of the country on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. .

155

.JLl.'-' ~\ .r

(Plural and Singular) ,)

Write down the meaning and the singular form of each of the following broken plural nouns. The first one is
given as an example.

.. ,

~~

students

ruJi

Jfij

J,.._.!.

.,)~_,i
.,)~

r~i

~~

JJ.l

DJ~~..Hi

Let's do it.
Amman, Irbid,

~J!u~
.~_,.:....... ; ':

Bag'a, Sweileh.
Everybody talk about,
Abu Yousef,

tJL!JI~~

Walking on the street,

4-~J,~J

~~_,b..::..&..!.

I saw a pretty girl jogging,


I went jogging with her,

. ~~44J.d:i
,'i~ daS ~ .:.Ju
~dla...4J~
.'J = ~ .::.Ju

I said to her, "Let' sit!"


She said to me, "Date rings."
I said to her, "Do you have them?"
She said, "No."

~~

I said, "Why?"

:4J ..::..Jl

. ~1.> ~ =~ .::.Ju

She said, "They're not tasty."

.....L...~-'":'1

' Type of pastry, possibly used to tell him to shut up or that she is not interested in him.

\OO

156

~
'it~ JU..... c.,? ~I ~~ ~L.... ~ . \
'its~~ i)~.I;,JI..:..JU.~L....~l . 'f
'1~'-:'~~~~ . r
'i (,.... .!.J~ (when he

tried) J.,~ L1 ("~ ,:,S- ~IS L.. ~ . t

myself~

\O"\

157

~ - ''

~~~~

--

~ 01.J(me~~l ~~'
~ dii~~.J '(
~J.....a-:4 .JL.a...,...~I . T

the Tawjihi exam

\ OV

~.,::.

market

J,.....

158

--

l.-J

. (:"II ~I~.UI ~~1~1 ~J~I

,-

., ..
~ - ~. L
1
(WI) ~~
1--1
~~~.: o~.J

J.,.ts.JI ~'/I
~If
-

.U.I

~::H~I-=..4-fl.JI.~~I.(~~I WJI) ~JLII

-=..U.UI

(/.\) ~J~I.J 4~, .:.I I

. .UI
!.H

(f.\\) ('~'/I
I '-1 L:......UI
<!~ ~ J
-

u....JI

/.V'\

J,S jJ I

f.'\.

..!..l:.'f'

'->-o ~"' ~~ u.~ - ~~! ~.ri JL-.!. ~ &~ :i ~:~


"':-'~I

j'

u,J __,.:a1~1

0-o ~L..:~:U,_.. J , ~~I &-o ~l...o J , ~_,_..!J I ~~I 0-o .; ? : '.!I J , J_,_..!J I

159

.Jt-..!...11&-o

k...-~1 ~*'il ~I.J ~~1&-o ~_,.til._, ~~~

tl:J.'-' YlA'
' ~

.I .

< ....-.Ji

(;-!..>-A ,j--A-4~

WL-.11 v4.;*'il ~

. . ~.J ~~.J ~~
. . . .I . vI-

I . -II ~L......o ..1..a -

~ ~

-~

F.J .~~......H.., ~-d.;jl.J w~ ~"I~ v4.;*'il ~i 0sJJ

~*'il ~I ~L.., ~ JL-.!JI ~ ~.J ,.,~~1 ~L......o &-- f.Y' ~~~ ~l.;j.U
,

.k...-~1

,
~4 .)~.J FL:a...!JI ~ _rbl..o J~ Jl..t....!.JI ~ ~L...JI ~WI~ ~I
.;

.F~~ ~ ..l.;l:aJ

j!,oll

~ ~4- ~L:.,~I ~.J~~~ ~WI ~.J

11

f!,oll

FJ ~~.., ~J-C ul.S.....JI ~;.., .~ ~~ r" ~ .,.:a1~1 ~LS...... ..~.u ~~


.f.'(\

v-'1~

..H ..r.a.JIJ

~l.S.....JI&-o f.VY' ~~~ ~~~ ~


~_;.J\J~~'

. ~ ~~J ~ &-o ~j I i aS,._,, \AY' . U...., .,.:a1~1 L....:a.,>--i ~- .i; ., I

~i

4-:--A <.::Jl..o .J <.::J I..,.:....... <:?W <.::J~ I ~~ ..l.A-! ''\' '( ~ ~ .,:a I~ I .h i
I -

... IJ

'!.,:a I~ u~ o..o

I. What borders Algeria from the southeast, south, and southwest?


2. What is the total area of Algeria? How much of it is desert?
3. Where is the agricultural land located?
4. What is the weather like in the coastal region?
5. What is the percentage of Berbers to the total population in Algeria?
6. When did the French occupation of Algeria begin?
7. How long did it last?
8. How long did the Algerian Waroflndependence last?
9. How many algerians died in that war?

~~oWS'

4.fJ

popular ~

to rule ~

to occupy Ji,.1

war ~JA

to become independent Jll...,l

to die ..::..L.

to last :;..i...l

dialect

\O'\

160

Fill in the empty cells in the following table. c.,r:oL..=peifect, t_)-~=imperfect.

..

rl:.

..

Ju

'-:"'..,.....

J~

'-:"'~

ru

~~

ru:.
t.;._.

r-A

tJL...8...

. - '..! , .

~~

~L..

'-:"'~

tJL...8...

- .. -

~L.

v-" t...:..:;

tJL...8...

1_,:....:,

~L..

.,...._..

I .. -

I..H~
.. -

..:..LA

~
.. j

::...:.1

~I

.,:WI

tJL...8...
~L..

...,...-

l:.i

tJL...8...
~

tJL...8...

~L..

.,... -

.,..,.

tJL...8...
I_,JL.:i

I~

'a""""L.

._.....-L.

rt..:..:.

J,.La

''

'-:"'_,..!...:.

tJL...8...

L.:..al

161

(roots~~)~ ow.f'.,

'. '

'\

T'

.,.

'

'(

T'
f
0

'\

~ ~(hi . \

ii ; ;,. ~ L.li.. . \

..JW.:.S:I

~ (~fia..o) i.>4) .T'

..:;..l..o_,!- ~ . o
~~ .0

(~fi-) u~ . "

LA~ .\

~t......... . V

U.J...... .V
(~fia..o)~.A

"'

J.,.-_, .A
J~'
.~ ~J~
' .\.

162

Without looking at the reading selection of this lesson, fill in the blanks in the following using the words
below.

~ ~~
. ........:. u LA~ .L...a..i...a ....Jal ._. .....;_ ... ..... .........~
-.i ~ ~
.< ~ ~ U
.....

.,J

l::U~.J.JooO.J ~~~

V.O

_...,--,.

...,-

.,.,-

..,J

~1~
-1

...,--

~Lo.J ... .. .......... . ~~I &-o ~I.J J~I .... ....... .... .

. Jl.o..!J I &-o ~~I ...... ..... ..... ~I .J , ~ _,.aJ I &-o ~~I .J , <:r.' _,.aJ I ... ............. &-~~

'--'-11

~L..o.!,J ~~,J ~~

_,!al~l 4...aL-o ~~

F..J~I.J~I.;.)Ut..:J~ ... .......... ... ,.1~v4}J1~1~.J . ...............


~ JL...!..JI ~ ~.J ,J~I ~t.....-

&-- /.f

~~~ ~l.;j.U WL-..11 ......... ....... ~

-~~1~'11~1 ............... .

:._;4- ~~.J ,.L:....!JI ~ _rbL.o J~ J~l ~ ~L...-11 J-bWI ~~I


. ,.l.:,..!,J I ~ J.;4.J . i:. II ~ :._;4- ~L.. ~I ~.JI ~I J-bWI ~.J ,. i:.
o

''"

II ~

163

~~~ ~

~~ ~ ~

,_r- Ju.....J.J C.IJ ~ . \

1.,1.JD .L.-_, ~.,.....:. ri ~ .'I'


~ ~I I_,J.....J ~L...,~j

~ ~1 .:..-aw. L.. ~.,.....:.

rl t:..-~ 1.>-" .
~

;ia
to remain JJa

in order to
f

toclean

~-.....i...Li....

togreet ~
health ~

,,.,.

l_,.l.A.i ~J

past, last
to welcome, meet

.r
.0

cr"'"L..

~-~I

tocook ~-~
happy

.J. _,......;..

condition, how one is

J~

164

H:,... ~j ~_,..!. ...JW. 0 1..1 ~I . \

'IVSL- ~ t-- ~_,..!. .Y

"~~.,.J. U.!. ....1l..!. u1..1 (>A rS .r

'I~.,.J. U.!. ~ ~.,:. u~ rS . t

n.-4-l.J C:.J~ ~_,..!. ~ . o

last time -.-;.. _ri. i

165

~~~~~

J..olS.J I ("-":/ I

b~J .~1~ ' '-""u .,.1 . .;..!.'II ,;1.1-11 .(~WI) kl:a..>-11

:.: ... .:\)1 w.UI

~~_r.JI ~4-flll ~~~~ (~_,.11 WJI) ~~~

~Li.UI

(/.\) ~J~I_, :i~,.! ,. I I.(!.\\) r~1

.1-11
'-""!

~~~ r-A.;.UI

!."\ .

., ,

.;~l.l I

U.o..a.J I

\)! ofajff

/."(A

-. ,

'-:-'~1_, J~l ~LA~.~_,...;!'-:-'~ JL-.!. ~ i~ ~~ U_,J '-:-'-rtil


~" ~'11 ~~ '-:-'_,_i.JI 0-oJ .L_,_:ul ~'11 ~~ Jl .~. 11 ~" .~1~1
, ~.>-A J.::.....o ._jJ I \ YY ~ '-:-'.;-il I L,.L.........o ~~ . :i ~ :.;-i.J I ~> I.; , . I I ~.;-i.J I '-:-'~1
a

, kl:a.)l" ~..1-o ~ '-:-'~~ ~~ .~ w~ ~~" .1'>.1_, uk ~lS......


i.;,....UI w..J.I

Ju.

~~J

w-o_, ... ", ..;..: :'1 .;t.u1 ~.J..,o ~~~~"~.;~I.; o.o~ ~J


wi~J ~" b~"" ~~~J '-""u '-:-'~~ ~
\"\0

166

o-o f."\o

~~~ '"'="'~~:. : ... .F. ..,H~1_, '"="'~10-o '"="'..rlll wt.S....., ~i

.,r.a~l ~.J -~~~~ _,.A.J ~alJI ~~~I_,'"'="'~-' ./.Y"f ~~~ ~~1_, w~l
U.UI , ~~I_, '"="'~1,'-:-'.,>lll J,Ai 0-o ~ J,.-;, ..!.J - ~~. 1 tll.JI_, ~~~~ tll.JI
..
.t..o.,s.~u,., bJ~I ~ *~~,., ~~~

o-o

1F~ '"="',.,_u1

J'---' ''iJ~I ~w1 w.ri-11 ~ '"="',.,..u1 w.J .1,.11 '"'="'~~ ~J


~ w~l,>il" ~ ~~~ ~i~ 'iJWI w.ri-JI ~_, -~~~~ ~~~ U_,alJI
.J~ ~
II ,J WL...........,I
I.,..-.i-:._ I,J

, <-j

.:.q
.r-

~,J ''"="'_,..u10-o ~L.-.!JI F~l ~4--! .-.h,.l,~_,...!...aJI w.,>-i.ll ~~~ ~_,


~4--1 ~ .'"="'.,rAJ. I Ji ; ,.1 -~~i J-La~ t........:a_r1 .-.i; ... 1_, .~ ~..>-iJI ~WI
. \\0"\ u....., ~ L.....:a,.,_i_,

Indicate whether the following statements are true (I) or false (F).
1. The Western Sahara borders Morocca from the south east.
2. Casa Blanca is the political and touristic capital of Morocco.
3. There are more Arabs than Betbers in Morocco.
4. Many Moroccans use French as a language of commerce.
S. The Arabs entered Morocco in the 7th century.
6. The Murabituun (Aimoravids) dynasty was founded by the Arabs in the 11th century.
7. The Murabituun occupied Spain and Portugal.
8. The French occupied the northern part of Morocco at the beginning of the 20th century.
9. Morocco became independent in 1956.

~~oWS'
the Atlantic Ocean ~~~ ~I

CasaBlanca -~I .JIJJI

same~

commercial <!J~
to possess, have ~=J

~speak ~-~=~-~

government L.fi.:..

touse J_.:1~ .. ! ~~

~1=,;t...

A.D. <!J~

11th~<!~

part -~

beginning ~I "'1

to found ~i

to become

to become independent

'''

j&.:a....,l

other (f.)

(.S~I

167

Fill in the empty cells in the following table.


~

JJo

~L..

. - t.,..

. b

t..J t.....;.._.

~L..

{L;. ,-,
'

t..J t.....;.._.

I~

~L..

I~

_,A

r-A

t..Jt.....;.._.

.-', :b

~L..

::...:.I

t..Jt.....;.._.

,-

..

i ~

~L..

'

-=...-:.I
'

t..Jt.....;.._.

~L..

I~

_,.::..:..1

t..Jt.....;.._.

JJ;.i

~L..

~i

t..Jt.....;.._.

t..:.....1.L;

~L..
t..J t.....;.._.

L.:......l
'

168

V' "

.~L.......:.. ~lj i..,.:.~

~~ ~ ....&.:;U._,

,UL...... ("La.J.. U_,_.i (",:. ~,.r-C ~~., ~,_,... t..i....!.. \

c::l.rS_,<.!J-S.J-1' ~I .J...L..S ~J-Ai


.An,to

.v-~..,.:.'11 J~ ~

~~~.,_, ~J-Ai ~

.....;.::au. .~4-JI t.JW. -~~., ~~

rL.....:. t-- V"~ U.,_..i_, r,:. ~.,....i

U...!.."

.L.!._,_,.J.....

. Af ""''I" 0 _,J.J.:; . ~_,..I. i .U l.)_,.&.L:J4

US-- _,i ~

.~_,..~.

.u u,..u:JL:a

c::I,.,S_, uL-._, ~_,J~_,..... u_,~ u...!. .r


.. An 'I"'\''I" 0 _,J.J.:; . 4.a.....4J I t JW.

1. How many bedrooms does the first apartment have? How many bathrooms?
2. Where is it located?
3. Where is the second apartment located?
4 Does it have a long-term or a short-term lease?
S. What can the third apartment be used for?
6. How many apartments are advertised with a garage?
7. What English word is the word ~I related to?

hall, hallway (often used as living room) ULu~.....&::ll.A

modern ( f":!..U ~)

~~

-l.)..,=....ll:i..

JSi

u~=rt....J.. u~

central <.!jS. ..>-"


building

~l.:....:a

furnished ..;._,~

Translate the following into Arabic:


Mauritania ~L.::U_,_.) is a large Arab country in northwest Africa. It is bordered from the north by Algeria
and the Western Sahara, from the West by the Atlantic Ocean, from the south by Senegal (J~ I) and Mali
VL.) and from the east by Mali. The capital ofMauritania is the city ofNouakchott (J.~I_,:.), which is
located in the west of the country on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Most ofMaUritania's land is desert.

\\A

169

~ ~~ c:_,l~l

(started) r.,J.:a c.r---r .\

~~c.,~~.,.....!. ri

r:/i c:,ts ~ "

~ ~..:,~.,...!.rl~ . r
~~~ c:_,l~ll_,.:.tS ~I (about)~ .

~~ c;,w.r
to be upset

~ j

neighbor ( 01 ~ ~)
price ( .,La......i .

''~

.,4-

170

~ '-:'~ .~ 0 1, 0 ts: ~~ . '


~(,.11 .:u. J.:J ~
~...a......:J.I ~~I .-LJI (kind,

JSi o,, ."

tYM t_,:. ~I .Y'

iJ.I~OWS'

..
nee jJ

truly, in fact ~

" -'

yogurt~

'

pork

,v.

~~r-

-~

[i\

t"

("(>

1:- ''L..

'(\_

-<

~ 1 .1<- t
-
~ ~.lA
f : { <t.~

t t ~ .f.

f.1f1
- E,.

'

lA . .

<.-

Efi.f
'E: l\_ ~

[ ~ ~l

~ 1~

. '\

.e

('. -

~r

'

r r1i

<.

i ~- . .t
e '~~- }

r
rr
<
[
i
.
~ E~~ . .~
~
~ f. ~

,__ .~
{ l:-

t..

[- 1:
<t

.t

1
\
:: f;

~.{.

[b

~ ~
-~
(
r-

( 1:

f :

f' ~

<.

11~-

l- _,

~ -

-1

[ - .

- (..,

.~

~ 1..
1 ):

s.

f.:

.,.,.._.,.....___,_

'"' ' ...

~:

t;f

172

~~.}:i
,,.,. .' .oj .,U_, .U...., 4 ,

oct'

.;._,~~~LA~~~ c~ol-l ~J....o

Fl.......:a.....

.<!J~I ~~~~ 0 ~1 ~ ~~~ u_,..u1 ,;.,.~ ~ Gu ~~

,
*,
*
~~Lou lj..Sj-0 ~.UI,,,. .' .oj_,

r '"'~ ~ ~ F~ rtj.._1 J,i.J


,_

.~)l.,...1 ~..UI

1. What is the population ofSan'aa'?


2. Where is it located?
3. What is it a center of?
4. How many sections is San'aa' divided into? What are they called?
S. Where are the traditional industries located?
6. When did San'aa' become an important city?
7. When did Islam enter San'aa'?
8. How many ancient public baths are found in San' aa'?

..

i~oWS'
center

jS:;_.

part, section ~

market (JI;...i r;) J_,...,


important

(-LA

spreading~
fourteen \t=+~ ~)

.
at a distance of

~~

to plant, cultivate t~~-tJ)


mosque ( ~t.....:.

r;)

industry
time

~t..:....

.::..:J.r&..~

ruins, antiquities .J~i


public

~ ~

""'Jural"
t'
\V~

(-L

173

Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

JL.

c.s~

J~

c.s~

,..,.

~Lo

t.;L.w......
~Lo

t.;L.w......
1_,~

I_,Ji.......
I~

~Lo

r-A

t.;l.....i...

.
.
c.s

..::....:!~

~Lo

,J.A:..:;

t.;L.w......

1-?,J.A:..:;

I~

~Lo

..:..;.I

t.;l.W......
~Lo

I_,Jt.~

t.;L.w......

..::...JL.

~Lo

~j

~I

~I

L:.i

t.;l.....i...

~~

J.-..:.

\vr

~Lo

t.;l.....i...

t..:..-1
,

174

Without looking at the reading selection of this lesson, fill in the blanks in the following using the words
below.

<i,

0~ ~~~ 4-=a~ J~

,
\)'

1"

.. .. .. .. .. ..

.................. ~~,~I~
k

'I

..1
J~

' __. ........e.

"LY-

<i

~ ~

- -L

..

'

A..&...l
... - ................ .. .
~

'-tf

'-----

. ~1 ~ J~ *I~'('( ~~~ t.~.;l ~_,~'II ~I J~ *~~~


I
... . . . 111 ... 1 . :.
....
I .- -b l
I
II
I_
.)~~~ u-l~t.J~4 ... o,~J,J"''
'!J~ ........... .. .... . ~ 6' ~
,

<i

................... di_,.&JI

r
-~L...d..:a..l:lo.,JI,J JI~'JI,J ~L.......11 ..................
J~ ~,J , ~~~ p i

- -.... II
II
li II
- - ... II
II . .
- II I -
~~ ,---- "'"""'"" " "' , - - "'~~ ,---- ~If p~
1

t1 . .

1!1

-<i <

".:

f1'

"

..

. .<r.jLJI
. . ....
&1
~~ b~l
,-I_,

\Vt

- -

11'9 I I

~. o " ,_A

tttt tttt ttttu""'

175

<;_,~) i..)~ ~ ~ ri! ;~


u~J JJJ 4 ~~ .)4Jo 4 ~~

FJy kite, fly, you (made of) paper and string


I want to go back to (being) a little girl on the neighbors' roof

ul~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~) ~~
. u I~
.. - I c--v- 1.. . . I# u L....)-'
IJ

And time forgets me on the neighbors' roof.

,r~_,J

<.)4-1- 4~~)
u~
-- :.IJ ~~ Jla..... c.,-. L . . ~.J.J-'
- L
,.,-

FJy over distant roofs on the shy breeze

U_,a.J..JI ~ IJ~JJ J"JJ"JI ~ <a.Jl:>.i


The children took me with them and brought back (the) childhood to me
The laughs of the boys

ul.. j

And the songs of the past

c,.r'WJ

~J.MJ ~ ~ ..::...~~

Brought back my books and my school


And the life that was

uf.S ~I ~I_,

And time forgets me

u L....)-'
IJ

,r ~__,

u l~l ~ ~

On the neighbors' roof.

( J4J.4~~)
.HLJ.JI JJ_,JLA ~ ~J ~..>+-i ~ _,J

If we could run away and fly with the flying paper


It is too early to grow old, what's the hurry,

what's the hurry.?

.HI..... _,...!. .HI..... _,...!. ~ ~ ~ t>

Oh,flowerofthepomegranate

uLa~l

Sway in the garden

u~4-:a ~

.)-Aj

4J

~}JJ JLA.... I~ t>

So the young of the earth will enjoy themselves

ul...>JI ~J

And time becomes sweet

. u I~
- 11c-- 1.. ... vI# u L.. ..)-'
IJ

And time will forget me on the neighbors' roof.

t......:....__,

(... J4J. 4 ($~)

'vo

176

.:..
...... ~ .:.~ ...\:. . :u.:_
~_.......... ~

.~ ~. ~t;
:.....;._:_ cs-~
........~~-.

~
~;;;,A, IJ ~ .J.~ _,A u4.J

r \

~~I J-1_,.1 ;;i..IJ ~ ~.rJ.~ H:iJ~ .Y


~

t......4J..l V""4J I j,;i.4-! ~J ~


H~.~.,....'l

4-1

J.:!-l.J

Y'

~I It

4-1 L. ..H-i r.,)".,)J ~.J ~.J ,0


~ J.:!-l.J.J ~.rJ. t-" ~L.... ..;.... ~ u4.J
~~.,....'i

to remember

, ,

~~-~.l

sociology t ~'i I ~

'Y"\

I'

until now, stiJJ


young man

:....w.

177

..

.,.

.,.,

. ~/I Y_,.,- C.:,U \; \ ... ~~ \- ~ '-:-~ l:, I

~'-:-'~ .~ 0 1.l 0ts ~~.'


~~ .~ 0ts~I . Y

. . '" I ,..

~ '-:-'~ ~~..>-"'~I 0~ ~ '

iJt~~WS'
sug~

.Jf-

not possible, hard to believe J_,ia....

J.....

without o.J~
f

totry

'-:-'~-'-:-'~

bon appetit! ! F~_, t'.......o

SUGAR
SUCRE

ZUCKER

AZOCAR

~
tl

\VV

Godblessyourhands

~~~~~

178

'

~ ~ ~J_,.._...JI ~~I 4.SL..!I <-:J~ ~ j~l Hb . o ~ 4.S..... ~.1-a ~


' . ~'II~~ J~ *~~~ V. c.;I.J-=1'-:"~1_, <-:J.riJI0-o J~IY-:a L: ,;_,

. ~ ~i ~)_, w~ c.;1~

4-.:atS..... J.J. ~ . Jy!..JI_,


L.Jl..~~~

,~;.,.....~I ~JJ I

JJ,_._, ~ ~I JJ_,.:. t;a'i 0! ! ... II ~ ~:a_. ~J...o 4.S.....


"" ,
,
,
.
.~ ti.....JS 1J! !. 11 &-- ~~ &--~I LA .>-'~-'
o

~~ ~IJ i J-H-_,.11 ~I u-11 ~)l..o~ w~~ ' W-' .1 . ,1 1 ~ L...~

~ ~L.....ll ~i

,j.A

_y._, r~~ 1 ~ , ?

....

u--:.Ui rl..r=JI , ?

... ""

.tS... ~ r l..r=JI
.r-JWI

.......~~,~~

~.>4-=a i jSJ-0 ~LS ~j ~~ Ws.J_, ,~..u.JI ~ ~).~ ,j..c ~I~~ 'i

'VA

- -

179

.,.
~~~' ~_,J)\ ~
La.....,-La..JI .-. , : .oi
~WI ~.l . - . ,
#

1,~

..

4.S....

r ,,.. . ~ ~.J r ov. u..... 4.S.... ~ J

,.

~~ .1.1~

~ ~.J ~ ~.J . 4-o)l...,~l U.J.ill ii .:.:.1.11.J ii.! ,J.!,.11

o.:JJ~ (" \o\V U..... ~.J .ii

.:.:.1.11

~WI

..

4.S....

~.J

,U.J.ill ii.! ,J .! ... 11

.~~~ U.J-1.11 0-o

.;#

.- .li -, ... IL...o~ \\\\ U...., ~~I 'i.

J1

""

~J~I.>-;L--0'11

0-o

1,~

"'

4.S....

~.l \\'H U..... ~.J .j4-:JI ~u ~ ~t.s:.J ~~~~ U.J-1.11 ~ j4-:JI ii ib ..


#

.~.l~l ~_,a.JI (SWI0-o 1,~ o.:J)....o.J

4.S....

.l~ ~ ~j.AJI ~

1. How far is Makka from the Red Sea?


2. From which sides is Makka surrounded by mountains?
3. Why is Makka considered holy by Muslims?
4. How many Mulims visit Makka for Haij (pilgrimage) every year?
5. Where is the Kaaba located?
6. Since when was Makka an important center of trade?
7. When was the Prophet Muhammad born?
8. What happened to Makka in 1517, 1916, and 1924?

sacred, holy '-""~

..

to surround ~.J.L.J

.lei:;..
,

because ::,'i

tovisit J.J~-J ij

prophet~

when U;::L.~
,

pilgrimage ~

to face 4h-4~

topray ~-~

theKa'ba ~I

prayer i~

inside J,i.I.J

found, present .J~:;..

that ::,i

the holiest '-"":Ui

place of birth

tobebom .lei~
,
to become

since

'll...

time~~

political~

...'.. -i
.)t.-=
'L-:--

short~

toenter ~j

to remain JJ-=~

\V\

180

Conjugation of Doubled Roots


Doubled roots have identical second and third root consonants as in
love", .r

J-J-..Ii. "to remain", "':-'-"':-'-C

"to like,

.rr"to pass through".

In their perfect conjugations, verbs derived from doubled roots pattern with verbs derived frorm lame roots.
Here is the conjugation of the verb~ "to like, love'~ in both the perfect and imperfect:

-,

Imperfect

Perfect

~~)
~.._, ~{~)

I ... ,

I.J~-, ~~(~)

:. '," ~~(~)
Passive yoice in '-' ,. .

Imperfect

Perfect

~
~I

~.._<{~)

~~~)

~~

_,:.:.'1

~.~~_, ;(~)

,~

~I

~i(~)

ut

L:..a.l

...

_,.A

In ~ a verb can be made to convey passive meaning by an internal vowel change:


"it was written"

kutib

"he wrote"

katab

The most common passive verb you will see in the reading passages is ~~
"he was born" , which is derived
,
from the perfect verb .J~ "to give birth".

-'.

Person Markers in~


There are a few differences between Levantine and u , , i in the conjugation of verbs in the perfect and
imperfect One of these differences is in the third person plural conjugation:
Levantine
they face

Translate the following into Arabic


Riyadh (vo4 ~ I) is the political capital of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the east of the country at a distance
of about 300 km from the Persian Gulf, and 900 km from the Red Sea. It has a population of 4 million
people. Among the well-know universities in Riyadh are The Islamic University of Imam Muhammad ibn
Saud and IGng Saud University.

,A.

181

'.



'

'

'

'



'.'
t

'v
A

...

~'

~>~
~I

o-a ~ 0 t.S.......J1 J.l.A-;1 ~~ U.JJ .r.aSi. \

~~ U.JJ (._fi-) e-:.'"'!L....i! ~ .~

(._fi-) !,F""JWij~_,.a.JI

~I~

~ .....i_ro. ~ .li.;o" ~

tu:.Jr

~_,..! '-="~ JL.....!. ~ .& ~~ U.JJ . \


ul_,i.ll o-a ~(Lfi-) 4.)~ ~.) .r

.)~ ~JJ.J

,0

."\

~ .....i_ro. .v
.A
~

~ .0

J4=a" .)~ ."\


(._fi-) ..)L:.. ,Ji <.rl.:.. ~ .v
(prepositio~ ~ .....i_ro. ~~ . A

;.....i .Ji .r.aSi ~ ., l~i" (singular) J~ . \.


~Jll ~t)...!.

\A\

t--.1
~ ~

.....i_ro.

~.) .

'

~tJW. ~ . '.

182

~ J_,&..!....

,.. (when be i~ u~ u

JS~

,.. ~.J . \
~ :oi..11 ~ ; :L:: vi'' JS'JI (~ t .,:O ~I .Y
'i .)t.:..... IF'L.:.....J
.:. .b . . .,W
. I .Y'
. JSi c-:-::-:'
- .J ~
'i~ l JS'J I ~ ~.J .1

~~ow.r
Chinese ~

busy J_,a..!...

183

~c:..L-1 t"'!'~

mommg

~ c:. L-1 t"'!'~ rj'i u'.l c:..~ ~ .'


uiJ(agreed tha~ ~! ~,_,~_,...!.-Hi . ~
~ A~~ .; c:..'.l ~_, .r
~~ "'/_, c:..4Li c:..~ u'J .

tonight ~I

reserved .)~

nonsense

~ ~ ... ~

certainly ~i

don't worry ~ "J _,

ifo

to rest ~~-c 1~1

idea

184

.~.l .>-+=a

J..a

-~

u-lc U,.l-11 .b.....,.J ~ ~ .~ ti:.1-o ~i.J JI__,_..JI ~l..c .1l~


- ,

. .!Y..:J_I ~ ~~1,.11, ~~I ..>S.>-4.J ~t.ii.ll, (#J~I.J (#JI.l1 ..)S.;J.I ~"


.~1
-II ~~...,..-.-...
. -If ~- ~
_:-.j I 4.......W 11. -::.1
.. .1I..LL
- ;('~- I ~
- 'T"',.......L. i J~

. ~ ~Y-o ~

U-.6~ "

..

..

~J

.. .. -

11 . .

10

ffl

<l..LA~ "
I

"

"

;_,.u .ll~ r:;lS..... .l.U

...
.. - . - If I
I .l I ~
<l..LA~ <LA,J.,.,_,.... .l ~ ~......_4 0...0
.~_,.~~,

.>\~~.)\l
."J.J

.o

~ 11" ~L!JI ~ ~~ II. e .:1;11 ~j ~


\A!

r V'\" ~ ~ .1l~ ~~ i.l.;a

185

lSl.ll ."~.;-II 0_,.;LA" ~ ..! JI 4 i _:1;11 ~.) ~ ).A.l.)~l ~ ~~ 4~~ ~_,_,

...

~4.--JI U.,..JI L..-~ .ll~ .-.:': ...LJ., ."U:J_, li:J


"'
lA,;-oJ ~
~

._jjj"

..::..~~ ~ "--o..o.l ~I
*"'

0_,,;8 ~) ~ ~'i ~)l.....rl rJWI ~ Ul.iiJI_, i.;~ LoLA _I_)S.>-A_,

.~~~ Jl~l U.,J ~u

.-., ... oj

\\"\ ~ ~J \ \"oA ~ ~ J_,.til

.>\~.)C\

,"~"!.11 ~~

4-=a-o ,~1..::..~ ~I ~,;l.~ e-~ i~ .;~i .ll~ ~

~ ~ .-.... "..,b ~I' "~.) tO.-., II L.;.UI"., \ '\V\ ~~I~.)~~~ (#jJI


'
\ \'foA~~~(#lJI "04-~ '?"'o"_, '\ \YY'Y

Indicate whether the following statements are true (F) or false (F).
1. Baghdad is located on the Tigris River.
2. Baghdad is the cenier of transportation in Iraq.
3. Locally manufactured goods are sold in the markets of Baghdad.
4. Baghdad was built during the rule of the Caliph Haroun al-Rashid whose name became famous in the
Arabian Nights.
5. Baghdad was an important commercial and cultural center between 1258 and 1921.
6. The Mongols rebuilt Baghdad in 1258.
7. The Abbasid Palace was built in 1179.
8. The Mustansiriyya School was founded in 1232.

cultural ~~
tosell ~-t4

local~

--

..

administrative <S)JI
transportation
manufactured goods

..:..~I,..

..:..k,.:......:.

building .. ~

to begin i~

Abbasid ~~

caliph ~

passing J.J..>-"

second (think of ~I) <.i'~

degree 4~~

to reach~~

prosperity JLA;' j!

high c.r~

tale, story ~~

to become famous ~I

u.J~

the Arabian Nights (1001 Nights) li:!J.J ~ ...a.Ji

J.,a.ll

to destroy ;..~

palace .,;._::.

..:..I~~

.
centunes
the Mongols

to be founded ~b

\Ao

186

The Resumptive Pronoun


The pronoun LA in the sentence ~I (LA)c.r' rt..:...:. ~IJ ~I U_r-i.JI

,.l,A "This is the room that you are


going to sleep in (it) tonight" is caUed a resumptive pronoun. See the Grammar appendix for a more detailed
account.

Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

c:.'~'

~J

-...,........-

JSi

~
~~

JS4

~~~'

..:..ki

..)A

t;.JL...a...

._,A

t;.JL...a...

,_,:;...

'~~

-::..-~1

r-At

t;.JL...a...

..,.....L..

:::...:.r

t;.JL...a...
~L..
~~

~l.:i

t;.JL...a...

I,:..JSi

~~~

L.:.....~l

~I

_,:..:.I

t;.JL...a...

JSI

~
t;.JL...a...

~..,.:.

t;.JL...a...

'A"\

L:.l

L.:.....l

187

2. Choose the correct form of the word


In the following exercise, based on the reading selection of this lesson, choose the one correct word from
among those given in parantheses to complete the sentence. Then compare your choice with the form used in
the selection.

~.J .t4-.l

*'

~ u_,..ut.b........J ~ ~ .~ ~.l..A (~if&/&).J J'~ ' ~~ .ll~

/~) ~ ..::..;_:...1_,11.J ~~I

.>S.>-A.J

(U~I.J/~~1/~W).J ~.;~I.J ~.;l.l~l (.)S.rllf~.r&)


.(.l~l/.l~

.l.U ~~ .~1 ~l.r-JI ..::..~,_:........11 ~~I (~.u.Jfj~.U) 4-AI~~..:> 4.;~ .ll~


-~ ~)l... ~ ~ .l'~ (wtS.....fwtS....Jt)

~.; .o.-. . It L-.4".J ".ll~ La-4" U.J~I.ll~ (L-..4/..::..L-..4/..::..L.......4JI) V-"

. -~_,..~~, (t-4-/..::..la..o4-ru...4J'),
." .)~
-.q t..F'l:JI c.r--:_J:.._..JI (~tr~tj~)

_ ,, .
. ~...>-".)

..
~

r V'\'\' t.:........

. , .

.ll.l.L ~~ j,.),..>

~l.JI," ~~I u.J).J( I,!"""L:uJt ~I V.oj ~ .;U,.lj'il V.o (~Wfj~L&./~~) 4~~ ..:.J.-.J.J
~4.--Jt U.J..UI t..w.~ .ll~ .-.ji: ..u_, .~.J ~ ....A.Ji" ..::..~~~~I

(.;.J+o!...LI/~1/ .;~)

~ w.J_;; ~,;i V...O ~ <,r"~~l ~WI~ U~I.J (~.;4-=-Jf/4.;4=a/4.;l-~_::.j1)J t.u. j~.r&.J


. ~~~ Jl_,s.J t u.J.l t..w.~ (.-., ... oif~/~i)

'\n ~ ~.J r '"oA ~ ~ J,all u;..J

v'a.>'JI._,A i.J-. ._;.... .~ <,F~ dJ ..::.J..i ~~

......,.1 ~_,...'JI i.JU-11 ..r.~

\AV

rL- t!l~ IJ! <r.~ rL...... I:U.-

188

~ ~_,...!. ~1 ~

rS- .\

J.l.,.., ~.J

.,.

~ J.l.& ~~

.r

~ ~_,...!. ~1

~~ ~~JJ.I.I .!1_,..:.~1 . f.

~~A c:'J~t . o

i~oWJ"

.J,.,.:.t

first thing -~ J~l

the West Bank ~jAJI ~I

village ~~

to help ~~-~l...

to leave d~

to be born

,
fanner t).,;..
,

\M

fann ~~;..

189

~\
~ -11La. ri ~ . '

'iul.l~~.Y

ri ..:.Ju ~ .r
.11La. ri ..:.Ju .J...:!I . t

~ J~ ..;..... .11La.

'i ~ ~~.) '+-'

~~ow.r
pilgrim (f.), someone who has performed the Ha.ii to the Muslim holy places ~
wife 4.Jj= . .; .
to look for

\A\

....;~~....;w.

190

Note: r;,..J~/ j~ :
The two sounds j and r;,. of the Arabic root r;,..J.J and its derivatives are metathesized (they switch places) in
informal spoken Arabic. They are never metathesized in written Arabic, and they genera1Jy maintain that
order ~.J.J) in formal spoken Arabic.

Written/Forma/ Spolcen Informal Spolcen


"husband, couple, pair"

r;,..J.J

"to get married"

r;,..J.>-A

"married"

r;,..J~

~\
Create a story based on the drawing below. Two Arab men (or women) argue about the correct pronunciation
of the word for "married". One says it should be r;,.~~; the other says j~ is fine. l:>an doesn't see what
the fuss is about.

t:

t-

-.,.J

t.

't

.,

~.\
~

\ lf '1l'
l . ~t

t.. ~-:- {

Et

It .

t. [:

1.

,.J.'

~ ' ~f

j: ~

c....

J;'" :'

f' ~

t..'t

E~

~ r

t..

'L<.

.r

'". l

11.. {I

t.

<. -.
C G, 1

'i._

i;.'~ ~

~
i_

- ~

~ ~

[7

<.
<.

(.. :I

-.

t:-..

<.-

L
L

<.

-.
.

"7"'

G.~ .~~_

-.

t.

+
r-V.

<.

t.

1~

Cf

"
f":j

t
f ;:- ' _!.
\ . ~ ~ ~ ~
~ - tl Cfl ~

IL

/>-1

~ ~

1_

r
I
"
~ "1..~~t' c.'..

It

t.

IG\

- <.
C c
[i\ ~

r~ i-l
f~
[t ~

t..

11. -

1 E

~- ~ ~

<i

<.-

. t~ t
lt:

:
l~
- fl -

lr

1(;\

c-

<.

~ .: <.~

(;\

~ -~..
t.

Cfl

.[ r

t lc:

);- -( 1
<t J :cr\.1
f 1: f

It- 1..

1-ffl

(. <.t..
~ .(

!f

~ l

f. t-1\~

.I~~

It . ~

;.1

<.It .. 1(;\<.

ft

f.:

"~:

~~

\()

192
tJ

. ~)L...,1 UJ.l.JI ~ c:,.UI

,
t.:-=a~l UJ.l.JI ~

Ill

"'

"'

r-A' '->-- ~., ~ {(" vo.) ii.: ,J _..11 UJ.JI '->-oj


,

,.L:.!J LAJLA.,jiJ ~,.,...._.!.'->--~I ~..u...l ~., ~J

~ ii ~.!.'I JI (JJ.l.JI ~_).A ~J ~J'-/1 fi~lWI '-:-'~1 ~I \o\"\ ~'->-- ("l.,<ilJI


.. u-1t...-.:a ..>-A~
. L.
J)ll.:&.....l ~
- 1.
. ~
-~ II
..___ qt.t.:.,.....,
-'ld.J.:;
.>+-"'
~ ~J ~.,)'- ~ ............
...r""'

_J.,.....

i.)_,..!J.\ ~ ~
~).~ e-~ <ilJI,<i,_..'JI e--4-JIJ !~~~ J,_..., iJ~I ~., r-JLA... '->--

J~J !~J~I r-L--11 .J.!aWI ~~~'-/1 ~.l.JI C:~ ~J !.,~1 ~~I c:,_,l.JI ~I
.LWI ~L..l-JIJ ~U!IJ ~L:.S.JIJ ~.WI~~~~ V").UI

'->--

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. Damascus is close to the Lebanese borders.
2. The population of Damascus is a little under one million people.
3. The Egyptians occupied Damascus in the third millenium B.C.
4. No rivers pass through Damascus.
5. The Assyrians entered Damascus after King David.
6. By the end of the fourth century most of the inhabitants of Damascus were Christian.
7. Damascus became the capital of the Muslim state in 636 A.D.
8. Baghdad became the capital of the Muslim state in 750 A.D.
9. The Ottoman Turks ruled Damascus until 1516.
10. The French army entered Damascus after the defeat of Ottoman Turkey in WWI.
11. Syria became independent right at the end ofWWI.
12. The history of the Umayyad Mosque goes back to the Umayyad State.
13. Salah a)-Din (Saladin) is a weJJ-known Muslim commander.

u.;-

to pass (through) ~-:;..

0~ I

opening up, conquest ~

then, and then ~~ +~


the Nabateans J.t_;.'i I

the Umayyad State ~,..'it ~,.Ut

to open up, conquer ~

among the most ancient ("~1


the Babylonians

moving, relocation JL&:..;I

in spite of

r1:,

fame;.~

to lose~

during J~+.~i

prosperity .JU.; j I

defeat ~jJ.

World War I v1,'it ~la.JI "="_,.II

landmazks ~~
grave, tomb ~

army~

(well)-known ...;,_,-

mosque ~~4leader .l!.U

museums ....bt..i.

churches ...,..:.~

193

Passive Voice in Levantine


In contrast with~ (MSA), Levantine Arabic does not have an ''internal" passive. Instead, the prefix 0 1
is attached to the verb. "He was born" is expressed in ~as -:J~and in Levantine as .J:,.:.1.

Choose the one correct word from among those given in parantheses to complete each of the following
sentences.

o..IJ~ ( .:..~L..../ ~~~~L....i) 'i~ . '

c.F- (the Pyramids) ('IJ-A'il (.:...>j/ J.J~/Jlj) .~.'I'


.~I c.F- t;..i (~L...:i/~~/~L..../.:..~L....) LA~ .r
.( new)~~~ (1~/1~/~} r-"~ . f

~ u..!JI

c..i- ~ (~/~/~/~) d~ . f

Write down the meanings and the singular forms of the following nouns:

.............

............
............
............

............
............
............

J4-J.i

~,J...,.l

............

~l:i..o

............
............

.:..uL....
~L.-.o

............
............

''"'

............
............
............
............
............

_,.:a.....,

..:!~ I

~L....i
.,.,~,

Jl.,......i

J.JJ

194

Match each of the words in column \ with its opposite in Column "! There is one extra word in the second
column.

'
~~

r)l.,...,

oAij; .. ,
~.la

;(.i;t

. . . ...
uoe,

~l..u

~ .la l
.;

I.

ill

r.ut

t'-'3)

*l~i

~.u

~~

J~

~~1

'
~.ro
*"
'i ,JI
~l,.:.

'

~
o~~-'.JiP:

Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient Identify the one word that is not part of a family.

'

'

"

~ .L~ .~ rlla.... ~ .J~I ,.J.J .~L.. .L.l.i.... ou.l.i.JI


.~U....O .~)L. I,_. ou:U.... ~ ,4j 1WI t--4- .~1 .~ 1 ,~L.c.~ ,.J,_.
,

'

r.ui J-.J ou.Ui rlW I .~1 'J~ J'i.J ~ rS6. .~ .,.J- ~.U .,._.!,

Translate into Arabic


Aleppo(~)

is a large city in Syria. It has a population of about 2 million people. It is situated at an


elevation of 430 meters above sea level. Aleppo is the commercial and cultural center of northern Syria. It
bas a university called the University of Aleppo.

195

(Mjaddara: Rice and Lentils) i..)~


(Adapted from Classic Vegetarian Coolcingfrom the Middle East and North Africa by Habeeb Salloum)
Olive oil
4 TB
Brown rice
2 c.
Lentils (whole)
1c
S c.
Water
Cumin
It.
Ginger
It.
Cardamom Seeds4 (crushed, optional)
Cayenne pepper
1/8 to 1/4 t.
Salt
1 1/2 t.
Black pepper
114 t.

Topping
Olive oil
Onions
Cinnamon

4TB
2 medium, sliced into crescents
112t.

Heat oil in saucepan; add rice and lentils and stir-fry for about 3 minutes. Add remaining ingredients, except
those for the topping, and bring to a boil. Cover and cook over low heat until rice and lentils are tender and
water has been absorbed, about 25 minutes.
In the meantime, heat oil in a frying pan and saute onions until light brown.

Place rice-lentil mixture on a serving platter; spread onions evenly over top. Sprinkle with cinnamon and
serve.
(If using white rice, you would need to cook lentils in water for about 10-15 minutes. Take lentils out of the
water (and save the water). Follow the rest of the recipe.)

Cucumber Yoghurt Salad


(Goes with Mjaddara)

Mix:
Plain yoghurt
Cucumber, peeled, and diced
Garlic, crushed
Salt
Fresh mint (cut up), o live oil

2c.
4c.
1 clove
112 t.
to taste

\\O

196

J
J

--

L:.S oL..J r41 ,....~ ~~


~., J-.L:.., ~.J

.:.l:...t .~A L.:.... i.~I_,JI


t:....... \A i..la.I_,JI ~ r~l
i1.:;
- L..
.t....:........
- ~~~

.,

&..-\
'i~~~r1~' '
'i~.Jj .d .~~

u=o--' "

n .......)Jll ~ .:.-..)J t:....... ~ .r


n .....)Jll ~~ ~ .
'i ~A

,,....,.) u ~~ ..H1., ~~ rl

grandmother i~

''"

0 LS JJ., ~ .o

sometimes l:.~i

197

'" U./~ ~,u...;, t;::#


, _J;"

~.

I-

_r.:.; ......___

~_, --~' ~ _2.)

t> \.Q~_..)

'I C:,IJ....i~41 ~ .\

ns~rl '..J.J uJ}il v--.-1 ~ ~~.> ~-

:(.jt....

.>~I

L1 c:,IJ JL:i ~~."

'I uJ.>~ J.-.J C:,IJ ~ I .l'


'I C:,IJ ~ ~~.J

t l r5. .t

'I~ _,a-1 '..J.J ~~ c:,IJ ~l . o


'luJJ'il

guest~

opinion

C#i .>

t.? ~~j:..o~ ~ I ~I ~~.J'

neighbor

.>4-

correct J...H;...
by herself lAJ.a,J

\\V

>

g.
-:
(

0"

Q>

n
L
~c;

:rb~

-::- (

~'t_

'\: ~

- i 1'[

~.

f'
-! ~

<.

c:t

't_

itt
'b

t..

f.

<.

\. 1:
r'- '1' t..~

):

\..

.~ \: ~

1'.

'-

1;

1' f"

(.1

<.

.~"'\

e.

(\..

t ( l.

.1:"
~.c

'lA

(\. ..

~<.I.-~

!t

~
c:I.. 1'c
,, -~.
~ ,.: .t'.

[_

~ ~

' ~<.
~. ( . t; ~-, \
C.c:.~.

~ -

&1.' L~~
f.:-r., E ~- .g

L:.

b- 1~ \~ ,r'. !~"

i: ~

-. ~

f~~ f.~
'\
f ~

'.c

f r L.

E~
c

<:c

f' E

f.

. ..

l:..

1::

'\.

-~.

.r"
c
1::.
<.
~ 1: ~

f.'.

t r: t
\
..
(
f'
.
.

: \- ~

~ [ I;
~ - ~

c f.: (.
t ~ .r:

..{
f
.f.'\,~ .

t11. f
:~ f

f'
r1-

\~
.
<. c:. .

~:

199

~.J .,...._.::J.J..~ ~ LLA ~.l..o . - . , :"'i.J rJ


~ ~.J~

u ~ ~ ~.J~ oL..o.J,.,JI ~~

u-' 0 _,..:aWI ~.;.l..o ~LS (.S..I~I ~WI

0 .,:&JI ~1-l-:'.J u-=aWI 0 ~1 ~4-=a

. 0 Lo.J,.,JI ..1~ ~ 0 _,..:aWI '-"')J..A ~i

~ IF~.- . ., : .of.J .<:?..I~I ~L.....JI o.rl-11 ~ ~.J.>-:!-! o.J ol ... II ~.,rt-11 ~..1

~~

rs, ~ ~.J o.J ~:.:t.,..tl ~~ " ' .

~ ~.J. d~ o~~~ ~,.>A-ll u.J.u1

.~Lo.!.....JI U.JJ.ll ~iF~ . -., ... ,..j \O\"\ ~~.J . ~WI ~..IL.o~ ,.,.,,

u.....

~Lo!......JI ~.J - ~.J\JI :i~IWI ~.rJI ~ ~~~ U.JJ.ll ~..).A~ d.JjS ~.J
. 0~

J)U;a......,l

~ ~.J, \4\H' ~~I LA~.J

lf.L:i.J

0 ~~~

1. Where is Beirut located?


2. What is Beirut the center of in Lebanon?
3. Beirut is considered an important cultural center of the Middle East and the Arab world. Explain.
4. Beirut is an important economic center in the Middle East. Explain.
5. What is the origin of the word.::..._,~?
6. When did the Romans conquer Beirut?
7. When was the Beirut School of Law famous?
8. When did the Arab Muslims conquer Beirut?
9. Who conqured Beirut in the 12th century?
10. What happened to Beirut in 1291 and 1516?
11 . How long did the French rule Beirut?

more, most important

r;..';.::.

d ~u
to be considered .>-.::...;
'Y:- (._j.JL.....o.:. .c:J ....._~

that, those (f.) ~

company, corporation (S~

foreign ~i

tomean ~-~

word~

leader (i.lu .

bank

f.,Ai

law

o_,;.u

when U=+L.~
like this/that, as such +dJ .lS

"'

to graduate

economic

'!.l~l

well (.J~i
the Crusaders

.r;_) ~

oJ~:.: r 11

the Mamlukes d.:JWI

200

Write the one correct form of... ~_,J "alone" to complete each of the following sentences. The first one is
given as an example.

.I.A.l.:lo._,J

V" .).Li ~

: ... V".).Li

~~ .\

... t..........,.U ..:..~L.... (~i) . "


... ~l:JI
~ ...

vA l_,.:alS .r

t.:.SL.... .:...:.I . 1

... ~ .:!.1-;H ~

c:,SL.... .,.,. . 0

~~~~'"
J~l,.)~l ,.).u .~.WI . ~~~ .>~1 .~i 4>:' c,.rJI,J-.._,'JI ,.J.:.._,:J.I . ~
0~ ~

Lf.:at.S..,.., ................... ~~

.~~..LA

.r.aSi, u~ ~~ ..;:.,_,~

.... .. ............. ~\JI ~ ~_,...!JI ~L..JI ~ ....... ............ ~..,..C ~ ~


....................

L~l ..>SJ-AJ J~~~~J~I_,~lll.JI

r&IWI " ...................................... --b


.. ..

..
-

' -::"
~ ~~

~i 0;-J .l+il...-.4 (>A ~.;-a-11 ~WI i.U (>A

.
1'<1-11
..>- J-A

jS..,.ll ~_,

r-A,.~ ..;:.,_,~

................... J..u

[~

.u_, ~.;-a-11

...;:.,._,...r;;;-;
............. , ....t ~
~\J I .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .;:.,lA...W
I db
- ..,.,
~

~USJI_, ~L...J.I ~ ................... .;:.,4~1 (>A


~L.J.I_, ~.:

:,:I. 11_,
a

J.: . < J~ ..:;.,_,~ ~-'

uL._,~I ~.)~I ~JL:; e-~

....................

~W.I

........... ........

Jal.C

..

................... .;:.,L.l......aJI_,
d.J.A

. ~L...!t.....JI

dl_,:a\JI_,

~~',. .r

,u_, 'c..r-'.;-a-11 ~WI_, ~_,\JI J.,_.!JI :.i ib . ~


&

tlll.JI j.SI..,.ll ~i (>A..;:.,_,~

L....o4JI .,:.,l.....o4JI db ~j 0;-J . ~l.....o4- (>A c..r-'.;-a-11 ,._JWI iJ~ (>A~ J~ [~


. ..;:.,_,~ ~ :.i~<.:.J-0\JI

'(

..

20 1

\.

\
\

'\'

r
i
0

'v
A

\
\.

~>..,..s
~ ~ ~ J..-.A~I .\

..::..1.;~1~~ . ,.
"wei;.

....,.-!.;&. (Jette~ ....i,ro. ~I

.r

<_,.,.Li. ~ .!
~.;r!. ~

.o

~ ..:..l.;l~...... ~ '

-~4- ~ ~ -~ .) ~

( prepositio'l ~ ....i,roo ~ t ~ .;1" .; ~ . \

~J,.-J I L...a.Lc . Y
'":-'~I

t i .r

~ .!
(~~)

u.,J .o

~ ~t:.

.'\

.v

-~~r .;~.v

(~~) ~ ~ . A

(~_,s.....) ~ . A

O...o .\

(t...._,s.....) ~ O...o ...

.;L-! r J~ ~ ..:..L.o_,!.a...o. .) ~ . '

~~ ,Ji ~~~ '

- ~~

". '

202

My steamboat cleaved the sea and its waves went up high


I don't know my friend (whether it is the) water or the
longing overcame me.

J_,.. ~ ~1_,..1_, ~I ~(SJ.H4


'
. J_,.!..ll ~ ~,;JI L.. ;;.. ~ 4 ~,;JI L..

My steamboat is going, my steamboat is coming


My steamboat is loaded with sugar and tea

~~J-H4 ~IJ ~~J~J-H4

~J .}..- ~ ~J-H4

My steamboat is going to Beirut

.~_,~ ~ ~IJ (SJ.H4

Going to bring corals and rubies

.~_,..4_, ~4-.)-A ~ ~IJ

Because of the distance (separation) 0, my beloved, I am going to die

.~,..lc.l,;~4~~

Please get me a drink of water before it's too late.


In the name of God, 0 steamboat, go faster

.~ t.,.

a.
'=-II Uj(..,
.~
~.",_.
.

J-H4

4 ~ UJ I J.:i,.J

And with my heartbeat turn and go around

, J-'J" ~ ~ UJ ~"

Between me and them (there are) seven seas

',)~~~"~

Please burry, don't go slowly.

~~~~~>/~

Heat up your steam to 2000


Make baste and beat the eyesight

.~\'~d,;~~
.~l.,.l;..:a ~1.-_,t.,......l_,

If you knew, 0, steamboat, where you're going

~ ~IJ .....~ _,J J-H4 4

You would fly above the water.

.WI
-.....o.. I .L .L~I
IJ.r-~u~~

203

'ldll~~rS'

'I~~WI 4_....J,UI dll~ V"JJ ~J. \'

"~J....:!I~ .r
'l~.r-~ CJ~ ~Ir--A~ L.. ..H1J ~1 v4J .1
'lt:......JI ~ ~.r-1 ~ 4_....1J..UI_, ~I~ r5- .o
'Iilli~ ~fi ..:.~_,....>t-~1 ~4- ::,1 ~ ....i.::,a.,...:. r1

College of Commerce, Business i .)~I


.

:4'.1<
-

ticket i,.,S~
to bring, get

~-'-:-'4-

v4J '

secondary <::';:.~
travel

_,L..

to cost ~-.Jk
enough t.r'lS

204

J.c ~--.:a~~~ t:., 'W.\ \--! ~


~t..~

~ V"J~ ~IJ c.)IJ ~.J. \

~~~IJc.JIJ~.J Y

'l'i .Ji

U.!. ""'!>.J c.:,IJ .r

~u~~u'~~~~J~~-'":'i~t.t
~~~c.:,~...J~~_,...!.-'":'i.o

subject. course i~L..

literature '-:'Ji

t--

until now, so far ~ ~

together ~

thanks a lot ~~ i~

all of it ("from its beginning to its end") LA _;.1,.'i

Lf..(,i v--

don'tmention it! !~I.J ~ i~ "J

'(. t

:<
O

t ~- :r. ~

t [r l

.C\_ ,.

'\

~r-

<.a

l ~-

f 1

.t

f ~

r l

~'

'

-1

C.
'E

_,

1
'-

<.-

Ci

.f
'f . f se [ t ~
! 1
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E \. .t1'1 Cc: _ f (;t;.
~
~
t- -l<. . -J t t
~

,.1

c. r.- c. J
t -.
~ ~ t~

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f l:~ tr:

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~ c
't
\ 'r
~ . ~ ...

.r [

1r

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c: ~-

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.( ~ <i . - ~
l ~~ ~ J 1

t'.

(1

fl

r- .F-,1r f .f:

~ r~ 1~ r It [
~I\ t c: -

1' .r . C

t-

<:1

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~~~

c._

1=-.

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-

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1' V\ \-

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t
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1

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\- t~

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:f

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~~

f",

r
r

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f;

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N

206

"'

J~ 0~ ~~~ i.J.riJI ~~~ c.,?.J ~~ i.l-o i,; _,


I

"'

<0

~,;-li,)L....c ,- .! i:
1

oJ}il J~ u_JJ ~~ ..::...;~ ''"' ~ ~.J ~..b..U L.........:a " ~~~

t..,:aLS....

~\J ~1->-"""!.J '-:-',...UI ~ '\'\V '-:-'~.J \\!A'-:-'~~ j~ 0 ~ 0 lS.... J~ Jlj


~4-:JI 1.J~ U!::L~ .. Iill ~ j~

~"~~~0~
~~~I ~4 u-1~ ~~~I.J ~~~ ~.J ~J.:JI.J~.WI ~ ~~ ~
~i.;_,....!.ll ~.ro"YI.J ~.J.;.J"YI JJU..iJI t.J~.J ~~~..:..~I dl.:t..A . ~.WI)!~I.J

~.J.;.J"YI ~.;Lo..H_,_....JI" t.J~ dl:u\ .~.u.JI ~~~ JI_,_..,\JI ~4 ~IJ

~I 0 ~~ &:lJI J4,.,.JIJ ~.u.JI ~LUI ~4 ~IJ .~ *i:~l ~.>-0\JIJ


,

"''

I~.)~ '='""LL tJ~J \:~~~'il" '='""LL dl:..A . ~_,.:JI i.J~~J

l. Where is Amman located? How far is it from the Dead Sea?


On how many mountains (hills) was Amman built at the beginning?
31On how many hills is it built now?
4~ What was Amman's name when it was the capital of the Ammonite kingdom?
51When was Amman's name changed to Philadelphia?
6~ Who ruled Amman after the Seleucids?
7~ When did the Persians conquer Amman?
8~ When did Amman become part of the Islamic Arab state?
9. What was the population of Amman at the beginning of the 20th century?
10. When did it become the capital of East Jordan (Trans-Jordan)?
11. What happened in 1948 and 1967? How did that affect Amman?
12~ What do you find in Amman side by side with Eastern (Oriental) markets?
13. What do men smoke and drink in the old coffee houses?
2~

to be built, rise

r~-ru

~~~

ruler~La

like~

to take refuge ~

the Seleucids 0~_,J......J I


only ~Li';

~4- ~I

so, and so \.J

coffee house, cafe (~U:. .~) ~

branches tJ..>-i

next to, side by side

who (pl.)

+~lJ I

waterpipe ~_,;.
1

beginning

Refer to the discussion in the Grammar appendix under "The Conjunction ..J".

men

J4-J

.. .

to smoke 04-~-04-J

207

1. Choose the correct form of the word

In the following exercise, based on the reading selection of this lesson, choose the one
correct word from among those given in parantheses to complete the sentence. Then
compare your choice with the form used in the selection.

(Lfi.:Jij~~/Lo~) j.S.>-4 ~.J ~ ~.u ~i.J 0.J}il L--a~ 0L.a..c


/01Sw..u/~).J .U.J.l.ll ~
(c.s,;l~l/iJ~IJ<.SJ4=a)
j.S~I.J ~.JJ)'I
.. ~~I.J
..
..
-

~~ 0.JJ)'I 0lS...... ~ 0~ ~ (0lS...JI

~ .u...;u.J .~1 ~I J~ (J~IjJL-.!.) :i ~':t


(J~If~/J4) ~~

ib , o ~ 0~

ti.:a

.(~Yo)~~~ t. ~~~
.
..
"'
.(J~If'i4/~) '->-!~~~I~ 0YI r_,.i.:j ~.J ,Lo.JJ ~J.A ~
~

r_,.i.:j ~IJ..;JI ~ ~LS

:i

jt.:........j4....:a....-JI) ~'ii ~~ ~ ~j ~LA~~~ ~~ ~J....4 0~


~ J " (~lf4..6.. . .:i Iff"-'""1) 0l.S.J , ~~I U .J.l.ll L--a~ ~I.S . ( ..:J I~ If..:J 1_,.:,.....,

~~ ~l..:a~lrSWI~j~.J0l..:a~I.J0~4JIItS, u;u~1 ~.J 0~


~ ~~ ~.J . "4-i.JJ~" 0~ ('.

r \ H

U.,.,.,
~

...

'iljl.

...

ljr-"""'iljr-"""1) J~ . U"_,_i.JJ~

~ '-"')_J1 ~.J 0 Lo.J.,.JI ~.J . 0 Lo.J.,.JI ~ ..b4.:81 ~ 0 /:_,L.....II 0 ~


,

U.J.WI ~I "~ ..:JJ~.J 0J ol,.ll ~.,>-A-ll4b.J

r \'\.

(t:a........Jij..:JI~/~) ~.J

.(~lj~)l.....'ilj~)l.....lj4-o)l.._l) ~~I

Jerash (J. ..>-'!') is located in a mountainous region at a distance of about 50 km north of the city of Amman,
the capital of Jordan on the main road ~_,JI ~_,J..JI) between Amman and lrbid (~J!) It is famous for
its ancient Gree'k and Roman ruins. Jerash is a small city with a population of about 40,000 people. Jerash
became famous during the time of Alexander the Great(~ I J~'i I) in the fourth century B.C.

Y.Y

208

~~~6~1~J 1~1
. G..G'-~ ...,40 "'-'-.ll ~.VI_.

- ( ~~~-'J-~)

~ ~..,U.......~ I . \

n.:...JI ~ vA..,U......, .W ~I . Y
n~L 4:0L..~ ..::..:.~.,~~I

0 L.....:&...I

vA ~ l.ll ~ ..,U....... ~~I .T


~ ~.,...1 vAV"-'~ ~ ~ .f
HLI.i.
I v-o
.o
- ..,U....... ~

end ~4:'
.,
., ,

tmportant rLA=~

class, grade ~

the Tawjihi exam

~_,:&.II

0~ I

grade~~

topass

"'11

high

~I.

except

afraid ~l.i.

'LA

math ..=..~~J

209

~ UI;-.
~ Uli

"t:.J~~C:,IJ~.\

~ ~.J ~ l>-!.J . "


.11 C:.J~ C:,IJ ~I ( agr~ J.ii.J ~_,...!. ~j .r

H~ l .~ J.;.l....J.........:

JSi

c:,IJ .!

~ uA:.o.>A c:, IJ ~ .~_,...!. ~j ~~ .> ~ . o

~ ~_,...!.

~~

I hope you're OK

rt~t .) ~ uA:.o.>A y. ~ ."

request, call ~-.).J..

'
~.J

sick~;..

stomach~

head '-"' 1.>

poor, unfortunate ~

fatigue~

to be sick ~..>-"

everything ~~ JS

to come out ~-eJ..b

pam
luck, lot

210

.,.

1-i~1 ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ,J-.....J'il J_,...!.JI ~ l...o ~LS.... ~ "-'"'.uJI ~.l.-o ~

~~~J ,~t-.,.<:j.Ji " ~J~ ~. '.i.,.-b" ~J...o 0-o ~_,..a..JI '-="~I ~I~
."~lj.:U" ~J~ ~ r~l JIJ" ~.l..o ~ ~,.>i-11 JL....!JI ~I~~~~~)
\..t

~l...o~ Ir-A' ~J

0! .I, IIJ \)!.:

, '

, .: ,. IIJ J~l ~ L...,J..i.....o ~.l.-o "-'"'.uJI

~J .~'il ~IJ (<.>"':WI ,r.alJI) t...4l.JI

.~1 .b..:al::.. ~ 4...-illl

4i , .: .<J

~'~
~~~ ~ 4.J.A

:i

ib . II ~I ~~J ~ '-""..u.JI ~.l.-o ~~LL:aS.JI ~

~J-6 ~ ~~~ -~JJJi . ~.u1 r---1 ~u;:J rJ t . u....,~~~ ~:~1


.~1.>-"-"1 ~ 4 . k
~

.)-OJ

~JL-.J r J ' U... ~~~"-'"'.WI JJJIJ dlll ~I

r J oA'\ t.:,....., ~J . J....:UliJ ~.UI J_,_..., ~I

V"JU

. ~L.LaSJI UJJ~ r~~

J~ dL. U"J~L..... dill~)

.: I , dill~

rJ \V .

r J orA t.:,....., ~J ' '-"'.WI v44JI

t.:,....., ~J

~:b.~
. J~

"'

211

V. t:a.....,~_, ("~I~ ,~1 ~ ~~ ~j ~ vu.J..i.JI wL._,.,_JI ~

wl.o_,~l ~ ~ ~ ~_, '\ \ro t:a....., ~ w~J.jLA u;...j ~ vu~ u;...j \


wJ .I ,.I I'-:-'~ I 4L:i-.j ~ (" \ \'\ t:a.....,
I

.h

u-1 I \ U

t:a....., ~ vu..u..l I vu.ri-J I ~I

,1\.\\~~J("\\\'-\\\~iJ; .oll~l f:: tl~_,.,\r'Ati.....u

t:a....., ~ ~ .1 ... 1 I~ ~I ~J ~-' ,<i "::,::"'. W... ~ I.,_.L..:ii_,

wJ::: ::1 .all

~_, ~~'/1 ~.l.ll C~ J~l ~WI i~ ~.I"' I I~ ~ u..>-L- ~ \\AV


~:::::l.oll

Indicate whether the following statements are true (I) or false (F).
1. Jerusalem is located to the southwest of the city of Tashkent and to the northwest of the city of Dar
is-Salaam.
2. Jerusalem is considered holy by Jews and Muslims only.
3. The al-Aqsa Mosque is located in Jerusalem.
4. The Sacred Tomb is another name for the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
5. The Canaanites came from the Arabian Peninsula.
6. King David built Jerusalem.
7. King Solomon built the Jerusalem wall.
8. King Cyrus of Persia destroyed Jerusalem in 538 B.C.E.
9. The Romans ruled Jerusalem during the time of Jesus Christ
10. Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 C ..E. and in 135 C.E.
II . The Muslim Arabs conquered Jerusalem in 629 C.E,
12. The Crusaders ruled Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187 C.E.
13. The Crusaders defeated the Muslim leader Salah al-Oin in the battle ofHitteen in 1187.

places ~L.i
Church of the Holy Sepulcher L41J I

al-AqsaMosque ~,.1 ~I

the Wailing (Western) Wall ~I .J...:.LA.

'

,~

the Holy Tomb U"i.UI

.
;

~I

tobuild ~

Dome of the Rock ~I ~

the Canaanites 0~t.....:.S.l I

temple~

wall J.J--

=~)

Nebuchednezzar;..:. l:i.~

after that +dJ j

to return (something)
Jesus Christ

0l.G

a certain place L.

~I~

battle

u:;:.

Alexander

J~1

Peace Be on Him (")l...JI

212

(Synonyms) o\i.)\_)t\ '

Match each ofthe words on line 1with its synonym in line ':-t There is one extra word in the second line.

t1

t.:....... ~ ~~~1 ,~_rL. 'vA ~~~ .~_,\JI t.Fi~l .~.U.I ~

~' v-JlJ\ ~.Jt;

.
~I 'o'V ~ 0-a '-"'~I ....................... <.J~I
-

~..)-A

....... . ...... .. .......

I I

II

':!'""'~~

a.

<..)":

I . .J
"'!'II I.......

'i
I

II di~'JI ~

~~'

,.,v
~

............... .. .... ..

.............. . ....... . ~b,.lt~~ ~.J ~W~~~~~~I.a.,,IJ

(>.a

c,r._raJ I ....................... ~I->'"'""~ I ~I J:._.,.l

I ''

t A ~ ~ .J~ I.J ~.,_a.J I

. (~.J.i.JI ~.UI) .. .. ....... ............ ,~1 ~.JJ'JI ~~ ~I.J (i~~~ ~.loll) ~.UI
1

..1 ~~~ """"


, .~......,.11 ~~ ~

~~--- ~

""v u...., .......... ... .......... , ~i ~u...., "

....................... ~ JSL!..!I .... o j (ro '-"'~I

"':?'

:i

.......
dJ,j

.J-,.A...a.j

I<.~. .J . ~.J...i.JI ..................... ..


. ~ b , .I .J ~'-->--! 0::-! r~'

Using the reaing selections about Amb cities as a model, write a pamgmph or two about Muscat, the capital

of Oman. Refer to the following map and an encyclopedia such as the Encyclopedia of the Orient or
Wikipedia.

213

. ~o_,it~.,~~l~~

~.>-"j ~4 ~ t.)"J..l4..f

_/'~-

~..,

::x:::;:::2

~
~

'

0
0

~~
-<- }
&..:t
. ~~..l~l~~~t:.......rS'

~ U"_,.u (collect, save) ~ .~ ~ ."


~ (..,~ .. IL,. ~~~ -.

- ..r-- . v -

~ U",U

4-a-- c:,tS

l,jl ~.>-"\' ~~

4.J

--.'1"
C::.-'>"".llA.,...,<
v--

I~ ..1la...... ,J.Ai ~ .t

~~oWS'
to collect, save (money) ~-~
toallow ~-~

to think
in any case

A- fo

JL.. JS ~

even if _,J ~

2 14

'ic.,r.~ '-/_, c.,r.~ rL- ~ .T


-""!'1 !)~ ~IJ ,.S .1

'iU-!..JI

How many?

~ ~ 1_,

r-S

furnished

for the sake of

c.}._,~

ow. ~

-"(

'

[~, ~

<:.

--

C :

1' :; ~

l:.:

c
r:.:.

<.

<;:

~~

'

:r

~t
=E
_
....
~ -,. .t.

t~ i.fr
\- c~.

<.

1-

~ ~~

1 - r-

- r
1.E
~ [II

(; I

t :l. . [.,.

[
C

~ f :"t
~ 1r ~ r-

~ 1..

-rE[

~~ [ ' "~ L.
L

'L_t
lr <> t

'l f.
-It f'

'E

.t

e.

<.

l-

<r.

{<.-

t. -

--

~
...

r
1: .-k

i'

{ ~

<:-

f. \-

f t.

f '-

~- '1..

""'
L[
0

. ,f
.f.
[
~
~' <.''"

l
I

<t~

~
~- f.

I.

.f.1..
<.-

~~
~

Er

,.<:-

f f'

.~

~ c:

-. ~
~

L. ~..'

<.

-t ' f'.

(.

'-:. \

!:: ~h

r.
t'

E
'1...

~~l

<;..

f:

"' ..

'"

,I'll

... i-i<~--~-~':j.,._.

~-:.

'&t

' ;J;,.>/..",, <

...

':', Ylj

.....
...
.:. . t~~~~ ~ ~'ih-'".

'

:'.'~";><':'
.. ;,. ..,.' ''~\,.-'. '. .','

~-

g
~.

~ell

V.

216

..,.~~

JL.....!JI v-o
;,-:.,oi, _
~I ~-~
- :(.9- "'-II ti..AJI

I .. ~Y..-'il
~

i .,J.a.UJI ..~i
-

4-AI,_...,i, 4 ~~.all ~JI~ 'bJ.J f .~. 0 ..~\'1 blA.J ~~~~~~~I~~~


. ~..Wil.A~t.....-,

le.< ... .! ~~~~J.i.JI ~ 4ib . o ~ 4~ oY..-~1 i_rAliJI .. ~j ~ ~~~ u-11

. 4~b.ill ~L.:.S.JI ~ J~.J ~I,

"'"'

~4:a- ~ 1.-. .!

f/11

\'

~ 0 ~..,..-.111

4J --~.J
- .J~I u-1
- ~~1,.11, .jl
I<'~

tO

,.!

""',.
0

j , ;II~

~.J .i_rAliJI .la4Ji

"'.!.J ~ ~ ~~ .)S.)-4

i'il_,

dJ.l v
... . .-_._ ~,J
- . .t...Lal.ID.,...
II ,J ~L.oJ..:iJI

._,.-wl
u+i
..

i)-~-~-11, ULi.~.ll, ~~~ ~j-0


,
L

i u-o
. (.$~. \'I

'!

LWI ~
. '-'~~
. ; . -'I

.~I.J ~~1_,.11 ~ i~

Indicate whether the following statements are true (I) or false (F).
1. Cairo is the largest city in Africa.
2. Cairo is the cultural capital of Egypt.
3. Cairo is surrounded by desert from all sides.
4. The combined poplation of Cairo and surrounding areas is about 8 million people.
5. The Copts lived in Cairo before the arrival of the Muslims.
6. The Muslim neighborhoods of Cairo are found on the east bank of the Nile and the Coptic neighborhoods
on the western bank.
7. There are old markets in the Muslim neighborhoods of Cairo.
8. Egyptians refer to Egypt as Cairo.
9. Egyptians leave Cairo to other areas of the country in search of work.
10. Cairo suffers from problems oftransporation and housing.

the Copts J.t;i"J I


neighborhoods ~t;.l

to surround suburbs

f -

J,.....,.

bank :i'i.o

_, ,

to name, call ~-~

amval

narrow~
"' ,

~-.l.lA-1

life i~

'->:"

.
-"',
nnportance
~~

job ( ...J!.U.~ . c;) ~~

service (.:..L..~ . c;) t.. ~

for (the sake of) ~i

to result

'

- -
~~

217

The preposition t-" "with" is used to indicate possession. The main difference between
~ indicates

and t-- is that

possession or ownership in general, while t-" tends to indicate possession at a particular time:
I have (own) a car.

.>4-~~

I have the car key (with me now).

~ i }~...J I C. L:.i...

As in the case of ~. different "possessessors" are indicated on t-o by attaching the relevant possessive
pronoun:

,'

he has

rna'

u...

she has

ma'ha

they have

ma'hum

you, m.s., have

ma'ak

you, f.s., have

ma'ik

you, pl., have

ma'kum

I have

ma' i

we have

ma'na

.
'

0~\_)1)\ ~' . \
~_,A.~ I ~.r-J.I ' t-"4-JI

0---.J ................ ... r-JWI


~~I

,t.....4-_, '<,F"~"'I ~..>-" <r? .....L..t..:al , ti...., .i,.>AWI rJWI


<W~l:C..JI_,
"
~1.11
~

.rJ~I
. . _t.J-A WI-~
r:- ...................
~

4J.l...a.....o ~j 4>-o.J ~~~I ................... ~ ~~I j...SI.,J-1 (...Ai

""
~V ................... ~
w~WI ~i (.Sl.JI
_;Aj\JI .................. .
I

-.

L.w, ~

..'"U
- <r
-:.tlb .)AWI-U...O~
I

If"

. -b J..,......_,.
~~ ~ 'I ..:_,u....,o~
I I II.(j-0 ,J
~

b_JAL.iJI ................... ~_,_...o\JI LA-~1_,


"111,,a..::...
.... _~_.O,J .................... ' ....
'-""'"'""

---

(\\o.) ~ ~ ................... \~ . A
.(\\ '~)

11taJ,J
I

~ 11 . .................. 1...)-A,J

,.

L . :a II

'\'\V

i,;II,J ..

218

Fill in the empty cells in the following table.

4-a..o<JlS:

_,A

~
; .:.I

-.,

~<JlS:

r-A
~I

~I

L.:ai

Follow the instructions for the writing exercise in L. 34, and write one or two paragraphs abotu Doha, the
capital of Qatar.

(J.~~' ~..)) i..~ e-..)t... :.i;;F.\ .t


t..y.,.,.J I t-"

Travel in safety,

~L..

And come back [to us] in safety,

,t..)I.......I4W~~

And we will see you in safety

.t..y.,.,.J4

dl~_,

. t..y.,.,.J I t-"

~L..

~ ~i ~ ..::..41~ ~I

Write letters, dearest love,

~ ~ ~I..::..L..~ ~1_,

And send greetings, put out my flame,

~~

They might reassure me,

~ ~..:,.:.1_,

While you are far away from me.

. t..y.,.,.J I t-"
'(\A

~L..

219

~ JL....i..:JI

J,......J C: IJ ~ . \

~.~ J~i c:IJ ~.J ."I'


~t~ J~i ~ J~~I #

0 LS ~ .T

~t ~ ~ ~ J.J~I #

0 LS ~ . f
~ o-- .o

~~l,_,.i.ll_, JL....i..:JII.S~I

~~l_,.ill_, JL....i..:JII.S~I L.. ~ c:l.> ~.J '


~!S~I t.-J_#~ .v
~~vlJL.:i~I.A

i~~ow.r

t~

as you (pl.) know I_,.;~ L.. ~

be reasonable! !~ ("1.>=-

piastre vt~

seller, vendor

how much, what is the price of! ~ ~

rS

less than (J-a

JAi

pricing i~

cucumbers .>~

this ll.A= .:...

God~~
high prices, inflation ..)ll

220

~ ..:J.L...U .,. ..>-'4'

..;...,s.~t

~ ' ;.,.........

,.s.r

..r JS-

~
~ ~ i .J.J~ (kind, type) t.,:O rS

~~..tl.;Jii.J.J~I #

.\

~ .Y

~ <JlS.ill .J4AJI J-.J ~I .T"


~'='..tl.:J' .)_,.1.4 ~~~1 .

~(S~I <JIJ4.SI_,..i_, } .-~l.o


~ t l J .)~J rS .'
~~l&t.J V

local, domestic C:S~

according to ~

to sell ~-t. 4

fresh ijUa

watermelon~

total t.~

honey~

like~= ~~

grapes~

forsure ~i

rw

my dear sir C:S~ 4

hand ~~I

butcher shop ~

butcher

221

~I_, JJj~l ~I

-,

i ;I

0-o ~~I ~I c,JIJ~I J..,._.!. ~ i~..r:JI

t.i:a

r i ~~ ~,H ~~ ~, r~..r:JI JL-...!. ~~ ~-H ~ ~w uA--}-/il


.c.Jl.oJJ

<:r-~-' (.#Jl..:o=a

.:i: .a;!l

.,)S,ro ~_, .c,JIJ_,.....JI ~ <.:J~I_,.!I_, iJIJ~I .,)S,ro ~ i~..,.=.JI

~JI~ U_,~l " i~~l" Hb .

0-o_, J.:U.JI.,...:. 0-o

~~ tJ_,.JI ~ i lA

..._..~~'~
'i~..PJI t.rJ-i.rt~UJI

tA...o4_, i~~l ~4 ,iJ~I i~~l rJU.... 0-o


. ~~~~~~. j .... ;ll_, ,~IJ_,.....JI ~_,.11 . j .... ;ll_,

'(Y\

222

<:?_,..-.11

u~: ?'II

-IJ<,. ,
""

~11 ~

.:.ULS, 'A'O u....., ~


I

r~~l

,
.-,.....
'b

Jlj, If Q?', ~ ..l..i.J ~ I LAJ~1, L......I..,JI4-cJI~ /: Q:.1, uiJ~I ~


-<til
-til
*
,
. ~~I ~,>iJI ~ ~~WJI ~ L.LA ~J~ ljS.,... .-., :oi ~ l..,:alS.,.., J.1.C
,

.' 0 i,,r,_b~I " J..t:.;S:" bJ~.,:a~~l~l~l 'N\AU.....,~

U,J ~ .-.,.: .oj '\o"\

t:....., ~"' ~~.r.JI-<:?_,..-.11 ~I p~j

"'

JY-:JI Lo......ou

.. . ,

.fit;, .. II uiJ_,...J I
,

1. Where is Khartoum located?


2. What connects Khartoum to the city ofU,m-Dunnan?
3. Why is Kharoum an important co~mercial and industrial center in Sudan?
4. What museums are found in Khartoum?
5. When was Khartoum founded? What was it originally/
6. What distinguishes Khartoum?
7. When did it become an important commercial center?
8. What happened to Kharoum in 1898 and 1956?

the Blue Nile JJj~l ~I

meeting point ~

to connect, tie ~.>:.'-~J

bridge~
for, because of J

farm

(ti;. .~) 'i.e.~";.


army .. -

wide (~ ~)

during

e:;-'
.-"

size~

J)la.=+.. Wi

, I

camp fi....to be distinguished by ~


' :. - J-:!:-IW
' :.

.1.&

.-

JL..=.&
under the leadership of ,)~
independent ~

223

Choose the correct form of the word


In the following exercise, based on the reading selection of this lesson, choose the one correct word from
among those given in parantheses to complete the sentence. Then compare your choice with the form used in
the selection.

(J_;.))'Ij J_;)) ~I~ U-o ~~I u-11 !,)IJ_,_....JI J~ ~ \_,_b_ri.JI ~


~i ~_, r_,_b.riJI JL.....!. (~.u~;~..w.)~ ~..na ~ l.!.lt..:u. .~)'I~~_,
.!,)Lo_;J ri ~.1.6.:' 4-b-:t~

fj..S>-) ~-' . !,)IJ~I ~ ..::..~1_,.11_, 6)J11 (~_;llf~>-) ~ \_,_b..PJI


,
,
4 i b-, u-o_, ~I (~If >+a) U-o ~_,:u U_,.JI ~\LA ~L.:w:._, ~-.>~ (~_;11
o

.4! .o;IJ 4-e)~ U_,,>AlJ " 6._n~~J"

\_,_b_ri.JI ~4

(_; e-. .t;.lj6_;~1/ _;~1/ "'-' e .':. a) \_,_b_ri.JI ~LL..o '-ro

. t , -,1 1_, .~IJ,.....JI (~_,/~_,Jij~_,) 9., iII_, '\_,_b~l t_ri-6j-AUJI ~4_,

~~~~1'

; ,

I_;< ... ,

~~~ ~ (!.ifi=a/~l.S/ I.)LS)_,. \A~\ U..... ~ \,_b..PJI .- ....

L........I_,JI ~_;I~ j~

(0_;-Ajlfl.),y-:a) &-o

,.w

~:.._, .!,)IJ_,_....JI ~ (~1/~~1/~~/~) w'i: ?II

/4-=alS......./I.)tS......) J~ Jlj_, I
~I

""

?', ~ ..U_, .(~/6~1/6~) LA)-?.--!.i_,

..::..~L-!..11

* ""

,_

u-i LoLA 4-.>~ lj.SJ-4 .-. ., !'

.,
0

1~

(l+ai.LJI
.y!...c

Write a paragraph or two about Abu Dhabi. Follow the instructins given in LL. 34 and 35.

224

PHONE

\
~
~t:J~~~tA~~ - '

~uiS ~" "


~c.;~

4-l ~" v-- .r

~~ .:..:OIS ~1.

~'-"',WI .:..:OIS ~-' .o


~I ..LoS

...,. _. '-""L.:. ...J~.,.. . '

handbag ~ Uo..:....!.

225

~ ~IJ J~.J 0 1J ~.J . \


~ L,tJ}j.J

J-.J L,tiJ ~ I . Y

~ V"J~ 0 1J~I .l'

i~.b:- oWJ"
tourist
by the way

~L...

~ u1c

you (fonnal) d.:;~


employee

....ll.;..

~ ~

~I

1
\

<.

~:
- ~r <.~

<. <.-

~ .fl t
~ ~- t-,
~~~
:.. C '\

<.

l.

<r..

~r,

-~.... t

.c;:

,__'

l
f 1. .

' ,:
E
- ~-

[: <.[' 1
c ~

<.

I.

~t~

sf.'-

l-

r'

f'

.t:~<r <c.t.f, 'f <r... .

-<.~-~....

't l,,,f ~cc: ~ ~~f 1.

i:.t :( t

rttt~

~~ 1J
t :r.t
- ~ '\,

<.

~- rc .r <..~ . ~'

,e

~ ~ . . <r. ...

[""

~'

~~ rat:1

t'
-cy

.,.

rt

~ t:

-....

fl,

<;

~\, .r.f. i<c: l- 1-1. r. \r


-r ~f :t f.' '- ""!.. ~ t. ~
1
't 1. f '.' .r ';j {:
-l ~'t\
f'- r~ .- "~ ,l''1 ~:.t ~[', t<r.. 1.'1' <-,[. 1:t 'f);- .r:t
o-r
~
'. . .r. It. '.
~
~
r
'
f E <....~ t ~: .r~<.~ I f r

t. t

<;

l.

f1
~ t
t:.. l.~

c-:. ~

.r\.t l{f

L. , -

[-t.:

:lA ~

C
~ ~

\ . f 1. r,1

.t :

. I

'L.
t~~ -.....

~:

~:

227

~J4-=JI_, ~u...-.11 ~ J.A.AJ..J ~I ,_,~LA ~JJJYI_, ~~'0-o ~.& Lt~i ~"'

.;

.; *

, ,

~LA~ ~:i:': elfwl ,.- ~~-'~~.WI~~ ~Jl.:i ~ ~~._j~ 'i

rJ u' ~~ 4Lb..rl'~' L-~ 0 L-,.,Jt' ,h . . ,~ rJ '-""JL....Jt 0 ,;-&Jt


~.:UI LA~ 0 LS_, ~J~I ~L......IIw.>&JI ~ ~~11 cr.._>-t-11 ~I~ ..::..jAJjl_,
. \oV~ ~ u-11 '""A~ 0-o ~"':.oj.,.lf ~ 0-o.J ~

Indicate whether the following statements are true (1) or false (F).
1. The city of Tunis is located on a lake.
2. There is a port in Tunis.
3. The Museum of Arts and Antiquities is located at the University of Tunis.
4. The University of Tunis was originally a mosque that was built in 732 C.E.
5. The ruins of the City of Carthage are located inside the modem city of Tunis.
6. The ancient section of Tunis is similar to the ancient sections of other Arab cities.
7. The ancient section is the Islamic section.
8. France ruled Tunisia from 1881 to 1956.
9. The modem section ofTunis flourished after independence from France in 1956.
10. The population of the modem section of Tunis increased dramatically because of work opportunities.
11. Historians are certain that Tunis was built by the Phoenicians in the sixth century B.C.E.
12. Tunis prospered after the Arab Muslim conquest of the seventh century.
13. The golden age of Tunis was around 146 B.C.E.

i.,\IJ.t!:"
.. oWJ'

port .. ~
art

(o_,.:..;. d

.~-

beautiful~

.- .

lake (little sea) ~

to connect ~~-~J

. 4U.
, ....

Carthage

_,.i

neighborhood, quarter of a city i } .....=( .. ~i . ~) :;.

to resemble ~-~1

l..i

other than it, her LA~

as for...

. .. -..i . ..

to prosper _,A~jl
number (..1l.ui -~) ..1.u
it is believed
golden age ~J ~

""v

to last

:,...:......'=r'"'

periodoftime ~j .~:,::.;.:;
to immigrate ~LA
the Phoenicians ~ ~ i.: . .: i If

228

The Accusative of the Absolute(~ I Jy.U I)


Jlb..ll J,.u.l I is a noun derj.ved directly from a verb with which it is used in the same sentence. It is always
assigned the accusative case. A literal English translation would sound redundant. In the following sentences,
J.U..ll J,a.UI is written in boldface. (More on this in the Grammar appendix.)
The population increased a big increase.
(The population increased greatly.)

0~~.,.)~
Rewrite the foJJowing words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by aU members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient. Identify the one word that is not part of a family.

. <..:J I.J~.,_. .;~I


.. .
J ~ (J ~.J .;-o.J
..
.~ ..
t.; I.;-o
,
,
,
1 ..

..

( I

'J.J..>-0 ,Uli.iJI

ff

..

~~~ ~~ t.;~

.. ~ II
'c.s--

'"'~,_ ~~ ~ c?~ ...:,~I,_. .t..-4JI.~.;~ ~


t~ ~~ oi ... o ~.J .~I.~I,~LA .~l.~l.;j ~~

The foJJowing is a description of the Tunisian city of Safaqis (v.J' i o) taken from the Encyclopedia
BritaMica. Using the desription as a basis and the reading selections on Arab countries and cities as a guide,
write a short paragraph of70 to 90 words in Arabic about it. Keep it simple and use words you know.

Safaqis
Major port town, east-central Tunisia on the northern shore of the Gulf of Gabes 0-:aU ~ ). Built on the
site of two old cities, Taparura and Tbaenae, the town grew as an early Islamic trading centre. Sicilians
(uJ .: 'i . o II) ccupied it in the 12th century and in the 16th century the Spaniards occupied it. The town was
bombarded by the French in 1881 prior to their occupation of Tunisia and in World Warn, when it was used
as an Axis base until captured by the British in 1943. Construction of the modem port was begun in 1895.
Now a transportation centre and a market for the phosphates (..:..U........_,_;..l I) of the Qafsah ~ o i i) region,
Safaqis is Tunisia's second largest city, and a major fishing (d...........~) port. Exports besides phosphates
include olive oil. The old Arab quarter (medina), with its 1Otb-century mosque and Casbah (citadel~ 1),
is surrounded by an important vegetable and olive-growing region. Pop. {1984) 231,911.

229

to return (something)

~..H-~J

police

U..>'~

230

~ J,:. .J_,s

(A..4- c.,? U"~ .J_,J~ I ..:....-.J.r

._,JI.J.,J.,S ~')'_,c.,?~ (A..4- c.,? .'i-

~
~~ c.)IJ U".J~ (degree, certificate) ~;,'l .

J4...!...1 uoo.JJ c.)IJ ~_, . Y


~ U"~.J_,J~I c.,? ; .; ; c.)~ ~I .T
~ uoo~.J_,J~I

~~ ; .;; ~1 . 1
~ J.:. .).,S c.?~ ~jC ~u.~

.0

i~~oWS'
M.A. ~L..

B.A. '-"'-":! .J_,J ~

studies ..:..L...I.J.I

field of specialization ~

~_,

.
'

_,

f t

.F f' ~
t ' L.. ~

L~

c.._,
<r :<
t. .

<.
~

' L..

F-

r
,.J'

_,.

'

r- .Cl
..:. .

. 1

tt

~ ''L_.

~t

r\:

1-

.~t'. ---.1

~
C

<.

~ ~

1~
.t ~
-;t l

L\

<.

'

; ~

'\ l':1'~>,.

t: - t -.

1~ ~ 't
~ '1_'
't<.
-

~[

p.F,\_' .[- t

c:

t:..

-,.

~ ~ ~

<.

.[ l~ t. '1_'
. f~: ~r .1~.
~r:.. .['

~ ~,

r
.r, ~ ' ~

sl:

f' ,_:f..,'t

.j

'L:
l.- <t._-

f'

<.
'-;t

<.

(;;'

~ ~

t..

[:

~-

x .-r,c::t<.

(.

(.

- & c...
{ - ~
~. <r_.. ~~

: '\. ~ [.'
.f.\. ~( l- 't

.t r t

<.

~lr
fl\
l-

f1-?
~ ~ l

If'\ . ~~

--~It'.

~ 'lA
.. : ~ <:.

;::-

t- ~

' L..

E~~ 1:.
"'f~ ~!:; ff'

1\

c... ~

r'

~
s-:

~:

-r:

~~

232

''=?.J~I u--t..=JI ~~~ ~ ~~1~_,.11" ~I~ dJ.lS ~~I .,u_, . ~L..._,,.,JI

r ,o. ~~ ~_,.1 ... 11 '":"~II .... ;;.~~~~~~ ~~~_,.11 ~.J


~.J r \o. ~ ~~~ ..H.r.JI LA~ ..u...A ~~14-f~ L...S _;al~l ~.J-o Loi
~~I_, ~.JJ.J'.JI ~ ~ _;al~l ~J ~ u--t..=JI_, ~I ~~I~ i_,.:..l.JI
..

..

.~Lo!a....JI ~J_,.biJ-:Io-014>-o 1.,~ .-..... _..oj 'o'A ~ ~_, ..H.r.JI_,

L..u~ ~ ~ .: ..'i:.J ,,AY'. ~~ _;a1~1 ~.J-o ~_,.i.JI ~I ~I

.'"'r

..

~ ~ _;a1~1 4J_,.J .-.te; ...1 ~

1. How is the Algiers port described?


2. How many sections is Algiers divided into? What are they?
3. What is the Islamic section characterized by?
4. Where is the University of Algiers located?
5. What is the European section characterized by?
6. Who conquered Algiers in the fifth century?
7. When did the Muslim Arabs conquer Algiers?
8. Who built the city of Algiers as we know it today?
9. What happened to Algiers in 146, 1518, and 1830?

opera house I..H]lll _,IJ


to rise, be built, erected r~-rll

like that, that way dJ A


the Byzantines -"- L

. .. IJ

'"'~~

to fall tA~

theaters C,Jt.....:.
to continue :;,.i....l
the Vandals ~~I..La.,JI

as we know it, her

~_,...:.

L.S

under .- .:..;

233

... ... ................. -~.l-6


.
- ~ <. _, ..~.>-'
,; I~
. - II
t"-'
..r:-1

-~ .;~ I -~L.
- ~ .>-'I~
" ._ - I I -~.l-o
.

<.SI .;J~ I ..)-S.rll ~-' , .b..:'....._,...:,...11 v.O.~-/'i I .; ., ! II ~L...... ................ J41 JL-..!. ~

,,

...

~I~ "~-'.~ ~-'J .;U:....o ~-' . J~I ~ ~~1_,.11 .JS..>-4-'<!.;4--=J I_,

.l...a.:i.a
.....i.
- .. .._a; -,I '--~. ...,--

JL......!. ................ "l..:&.......o


-

t.:r.J.;J"'il ~~_,~..w1 ~)l....~l ~~ ~ ................ _;,1~1 ~..~..o

r ...... j
. ~..1.?-.11

~ ~-' . ~I_,JI ~.;I~ j~:-0-...~_, 0~~~ b~ .ill t.:r.-'..J_,'JI ~~


~4 ~i ................

Loi

eLi-' V") .l. ll_, ~WI_, c:..;L-11 ................ J.l..C.J I~J~


. _;,1~1

*
~
................ 4 i b .1 I ~ 'b) ?' iII I j..S ..r-o 0.1 : i : ,: i II ~ . i J
*

............. ...

1 " ~4eb .ll. -. ,

!'ol

H,~

................

<.:? 0~ I ~_,J I" ~I ................ dJ lS ~~

i ,.1

\ Y.

~~

,_;,l~l~.l-..44--:-ki~

..u_, .4 ~: .t- J,.,J I ~ .;_,_b I~~ I


.<!J~ I <..)'-'-tO~ I 0~ I

Write a paragraph or two about Tripoli. Follow the instructions given in LL. 34 and 35.

234

<- ~
...s .\
~ e-i~ (ready, willing) i~ ~lS
~ _11-:IL,. ~
f.)~.

rS .'\'

~cr..> ~ ...;...... .t-....:..A ~u. ur :JL:i _,.A tl..::.Ju u41 .r


~~ ~(that tim~ .:.J_,JI .:.lilA

..,-1 ~ J;....!. .~ ~lS .t

~~I ~~~~~J~..Jo

~ c.r' u41 ~ ..... ~ ~lS ~lS ~.> t..lS rS .'


~cr..> I~~ LA.~.:' ~lS .V
~t..J-:1-'il._,.ll~ ~IJ '..ro rS .A

..

i~oWS'
ready, willing

quickly

~~

vacation Ub.c

topay ~~-~~

library~

to~gree ~I
the second (following) day

r~ c.i'~

235

H ......~J 'i.J 4..:-Jl..C ~.,...'il ..::..La....4JI ~ ~IJ..UI

~) ~~I ..::..La....4JI ~ .4..:-JLC ~I ..::..la....4JI-

t......4- r-S .'


~~.J t......4- r-S. '\'
~ u.J.)'il ~ t......4- r-S .r

~ ui.J JuL..~ .~.,...i ~

~ u.J.)'il utl.... .J~ r-S .

~~.,...i ~ ~~l...:..la....4JI ~ ~IJ.J.II ~I ~r-S .o


~.JJUJLA ~ ~IJ..UI ~I~ G.....r-S .'\

state, public, governmental l.,f""'~


even

exactly

~j.l4

itdepends ~

236

~.;4-=J 1 Lw:.W 1 ~"

..

'":-'.,.a-u 4 :
,

,J : ..~ 11 ~w 1 .M, .. : 1 1'1

~ "-:-',.rl.J~ '~".J I b.: .,. II ~L....., vk J~ I '":-'.,rl. ~ ~

~ ~~._>-il JL-...!. v-l iJ4-=JI J.SIJ-O

r...j &-- ~.J ~ 4 ~ ,J:

i,;~ ~i ~,J I~ F~,J ~,JJ ,;ll.b..o,J

,:i

I;..:_. 11 .;I..U 1

1
"

u ,Jill L~...d.:.,.,-.JI ,J
II ~I ,.b~__,.JI

';.!~ tJI_,_.!.., ~~ ~ .b~


~~> 1.;..:.'11

,;I..UI

~..1-o

V..O '":-'>*-if

~ u_.:aj ~I ~LS:.J ~~~ ,;~1 ~ i,>-AJ.).o ~..1-o ~>I ~o::ll ,;I..UI..::,.:aLS:


~ ~,J

I'

u....., ~

..u.,

~~ &-- U~,J ''!"\A u....., ~ 0~l..i.:a.r.J I lA,;-..oJ


.,
.,
, "'
"'
, ~~~II fli .,.1 \\. V ~ ~.J ~ ~!.! ij-o ~.J ~~) ij.A 4-:i,roJ , \Voo
0 '0

J~ -~~~ F~)'l ~ ..U,J <b~ bJ4j

4-=alS..w, J~ Jlj,J

'( f oS:=>. FWJ O.:,,;-a\Jji,J

237

~~ Lo~ ,,\o' U.....~ ~:1 . .;.::'1 ).UI ~ ~~,.AJI

.> ,.,J .~illl ~Jll


~~~

*"'

~LoLA I..)S_ro -=.UlS

~j...o" ~ ~

.u_,

"'
"'
..u...t .~WI
~WI

~._>->.11 J~ ~>! ..:...::II JI.JI <.:.J~I


.,
,,
.~~1_, L;UUi ~ ~~ ~ ~.ri! JL....!. ~ ~>Lil.:JI ..)SI_ro

~l_ri" ~_ro'll ~,)1 ~ \4\tr U..... ~~WI ~,_:al.S ~ ~ "~''

..;..: :'1

).JI

."J..!U~ ~_, 4-=a~...H ~'IJ.JJ~JJ "..:.J.,lj_,J

.~1 ~WI ~I ~4-_, ~WI ~I ~4- ~'' ,.;.::11 JI.JI ~l.a...o ~j ~

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. Casa Blanca is not the political capital of Morocco.
2. Casa Blanca is located on the Atlantic Ocean.
3. The political and commercial capital of Morocco is Rabat.
4. There is a large international airport in Casa Blanca.
5. CasaBlanca was called Anfa in the Middle Ages.
6. The Portuguese destroyed Casa Blanca and rebuilt it.
7. An earthquake destroyed CasaBlanca.
8. The French occupied Casa Blanca in 1907.
9. CasaBlanca flourished during French rule.
10. CasaBlanca was an important center for Germany and Italy during WWII.
11. A peace conference between German and British leaders was held in CasaBlanca in 1943.
12. The French left CasaBlanca in 1956.
13. A university and a mosque are named after the same person in CasaBlanca.

i~ow.r

railway ~~~(.J..~.d~

not~=~

Middle Ages ~.J J~

prosperous ..)eAJ.>-o

.,

ijA

again, anew ~~ V:'

around +J~

to prosper ;.~,;,I

the Allies .l.i.LJI

to withdraw ~I

earthquake :O~.o~i

,,

was convened
,

+.leU

against
, ,

prime minister .l.Jj.J ~J

conference

:W..

~,;....

238

Write a paragraph or two about Rabat. Follow the instructions given in LL. 34 and 35.

239

~
"~U:'....i J~i

uiS ~ . '
'i ..b~ '-'-:!~ uiS ~ .Y
'i t.~i v=a~ uiS ~ .r
'it.~i ..!..1~ ~

u_,..i.J.:J4 '-'-:!~ t"" ~ u ~IS .::.Ju ~l.f


'i4J ..::.Jll ~_,...-.11 c,?IS ~t..- ~I .o
. f .J Y"\ ~J 0-J.l-11 ~~IS

what happened?

) ....o ~I

lesson ( '-"' _, J~ . d

'-"'~~

~I."\

togo~

wrong~

240

~ uJJ'JI

vl....tl..!. u'J ~~ . '


~ul..c ~_,.. .Y

~ ~_,_,.11 t:_,.UI .....il..!. _,.- .T


~LAJ_,>:!

u'J r j'i us;t..l c,.sl . t

beautiful (sweet)~=~

to please '~i

r4'il lA=r4\'u

toswim ~-~

these days

' The phrase ul..c ~I literally translates as "Did Amman please you?... An idiomatic English translation would be
"Did you like Amman?"

'H.

1_
-

:l'\,

1-

~.

c._

I" ~.

[. -

,
(
t 1
l . If

to.e (- l

t ~ ~~

1- l

~1.

>

c..

' j;

<.

1
l.

I[ (.

t,

[ "i.

1.
~ t
'[1 {.~ \~ r 1

.,_
?<. l.

.r.

b
\.

f
t f :~
;:: .t. r '1.: \ .[

~:~

\.

!;

\.

li\

'l.

c:

'

r
~
l <:t: ~
1-

- c.-

Lfo

:I; ~

\. ~

lti

.
~

It

.,_ I

t'

t:

~
~

l
~ 1 -. 1
:I 1 ~ ~ ~ t t .f t

'[ \,.,. 1.-

t- ~~_!.

<..

tt

.f .r 1

<.

~-

~~

f. ~

:f. 'i
~ t

_,

_,_.._.._,..,.,

~ ~

h- \

_,

_,

0
>

_,

...
...
<~

_..

0
.,.,

_..

0
~

>o

_..

_..

>
o

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_,

_,
..

_..

>I

_..

.. -01 ...
>

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<

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> >
>
... -1
~.-.

_..

-1
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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. >

.,.1

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_,

..
...
.-

< <
...
A -

~
I

<

...
..
_..

... ... ... ...


-1. -1. ~
.
--

.,.1

~
<f

<

d t \ r
.F 'i' . fr t t ~ t
r [ ~ [ l \ t l .,
l - f 1 - . - - t
r g. ~ ~ ~ l i ~ i r t l t 11- ~ c f 1: ~ r l: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1- 1- t .r= 1: ~ t :t f {
....
-~
. .. .=-.........
c-

h f 1i \

1 c. ) r 1. ~ .r. ~
1: c.
1
c..
r.:: rc
l
:['
(~
'-.
.f.
't
~
1:
t
1:
~
t E:c.
c
-[
L
,
.
,
:t.
t:.
.~
1. l ~ ~ ! :r . t
~ ~ -r. 1- .,_ ~ ~ ~
!:; :l ~ :~
f .~ ~: .~ J c. 1 \ . E ~ :f r ) 1 t; \- ) E~ 1 ~
~ ~ ~ ),t ~ ~ f ~ [ t t * [ r.f }: :;)' ; .F
<; ~. 1. ~ t ~ ~ 'f.:' ~. ~ :~ r.
b E: ~ ~ . .r ;; ~ f. .t. l- '. } r - t
c._ f - .
- - !"" 1 ~ .. ,, -( l ~ }: [. [ [. J;" c - .[ c._ c._ l

<:"

~ :~
~l ~
1 ~ :tc.

c._

~ ~ ~ 1~

1:-

""!.,

t 'i.-: r

t
.f

t
~

.i
t ~ .(

tl

.r

242

I. When did the Prophet Muhammad emigrate to Madina?


2. When was the Dome of the Rock built?
3. When was Cairo founded?
4. How long did the Ottoman Empire last?
S. When did the French occupy Algeria?
6. When was the Arab League founded?
7. When was the Suez Canal nationalized?
8. When did Algeria become independent?

9. When did the October war between the Arabs and Israel take place?
10. How long did the Iraq-Iran war last?
11 . When was the Oslo agreement between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization signed?
12. When did the United States occupy Iraq?

i~oWS'
call (to a religion) ~~
death.::..;..
the Crusaders U!.: :.:1 . 11
to be victorious, to defeat(~) ~-~I
,

peace be upon him

rl-.J ~ ~I ~
calendar ~J
b
founding

~t:;

occupation

J~l

the Suez Canal I.J""':!.,.....J I il:...i .

the Mamlukes (a dynasty)

~WI

I.F"jl &J..~

the Balfour Declaration J~ ~~

military coup cs~ ....,)ll..;l

theArabLeague ~jA-Il ~~I

-4:..:.1

under the leadership ~

_,~

nationalization ~b

national homeland

end

invasion

.
UDJOn

-.

~.J

three-way, three-pronged c.;~

the Gaza Strip i~ t. ~

against :,._,.

&,:0

theGolanHeights 0 '1~1 ~
agreement ~~I

signing

expelling, driving out c;: I~!


anesting Jll:r.
, I

:i : '.: L . I ; I I ->':'_,..:.J I

the Palestine Liberation Organization

'HY

t.J.::.:.

243

.....

..

~t:p' oU,t!j
~

~~oWS'.\

'.

'

'

'

r
i
0

'\

v
A

'
'.
~

~)~
J~F

~L....~I~~J . \
<.:J~I

t i .'(

\n" t.:....... t..........;_ri ~ ..::..l.i.:....1. r


t..r. ~ ._j..>-'='" t
~ J ~ o

ou.JJ.J JS: t.? !(Lfi-) ..r'- r ~

.'

<.)l....c

Ju...... t.? >'- j l~ ~ ."

\ n V U.....L.J.,......(j-0~

1..1..)-'-"1'"'
' "'-1. '1"
~

!( John'='~~4) ~~ r--1.o

4--_,.1 i.:.J.._, ~ .J~ I ~j


4J~ ~JA-A !(Lfi-) ~~ ~

U! :::!. ll_, ~I

<.:JL:.S.J I ll.A

<r.Ji .J~_,i ) ~ .v
Lfi- , "l:!J.,...... &-o !... .. ~ Lf...... <.Jl.S .A
\V\A ~ ~ j::..:..l . \

.J.!.u. \

J _,AJ.I

d.:_.JWI

~ ~I

<.:J~I

.v
.\

4.J.J. \ .

244

~\!(
Create a story based on the drawing below. An Egyptian man tells a Jordanian man that his car is attractive.
The Jordanian man thinks that he is referring to the Arab woman close by, who happnes to be a relative of
his, and gets offended. The key word here is~~. which in Egyptian Arabic typically means car, while in
Levantine it means an Arab woman.

D
r/ ~

~ "',J
,.;J

~[-~

245

~r
"'<".
IJ

(\jj)
11331

-:-\:- ;

. ..

.&.....\
~_,A.... ~ ~ ~_,J

.\

~J:,.:. ~_, .Y

vl JSi ~~ .r
~r~ v=-~ vl JSl ~~ .t
~ r~ J:.,l

~~Jl..... ..;.~~~I.A!I . o

~(themos~ -~

to stay (in a hotel)

J;.

_;.si

~ ~ vLJI ~I~~-'

Secretary ofState ~Jl.a. >!j-'


fava beans

J.,.;

246

~ iJIJ LAJij iJJ}il ~ ~~ J.JJ <,'1 . \

~LAJ.J.ha~~~ J.JJ<,'I .'\'


~~.l1 ~J! v-- .)4-1' ~~ ~L-~ .r
'i ~.l1 J.,a.J ~ u..... u'J .t
'i ~.l1

difficult~

it depends ("you and your luck")

.I . ;

:.. .J

-=....:.I

. J,a.J i~t.:i

entry vtsa

wl- v-- ..:..~ ~ . o

visit

.J4j

easy

J+....

right away J_,J. ~

247

...

..

..

.. .

p.

..

~..,~.
.. ~~\:\'..;'
~'

L~U...:. ~ v-=a.,.:; ..)W . ~~~ ~~ U_,.,) ~,;......_, ~_,.:i ~J J~i


. \1\AV U..... ~I \1\oV U..... 0-.o U_,.JI ~J wlSJ ~~~ J~'il

~ 0-.o ~w 1 ~ ~~ Jy!. ~ J.:; ... . t l" ~.1-A ~ ~J-H .. .: _.,u

~ w_,.:aUJI

uuJ.,)

dJ,j

.u_,

~" . ~~ ~ ~.,)L.-11" ~ ~ uuJ.,)-'. ' " r

rL.c '-:-'i

.L.....:a_,A ~ ~J~ ~4-

1.("'4-l\ ou.;_, ..;ly

J' G)~

\1\r'! U..... ~-'. "J.._..J I" b~~ ~j_,, \1\'\'V ~ ~ V...:.~ ~~ ~J-H .,)U

~ J)U.:a.....,'i~ ~~ j.l.:'J ~J ~; _, ~~~ J~.l.-11" '-:-'~ ~t ~ ~}.....!.


. Lo_,J

~ I ~l..i..A 0-.oJ L.....:a_,A ~I~ , \1\r'A U..... ~-' . ~.rJ

nv

248

i...,.~ ~ ~.,...,.

.i._,.AUJI u-11 ~.>f-1 .~~~ 0~~1 J,.,~ ,\\to t.:w.., ~~~I~~ ~,J
,,
,
,
"'
J_,..b.JL:t
J~'i'
~ J . -.... ,,., J,.,.J, '->-o J.l.C
dt.:u.

cr_,..ij'

u-1' ..,...L..,

Lo_,u...

v--_,

.:(,.I ,.II

.'->-o -.c.: ,. ..
..rAJ -

~I

' ..::.,1~, \\ot ""'


I ~~I,J .c :.: 'J~ ~ ~.:.L.w:._,l.Lo
~ ~

.,,J.i.J ~J J~i ~J-H 0 LS_, , \\o"\ t.:w... ~ J~t.-.h i ... ,,., .~~

"

J)l i ,.t

~J ~i .\\YO~ ~,J .tJ_,.ill ~J ~j \\OV t.:w.., ~,J .i~~' U_,.ill


. " i~l

t..S;_.

.isJ-.J.\ G~~
<"~ 1 u-1' LcJ <-r..>&- ~Ll J~i 0 ~,., .u~ ..::.,LJ.: ... ~:.: 'J-H ..::.,W.: ... ~lS
. ~1>-!.J ~.,.,.._JI ~

1. How long did Habib Bourquiba rule Tunisia?


2. When was he born?
3. What did he study in France?
4. What did Bourquiba establish upon his return from France?
5. What did he help establish?
6. Why did Bourquiba flee to Cairo?
7. When did Tunisia become independent?
8. What did Bourquiba become in 1975?
9. How can Bourquibas policies be described?

founder '-"'""""',;..

u.,.:.Ll

college~

law

to return ~.>= +.llc

(political) party

'-:"~

was exiled

+i.r,"'

to try J~L..
.

to lead .lll

t1

peaceful means ~ J~
for life i~lc.s;..

...

.r .l_,.c
'

return t~

to take part in d)..!.


to demand

'

~~-~U.

fl~ing '-:".J~

resisting, resistance t.. .,u..


'

negotiations

'

~Lw._,LL.

to call for Lc~

'HA

249

Roots and Stems


As you know by now, most Arabic words derive from three-consonant roots. Words are built from roots
following regular patterns. There are verbal patterns and nominal patterns. One of the most common nominal
patterns is the one that the following adjectives belong to:_&,~.~. ~._>.1, ~> ~
The verbs follow regular patterns too. There are 12 verbal patterns or forms, called ..:,lj_,i (singular w.J.J) that
are commonly used in modern Arabic. One important step in recognizing the form of a specific verb is to
identify its stem, which refers to the verb in its simplest form: .the third person masculine singular in the past
,
tense, the equivalent of he -ed in English, as in V" J.J "he studied", V" J.J "he taught", c;. _,..:,.:. "he got

married", ~I "he received", etc.


If a verb is in the passive voice, its stem is the active form. So the stem of~ "it was published" is ~
"he published" and J,!:..: ~"it is considered" is

;.:.,c1 "he considered", etc.

Root Types
Arabic verbs that are based on three-consonant roots are divided into categories according to their root
structure. In Lesson 15, a number of verb types were identified, such as sound, hollow, and lame. It was
pointed out in that discussion that, technically, such terms refer to roots rather than verbs. In this lesson,
we'll apply the correct terrninolgy and use these terms in reference to roots only. In order to distinguish roots
from verbs, root consonants will be separated by dots.
There are five root types:
Sound roots have three consonants in the three consonant positions, no doubling of any two consonants, and
no ,.,, I, or I.S in any of the three root positions. Roots like "":-' ..::... d "to write", .J. Jt. "to know", and

t.. r V" "to hear" are sound roots.


Assimilated roots have _,in the first root slot, as in .J. c;.._, "to find".
Hollow roots have _, or t..! in the second root slot, which is often realized as I in the perfect tense of the verb:
..:,._,.d

(..:,~/ ..:,I.S) "to be", J ._,. J (J~/Jll) "to say", and

Jt..j .J.

~/ JU..) "to fly".

Lame roots typically have t..! or _, in the third root slot, which are realized as I.S

< J_,...-.i.... ....aJ I, pronounced

exactly like I) or, less often, I in the perfect form of the verb. Examples of lame roots are I.S J..
~"to walk",

r (/~

.Jt.J (_,.c~/kJ) "to call for", t..jdc:. (~/~)"to speak, tell".

Doubled roots have the same consonant in second and third positions:

'":-''":-'C:. (~/~)"to like",

JJr'

(~_/~) "to pass".


All verbs derived from the same root type follow the same conjugation pattern.
Notes on Certain Root Types
Assimilated Roots
There are two important points to remember about verbs derived from assimilated roots:
a. in the imperfect form of the verb, the initial _, of the root disappears in ~ but not in Levantine, so the
equivalent of J......:; in~ is J.-~ in Levantine.
b. the_, is assimilated to a following..::.. in one of the verb forms, hence the term assimilated. More on this in
the discussion of Form VIII later.

250

Hollow and Lame Roots


The I and c.s of hollow and lame roots that often appear in the perfect tense are assumed to derive from _, or I.!
at the root level although _, and I.! may not be apparent on the surface. There are good arguments for this
assumption. For example, related words and conjugations frequently show_, and I.! as the following words,
related to <JI.S, and

~.

show:

I walked

imperfect of <JI.S

u~

walking

being

ufi

(he is) walking

he constructed, made up

u'.,S

it was made up of

ufi.:.

Arabic dictionaries list these two verbs under the roots uJd andf.!v!or At this stage, you are not expected

to know whether a certain hollow or lame root is a _,1_,-root or a .. 4-root. Either one should be acceptable.
When using the dictionary, if you don't find the root under
of the alphabet.

_,r,. then look under .. 4, which is the next letter

1. Roots and Stems


For the following verbs, all taken from the reading passage of this lesson, give a full translation of the verb
and all affixes, identify the root and indicate its type, and identify the stem. The first two verbs are given as
examples.

Stem

J,&:......r

Root Type
doubled

~U.

sound

Root

Translation

Verb

J.J.J
."'=".J.J.

and she became independent

.::..U:......r_,

he demands

~~
<JLS_,
I..J".)JJ

~i_,
d)~
~t_,
i~_,

"'="-*"
~L.....

..

~I_,
..:::.1~
~J..).:iJ

..:::.:.I.S
~o.

251

The President ofTunisia, Ben Ali, Zine ai-Abidine Ben Ali~~ ~~WI~~). was born on September
3, 1936 near the Tunisian city ofSousse (L......,_...,). He was an officer (1......:oL...) in the Tunisian army and
became president of the country in 1987.
He studied military science("~~~ r_,J....Jt) in France and engineering in the United States. In 1980 he
became Tunisia's ambassador (; : i . ~ to Poland. After his return from Poland he became minister of the
interior.

3. Choose the correct form of the word


In the following exercise, based on the reading selection of this lesson, choose the one correct word from
among those given in parantheses to complete the sentence. Then compare your choice with the form used in
the selection.

~"W
.. :~...,, ... ~Y. ~
..

~~~) ~i,rol ~J-H (~~~~~~~~~~~) .L..u_ri ~ ~IJJ "~j

y...ll.b \\\\ (..,:.,l~/~/4..:.........11) ~.J .~J_,J I~Lo ' I ,.1 (~~~~~~


1'--'.J~If'--'.J~) illt..&. o-o ~.J (o~/~LS/oLS) :JL...c '-H ~.J ~~~.J
..,:.,L...~ ~ (~~/~If~) ~t:. 4-1 o~ .u.J v-U~ ~ (w,..a.J~/U.J,)A-0
. \\A\~

(4....L..i/
. -:i L ~ .J .~
.. I.E''/'.:.)I
~ ~
. .. J~

( fava bean~

J_,.. (Fava beans)

l can (15 oz), cooked

0~(Lemon)

2-3 Tb or juice of one lemon


1/2 bunch, cut up
l/4 cup
l (medium), cut up
l/2 teaspoon

Fresh Parsley
Garlic
iJ.J~ (Tomato)

Salt

Cook fava beans in their water on medium heat until they boil. Tum heat off.
Crush garlic and mix with salt, lemon juice, and olive oil.
Drain water from fava beans, mash the beans slightly and mix well with the garlic mixture.
Mix in parsley and tomatoes.
Eat with pita bread for breakfast (in the Arab world), lunch, or a healthy snack anywhere.

"0'

J..,; t~' .0

252

~
~ ~ ~L.... L... ~ ~.> JSi

JSi ~-H ~.,..I

.\

~~yoAA ~ e-- ~~ ~..H~.,JI v4J .Y

ui.S ~I .T
uts ~1 .
~ .~..:..e ut.S ~~ .o
'i r~ ~t:. mw 1e-- ..,,J...1.11 JS\ ,.,. .'
~~_,.II

..,_,.L...l

~~.,..~~.I~

.~ ~..H ~.,..I i..>4.J W cr--I .V

to become full

&

to discuss~

excellency

i~

tolive~~V.

tomeet

tolook ~

253

~~ ~~ ~_,...!. ri ~ .'

c..? .Y
'II~ ~J-Aj vA ...:..L.:..:JI_, '-:"'~1 ~I.~_,...!. ri <,'i.> c..? .l'
~~~J-A\1 ciJ ~_,...!.~ . ~_,..!.-Hi C:'iJ

~~~_,...!.~~~~_,..!.._Hi .t

" ~ ~_,...!...Hi

v-- ~ ~_,...!. r t ~i . o

"u4 ~~~_,..!.LA~~_,...!. r1 ~ ~ ~ .'

'lc.s.:... ~ 'lc.s~ ~ .v

H..IL......~I ~ ~IJ ~_,...!.-Hi ~ I. \

~~oWJ"
tatk r~

true

don't pay attention ("hear from 0Y. v-- ~J 0Y. v-- ~I


here [one ear] and let fly from here [the other ear]
young man ~W.
female cousin (mother's side)

J~ ~

wife,woman ~Jj=i~

mind~
beware, be careful

d.J~ ~J

from a good family '-"'l.:a ~

educated~

crazy 0~

get up r_,j

J)6.) I ~

the middle of the night ~I ~

daughter of good people

good night ~ ~ ~

254

~~~ ~,>i.JI ~~~~~WI~~ ~1 ('~ ri,


JL-!. ~ L:J.l.JI4 ;b . ~ ~ ~.;i ~ &~ u:aw '' t ~ ~ ~.1.1_,
~1_, ti ('~ ~LS ~ ~J ~i ..::..ULS_, . ~,.,.i.JI '? , rL...! LA-Hi ~LS J-"'A-0
0

r\'

'

~~: ,J...:a..LI_,

"'
~~~ ~ ~.1.11

~ ~~ i..u.l_, ..::..a.:i..i_, .l.Jli. <L......ul


'
v-=aU.\'1 ~ ~'JI ~LS .U:.WI J.:i.,J iJ~j.J_,
,

. ~WI

~~l.riJI .- .. I.j_, ~_;i.JI LJ.l-o

v-i ~JJ bJ.! i

e O~

r_,.lli r i

~LS: Lo~

~~~ ~i ,>i.JI &-- ~ ~~i .-. L;i,_, . ~~1_,

,)~j'j\~~

ul..:i. ul..:i.i ~ ~LS L..~

.u t. i , j ~t.s: . ~i &-- ,.~1 r~ ri .-. J~


"of

255

u- ~ wi ~ ~ ~' ~_,_i.JI ~~ LA-Hi ~ wi ~,J .u- ~\i~ ~


~

.-=..1: ,L:J..I b~ ~ .J"i}JI ~~ ~ \~ \j ~ts:.J .LA~i o4~ Lo~

...,.W\ "" J\:i:.i'j\


u-11 illWI .-.la;.u .~)-~.J ~.,ri J,:i.I.J ~
..;:.......,J.J bJ-AWI ~.J . \\ YY' ~ ~ dJ,j

-=...l,J

~ \~

\i

-=..~1

wl..S ..)-'4-A ~ 4 ~".,;.II b~l j.S,.,.... .i.,.,_.UJI

~..>~1 ~G.i..JI :.,..0 .J~ r;-..o ~_,J.I.J "~I

-"

.....
~~ .J-'
.U.J .4~\ill \~ \j i~ ~ ~lJI ~I-=..'\:., o;II.J -=..L:,..-:-u\'1 ~

~~~ \~.J ~j ~..,Sj J!'a,..o -=..J_,JI d.J,j ~ ~~~ ~~ ~i ~Ui ~


~~,o4~JJ

.,

w!J.:t..l \\V . ~~~WI~ J4'i~l ~~~ ~~Lo~


.
.
,
.
~ b.)4 W-o ~~ ~LS \~ \1 b.)4 w! J~.J ~JL..:i.JI ~ b.)4 ~1-=....:al.S

~.)4

'i.J-AA-A ~~ ~) :.,..0 ~i LA~ : ...~:,. ,~L.:JI

1. Where was Umm-Kulthoum born?


2. What was her father's job?
3. What did her father do to supplement the family's income?
4. Where did Umm-Kulthoum go to school? What did she learn there?
5. Who did Umm-Kulthoum learn to sing from?
6. What did Umm-Kulthoum do when she substituted for her sick brother?
7. Why did Umm-Kulthoum's family move to Cairo?
8. Who did Umm-Kulthoum study music and singing with in Cairo?
9. When was Umm-Kulthoum's "golden age"?
10. Who is Riyadh Sunbati? What did he do for Umm-Kulthoum?
11. Which was bigger Umm-Kulthoum's or Gamal Abdei-Nasir's funeral?
12. How many songs did Umm-Kulthoum record?

yoo

256

i~oWS'
imam, leader of a Muslim prayer

rL..!

income Jl~
~eddings '-"' l ..>ei

to memorize ~

., i,

smger ~
increase i.J4,)

.,',

tosmg ~-~
. 4 : ,J '.
occaston

singing .. t..u
,
clothes ~':f..
,
voice ..:....,....

to dress, wear ~

v:o'.,..:v:o_;..

strong~_,.:;

short~

to become famous ~I
inside J.:i.. I.J
move, relocation Jl.i.:..:a I

to become sick

outside G:,Jla.
to move, relocate Ji~ .J

parts .. J~i
L..~~i~

--

music~.,_.

life

t;.

to set to music ~

artist ~L::i

funeral i.J4

f -
composer~

it was said

..

+J.:,U

to dte

.. .

where, when
torecord

Jt IS satd

..:..L..=~_,:i

+J~

toattend ~

,
~

1. Roots and Stems


For the following verbs, all taken from the reading passage of this lesson, give a full translation of the verb
and all affixes, identify the root and indicate its type, and identify the stem. The first ~ verbs are given as
examples.
Root Type
assimilated

hollow
lame

Root

,J.J ..,
~ . .,.d

'! ~t

Translation
shewasbom

..:...U.,

andshewas

~~.,

he sings

Verb
,

-- ,

257

"

o.., o )LAJI ~I
.

"

~I ~1.. ............... u-114Jl...i..::UI ~ r~


.;#

-~ ~~

~_,J.I .J ~~I ..................

&-a .................

u-k ~J..u .....;~ 0 ts: ................ .

<.S:UI u-oi J ~j ..r-cL....!...JI u-11 )La.JI ~j .................

rl ~L......,

y_.:U i~Li.JI ~.J

_,.a....!JI.J '"7}i I ~ ~_,.a....o ~ u-k ................ .


,

~ ..:,...j~.J . i...>-"UJ I ~ ~UJJ I

&-a .......................

.l~

r;-o

.~W.U LA~~~LS ....................... ~I ~~WI

t.? ~ ~;~J

''"'t ~ ~ r_,:JS ri ~u; ~~ ................. ~~j~' ~;~

. \\fo ....................... ~ ~.;-w=J.I r~\JI

.... l

258

~L~~~iL~
-. . -.
,.
,.. . ,.

. <.) ~\ C:J~l

_J

-~' - 1 "\'t

ir~ l,;\~

~d:r

"e

-t.. ~....<.;-~._ilo-

..

!"

~~.,:,.t Jll ~ ~1 . '

~.~~1~1 0 ~~1.Y
~~~ ~J

~ .JW. ~~~~

.r

~~_,.:,(believed) J~L.. ~~~~ t1 ~ Jll~l . t

i~oWS'
standing

., , " ,
to knock J~-JJ

....a:; I_,

to shout

c: L-

to continue

:,...:......1

the house has two doors ~4 ~

Your should be prepared to retell this and subsequent stories in the listening selections in Arabic.

' Remember that the preposition J "to, for" is used here to indicate possession like ~-

259

~~A C.J~ c-:!1.> uiJ ~~ . 'I'

~..::..~1

ti...-,:.,... ~.,..!. ~i ~ u~ c-:!1-> uiJ ~ .r

I will be honored ...l~ I

260

(.,.~.,4)~Jr ~~ tJW.l}\)\
.;

Makka with its mountains of light,

IIJ~I.
-~
..)~
. ...-:.-.J

'..),........,., ~' ~ uu.

Overlooking the full House,

r~'~4~.l

We entered the door of peace,

("~I~.,U~

Peace filled our hearts,


With the forgiveness of a forgiving God

..)..,u~..)~

~' r'-- l;u_,.i

Above us the doves of the shrine,

, .L...-JI

Plentiful as the stars in heaven,

("~ J.u

...l~~~u..

Flying, circling over us,

...l_,.I1 t-:'l:.:i ...l_,.I 1

Thousands following thousands,


Flying, singing for the guests,

, ._l . !. If

LJ..
~~~

With forgiveness and mercy,.

.t.-_rl.l_, #4

And He Who set their course,

~~~,_,
~~L..~I_,

One, has no other,

~~l.c.l
~~4~
~ u4:;

He invited me and I answered His caiJ,


To the door of His house,

u_,

And when He appeared to me,

. ~l.:at--.l.ll~

With my tears I conversed with Him.

'\''\.

261

1. Roots and Stems


For the following verbs, all taken from the song above, give a full translation of the verb
and all affixes, identify the root and indicate its type, and identify the stem. The first verb
is given as an example.
Stem
~J

Root Type
lame

Root

..JtJ

Translation
he invited me

Verb
~~J

L.:J..:i.J

uW
-.

~t.:a

Asmahan ( 0 ~i)
The famous Egyptian singer Asmahan was born in Lebanon in 1918. In 1920 her father became govemer
(rSL:.) of the region ofDemergi in Turkey. He returned to Lebanon after a short time. He died in 1924, when
Asmaban was only six.
Asmaban's family then emigrated to Egypt. In Lebanon, Asmahan was a princess, but in Egypt she became
very poor. Her mother sang at private parties ~~ ..::..~) because she needed (~ ~ .;:..;.t.S) the money
for her family of three boys and one girl. Everyone in the family was a good singer, but only two became
successful and famous: Asmahan and her brother Farid ai-Atrash.
Asmahan died in 1944 in a car accident (..!..ll:.).

'(,,

262

Vt~,~~~uu

~ ~, ~J
,.

0'

~(.$_,:.....!.1 ~ t.-J #
rS
~J.W..ll...,.. ..:,LS ~ U ~4 Jl- ~~ oY
~JS4 ,_r-. 4..1 ~ ~

4.J.J ~I oT
~ ~ 4.J.J .::.Jl:i (according to wha9L. ~ ~4 Jl...o ~I t
o

~(lying) '-:"A:; .:;..:.LS ~.J.J ::,1 (provq ,).A~~ J- ~~I oo

i~oWS'

0~~

cat~

~4-

tofinish ~

to weigh uj~

scale 0 1~

weight
to bring

263

~
~J~I~'.J.J~I~~~ ~ ~ . \
~J~I~.J~ y

~J~I (other than)~ ~~I~;~ !)IJ ulS ~ l .r


~t~ r 0 LS~ .L

J)..

post offic~ ~;

(e;ai,J.. .c::) t-:'U.

registered ~

package
stamp

application, fonn

.JJ.

264

"

,..r ~ \\\Aj\j\o ~ .r-l.:Jl ~ J4 ~L..JI ':'~1 ~.)I.J_,

i.,_Ali.ll

u-11.;: . _y._, ~:,


e O

"

~~~ ~ u..J.;_,_. ~..Ht

ol.S

t:u~t' ~J....a ~

4illl ~~I ~.J ~~WI L.v.;.UI ~_, .L.v.;..U.I J.:i,...1_, ~ ~ ~ ~-'

. ~W:.

,
_,_,.:,i_, ~.JI ~ 4.,Sj rJ'
.1.~1"

I f . ,.1

., ,
..b~ ~~ ~L:JI ~

_,t.-_, ~~I

J4 ~I ~I~

~~ ~ _"~,; '/. ~}JI ..b~l ~j_, .,....~~I~-' ~I.JL..JI

~ 0-o WUI illWI_, ~tt G:.l~! ~ .l; .11 ~a 0 lS_, , .;f~\'1

;S

-<

c.

'i

~ f
t..'L. ~

- -

..

<c.

\i.

~ ~

~ .~

t..

!r.

~ E ~ ~.

"L ~

c.. ):

'1.. - ["""

.~

"L ;:

-t,

c..

~,f.

-f

l~

.c

<.

l f

t-

.t

l- ~E r. ~.E 1:, f
E tE ~
{I
~ \ .f ~
- f
~

,f E

'['.

,[,~

1'
h

~ .f'

<.

f~. l1:

<-','

t~

-(0

;S,

.f.'
) ~
'1.. ~.

1.

<.. ;

~
~

-( '1..

f-

r-

.f

t
E
-tc..

'1..

>

.........
~
.........
-<

.<

.;

....b
\i

C:

f.'

<

;S

~
(:

<.

l
<.

'f

C
\,;'"

- ,c;'t -~... ~

<.
f_

'

~-

<;;.
<,.

C
I.

.c- t
~ t ~

t.

j;:{

(""C'

'f;.' ~.

:. G\

f :t'

" t..

1' [;-

1~-

el
- r

1:<-

:f" ~

C <.
I. ,f"

~~

C
(...

C
(...

f'

>

:::

f.,

''<...

i'
'

c..

c:

.f)

'1..

1.'

1:: ~ .f

(""C'

~
[

~: t
E1.

.f{

<.

. t- E(
~ t t
-

<.

l [
t .f
~

t l..[

. ~

<.

}.

<c..

~~

<...

'1<...

f'

""

&

<...

.f

-tc..

1[

:f

<.(..I

C:

<...

.["

--(

1\-f~
- '1. k
1_ ~ fl
t
. t <-' [ {.l:f'~
t ~ f ~ ~.

t:.

<.

~.

<;:

<...

,[" <;..

tl

1' ~

t-r

f' .r
~.1-

~t

.; C

\.1\

o-

266

~\
l. Where was Jamal Abdul-Nasser born?
2. What was his father's job?
3. Where did be live when be went to Cairo?
4. Who did he meet in the army?
5. What was the goal of the "Free Officers"?
6.What happened on July 23, 1952?
7. What happened in 1954, 1956, 1958?
8. How long did the union with Syria last?
9. Who fought in the 1967 war?
10. What did Israel occupy in that war?
11. When did Jamal Abdul-Nasser die?
12. What are some of Nasser's achievements in Egypt?
13. Was Jamal Abdul-Nasser popular in the Arab world?
14. Was be popular outside ofthe Arab world?
15. Did he succeed in unifying the Arabs?

former ~L....

,..,.,

togo c:I J =y:,

. d ~W.

the Royal Academy ~I ~I

I.>'I"\' I J. L;.AJ I
~I~!

secretes:,_
,
goal, aim ..J'.U.

to und~e. stage -! rl:i

the royal family WUI ll:&WI

employee ....&.Ja.,..
while (be was) young
officer

~
( J.~

the Free Officers

expelling, driving out

..

'

pnmemtmster .. I J.J..J~J

revolutionary council J~ ~

toattack ~

to nationalize ,.:..i

in the eyes of ~ ~

hero~

to hope J..~-J..i

tounite ~~

Soviet~,......

the High Dam ~WI~ I

peasant c:)u

improving~

~.......::.

industrialization ~

situation ~-,

ownership~

limiting

simple~

woman

t:;..

popularity ~

personal~

failure~

in spite of ~~>' I vU

267

I. Roots and Stems


For the following verbs, all taken from the reading passage of this Jesson, give a full translation of the verb
and all affixes, identify the root and indicate its type, and identify the stem. The first two verbs are given as
examples.

Stem
..u_,

Root Type

Root

Translation

Verb

assimilated

he was born

..UJ

~I

doubled

,J.J.,
J.J.c

and she occupied

~IJ

............

..............
..............
..............
..............


...........

~j

l.fi..-J

........ ... .................................

~JJ

... ........ ....... ............ ... ...........

}.-J

........... ............................... ..

~I

........... ..................... ... ... ......


........... .................................

~iJ

...........

............
............
.......... ..
..... ... ....

............
....... .....
......... ...

..............

w~J

..............
..............
.... ..........

........... ................................ .

ru

....... .... ...... ...........................


........... .................................

~i


... ..... ......

...........
........... .................................

Extra credit

'\'"\V

.,

~
-:..L..

268



\.

'

"

'\"

"
'\"

1
0

'

v
A
\

\.

'-P~

(~..,s-)

-~~ ~ . \

\Yo AU....~ Jl~ t_,;..J . Y

".Jfi " ~ . \

\J.:..J.I"

~ .y

~~~ .T

\\\Vf \\ f Y ~ jJ.C.J J~t .T

<r.~ ~~ . 1

~~ .

.:i .:.;i! Jl.a...!. ~ ~ ~~ tJ.JJ ~ . o


t--'~ !(~..,s-) -~

.v

4 J,_.....J ~ ~to take place) ~~ . \


~I ~Jt.:; ~ J~ ts:..>A-- ! \1\oA U.... ~

J 4-=JI ~ ~ . \.

Y"\A

1.:i.:.;i! ~

~ ~~ u..,J t......L '

~J.LI.J ~ ~ ~:Wt &SL..\'1 JI.J .V

~i !4-i ~ ~ ~~ U_,J ~ .A
J_,J...&.JI
~ ts:.,>A-A ~ U!.::.:""~ ~1 . \.

269

The following is a biography of the late president of Syria, Hafez al-Assad (.1--<oM'il Ji....i~) taken from the

Encyclopedia ofthe Orient. Using the biography as a basis and the reading selections on

~J~

. .:.',II

and _r-L.:J I ~ J~ as a guide, write one or two paragraphs in Arabic (60-80 words) about the Syrian
leader. Keep it simple. Use words you know.

Hafez a/-Assad
1930 Ocotber 6: Born in the small village ofQardaha (~l..1_;i), as the ninth of eleven children, in an Alawite

(~~) family.
1946: Assad joins theBa'th Party (~I~,.;..:..) as a student.
1951: Assad starts at the Horns~) Military Academy.
1955: Assad graduates from the Horns Military Academy as an air force (~I c:.)L....) pilot.
1958: Assad receives flying training (~J~) in the Soviet Union.
1963 March 8: The Ba'th Party takes power in Syria. Assad becomes commandor of the air force.
1966: Assad becomes minister of defence, after a coup against the leaders of Syria.
1967 June: Under the leadership of Assad, Syria loses the Golan Heights to Israel, as a result of the Six-Day
War.
1969 February: Assad becomes the real ruler~ i

.:

i ,II ~L....JI) of Syria, but he keeps Nuriddin Attasi as

president.
1970 November 12: Assad takes full control of Syria. He keeps Ahamd Khatib as president.
1973 October: Syria and Egypt attack Israel. The attack first brings victory to Syria and Egypt, but ends with
the defeat of both countries.
1976: Assad intervenes (J;.~) in the civil war of Lebanon. He takes the Christian side.
1982: Assad kills thousands oflslamists (~)l........~l) from the Muslim Brotherhood (~I 0 1,_i.1) in
Hama.
1983 November: Assad suffers from a heart attack (4 ~ .' L..::.S......). His brother Rifaat (..:,.a.......AJ), tries to
become president.
1984 February: Tensions between Rifaat's forces and elite forces from the army that are loyal to Hafez.
- March 30: On the verge of an armed conflicts between the two military groups, a meeting is held with
Rifaat, Hafez and their old mother. The outcome of this meeting, and other meetings, is that Rifaat is sent
abroad as a Syrian ambassador, while Hafez can return to office without the challenge ofRifaat's troops.
End of the 1980's: With decline of the Soviet Union, Assad starts to orient himself more in the direction of
the West.
1991 October: Assad participates in the Middle East peace conference (J..-.,'il J.r-UJ ~.,..UI _,...:;,;..11).
Assad insisted that Israel should withdraw from the whole of the Golan Heights.
2000 June 10: Assad dies from a heart attack. Few days after his passing away, his son, Bashar (JL!...:a), took
office and was elected Syria's new president.

'f'\\

270

H.,...~ J I.J V!-- . \


~ u.....'-:-'4-~I . Y
'~ t~l ~ 4-1 V!-'~ t~l .!J~

'IJS4 ~ .!JW I ~ I..,J.J

.r

4-1 V!-- . 1

~ ~ ~l .o

t:..a

rabbit ~)

bowl~

torest c:'~'

gift

sauce

"(V .

u;..

271

..

~\
'ilS~!~~~~~"i ~~~i(.J-A.\

'i ~lc?~ ' ~ "


'i~_;ll v-i~'~_,..

heat~

flowers J.J-A:,

sometimes l:.~i

._,.J......~~tSr~'

._,.J......

~lS ~

c.,?.J

. ~U.....i..>-C4~

r~'
, ~~(.)
'-~LJI lS

~ ~lS -~ JS.J

~~
,.... .!.J !._,, I

212

.. ,

. '\""' ~ (U" ..>Lo) ).ll"' ~ J..!-.J ~ ~J J~ ~~ ~w. ~4-i J'.>;a


,

'

"'

<llf/11 ,

~ 4~ ~J. \\H ~ ~ ~~J ~.l..:'


J_,_i....:JI ~ "'~
,
, U"J.J
_,

. ~I
J WL..a.......l
- . .J Wl.b...a
_..)-!J LS
- ~J

., , ,

# .

~J
..)-1-A-0 ~
,

.I.
L..a......,Lo
~.J

t~J ~J~ ~ ~ IJI.J~IJ ~~.JJI J-....a.JI L!.l~ \\\"\ ~ ~J


. ~1
~L:.S.J
,

"1~1 ~ ~u 4-J~i 0 LS - ~~J ~~ ~~ ~) o-o ~i ~


. \\H~~

,
. "'
.
, J~'il LJLL.o ~ L!.I J W ~"/ -Hi ~ . I->.:

. o

*
I.JJJ

:
).>;a
0 LS Lo..L.U

.~ .JI) dJj ~ .illWI ~ ~_,JI \~->~I" Jl_;;a Jo-:Ai ~ ~J 4..>,...._1 ~_,..&JI


IJ,r.a-i.iJ ~ iH.JJI J4-,-> . ;oi...i ~.J ~ L..~ ~ 0 i" ~4-;.JI ~ Jo-:Aj "
vk i..:..l.:a..Lal ~i ~l.S t+=a"i ..r-- ~I ~L,.,J . ~~ ~t...i 4~ .t-..h.JI L~l
~.JJ I J4- J

If ;,;.

"0t

. ~Lo ~ ~ vtl..eJ .~1


,.,........J (.)':' .: ,':. , J ~ I.: . 'i J I_;;a _,....!..:. L...~
0

273

.~ -'":lj &~ ~ I~ Lo ~ ~.J ~

.....

~~'J'-' ~\.:-)\ ~(.._,tAl.\~

~~us~ ~4-:i J'.>-=a ~~

\\\V

~~ ~ :i ~:~' J_,.l.IJ ~.>A~

...

<.r~~J_, ~ :,.11 .J..i..:JI_, (..,o_,WJ ~

"'

.,

uk JSJJ ~I

I. When was Nizar Qabbani born?


2. Where did he study?
3. What did he do in 1966?
4. How many collections of poetry and prose did he publish? What was the first collection called?
5. Why was Nizar's father jailed?
6. Who is Abu-Khalil ai-Qabbani? What did he want to do in Damascus?
7. What was the reaction of the religious leaders?
8. What did Abu-Khalil do after the Ottoman government closed his theater?
9. What was the reaction of the religious leaders of Damascus when Nizar Qabbani published his poem~
.,......,J~.,J?

10. What transformation took place in Nizar's poetry after the defeat of the Arabs in the 1967 war?

tt. Why did Nizar's sister Haifaa commit suicide?


12. How did Haifaa's death influence Nizar's poetry?

274

law school 0 _,.:.UJI

...

i~oWS'

t.....J.L.6=J~I ~

poet j&.W.

J:o. 1

to graduate c::~

to move around

to devote one's time t.~

publishing house ~

JIJ

collection ~.,...;...

topublish ~

prose <#A

poeticc.s~

wasjailed ~
be wanted to ;~ u~=ui Jl)

rebel, revolutionary ( J

toinform~i

poem(~W . d~

- , " ..
to marry (someone to) C::.J~-c;:.Jj

rJ
theater c:.;...:.

was not ulS L.=

J.cr*~
to close, shut down _,L=Jl.ci
to focus:)~

I~ . c::) ~J~

openness
bread, hashish and a moon

c:. l.:i.1.:al
,

~.J ~.J ~

criticism

to influence ~i

to commit suicide

.U.:.

,;....i;.l

to appear~

influence ~b

treatment U..t.....

to criticize ~- ,:1 I

intense~~

The Forms of the Arabic Verb


The thousands of verbs used in Arabic follow a surprisingly small number of patterns or forms. Some forms
are quite common, others rare.
While examples of 15 verb forms are found in Arabic, only twelve forms are considered productive in
Modern Arabic, ten based on three-consonant roots and two on four-consonat roots. Only the nine most
commonly used forms in modern Arabic, all of which based on three-consonant roots, will be introduced in
this book.

The jA..a Skeleton


The skeleton~ "to do" is used in Arabic grammar discussions to refer to the three consonants of the
tri-Iiteral (or three-consonant) root: .J refers to the first consonant,

to the second, and

to the third

consonant. The pattern or form of a word consists of the root ~ and any additional consonants or vowels
added to it. For example, the verb J,.....,CL-, "to belp"has the pattern J,U: the root .l.tV" corresponds to

Jt:...i. and an a/if(l) is inserted between the first and second consonants of the root; the verb~ i ,I "to
continue" has the pattern Ja,.1..:o.-1: the root J .>('corresponds to J.t ..J and the prefix ..:,......,I is placed before
the first consonant of the root.

1
.

More on this under Negation in~ in the Grammar appendix.

YV!

275

While Arab grammarians use the skeleton~. Western scholars of Arabic use a system of roman numerals
to refer to the different verb forms: I-X and Ql-Q2 (for verbs based on quadriliteral roots)

Forms I, II, and V


The most common verbal form in Arabic is Form I. It consists of the consonants of the three-consonant root
and accompanying short vowels, as in ~ 0 lS, J,..o_,, i .lo.:' U" _,.l, ":-',A etc.
Other forms are constructed by modifying the structure of Form I in specific ways, such as doubling the
second consonant, inserting I between the first and second consonants of the root, adding a prefix, or a
combination of these. The modification of the shape of the root generalJy corresponds to a modification in the
meaning. So, for example, U"~.l is translated as "he studied", but U"J.l (with doubling of the middle
consonant of the rooot) is translated as "he taught". U"~.l is consequently considered the causative of V"J.l,
and the pattern to which it belongs is described as causative.

Form I
Shape

Perfect
~

Imperfect

'
,
~~~

Examples

I.)".)~

to study

.d>i

.d'..>-'-:
-

to leave

oLS:

0~

to be

I.)"

Fonnll
Shape

J.l

Perfect

Imperfect

'

(The middle consonant of the root is doubled. This is indicated by a ~ (:.) over the doubled oonsonant.)
Form II verbs often have a causative meaning.

Examples
U" J.l

(F I) to study

(F II) to teach

t"!' _,

(F I) to return

(F IT) to return (something)

FonnV
Shape

Perfect
,

J...Li

Imperfect
,,
~

This form is related to Form II. It is constructed by prefixing ..:; to Form II verbs.
This form is generally the passive or reflexive of Form II.

Examples
f;'

.,

~-r-Le

(F II) to teach

~-~ (F V) to Jearn, teach oneself

(F II) to found

~~-~t:; (F V) to be founded

'(Yo

276

1. Verb Forms
For the fol1owing verbs, all taken from the reading passages of this lesson, and all of which belong to Forms
I, ll, and V,
a give a full English translation (of the verb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root (Remember that ....iJ I does not exist at the root level),
c. identify the stem
d. write down the form of the verb using both Ja_; and the form number.
The first two are given as examples.

Form

Stem

Root

Translation

v.~

Ji,:U

J . c.J- (.).

and he moved

I.Ja..i

'-:-'uAt

and he got angry

.. ,

Verb
,

Jl..:U.J

. ...
t

eOf

~.;J

d~

~
, ,

[~.J
~u_,

..

~
,

, ,

~~
\

~I

~.)
Extra credit

.,-y,

277

Match each of the words in column' with its opposite in Column y . There is one extra word in the second
column.

91;;

.
I

J:i

~J4j

JLA::ul

.:.u..o

~IJ

~..u

~J~

t-""'J

J~l

~~

~j.A

..)lj

..

0~~,..)~ ,,.
Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient. Identify the one word that is not part of a family.

r~' . ~; ~ ~~; ,.,),.,~

.~L.. ~l.:!

til

"'

<II

>S.>-! 0~ 'F ~~~' "'~ 0~ .~

r-L-- ''-'"'":'~ l...i.A.J-4 .~j ,I e!!"': 0~ ._>SI,.ro . ~UI ~~~ ~~~


':! ..... !: , 1;.h .~lj! .dL

.JAi .>SJ-O .~~

.;u- .U;...;~

4. Speaking/writing
Encourage (or discourage) people (or a certain person) to visit your hometown (or another town or city).
Discuss the location, the weather, services, attractions, problems, etc. Talk to the class about it in Arabic and
then write it up (around 100 words) and turn it in.

"(YY

278

~(~1) e:--4-U ciJ~~ '


~ J~ ~IJ ~I I_,.;~~ ljl f+~'L..... ~ U t~l J~l ~ I_,Ju vuL.:...II ~I . Y
~(their answer)~~~

r;-- U

.)..... ~ ~I.T"

~..!JWI t~'.il ~.J ~~WI t~'.il ~ vuL.:...II '":"1~ 0 l.S ~I


~..!JWI t~'.il ~ vuL.:...II '":"1~

.t

r;-- U J- ~ ~l . o

i"'-!~ o\.J.r
to stand

....u_,

~4-=~
use

'(VA

i~U

279

\' 0 1J,:.,... ~ ~.,...!. ~i ~~ iJ.CL-.1.1 ~~ .'


'i oL.a.l

t"'!'~ r :/'l

oIJ ~ . ,.

H~~'il U.UI ~ U"JJ Jt-... ~ 0 1J ~I J u=---1 .Y'

weak ....a....-.
. ,
ready, willing, happy to ~

.-

help .~t.....:.
as you know .J~ L.. ~

280

. .. :...,,.\
.
e;at..-1
C!.u.
~\J

"
.. ,
<'~ L.. ~~I

Count on the fingers of the bands the following,

_,

~'~~:,u

First, you're my love,

And third and fourth and fifth and sixth

~' ~ 4:.1!_,
.~_, L....t..a._, ~IJJ i!.JI!_,

And seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth,

.i~., ~.J l:....~!_, ~L.....,

Second, you're my love,

~'~

You're my love.

'""...,... e- .y
~~~ ~ &-- ~~t

He took out the newspaper from his coat

'::-'~' ~.J

And the box of matches

~'~' J..a.~ ::,t u.J.J-'

And without noticing my nervousness

~' l..:a.j.J.J

And without (showing) any interest

,~L..t &-- ~IJ~

He took the sugar that was in front of me

~ ~4-llJI ~ ~:,j

He melted two pieces in the cup

-~ ~:,j ~:,j
, .. .., _.~

He melted me when he melted the two pieces

..

And two moments later

.J

v=a'~ ::,t ::,_,.J~

Without seeing me

,~1~1 ~lll J_,AJI :_.~_,

And knowing the yearning which overwhelmed me

. ~L..1 &-- ~I

Took the coat that was in front of me

j_,t.:..:o

And disappeared in the crowds

;L..)-11 ~ ~u.,

Leaving the newspaper behind

~~~ .~IJJ W......:,.

Alone,
Like me, alone.

YA.

281

)$~
../

Form IV
Shape

Perfect

Imperfect

~;

(Prefix i to the root.)


Examples
he became
~I

..

Jl)

he wanted

he becomes

~..>-!

he wants

1. Verb Forms
For the following verbs, all taken from the poem b ~ ~

~ and all of which

belong to Forms I, II, and IV,

a. give a full English translation (of the verb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root (Remember that ...A.J I does not exist at the root level),
c. identify the stem
d write down the form of the verb using both Ja_; and the form number.

Form and#

Stem

Root

Transkztion

Verb

~~i

'-

~Jj
._j,~J

'":-'UJ

Write a paragraph or two (60-100 words) in Arabic about your favorite poet. Keep it simple, and use words
you've learned in your Arabic class.

282

.~ .j.s>_, c;:,...,J_. ~' 6./,b(

'~.;4-

v-- (borrowed) .;l.a.:w..l ~~I.\

n~li~l~(put)J.......~I.Y

n~l ~I~ ~t.... ...~4- t.1 ~ ~~~ 4i~ ~~ .T

'~4-"~

.:,.... ~~ ..,~La..:w...l ~ t1.;~1 ~~ ~ .t


'l~v-a i~l~ .;4JI~

.o

n~l ~ .;4JI tl.;4J JU ~~I '

cooking pot ~
to give birth .J~

i~olJJ"
to borrow .Jt.a:......l
toput

283

~
~ ~~ JI.A..,...

iJL. rS u-. .y

~~fi I)IJ~I <.? .t

grammar

~~_,:..I I I)~ I <.? i:L ~ .\


H-:!~')'1 ti.UI

.u

<.? JI.A...... -l1........:! I)IJ ~#X

I;;

afrajd, worried

~~

math ..:..~4.J

writing~~

sports w,.4 .J

science (' _,k

~~~WI

u ~~c.s~
,

u4a-=a ~i_,
u~-'"'!' ...
- u~j ...
~~~WI

c:,ui (' yi
- u~~l..:...:a_,
.d l_;iu.J /...;I _,.,o,J>
2ooe ~_,11 ~

YAY'

4-i

t..

k~

C\

1' .(

-(. C \ .

(,.

.( ~,.,_

t..

. .t

. ~

c~

f\ttr- r

<

.-\-~<f
r.
l._!~I
f' .. tC \ '1.

tl-'~- ~-

'\

r 1

~ i r

c:f . "i:f .r~ t~ .


~
~11\

't_ [

\: <-.

==
. ...

- rf'. ~.

11r
- .

-;~ ~
t. ~
(;; - 't..

t~t.

. ~ .f ~ t

1~ .

~f.

rr-

'\.(,. f::"'' '\-c;; 1' ~

t {.- I- l.-(.1 ~

(,.
~~i

-l

\:~ .c-t...

'I~

-:

.('( ~[

l {.

~ ~~

-. ~

r t.

f\.,_. i

,_

J'

...

r-

,. f.

t t:

<i

.'(

E
-c...

t . ~

C \ .

.f" ~ .
'\ . \ .

f' ~

~ .
l'

(,.

~.

f~ ~. 1.
t ~ ~~
(,. c...
~ [

r:f '\.Ft_-

-1

""'

t.

t. :...- .'t
.

f.

t:'~..

(.'t

~.

f '\.

~:

'f

C-

~.

!>.)

285

~J~I ~WI~~ :;Jb: ,.II &.o wl~l :i ..1..d .....~ ~j.:JI ~~~

.-..<.;_, ~

~..>-f-8 ,\\AA ~~~WI de ~.,_::.........1 ~l.r-JI ~I~-' .JI.r-JI


4JJ--

:; I

JL-....!. ~

'-'"'I~~

II ~~'i_,JI &.o ~~:,......... ~J \\\' ~ ~ u-l_,"'il ~I~.>--="~

~J .~l,r-a-JI ~I &.o Jl~l ~~

,I

~Jpl J-bWI u-ll ~_;-i.JI ~JJJIJ

~J ~4J..b J~ ~~~~ \\\.,- ~~J-bWI o.lA ~~~~~ ~4~'il


~~L::a........J~I ~I~..UI ~~~ ~J ,~lj_r.a JJ-,. ._, .~_,JI wl::a........J~ JWI
0~J~

"

.,

.,

......a..JW ~t.::J w4.).:lJI ~I .,- ~ ~_, .~J~I ~WI~ ~j


. " ~I~J..ll ~_,JI

,
new..!.:!~

'

~=~

'
lawyer ~'--

tojoin ~~

'"
early ~J.l..F ~

committee~

member~

society, organization ~

forces ..:.I_,.l

.;

.;

....&Jw

workers

JL....c'

social <or~l

movement

u;..

to ally oneself with

fighting

. '
~ J~

.;

union JWI

control-~

to be able to ~,<(. ~

<!1b

to retrieve, get back ~~~

electing, election "'="IA:UI

to flee '-:';.

~L-.

leader~~

to take place, to be completed .!.~=t,s~=~

to take place .!.~=cs~

seat~

to obtain, get ~

those (that, f.)

protection

National Assembly (

.b_, ~

286

1. What did Jalal Talabani study at Baghdad University?


2. What did he work as? For how long?
3. How old was Talabani when he joined the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP)?
4. How old was he when he became a member of the KDP's central committee?
5. What did he do in 1%1?
6. What was the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) made up of! When was it formed?
1. How long did the Iran-Iraq war last?
8. Who was the PUK allied with during the Iran-Iraq war?
9. Why did Talabani flee to Syria? What year?
10. Who was elected in the Kurdish elections of 1992?
11. What happened in 2004?
12. How many seats are there in the Iraqi National Assembly? How many seats did the Democratic Patriotic
Alliance of Kurdistan win?
13. When was Talabani elected president of Iraq?

Forms VI and Vll


Form VI

Shape

Perfect
~u..:.

Imperfect

~~

Example
"he took, picked up"

J~' ~":;~ "he takes, picks up"

With the exception of Form IX, which is not introduced in this book, this is the rarest verbform based on a
three-consonant root in Arabic.

Formvn
Shape

Perfect
~I

Imperfect

(..:a is preftxed to the root. The ..:a is preceded by I in the perfect tense.)

Example
~I

he withdrew

I . I , . , ~.:

~I

it was divided

~ "it is divided"

''he withdraws"

This form is frequently used as the passsive counterpart of Form I verbs.


.!1~ I ~
"he broke the window"
I!!~ I ~I

"the window was broken"

YA'\

287

1. Verb Forms
For each of the following verbs, all of which belong to Forms I, II, IV, V, VI, and VII,
a. give a full English translation,
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem
d. write down the form of the verb using both~ and the form number.

Form

Stem

Verb

Translation

Root

JJJ

i~

~I

wi.S
~i

'I' '

~J

Extra credit

0~~.., ..>-'~. y
Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient. Identify the one word that is not part of a family.
~

n!.l)..~...o ,~1 .~1 ..:J~I~


~

.'-'"""""_;-.~LA_, Huw1

,JI .' i

, , .. 1 ~ . ~W

,u,.>-LA ru ~~~
~

J' ;, r~~ ~ .J .. ; ... 1 . L~ .J-..cUI . ~,, .J_,_.; .~~

r_,LA.~~ .j:Ll.~4- .~ rSL.. .JWI.~~ r~~~~,;...o 'J~ .L_,Li..o


~

J.,.c., b~l b~ '>:-0'

288

Refer to the list of Arab countries and their rulers in Lesson 15)

'.

'

'
0

'

v
A

'.
~

'-1>~
~ ~.)

~v.- !~I~J4~1~~ . \

v--.J v1 ~,..... .u~ ~

. . -. -:.r

t~l

o'(

_,1

(for definition) ~_,.:.LJ . Y


~~I

~l:JI~J4

rL .

!l:!.;,..... ~ .) . '

!(fonner) ~WI~ ~J .r
U~lv-rot::~~~.t

(t....._,s.-) 'uA-l.) ~ ! ~I r-SL.a. '


(t....,s-) ~ ~ : ~ (anima9 0 1~ .A

t;~dLY,.i . o

-~~ . -.

~J~~.v

(for negation)~ :(t.....,s.-)


....i)....... . \.
.
,.

"-:'~' ti '
(t....._,s-)

~_,J I I,("!jA-Il 0 LJ..J....J I . A

.........J.:,JI
. U.....:. .\
. ..
u--

J.u ~ !~_,.:i~.;~lc.,.A '

"<AA

289

~-.,.

.... .,.r- .

..

.:..

..,

~u.J~F~~.J '

'i' ~I ~

'i'u.J~ ~

eJJa U u.J~ ~.J ~ . Y

,.._Jt..... ~ UI_,JU vul.:JI ~ ~ .r

'i'u.J~ I_,...L...!. L.. ~II_,.JL.:i vul.:J I U ~ JU~I.t

'i' l~l..i. vul.:JI

.o

'i'(end) ~l+aJI ~ .J~II.J~.J vul.:JI .,


'i'u.J~ .:...1~1 L.. U ~ ~

-'"!1

~I . Y

~~oWS'
voice ...::..,.barefoot ~1.:..

to pray ~-J.to steal

J.,.....

290

~
~~~.J~ ,.,..)~~' '
~ l_,..i:..4 ~I..) ~.J ,.

~ ~L...<.,Sl . T

291

:S

J~ 4..> ~~ J'V-"..J
~ ~~ cJ.-4 ~i .),JJ--0 ~ ~.)J 04=a~.J ~.) Jl.r-slJ ~i
~.t.
.q
Ul I.E'~1 w~
L_S w-"

...... II
LWI .::.. L~')'l
J ~. ..r~J" -~
~~ ~

~ J.ll.c ~I L..A 04=-I...:..JI-J JI.,>-&-11 ~J~..,? ':?.l~ ~J J-Ji

<r'4Lb

... .;.J4J I ~ ':?jl.i_, '1.:?-lfll

~~~~ L.fi:.JI_,

4 :.

~~~~_,_;.........,.~~I~ ~4LJ.. J~ ~~I ~j

J~r~~~~.l_,~~.)~,J~~~J~~ .. L.:...:av-ll....i~~~
01......:.')'1

~ ~~~I L.fi:.JI .;.J.l ~ ~I Wi:, .;1~1_, .;~L!.:J I ~J.J~ ~ ~I ~4LJ..


~I v--L...i ~~I_, ~.;_,.:.L:.S.UI_, 4 ~ ....UJI ~LUI_, ":-'LA AI~.;~
'

- ~~~~.:.(,ill .. ~ ~.)_,_y-4 ~ ~i Ai_, &:!.u1_, J~l_,


'

d ..:i~ ~-J 0 _,La.:JI ~J.J~ ~ ~4LJ.. ~~1.,(""~11_, ~_,...JI ~I~


,
~~I_, ~J_,4J.I J_,.UI l.c.l L....S -4-o~11_, ~_,..JI J_,.UI t-" Jl~l ~

.,l,......')'r '"="'LA,)')'I r-c.l r~,J ~,,j...!. ~ J;...w.JI r~_, ~_, Jl~l r-c.l v-1!

1. How many deputy presidents does Iraq have?


2. When were the general elections held?
3. Who is Ghazi al-Yawer?
4. What is the goal of the new government according to Talabani?
5. Talabani emphasized at least four issues in his speech. Name two of them.
6. What did Talabani call for?
7. How did Talabani describe terrorism?
8. What is the date and source of this news item?

292

member ( .. ~i . cJ~

to elect ...,;; .:

~I

Iraq (now) has JljAll ~i

presidency council t....t.:. J ~

deputy ~l:a

passmg J.J..>A

speech

WS

to give, deliver

csiJi

responsibility ~ .,,;..........

to affirm, emphasize ~i

free(thinkof Jl~'ll ..1.~1)~

to aim for .....;~-.....;.{.


"'

to respect r.~-r~l

united

~.,..

....a:.

need, necessity J.J;.

human rights u t........:.'i I c.J..r--

J!....=l....S

consultation J.JL!.::i

terror, terrorism '-:-'l.AJ!

role J~J

also, as well L.

ethnic group J~

.d (".,.i.
on the basis of V"t......i ~

~.J~

level~

discrimination~

cooperation
good neighborliness (think of J4-) Jl~

.-

;.:a

friend ~L-=~~
non-interference

~~I

--

(".l.C

concept, idea (~U::.

relationship

.
.

u~

netghborly J.J4-supporting ~J

affatrS ~,J,j.J.

Form VIll
The distinguishing feature of Form vm verbs is the..::.. that is inserted between the first and second consonants
of the root. As in the case of the perfect of Form Vll, an I appears before the first consonant of the perfect of
Fonn vm, which is replaced by the subject marker in the imperfect.

Shape

Perfect
~I

Imperfect

Examples:
~I
~I

to listen
to become famous

Assimilated Roots in Form Vlli


When the Form Vlll verb is based on an assimilated root, that is a root whose first element is .J the .J is
I

The suffix ul is the dual suffix in the nominative case. (See Cases in the Grammar appendix.) In the accusative and

genetive cases and in spoken Arabic in general, the dual suffix is~

293

assimilated to the.::.. of the Form resulting in a doubled .::... This can be illustrated as follows:
root

J ....i._,
Perfect

Imperfect

Fonn VIII

~_,1

~~

Assimilation

~I

This is how assimilated roots earned their name.

1. Verb Forms
Part One: Form VIII verbs
Form VDI verbs are quite common in Arabic. The following are found in the reading passages in Lessons
41-47. For each of these verbs,
a. give a full English translation,
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem. The first verb is given as an example.

Stem

Root

Translation

~I

Verb

she listens

~I

~I_,

.::..~U

~
,' ,

she is considered

she gets confused

.)t.:.....:;

he overwhelmed me

~1~ 1

.::..~1

Part Two: Verbs ofthis lesson


For each of the following verbs, all of which belong to Forms I, II, IV, and VIII,
a. give a full English translation,
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem
d. write down the form of the verb using both~ and the form number.

294

Stem

Form

Translation

Root

Verb

~t

Extra credit

Write down the meaning and the singular form of each of the following plural nouns.

............

............

J~.)

............

........... .

~L:.S

..:..1.,.:.:...

..~i

..:..1~

I.S,>l

J-1-U:.

J,J

~I_,..

~~;.
~L.......

3. Read and Translate (optional)


Find a newspaper article or a news item on the internet in Arabic. Choose any short paragraph or part of a
paragraph (4-5 lines or about 50 words) and translate it into idiomatic English. Some of the best-known
Arabic newspapers are:

At-Abram

rl_rt~VI

Al-Hayat

~I

Al-Sharq al-Awsat

J........}i I J_,..!J I

Al-Ayyam

r~VI

295

~J;.:" \1.~-~t.-'~.Y~ . . . ~~ \l.,~_,.i~


.--~~~':>

--Ir_
~-- -~ ,J~~-

'I~ <.S_,:.....!.I JL-

rS.'

'I~ t='!"J~~.Y

'!~~~) .~ ~LS:~I.,i;~~ . 'l"

'l(waspuzzled) ~~~ .!

'l~Ji..,;..... ~~ .~ ~~~ J.....a...:!~ J:,_.~l.o

i~~oWJ"
road, way ~ _,1.

donkey (~ ~) J~

towonder ~

J~

to be puzzled ~

.
to count

instead of

L.

296

&..,.\
~ J~ ;:.:......1 ul.l ~t..... rS

.,t H: eJ rS .'

~ JY.a

. b

.>""

~t-~1 4.>--

~.. I . y

4-i ~JI.l ~ .Y'

~~(,$~~ ul.l~l.t

~ u~ ~.,.i Ju.-'il ~ 0 1.l~tJ ~ .o

tobelate ~b

J4-

accident ..!...lla..

for a long time ~L...)


transport vehicle, truck Ji.:. i

..

passengers "":-'lS J

gift

(41.U. c::) ~,.u.


strange

"':-"';!~

tohit "":-'~
ambulance ...AI.a......!

J4-

by myself '!~.,J
nextto

-L.

Lo

'

(o

'

,t~

c.
(.~
~I

~ l

li\

-
C

f, .[ (;\t:

h
C

b'

-~,.. li\

~- c:'

[.,

f C

> t. 1 :
.i= l ..: .r ~

<t,
t.

~ (.

- '1 k:. ..

t.

f . Cr.. s

l;; ~
t. ~ ~ t.. ~ ~ ~

r.

[
~

l.,

.t

<

l.

l,

<.,
~ l.

fA

I[

rII\

r I

(.

l.

.'

I 1(;\

l.

i;f r.: t:..- r. ~~.F


(.
b f' !;

(.

(o

f l

l''L.:

(.

-I

[, L

.t..

-L.

l.,

t.

' L_ I;"

.,.

.c. ,.

'

t.

tl

<.-

r
~ , .~ 1.. ~. r. , f
t. ~ ~~ , ..:. [: ~ l ~~ ~
: t.-.,.. 'r.' ~ ~ ~ 'r. t.
t- f ~ ~ ~. :t t 1 r

1_

i ~ rt:r ~(. ~I~


- ~ .'t
.t: r :r. '1.. ,_:. ~ ~: ~ c' '1.. 1:
~: r. l::
l t.. ,.
~:'
t

...

r:

l.

''"""'

..P

C
I.

-;:;. li\

l.
L

;(

~- t tr. f~ ~- r 8'
'l
t
~ l t; .,._ . h.. r ~
}. f 1 ~.
.,. f. E ~ . r....
~.
If f 16 c-~ I ~
. ,<(- :;:

~.'t.. t

:t (.
~ .,.

(.

' (
~ \~

I -

~ .. .,
t" ..
C

<., :

t.

f l

l.

(.

t.

~:

-~...

(.

(
C. \ t...

l>

~
L

1' t
~. \.
~. :r
(;; 't.
"

(.-

:t (;\

C C.
(i\ l

f- 1'

):

t:.

~ J'

t.

(.

, .t..

...........

l<t:

f
f.'\.r;

~'

.t. --~

..P

E
.....

~--

~:

\Q
-..1

298

."j_,~ r-'""' ~)=~.=..u ."j_,~ _,i Jtj~ ~~ ~~

wts ~~~~ ~w j".r:-i r.u dJ:U, ,~


, ,

.;

~_,..!U ~ ~ ~~~ I f

~WI~&,;~
,

..

..

4ll..o

-'i_y ,r:.

..

~"'~' ~ ~ts

- ,,
~

.;

,1 ~~ ~j jJ~ ~ .~_, 4-Jet~ ~l..c

j_,~ ~}--~~ ~i ~

. \\o'\' t.:.......

til

~~I ~~I JS_.!._, jJ~J ~Lc ~i ~I ~L.-a~l JJ

~.,.:a/~WI

til

. o

"'

F' ~ .~,;-aJI
:~~~~

;_,~ ~\_,.)
~~ ..U ~LS, ...:..J,.ll_,_t ,~l_,j.JI i~ jJ~

ulc ~~ u4~ \\ott:,....;,~

. \\oo r~ ~~~~WI ~.,.:ats ~ jJ~J ~~ ~~~ ,dJj J..:t.:i ~~ ~1:,...

- -

&....;\ .

Indicate whether each ofthe following statements is true or false.


1. When Fairouz was a little girl she had a different name.
2. Nihad's family was poor.
3. Nihad was a good student in her school.
4. Muhammad Fleifil was Nihad's uncle.
S. Muhammad Fleifil was looking for talented children to sing in the Lebanese radio station.
6. Muhammad Fleifilliked Nihad's voice.
7. Nihad's father was enthusiastic about sending his daughter to the Music Institute.
8. Nihad's father bad to borrow money to pay the cost of the Institute.
9. Nihad's brother Joseph accompanied her because he was interested in singing himself.
10. Nihad started her study at the Music Institute in 1949.
11. Haleem a1-Rumi wrote the words for Fairouz's first private song.
12. Haleem ai-Rumi suggested to Nihad to change her name.
. 13. Haleem al-Rumi introduced Fairouz to 'Asi al-Rabbani.
14. 'Asi was a policeman.
15. Fairouz sang "'Itaab" in 1952.
16. The Rabbani Trio consisted of' Asi Rabbani, his brother, and Fairouz.
17. Fairous agreed to marry 'Asi the first time he proposed to her.

'\'\A

299

~~ot.J.f

~,s= ~
talents ~1;.
toplease ~j

broadcasting station ~lj!

nationalistic ...,:J-~

to refuse~~

costs ~~

will ~ I,;= +V"

to agree to ~ I_,

teaching, instruction ~

tunes, ml,lSiC

wWi

private, personal ~~

to suggest

c::,:...l

preparation ~

to choose ,;l.::..:i.. I

to change ~-~

f -
composer~

to introduce r~

sad ~..,..

to set to music ~

to form~

tojoin ~I

to propose, offer v6~

trio~~

numerous

~~

Forms III
Peifect
~La

Jmpeifect
I

~~

(Insert I between first and second consonants of the root.)

Examples
I

r~u

r_,~

to resist

~L...

~~

to help

~~

to emigrate

~LA

u,.U.

Music Institute ~.,... ~


.,
,
, ,
to look for ~-~ ~-~

party,concert ~

Shape

childhood

idea

fo

300

1. Verb Forms
The following verbs, all taken from the reading selection of this lesson, follow forms I, IT, ill, IV, V, Vll,
and vm. For each vetb,
a. give a full English translation (of the vetb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem
d. write down the form of the verb using both J,U and the form number.

Form

Stem

Root

Translation

Verb
..:,......,.;J

.-.:.ts.,
............

' "'.J

.... ,

''

~~

~~
'I,'

~~

c~'

~
~)..o
., "" . . I

r---a

~.J
.-.i'il,j-1
".

Extra credit

" '

,,

,_,........ -, , ,
;

'\"

..

301

Create a Story
One day, Juha tried to get on his donkey, but he kept falling down. He looked at the donkey and said: "Look
what old age has done to me, when I was young, I could get on you the first time I tried." Then he looked
around, and saw that there was no one listening, so he said: "Why am I lying? Even when I was young I
couldn't do it."
Create a story (in Arabic) based on these cartoons. First try to tell the story orally in class, then write it
down. Be as imaginative as possible.

r.'

302

~
~("4~' ~ ("~ ~ ~,, 4
~ .1 J.J ~ ~I.J JL-.11 ~I J
~~

c'J ~, '

l_,.lW.U ..,..L:J I I_,.Ill ~I . "1'

r;.a Jt.......JI ~IJ ~I.J 4 l_,.ll..!. U ..,..L:JII_,JU ~I . Y"


~~Lf.:.JI ~~ J~4~1 . t

. i~~oWS'
'!.J;l
j_,

strong
old (person)

shame on you ~ ~
to be able to

.;~- .;.U

tocarry ~-~

"'"

303

~l"~le--L.:.~I~I~.\

~I"~ I (whom she interviewed) ~U ~I~~ r-1 ~I .'I'


~~~~I.Y'
H..t~ .U.J~

.t

~'ll ~.J ~LA~ .o


~~I

~LS..H_,

UJI ~..JJ ~ r)l.....JI

.._,A ~.J.i (salary) ~1.; ~ '


~~I .._,A ;oi. II ..r!-1 ~ .V

ladies and gentlemen

c,?Jl......_, ~~~

peace be upon you and God's blessings


with the people O"L:J I e-"

program

e-oL:.~

Ministry ofEducation ~I.J ~.;JI i.JI.JJ

may God keep them safe ~ UJ I

~w..........

money O"..,.U

bones~

salary ~1.;

J~_,....

feathers ~ ..J

tenant

found, existing

r.r

304

(;_,~) "~.>\.!."
. ~ :~'-'
.

v'

~_, t.:.i ~l..j &--

A long time ago, when I was little,


There was a boy,

~~~lS

He came from the woods,

U:.I~'/1 &-- ~

He and I played together,

41_,t.:.l~l

His name was Shadi.

-~.JW.~I~lS

'I.S,._ ~ '1-JL!.-' t.:.l


,-1
.I~ L.:.....i..S: -I':. II
I#~
-'1"'.
Je--~
.

Shadi and I sang together,


We played on the snow, ran in the wind,

J ~It-~

We wrote on the stones,


Little stories,

;l.i..-u--1

.~1 ~..:-.~_,

And love was strong between us.

v=aJJt..::..a.J_, r~\'1 &-- r~_,

One day the world went up in flames,

v=aJJ~ I~ V"t.:. ~ V"t.:.


,Jt.:..i.J I Jt...._,

People against people fought,


And the fighting,

.J)l;Jit '-:"~
-v=aJ v=aJJ 1_,

Got closer to the hills,


And everything got worse.

t.jJI_,..II ..JI~I

And the fighting reached the edge of the valley,

t ~-'

~~~J~JW.

Shadi ran to watch,


I got scared and started calling him,

(.J

Where are you going, Shadi?

~t.j.JL!. ~ ~IJ ~_,

I called but he did not hear me.

"1.,/ ... '".!

..L.:a I .:::.. J-"A-' ..::...i.::io.

L.._, (.j ..L.:al

-~.JI.,J4 ~ ~-'

And he got farther and farther in the valley,


And since that day,

I haven't seen him,


t.jJW. t L..;.

Shadi disappeared,

.~1 c.IJ_,

4-1 ~1_,
.~1 c.IJ_, 4-1 (r- ~~
.~1 .::.._)-'A t.:.l_,

The snow came and the snow went away,

Twenty times the snow came and went away,


And I grew older,

.~ ~t.j.JW._,

But Shadi is still little,

.~It~~

Playing on the snow,

.e-J!Jit

On the snow.

r. t

305

Verb Forms
Statistically, Fonns I and II are the most common of all verb fonns in Arabic. Fonn Vis probably third in its
frequency. This is reflected in the words ofFairouz's song<:.S.U. For each of the following verbs,
a. give a full English translation,
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem
d. write down the fonn of the verb using both Ja..i and the fonn number.

Form

Stem

Root

Verb

Translation

~
~
~

they got entangled, stuck

I~

.,

~,

~~

'r! . ... .!

t~

Write a paragraph or two (60-100 words) in Arabic about your favorite singer. Keep it simple, and use
words you've learned in your Arabic class.

r. o

306

,~,

'i I
_jLJJ
. tW
. _; ~. ,.,..
. I JL:H~... ~
~ I .'
I V"'
..,.
'i"(.l.JI .W. 0 1.J_,.i" :..:.JU ~_,.) U JU ~I.Y
'i~ 'i(>~l dllA

..' JL......<.S~I ~ .r

'i~
ISU
~ I.)(,)

_c_jll.:....a.

.1
'""""
~

'i~I.J.AI~J~I~I.o

'il_,k.) J~l
'i~_,lll

'i ('~I ~!+a

u4J.'\

I_,J..._, U I~ J~l ~I .V

..' ~ J-.J U ~ (condition) CJL.. ~ ~ .A

'i"..,~.o4JI ~ J~ ~ ..:.Ji- ~.Jj U JU ~~I.\

J,?

toforget ~

hunger t~

body~
thirst~

soldiers

to answer ~~
1 The phrase (.1J I

.w. o!

is used to express hope for something to happen in the future. It shows a certain degree of

piety and the belief that things are not under our control but under God's. Juha refuses to say (.1J I .w. o! before he goes
to the market, but he learns a tough lesson and uses the phrase inappropriately when it is too late.

r .'\

307

\' USL.... --.L...-H ~" . '


\' ~~1 .'1'

\' t;:~~_,.. . r

\' (housinf) ~I~~~ --.L.....H ~I . f

~~oWS'
gasoline ~~

businessman
other people

'f . V

J~ih~
~WI

U"'L:JI

308

~ ~.l..o J,_..!. "i_,~l" ~.,ri ~ ~J.;J J~ ~_,,_a.ll '.! .!b , . t; II ~WJI J.l_,
~ ~1->-""'tl ~I~ \4\!A t.,:,..,.., ~4J 4.>-a ~~_, I \4\!" t:....... U! b , . I i

JL.......!. ~

~ ~ illWI .-.'_:_i! u~ ~_, .0 l:a.:J ~I ~_,.;J J~ illu ~.;-+-i . i_,_r.a.JI ~,.A


USJ_, "i_,~r ~_,..; ~~ ~_, ~_,.;J J~ ~.) \\4\ ~v-i_, .i~l r--'.11 iJ.d........... ~
.,

Jl.i .J # I ~ "J-'il .HJ. ~.;i ~ ~ .LA.,re.J


b~

~~<#~WI

.. .!t.;_, .l...t.M'il .HJ.

~ ~~

, "'

.,

.U u~ ~IJ-'e"tl ~I o'i dUA ~ ~

.;t..-_, ul:a.:J

~ ~~

..

<JLS ~! ~_,.;J J.,...._.

~_,..; ~ ~~~~~ ... .!1.; ~J.;J J~ ~


. \J.~4

~~~~WI ~I.;J J~_, ~_,.A_,~~ ~_,.;J J~ ("~I i~


#

., ,

.,

"' "'

. I~ uJ.!.' .!b,.!;IJ ~I..,>AJI ~U ~I ;,, .o!J ~

."JW~I"

4.4- J?J

~ l.!b . o~J.;J

..
J.,...._. ~~~WI
~I.;J ~ l+a! ~

r.A

\\V.

u..... ~J .~1_,__11 L.fi:JI t-- b~ ~~ ~J.;.J .J~ _,_._.!JI ~

J-"'AA .;JU
~J-0

~J

J-"'AA

~~ _;-Al.......j .J~I 1:.J~ .. ~1 .;~ ~~~ ~ ~J.;J"-1 G_;l~j ..~i_,


,.

;;c.'/_,:,.....-.. J_.....c_, 4 .!\!b.,ljll

.H~I

:i

"'

.I.; ~~

.,
F I J 0~ ~~ ~ ..;:..:i_, ~

."J..o~l" ~ .;.J...ai_, 4~ .!b ,.1;. II ..:..L...I.;JJI

" "

o~i~u...

.H~I :i

;1.;., iJ4-i t-'" .;-iL.... \\AY U..... ~ 0 ~ ~l.r-'il _,j..AJI ~J


._;..:JI_, ~~ ~ws ~_, ~~

t-- d..&.~ ~1_, .~_,;. ~~ :i~.!b ... nu

.u_, -~~ ..:..~~ LA~i .41..:i.S ~~_, ~ V.O ~i ~J.;.J J~ ~


~j

:.

~ ~J

.\ \AT'~ _ji~~b~
r.,r-

\\\\~ __j"

-.l"i~

r.,r- '-""'"",..

lA I - r..r~

. '-r! .. .! b ,.I .;-c.l...!.

Indicate whether each ofthe following statements is true or false.


1. Mahmoud Darwish was born in the city of Acre in northern Palestine.
2. Mahmoud Darwish lived with his family for a year in Lebanon.
3. The United Nations helped Mahmoud Darwish's family.
4. Mahmoud Darwish returned to Israel and lived in the family's home.
5. The Israeli army had destroyed the village ofDeir ai-Asad.
6. Mahmoud Darwish became a refugee in his own country.
7. Mahmoud Darwish became interested in poetry in high school.
8. After finishing high school Mahmoud Darwish worked as a journalist.
9. Mahmoud Darwish edited a Communist newspaper.
10. Mahmoud Darwish had a good working relationship with the Israeli government.
11. Mahmoud Darwish left Israel voluntarily in 1970.
12. Mahmoud Darwish worked for the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
13. Mahmoud Darwish stopped writing poetry after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982.
14. Mahmoud Darwish returned to Ramallah after the signing of the Oslo agreement between the PLO and
Israel.
.
15. Mahmoud Darwish won two prizes one in 1969 and another in 1983.

r.\

310

i~~ow.r
totlee '-:"~

to attack ,...;.

elementary c;.t~l

toreceive ~

'

(...a.- . G:) i: o .

secondary <./;.~

to like (be pleased by) ~1

local~

newspaper

journalist~

.
magazme

reader

:cr..
.

t(.. (;:. .G:) <s.Ju


to edit .):;..

editor-in-chief~~ ~J

Communist ,_,r~

J'.u

remaining, staying .. ~

in charge J.,~

tojoin ~I

to depart

invasion _,~
to oppose ~~~

..

issuing, publishing Jl~!

to issue J~t

l~hip -~

agreement ~WI

prize

..;:.4-

Form X
Shape

Perfect
~I

Imperfect

(The prefix.:......(!) is attached to the root.)

Example
J...,...i:.....l he received, met

he receives, meets

~-1 he got (something) back ~~

he gets (something) back

Note that the I that appears in the pefect of X disappears in the imperfect as is the case with the I of Forms
VllandVID.

"''

311

1. Verb Forms
For the following verbs, all taken from the reading passage of this lesson, and all of which belong to Forms I,
ll, ill, IV, V, VII, VIII, and X.
a. give a full English translation (of the verb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem,
d. write down the form of the verb using both~ and the form number.
The first two are given as examples.

Form

Stem

Root

Translation

Verb

J.l_,

~.>+A
~
'

,;>A
~L......;

,;~U

~I_,
~I_,
' '

312

(Verb Forms) L.l,~ OWJ". Y


All the words in the puzzle are derived verbs in Forms I (jA..i), II(~), III (~u), IV (~i), V (~),VII
(~~.VIII (~I) and X (~1). When a clue reads X ofY, it means the derived from a given root.

For example, (" J.t ~ ~. means the Form V (~) of the root (" J.t, which is ~

'. '

'

'

'
"
r

'v
A

'

'.

~>,.s-

J rt ~~' '
J'-'.J v-. J.eu ."

C::Jt v-.~ .r

(" .).c. (_,.... Ja..:&.ll . f


.)..J 'j (_,....

.Jt'-"' ~ J.eu '


jA..i ~C.":-'~~ jA..ii . v

(~~) ":-'C::t (_,.... jA..ii .A

v-OJt v-. J.eu '

w.dr~ ~ '

.Jt.J (_,.... jA..i ~t C:: J (_,.... Ja.&:...-l .'


.),J.~ ~ jA..ii

t .)'-' (_,.... ~ ..,.

J.a..L.I . o
(~~) J .JC. ~ J.eu '
rJt v-. ~ v
":-'C.. '-"' (_,....

(~~) J_.. j (_,.... ja..:&.ll .A

(" .J J (_,.... jA..ii . '


,J.I..! .) (_,....

jA..ii . ' .

313

k.~L..~I~I . \
~~~~~r

~w.~ ~ ~

0 LS~r ..,.

ui.S ).:.~J ,.s .r

'iW.~ ~_,.:A..!.I ~I r-'il ~I .


~JL!..ll &-- ~.J U W.~ t;:J.i

.,..U. ~l . o
'i~ w.~ -=..~.) L.. u4J '

clothes~~

at all

. '.
l~r

to shout

~-c. I.-

strange~~

what

~I~,_.!.

to go out

Mistress of AH and Beauty of the House


to die

..:.~-..:.L..

elJ..

.)l.l-11 ~j,J ~1..:.......

(a)drink ~~

314

,.s v.- .'

~ uJ.)'it ~ 0 tJ ~
~ VSL... .JA ~., . ,.

~~~~~~ "'
~ c:,tJ U...:. ~ <"~ u~ ,.s .1
n.~.J.I., -~~I~ .w!-l' ~ tl~ ,.s .o
~
. r-

~ .:.I .)~~. c,rl ii

u...:. .....us:...-< '

iJ..~oWS'
frankly~~~
to cost ~-.Jis

citizen

tobelieve

&J-1;..

~- ~1

Mercy on us! !~

~L!:JI ~L.-.i.l ~-' ~4-L! ~ w.JJL!. ~) ~l..r-tl ~ IJj_,JI ~J C~

0,

o""',.:b .1;!1

.~l.,.....tl "~}..A-6" 4f,:>

.ol ~.J~1

t-i_,lle-o""', oo~Li.J~.!..~c.J.JJL..!.w~.J ~.JJ.J.J.J

~j_, ~i

L:.i_, ... ~.JJ.J .J~ i~i t.;.j" \!.1~.1->-'1 ~IJj_,JI ~.; ....il.....oi_,
~~.JJ.J ~~~I U)la.JI.l.A .,_;:.}i4 ~_,.l..ll t+U~ ~ U!_.._.b,.lfll
.. ~L.Ai ~
JIJ

-.

.>-:!:-?

,J~ C-.... _. ~I;.-...,._. ,!JIJ4 .J~I" ~L........JI ~1...>-'""tl ~IJj_,JI ~J C~-'

.,H.)_,JI ~ L....s: . .LU~ r-=WI ~-' ("_,.!J.S ("j ~Ut L..,.L:;.,_, ~,_.JI c.F>Li.'l'l ~I
.J,_rb'l'l ~_,.A ~Ui ~It L...:r.......tl ,J_-)'1 .?1~ y._, 'J~I ~ (.JI,;..i) U!-"~

.~_, .J.:UI...>-'""1 ~~~I U..U~ ~ ~.JJ.J .J_,_......._. ~ &-- j~ c.:, I~~

(""'!-~ ~ . ~l..r-tl J~l ~.J ~~ ~ L,oL:i.,_,


J~l

..

J!.-o ~..r:u-JI ~I '-:-'~1_, U!_.:b ... li II

~J.JI.....e........~_,

..

'e-""I.J JL..I....:. ~.),A. j

',

,.1~1_, '-:"~I J~l &-a ~I

J;._,..__. ~ '-:"t.::.SJI_, '(""'""WI~ ~L!JI_, ~ J:.-.1 ~I.SJI

.;!.,)..:. ~WJ I_, f.!J_,.;. V"4J I_, c.:, I~ J..::..Li. c.:, I~_, ~ ~~_, 1.!-'l..u......J I J 1_,..:._,
~_,.:.WI V"JI.Jll ~ V"J~ .. 1~1_, '"="'~I .. tj.A ..:..4~ &-- i.......-a c.:,l L.S ... ~~

(.,. .. O/f./H

Jo.......,_,)'l J~l ;.~~ ~) . ~1.,.....1 ..:..la....o4JI_,

1. Who interviewed Ariel Sharon?


2. What does Sharon envy the Palestinians for?
3. What does Mahmoud Darwish express well, according to Sharon?
4. What does Ehud Barak listen to continuously?
5. Which songs does Benyamin Ben Eliezer like to listen to?
6. Among which segments of the Israeli population are Mahmoud Darwish's poems popular?
7. Name three Arab poets and/or writers, besides Mahmoud Darwish, whose works have been translated into
Hebrew.
8. Where are some of the works of these writers and poets taught in Israel?

r\o

316

i~ow.r
love, liking :;,.
to speak ~-rk:-=..!1~..!.~
journalistic ~
newspaper :I e: , .

c::,....

to declare
poems

~l......i

meeting, interview ,.LlJ,

site, location ~;...

~-~

toenvy ~-~

continuously .J I~

to listen to ~-~1
it is mentioned, worth m~tioning .;S~

to express

Hebrew~~~

on a large scale t-I.J J~ uk


works J~i

wtdespread

educated, cultured i i \'

poet ( .. 1~ - ~)~I...!,
those .. "/.).A

writer ( '-:"~ . ~) ~lS


~

part -~=~

Noun Patterns
The great majority of Arabic words follow regular patterns. In the preceding lessons, the major verb patterns
were presented. As was pointed out at the beginning of that presentation, the great majority of verbs in
modem Arabic belong to 10 forms. The number of noun patters on the other hand is quite large. But some are
more common that others. Some of the most common noun patterns are:
student

~U.

living, inhabitant

0SL...

~
,

written'-:"~

known ....i,J.,>A-e

J_,....

small~

big~

tired o t.....:;
.

thirsty

oWJ...c

office~

restaurant ~

white ~t

black .s,....i

better J,...Ut

bigger

~i

houses..::..~

months .J,.._.:.

schools '-"" .J I.LA

offices ~~

industry t.ct..:.....

agriculture toe I.J j

Ooo(

"~
~
~

J_,.,,
.?.

~
,

d.i

As the above examples show, words that follow the same pattern generally share a similar meaning.
A number of noun patterns are related directly to the verb patterns. A noun derived from a verb may indicate
the doer of the action of the verb, the recipient or result of such action, or the action itself. For example, from
the verb~ , the following words are derived:

317

writer ~l.S
(something) written '-:-'~
the act of writing ~loS:
In Arabic grammar, the word ~L..S: is referred to as an active participle ~l_j ~I,'-:-'~ as a passive
participle or J.,.U... r--1, and the word ~loS: as a verbal noun or J~
The form or shape of the derived noun is determined by the form of the verb from which it is derived. So the
active participle of Form III verbs will be different from that of Form II verbs and so on. The following table
shows the most common participle and verbal noun patterns that you have encountered or will encounter in
this book. The cells marked with an x are not important for you to think about at this point.

Verbal Noun

Passive Participle

many patterns

J.,.U...

Active Participle

lliU:.

Jt.a:AI

J~i~

Jla.&.:.l
Jt.a.::.:.l
JW:.:..I

X
X

J.-.....'

Perfoct

~
~

II

~u

Ill

~i

.-Ja..i.:i

IV

~I

VII

J: ~.,

Vlll

~I

1. Looking up words in the dictionary


With reference to Part 29 in Appendix 2 (Grammar Summary), look up the following words in your ArabicEnglish dictionary:

..

(..a~ I

2. Verb Forms
For the following verbs, all taken from the reading passage of this lesson, and all of which belong to Forms I,
II, IV, V, and VIII,
a. give a full English translation (of the verb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem,

Y'\V

318
d. write down the fonn of the verb using both Ja.,l and the fonn number.

Form

Stem

Root

Translation

Verb

..

~
,

1.1".)~

,,

3. Noun Patterns (LL. 41, 52)


The foJiowing nouns, taken from the reading selection on;;:.!;.>~ ~I and from the reading selection of
this lesson belong to the nominal patterns shown in the table of noun patterns shown above. For each noun,
a. give a full English translation (the noun and aJI affixes), except for those words marked with xxx.
b. give the stem by removing grammatical affixes such as gender markings, possessive pronouns, plural
suffixes and the definite article J I.
c. indicate what fonn each of them is the active participle (AP), paSsive participle (PP) or verbal noun (VN)
of. The first two are given as examples.

Derivation

Stem

Translation

Noun

VN ofFonn Vlll

J~l

the occupation

J~'ll

VN ofFonn m

t..._,u...

negotiations

..:::..L.:._,t.a...

J)lll....."/1
J~l

u,.JAA

..

~~I

Y'\A

..
~
.-.

319

~I
~lSJI

.::..L.......4JI
Extra Credit
XXX

J,..........,.

XXX

.Lo...i~

XXX

.Ji.~

XXX

~I

~~\.t
Create a Story
A number of travelers stand in line for a long time waiting to go into the passport office. A rich man bribes
the police officer who lets go ahead of the others. First make up the story orally in class, then write it down.
Be as imaginative as possible.

~,., 1\~

!.)!.r. .

320

~ ~~ ~~J_,..~I . Y

~ ~~~ u_,..;...:.s ,.-1 ~ u_,..;...:.s ~_,j . '

~ o4J ~(answer ~J) 41-"'!' ulS ~I . !

~ u,_,..;...:.s~_,j..::.Jt......~ I ~I . Y'

i~oWS'
hell -. , .

way, road ~).

we do not have any other than them in the house, the only ones
we have in the house

'"'~ ~ C:.?~t!A :Jll

-~

~L..j;:.,.... '~ ~~ ~

,,.~, -~

t..:.i_,

. ~LS...~~

.~~j

,,.~ , ,.~

:~~~~

.~L..j;:.,....

!~JA4J I ~)

. ~l:L ~JA4J I ~

. ~11~

!6.>4-- ~.,; ~jl

"~wts

6 J l.........JI
<'I
..r:- L.IU
~
~
v-

~I+JI~

.~
-. ~U..L:ai
.
J

-~ ~L..S

._,6. -~ e--i '!~


.~ t. ,.)L!. ....i_,..!.i J

. ~IS~ ~_,.II~

"'~wJ~

~JL..~I".~t....~

, . ":<'

w~j '~jb.,...i ~

~ Jl...b.J.I ;:.,....

. ~LS... Js ~ -~1_,
~.>fi ~J_,..bi-HA! ~

, ,.~ ~,.,..b.JI ~ : ~

~c.4-JI;:.,..o

.,.~ ~LS...Js~

'!. . 'T

tJ~ ~;,

,L (..::, (;;;

II
~. ~ ~ I ,
~~._.UJ

321

~r~~ ~~.:.~1 ~~

V'-.,

HJ.~WI u.... c)JI ~I 1"""""1 ~I . Y


~~_,.A~I.r
~.~ .l-1_,~ .
~

OSL- _,.,. ~., . o

~~ ~..::.~l_,.ll~tiS...!.......~~.,

~<r4~~ .a) r4~LA ~ U"w1 tiS...!...... ~~~~~..H~ ""iJ ~ .v

a few questions

J I:;..., ~

transportation ..::..~I;...
to them, to where they are ~~

322

!~

Write down!

~~ L:a1

I am an Arab,
My I.D. number is 50,000,
My children, eight
And the ninth will come next summer.

~; 0 ~ 4J; .. b! r-i.>-'
ll.i...b1

ww
-

~~ ~ ~~-

c.r

'i 4 ,

Are you angry?

!~

Write down!

~~ L:a1

Iaman Arab.
I work with my struggling friends in a quarry,

And my children are eight.


I pull out the loaf of bread for them,

clothes and notebooks

~~

c..tS.J' JU.; ~ ~;,


ww _jl.i...bj

~.JI_, ~~~~~,
~~~

~4 ~ ~u~ 1J__,.:;i "i,


~i"i,

Nor do I belittle myself

at your thresholds.

~~i .la~
~

Are you angry?

!~
~~ L:ai
~
. ~.~ IL:ai

I am an Arab.
A name without a title,

brimming with anger.

~L..~J~~J~

.... o;.JI

i.;~ ~

'!J-'~

My roots
were entrenched before the birth of time
and before the opening of ages,

before the pines, the olive tree,


before the grass grew.
My father came from the family of the plow

rt--i

.. ,;,;. ; J+l

Write down!

patient in a land, everything in it

"

,-

~~~J~J-1

from the rock.


I do not beg for a handout at your door,

"

r-f ..~,
Oij J.+l

~J wL...>JI ..~~
,
~I

..

J.:a..i

--~

"

~ .
w~.>J I_, _,_,.......1 I J.:a.:a_,
;

....~. JI t~~ J.:a.:a,

~'~' >-""'i &-- ~i

323
~

not from grand gentlemen.

i.lL...&.o y

L:..)U wt.S: <.!~ .J

My grandfather was a peasant


neither well-bred, nor well-born.

!~Y.J~~

My house is a watchman's hut

J~utfi~.J
.... oi 11,., Jl,"il &--

Made of sticks and reeds.

~ ~.,;..:.... ~~

Do you like my status?

J+.a

1-..AJ
. )L. ("-"" 1ui

I am a name without a title.

!~

Write down!

~~ui

I am an Arab.

~~lw,.,J.J

Hair color: coal black,

"". ~~ . 1
~ ~ ~
uJ-'.J

eye color: brown,

:~I~.J

Special features

' ~fi

On my head: a 'iqal on top of a ku.fiyya.

J_,.l

JLU cr""'i J

uk

~t.S:~~.J

The palrm of my band is bard like a rock,

I ....

It scratches those who touch it.

-)1...,

...............

..

~u-o~

rla..b..JI o-o ~i L.. ~j.J

My favorite food is

"~j.li.J ~j.JI

zeit andza'tar.

:c.;a l..,.:..e

My address:

.:w
"

I am from a peaceful forgotten village,

'o

Fl~ ~~

,J

I .
c:.,... Ul

FL-...i ~ ~JI_,..!.

Its streets have no names.

~I.J ~I ~ ...

All its men are .. . in the field and the quarry

4J4-J JS.J

i' ",;,;~

Does that anger you?

J+.a

!~

Write down!

~~L:,j

I am an Arab.

<.!JI~i

You stole the vineyards of my ancestors

r,.,.;5. ~

~j~~),.,

and the land I once plowed

<.!JY ,.,i ~.J ui

Along with all my children.

(SJlhi ~,J w 1!1~ r-J.J


Many Palestinian men wear akufiyya {bead~) on top of which sits a 'iqa/ (a headband, usually black in color) that
keeps it in place.
1

Many Palestinians have zeit (olive oil) and za 'tar (thyme) with bread as their breakfast meal.

"'""'

324

The only thing you left for us and for all the grandchildren

J~ I 'ilA t.S_,_

is these rocks

LA~~J+i

Will your government take those

~LaS~~

As it has been said?

(_

Write down then

jl

~(,.) .

~,J\jl 4 '>Loll U"i~

On top of the first page

U"L.:J I b fii 'i l.:ai

I do not hate people.

~t ~~i 'i,j

I do not steal from anyone.

~Lo lji..~,J

But if I become hungry

.,.! ~j
u ., .o;i r-

I eat the flesh of my usurper.

t.F-~ ~ Jl~ JI~

Beware, beware of my hunger

~~,J

and of my anger.

1. Verb Forms
For each of the following verbs,
a. give a full English translation,
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem,
d. write down the form of the verb using both~ and the form number.

Form

Stem

~i

Root

(#~.i

Verb

Translation
he will come

. -L..,..,

~4

Ait

.. . -

. - .. I, ..

325

Extra credit

.,

~-

..>-J

2. Noun Patterns (LL. 42, 43, 53)


For each of the following nouns,
a. give a full English translation, except for the words marked with XXX.
b. give the stem by removing grammatical affixes such as gender markings, possessive pronouns, plural
suffixes and the defmite artic.l e Jl.
c. indicate what form each of them is the active participle (AP), passive participle (PP) or verbal noun (VN)
of.
Follow the example.

Derivation
AP ofFonnl

Translation
and outside her

The Noun

... ............................... .

-=--',. ..w1_,

~).~,

~IJ

. '" I

~J.,..........
I

,,

~I
~WI

r+- ...G_,
teO

'-:!.,

XXX
XXX

aa

326

Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient. Identify the one word that is not part of a family.
.,

rJ

.Jt-.S! ,J_:aL..,J '~'~~~ ~.l-o 'U"J-1-A .~j .~ .L4~ 'J~ 0Wi ~


.~ ''->)-'!
.~ .~L&.
.i)-'! .,;1~'11 .~u ~~
- .l'w, ~~~
..
- .J..o...Si ~.)
-

,
.,
, ,
~.~~.~I ,Ut.......,J ,4...w:,Li. ,LIJ-' ul-ci ~'-:a~ .J..olS
~

Create a Story
One day a man went to the movie theater, which was empty except for one person. He sat down right behind
him and asked him to lower his head so he could see better. First, try to tell the story orally in class, then
write it down. Be as imaginative as possible. If you choose, you can create a story about a similar situation.
Some useful words:
to lower

,-

J~-Jj.:a

movie theater L....:.........

327

~
~ ~t....~l ~ ~.~ v-o ~~I J U U~ ~.Jj U . \
~~~~~I . Y
~~J.+-11...,? ~IS ~I .r
~~I v-o ~.J U ~_,_;J ..:.JU~I ~l . t
~~ v-o 4-1 <}JI ~1_,.11 ~

o ..:.JU ~.Jj U ~_,_;JI (reaction) JU J.J ~IS ~I .o


~ ~~ I_,.:.IS U ~_,_;JI (treated) I_,J....~ L-.~1_, ..:-.JI '(-1 ~ '

awful, lousy

-=..:..:,

daughter of a cursed one u~ I ~

liar '":-'1~
alive, living

~=~~

328

.----I &1f.bl
.................

'";;f' - _ _

=--=~~~~

~~ c.)L....L..... ;.__. ~1 . '


~ ~:,.,;:..... ,.,. . y
nJ~ .~,.,.

.r

~ ;.__. ~ ~ ,_)JI..:..~ I_,.LI JSL..!... ~l.t


~~I J.+A.i~ll:i.~ ~L...rS . o

~~~w.r'
bachelor ~~i

Teacher's Institute ~ ~

fullc.)4(.

barely, with difficulty

.u.14 ill4

IJI=,J

the whole time

.:..A,.. I J_,J..

329

J$l!J\
~ ~~' ~;.,
...,
..::..i~ ~I~~~ 41-"\'l ":-',r:JI ~t.s: ~.l~l ~ W....L.:i!_, <S..H.r=JI J,.o...c. ~J
...
...
,
4...:aJG..:J.I ~~~ ..::..l..d..o.~l ~ il~ ..::..~l....:4-l ~ ~~~ J,J.l ~ ,J_iL!JI UL!. \\Vo

(.;...... ~
..., ,

JU,:jl ~! J__,.::JI ~ ..u.L.... \\A\(.;......~_, .tJ_,.JI .. ~ il.l~!_, ":-'..rJI 4~ il.l..d .......... ~_,

. b.l~ ~ ~\'1 ":-'..rJI

u+ai <!lJI . ~u..JI

~-'A~ b~~ i..,.#\ i,...~.J


i~_,..aJI ~ ..::..l:r.. ~ ., IJj~l ~J ~i_, \\\Y (.;...... ~ 0 ~ ~! <:?..H.rJI ~~ .l~
'\'"\'\

330

~;..l C!l.ll ~~~.,

c O

i t)'l

~~ iu! ~-~~db J~ ..J..,_.!.i_, ,'(

t_, \~~'( ~

. ~'JI '"="~'

~..).\ i.-.,;..
~.;JI ~I ..J~ 'i ~,;.... <F"-' 'C!.H.r:JI ~I ..:..1.)~! r-Aj c:,.... "C!.H~I ~,;.... ~
~ L-IJ.ill ~~~ '-:"Y..b,JI iJ....CL-.. JcA 4 "' "...~1 ..J..LA . \\V\ ~ ~ t-.t...!..:ai u_,
..:..La.....4- J..,A..ti ~ ~ 1 c.sk ~~ '"="w. ~i rr ~ ~i i.l.l....-:a ~u .u_, ..:..La.....4.H
. I~_,

t.......:..,>A_,

i~l ~1_, i~l

..:..4'i,, ..ll_,

o~

("~J ~~~ v-- ~ .ll.l.'J ~~, ~~,, ~ ..:..L...~ 4i ~~' ("~J


~ 1 -'-'~J4Jo~ ~~~

4J_,

. J~~ ~~~ Ja.L!...:Jt t.t?':i:

1. Where was Rafik Hariri born?


2. What did he major in in college?
3. What did he work as in Saudi Arabia?
4. Who did he marry?
5. What was Hariri preoccupied with while working in Saudi Arabia?
6. What did he help with in 1989?
7. When did Hariri return to Lebanon?
8. How many Lebanese governments did Hariri form?
9. What was his philosophy about bringing life back to Lebanon after the civil war?
10. Why did it succeed?
11. Is the Hariri Foundation for-profit or a non-profit organization?
12. How many Lebanese students did it help educate? Where?
13. What other services does the Foundation offer?

i~oWS'
accountant . . ..J ,

construction ..t.:.....

.-
J.i.....!.

completing

JL.S!

successful ~t..:.
civil war ~~ ~';.

uppermost in one's mind ~W.


residence t...U I

in spite of&-- ~~4=~~

intermedilll)' ~~

to play a role (i).).J.l ~

victims~~

fighting, warring ~ Jt.....k,.


reaching , J,.;:.

agreement, accord

JU:.I

reconstruction .. t.:.....
i~l
;

to end, finish

~~

achievement .)~!

foundation, establishment

t...:.....;:.

~i=t..!...;t

non-profit ~~I ~I

....;_-*" 'i

better &--i=~i

..:.:~L-=i..~.~ ~u

related to health ~
activity .J.U.:.

to offer, make avadable r~-r.u

' '

encouraging ~
.J'i .,t=JW.i

rr.

331

1. Looking up words in the dictionary


With reference to Part 29 in Appendix 2 (Grammar Summary), look up the following words in your
Arabic-English dictionary:

2. Verb Forms
For each of the following verbs,
a. give a full English translation (of the verb and all suffixes and prefixes),
b. identify the root,
c. identify the stem,
d. write down the form of the verb using both~ and the form number.
Form

Stem

Root

Translation

Verb

;.L...,

332

3. Noun Patterns (LL. 52)


For each of the following nouns, all of which have been taken from the reading selection of this lesson,
a. give a full English translation, except for the words marked with XXX.
b. give the stem by removing grammatical affixes such as case and gender markings, possessive pronouns,
plural suffixes and the definite article J I.
c. indicate what form each of them is the active participle (AP), passive participle.(PP) or verbal noun (VN)
of.

Derivation

Stem

Translation

The Noun
, WI
~

I , ..J ,

,,

~l.:a
,

J,CUJI
,
,

~L........o

J-~1
..l~'il

,..
t,,,,
. ''.

Extra credit
proper name
~!,J

J~l
proper name

~WI

t.u

333

Write down the meaning and the singular form of the following plural nouns.

"',

Ja.L...A
~Lio

Match each of the words in column\ with its synonym in Column ":' There is one extra word in the second
column.
~.)

L....

.l~

JS

~
~

..:..l.o

iu_,

r~
,

~I

<r

V.Oj

i).:..

J,..A..ti
"',
~~

..:....,...
" 1.)_,

rrr

"'

334

i1:-.\
~U_,..i..:.S ~.Jj~~~I.,JI c:l..)~ .\
~ c.J"~I ~~~I.,.II ....;L..!. t.1 J- U_,..i..:.S ~.J,) CJ41 . Y
~u..)~.J ......_,.. .:J~ ~ ~1.,.11

(tricked) t~ U_,..i..:.S

~_,,;, ~

.r

~.:...~~ ~ n:..ill ~,A u_,..i..:.S r--1 (accepted)~ U_,..i..:.S ~_,,;, .t

..

~~WS'
poor, unfortunate

horse

IJM:;.

under~

to catch up with ~-~


leg

(h)~)~-..)

to move

d~-d~

to take off ~eU


thief

v--';.

to call (S.ll..:.

berelam

335

rS .\
~ 0JJ'J I ..,? (JIJ 0 1S J+o!. rS .'I'
~ Ju.....J.J ~L::JI ~j

~ 0JJ~ ~~ ~ .J-A .r
0 1S ~ .t
'i'(past) ~U I .,? t..-.:, ~ 0~ ~IS . o
'i' 4.JL..j

r4t..,? t....:...UI #

'i'~l.,?t........J~0~~ '

what if, imagine if _,J


Ah, the good old days! ("God bless the days of the past") uL.~

r41 r-:""-H till

crowdedness ~ ~
Bulgarian

<,?Jl.i.4

the (Arabian) Gulf

~I

Japan

rro

u44JI

336

Read the following news item that appeared on the Arabiyya.netweb site on Feb. 14,2005,
and,
first, answer the English questions below,
second, with the help of your Arabic-English dictionary, translate the news item into
idiomatic English.

~ ~l..:a.:J.ll ~~,j~.,_,.....; r~ 2oo5 r~

v-- .J..~ ~~~~ 14~,;~d.:.: ..

,-l ~~~lll~~~l ~,;~L.....II ~~I ~Jij_,JI ~JJ,:o...:i.... ~ 0 i

~ IJ~i ~u_, <!.~..,:.:......._,.~_,~~~I

t-..WIJ......._, ~ oJ4- J4-Lal

. 0 l.:..:J~ ~.,~~1_, 4 1 ,.J 1 ... 11o~l~

rL ~ t.!...:.i .u_, . 1944 rL ~l..:a.:J.l'l~ ~.Le ~~~~~~,)~~I .lei_,


~ ~.::.....AL.... ..u_, ~~~ Lf,l.s..A ~ Llo..:.... ,.,-Jt-t ~~~~ ~_;..."1979
L.:.....J ~ ~WI L....,. ~
-<-II ~La....La.JI . t..:.....J....JU.. ~130
~<i
~"
I..J-"0 ..;-

'-' .

"-

. r ,... . .

~~~_,~
. ~L...~~I t...........,;J.I r.l.i.:; L....S.~.J-Ai.J ~.JJ-ti ~La....~
.

4-t~-t

('1' of'I'/H .;;.~ ..:,.;.. ~,.>o&JI ~)

I. Why will February 14, 2005 be remembered as a black day in the memory of the Lebanese people?
2. How was Rafik Hariri killed? Where?
3. In what areas of Lebanese life will Hariri's departure be felt?
4. When was Hariri born?
5. What did he found in 1979?
6. What does the Hariri Foundation contribute t<> in addition to helping Lebanese students get an education?

effects, consequences

J~ i

337

~.\
Match each of the words in column l with its opposite in Column '-' There is one extra word in the second
column.

Y::t

.
J+....

l..u

t4

~_,.b

~_fj

il.....::u\1

:u

i 1 'il.oi
M

.,

"VOL;.

c.s~'

~~
"
i~
" ,
~
~

~~
~~~., ..).J~. y
Rewrite the following words, grouping them into related families. Each family consists of two or more
words. For each family, identify the root and give its general meaning in English. In some cases, it might be
difficult to come up with a meaning that is shared by all members of the family. In such cases, writing down
one meaning is sufficient. Identify the one word that is not part of a family.
'II

"',

'it.:ai ~' u-=a'~' 'f'+A 'i~~~ t-o4- ...::..I.J~' 0 _,__,.:a to;? 'u--O_fj 'i,J..c r-.Ai
0

t-'

t.~' ..::..Lo_,h-o ,.ll~i ~ .i..l..:' ~


, ~4 ~~~ ~'..1..:' b.l~ 'i~u
,
0

,L_,l.i.... 'it-:L.I

rJ~ ~~~ ~ .J~ .~U "'~


<II

VII Ill

<#I

b~ .~1 ~ 0__,.l

rrv

Ill

,LU! ,_;L.::a..-

,L-4- 'i~

.ll_fj ~~' .l~ ~ .JU....

338

(>~'-' J_,w., ~'-' J$.\AS\ ~') w.~ ~w.r .r


All the words in the puzzle are active passive participles ~U f'"""'l), passive participles (J,......._ f'"""'l), or
verbal nouns (J~). Refer to the table in L. 52. The categories that are not found in the table are found in
the Fonn Summary in the grammar Appendix.

'

'v

\.

~>~

.)-'1
\ .)~ VUJ:-l
' V.. v:"-u f'"""' 1 '
.)-;... .)~ !(~~) ~" v-- ~u f'"""'l .r
(~~)

""

-~~ v--~uf'"""'l ! ~r v--~uf'"""'l.\

",._L-i"

.)~ !(~~) ~

v-- ~u f'"""'l .r

(~,sa..) ~r .)~ .o

~ v-- ~uf'"""'l .o

l~ .)~."\

rp .)~"

v-- ~u f'"""'l .A
!(~~) ~r v-- ~uf'"""'''

(~~) ~r .)~.A
!(~~) ~

v-- ~u f'"""'l . '.

4-i" v-- ~u f'"""''

rrA

(~~).).Lt.

~v--~uf'"""'l

339

Create a Story
On his first day in school Kanfusheh's brother, Hassan, put on new clothes, including new shoes. He walked
to school with the other boys from the neighborhood. He couldn't keep up with the other boys, because his
feet hurt. The boys sat down to rest, and Hassan took off his shoes. A few days later, he found another kid
wearing his shoes, and he wanted them back. Create a story telling what happened to Hassan and his shoes.
First try to tell the story orally in class, then write it down. Be as imaginative as possible.

Some useful words:


new~~

to hurt e:'!'~-~_,i

:'

v'

/.

. 'x \

',

>- , .

'

/'.

\f)()'
'I '-I

' I

'

' /

"'

. "'''

1'~'U ~-61
: .!\ , 'c. ~
t1\~

'

"

--

r \

'

-o

... ~-

~~-e,s_;:...!.l

to wear, put on

.:..--~ ~__:.j ~~ .....,...oil


. .; _..:f~

I -..

I I '
!
I t-'-' ':-'-.
; .>
(t : ' \}\ . , ~~ ""-' "

. : \ ' \j... '; '/ !.

to buy

340

APPENDIX I
READING AND WRITING

341

PART ONE: THE BASICS


The Arable Alphabet)

Letter Name
NC

Word-finally Word-initially and medially


I

~i

Pronunciation
a (cat, father)

.,L

......

.,ti

...:...

.. ~

th (thin)

..!.I

..

-::a.

..~

.ft*

c:

-::a.

..Li.

chin Bach*

-::a.

NC

JIJ

NC

Jlj

th (the)

NC

"1.; r (trilled as in Spanish)

.)

<#lj

.)

1..)"

sh

..

.-..

1..)"

..
.-..

V"

vo

........,

J~

emphatic J*

vo

"U:.

emphatic...:...*

.b

"U;.

emphatic j*

.J,;

French r in rouge*

"u

.....

_;

....il.:i

emphatic d*

.....~

..s

.J

NC

Jl..w:.

emphatic

r-J

NC

t t-

t t-

......0

..L.~

..i.. .....&.

'-'~

'-'

"LA

b.~

+..._.

_,r_,

w (was), oo (moon)

.. L

y (yes), ee in meet

<.j

.J

NC=non-connecting, i.e. does not connect to a followoing letter. *=no English equivalent.

342

Direction ofReading and Writing


Unlike English, Arabic is written and read from right to left.
Connections and Shapes
Letters are always joined to one another. The letters designated as nonconnecting do not join a following
letter, but they join a preceding letter. All other letters join both preceding and following letters.
Eight letters, the six marked as nonconnecting and J.. and Ji., have one shape only, regardless of their position
in relation to other letters in the word.
Three letters, t t, and-A have four shapes each, depending on their position in the word and whether the
preceding letter is connecting or nonconnecting.
The first shape is used at the beginning of the word and after non-connecting letters, but not word-finally.
The second is used after a connecting letter inside a word.
The third is used word-finally after a connecting letter.
The fourth is used word-finally after a non-connecting letter.
The remaining 19 letters have two shapes each, one at the beginning and inside a word and another
word-finally. In general, the difference between the first and second shapes is a curve in the second to finish
otT the letter.
If you compare the shapes of the different letters, you will notice that the majority are organized into groups
or families according to their basic shape: '"="' ..:.., ..!..; ~ C. C. etc. Within each family, letters are generally
distinguised by the placement and number of their dots.

Pronunciation
Seventeen letters in the above Jist represent sounds with a similar pronunciation to their English equivalents.
These include: I, '"="' ..:.., ..!.., ~, .lt ,j, j, V" .._;., ...i, ..:.1, J, f' u ..A, .J '!. The letter J is pronounced like a
Spanish r .
For the the sounds with no English equivalent, special assistance from a teacher, a native speaker, or another
source is needed. The symbol in these cases is just an orthographic convenience which will be used when
Arabic words are transliterated to help with the pronunciation.

Although the sound is not found in English, it is found in many languages, and students generally do not
have much trouble pronouncing it. Listen to your teacher pronounce it once, and I am almost sure that you
will pronounce it correctly.
The sound represented by the letter t is similar to the typical pronunciation of r in French.

The Emphatic Group


The emphatics are a particularly interesting group of consonants in Arabic. They contrast with a set of more
familiar, nonmphatic consonants. In the alphabet table above, they are transliterated in uppercase. You need

to hear the contrasts between the opposing members of the set to appreciate the difference in pronunciation.
The foiJowing table shows the two sets. Ask your teacher (or a native speaker) to pronounce the pairs for you.

Emphatic

Nonemphatic

vA

V"

vA

343

It should be noted here that the pronunciation shown in the above table is not followed by all speakers of
Levantine Arabic at all times. It can best be described as the pronunciation of educated speakers of the dialect
in more formal situations. It is also the pronunciation of these sounds in the written language, known as
Modem Standard Arabic or v , * Among older speakers of Joradan, Palestine, and Syria, for example,
three-way differences can generally be identified in the pronunciation of the following sounds:1 urban, rural,
and Bedouin. Among the younger generations of speakers (those born after 1967), the rural and Bedouin
pronunciations are giving way to the urban pronunciation.

.!..

Urban
(Main cities)
t

Rural
(Countryside)
th (thin)

Bedouin
(Speakers with a Bedouin background)
th (thin)

like s in measure

j (judge)

j (judge)

d,z

th (the)

th (the)

v6

emphatic .J

emphatic j

emphatic j

Ji.

emphatic z

emphatic j

emphatic j

' (hamza, glottal stop)

(uA and Ji. are so rare that you will encounter only a handful of words in which they occur in this book, and
these are mainly in the reading selections whic are written in v ,.
pronunciation anyway.)

and for which there is only one

At this stage, try to follow the pronunciation provided in the table, but you shouldn't feel there is something
wrong if you hear the above six sounds pronounced differently by Arabic speakers.
Short Vowels
You may have noticed that only three vowels I, _, and "# are listed as part of the alphabet. These are the long
voewels. Short vowels are not represented regularly as part of the alphabet, but they are sometimes indicated
as diacritical marks above or below the letters to assist beginning readers. (More on the diacritics below.)
The Letters and Sounds are Not Everything
One important fact that you need to remember as you try to learn the Arabic sounds is that language is not
just sounds: context is often more important than individual sounds and words in getting the meaning of what
is said or read. This means that even if you miss a certain sound in a word, you will be able to get the
meaning from other available information: the topic, the situation, the previous part of a story, other words
and sounds, etc. So, do not dwell too long on the pronunciation of individual sounds; the sentences and the
message behind them are what matters most. You will develop a feel for the Arabic letters and the sounds
they stand for in time and without much extra effort.

Most pronunciations differences among the Arabic dialects involove these five sounds.

344

PART TWO
Special Combinations, Special Letten, and the Diacritics
'/

When J is followed by I, with and without i ..)....a..A (bamza), the two letters are joined together fonning one
special symbol, written as '/ or~ . The combination is often considered another letter of the Arabic alphabet
L!.l J..!..

~~

three

iJ.IJiJI

iJ.IJ~I

Jordan

..:.IJI("!JI

..:.I JL..1

the Emirates

...l
When J is foltowed by (" the resulting combination frequently appears as.J. instead of.......J.

U.~ ~I ..L:J I (taa

marbuuta)

This letter is a combination of /~ and..:... It is written as t. or i, depending on whether the preceding letter
is connecting or nonconnecting. It is a feminine ending that appears on nouns and adjectives. Consequently,
it is found only in the final position of a word.
In Levantine Arabic, U.~~l .. L.:J I is pronounced a or i, depending on the preceding consonant: a after the
emphatic group and the back consonants C t t J, and -A, and i fter all other consonants. In,_,, . ';
(writtenlfonnal Arabic or MSA), it is pronounced a everywhere. If you are in doubt about the pronunciation
of U.-H_,..ll -L-:o..JI, pronounce it a all the time; it might sound fonnal, but it is more acceptable than
pronouncing it i where a is the correct pronunciation.
If the word in which U.-H~I ..L:JI is found is the first part of a construct (UL.A!), then at appears in the
pronunciation. (More on this in the Grammar Appendix.)
i..)..o.A (hamza,

the glottal stop)

The Arabic letter i _).....A (bamza) is not considered a full member of the alphabet. It is sometimes written by
itself, but it is mostly "tacked onto" a vowel. It always has the same pronunciation: a glottal stop, the way
you start a word like apple in English. The pronunciation is symbolized here by the apostrophe ('). The
i .)..--.A may have any of the following shapes: i, ! ..:., (s, . The rules for writing the i..,;-.......A are quite
complicated (and fascinating for the linguistically-inclined). All you need to know at this stage is to
recognize the different shapes of this letter and, most importantly, to remember that all these shapes stand for
one sound only.
I.S (i J_,......i... .J..J I,

a/ifmaqsuura)

This letter is found only at the end of words and is pronounced like the letter I. When suffixes are attached to .

the word that ends in i J_,......i... .J..J I, the letter appears either as I

or~

345
~~~

_,1_, (waaw ofthe plural)

The two letters f_, frequently appear at the end of a verb to indicate that the subject of that verb is plural:
1_,..-.......... "they heard". Two things are important to remember with respect to the final I in such verbs. First, it
is silent (in the same way that thee in the English word made is); and second, that if a suffix is attached to it,
the I disapppears: <.?~ "they heard me".

The short vowels and other diacritics


As was mentioned in Part One above, short vowels are not generaJly indicated in Arabic writing. They are
sometimes included to help certain groups of readers such as children or foreign learners. In this book, the
diacritics are not fuJly included for the foJlowing three reasons. The first is the belief that the sooner the
Ieamer is introduced to the Arabic that the general Arab population read the better. Second, the user of this
book wilJ not be decifering unfamiliar words for which he/she will need to know the exact pronunciaton, but
rather will be reading familiar words that have been heard or read before. Third, I would like the course to
focus on developing reading comprehension with the emphasis on the general meaning of a paragraph or a
sentence rather than on the meaning and exact pronunciaton of individual words.
However, in some contexts the short vowels are necessary; for example, where a distinction needs to be made
between a pair of otherwise identical words.
Among these diacritics, there are three vowels that correspond to the three long vowels in the alphabet table
above. The following list includes them as well as the other important diacritical symbols. I will use the
letter ..S (k) to ilJustrate the shape, position, and pronunciation of these diacritics.

~ (~ fatM). ~ represents a short vowel that corresponds to I ( .....i.l l): ka.


~ (i,A kasra). This diacritic represents a

~ (~ damma).

short vowel that corresponds to~ <~ 4): lei.

L.... represents a short vowel that corresponds tom (_,1_,): leu.

~ (i~ shadda). This diacritic indicates that the consonant above which it appears is doubled: lcJc

Indefinite nouns, adjectives, and some adverbs, particularly in ~ (Written Arabic or Modem Standard
Arabic), are often nunated: they end in a short vowel(~. i~, or L-....) + the n sound. Nunation is
indicated as follows (using the letter..S as the carrier of these diacritics):
i..s (kan)

..S (kin)

:s: (kun)

346
PART mREE: QUICK REFERENCE

L~J

~ I!

L .. i

~ L:;

~ 1.)

Jl.l

Jl.l

~L

'

~~

..

.l~~ .l~~ ~~ ~~

~ Ll

~..,.:,

\.

t
\

r"~

~L

t
J

..

(.S

~l.l;

~l.S

_,I_,

~(

~I

'~'j

j;

.b

..
~'-'

~LA _Jb

347

The Numerals (ruJ"i I)


~#.J ..~.:~.l,J

"'

~#.J~I

..~.:~.l,J

~I

\'

~#.J~~

~~

T'

~#.J~)

~)

~#.J~

'1'0

~#.Jt...

t...

~#.J~

~#.J~w

A ~
~~,J

'1'A

~w

'1'\

~~

T' .

~)

J.l..~.:~ol

0.

J.L.:...L.I

'.'
"

J.~

\T'

'v.

J.~)

~w

A.

J.lb. a:.

\O

J.Li.......

"

...
'..

' ...

....a.Ji

' .. .. ..

0~

'

\\'

Al.l.a..........
(,.)"
.

\V

J.~

\A

J.~

"

.,.,

~#

The Ordinal Numbers

4F' ~

first J~i

fourth ~IJ

third .!.J~

sixth (J"JL....

fifth v-Li.

eighth&--~

seventh ~L....

second

tenth~

ninth

e-t.:o

Daysofthe Week(t.J-!-'M"il r~i)

Sunday

..~.:~."il

Tuesday .. ~)l!J I
Thursday

~I

Saturday ~I
Monday

Wednesday "~J"il
Friday

rtv

~'i l

~I

348

Months ofthe Year (u......l I J.J+-!J


Arabs use two calendars, the Muslim lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar used in the West. Two sets of
names are used in different Arab countries to refer to the Gregorian months. In the African Arab countries
(Egypt, etc.) the names are based on the European names corresponding to January, February, etc. In the
Asian Arab countries, (Syria, Iraq, etc.) the names are based on old Semitic names. Don't feel discouraged
though as a result of this complexity. For one thing, almost aJI publications list a date in the two systems. For
example, January 11 will be referred to as: ~~

u,.:.L.S ~1_,.1.1 .H~ ''or~~ ~1_,.1.1 ~~ u,.:.L.S \\

~1,_..

means "corresponding to"). Often the date in the lunar calendar is listed as well. Second, most Arabs
use numbers in wrting and conversation when they refer to the months of the year. So January is shahar
w8Wd, July isshahar sab 'a, and July 4, 1776 is spoken and written as:

(~_, ~-' ~: ... i_, ~i ~ ~))\VV"\ /V/1


The foJiowing list shows the names of the months of the Gregorian calendar in the Asian Arabic (Levantine,
etc.) and African Arabic (Egyptian, etc.) systems.

April ~.Hi! 0~

L.:..../

March '-"'..J'-4Jl.ji

June ~~/ul~~

May ~L../ J4i

August ~ij..... i

July ~~~~,_,;:.

October ..H~i!J~i ~~

September J: -.. ...; J~i

February ~~~/ J.~

December ~4J~i 0,.:.ts:

Seasons ofthe

Year\~ I

January

November

~- ~~ 4.)~'IS

;~~ 1-H~

.. ~~

J,.......)
fa]J ~~

summer~

spring ~~

winter ..L:W.

rtA

349

Arab Countries and their Capitals

l.f..- I~J ~~I JJ.l.ll

. il~....,......,

('_,.J.~ I

4J I.J,.....JI

i.,>-AWI

.J.~~I

""':-'_,ill

1~1
.>-'

1~1
.>-'

L.. II
~-JJ

~.J~I

.J I~

._;1~1

~,J

~.),..,....

~ .Jl.i....
~

~~

~_,.:;

0~

~I_,J.

il~....,......,

u L.:...J
.

'-"'.WI

.l...i...-.
~,s.JI

~~I

~~

Question
Below are the names of some Arab capitals and their English translations in random order. Can you match
each capital with the correct translation?

Capitals

Translation
the gardens, the place where things fall, the islands, the place of tying (or an inn), the trunk (of an elephant),
the large tree with widespread branches, the conquerer, the one with the gazelle, the sleeping place

350

APPENDIX2
TEXTS OF LISTENING SELECTIONS AND DIALOGUES,
JEOPARDY GAMES, AND TESTS

ro .

351

~.)~.)J)\

.:..:,1

~~

L:.i

'J

I-H I

'.-\
. d~ I.U. ,'-:-'~ I.U.

'-:-'~l l.A
'-:-'~l.d~I,'-:-'4-JI ~ I

'-:'~I .d~l ''-:-'411 ;s....

... .,r-1 .... L:.1


... .!L.....I , ... .:..:,1

.'J , I-HI L . L:.l


. ~U.. ~I ..,_..JU. ~I .ll..:..-1 L:.l

.'J 'i ..,.JU.. L:.i


.I-HI 'i ~U..~I

.'J 'i .ll:..-1

::...:.1

.I-HI 'i ..,.JU.. ::...:,,

\ . ~

.A.V, \ ,o,,T',",\

\~1

\ . ~

.A.V,\ ,o ,t , T' ,",\

(J~I tA

J-11_,)

"~I

. .lai.J '-:-'~

c..r*""' . \

~'-:-'~ll.A . "
. ~_,Jd~l~l.r

'i ..,.J

u.. .:..:,1 . t

. ~1

L:.i .'J .o

~~'-:-'~le:.JI .I

.~_,s t.:JU.. ~..ll:. .v

ro\

352
T e---1

9U~l~'-:"4rS

~.J

.~1

~JU

~.!l~rS.J

~.J

. ~~

~JU

te-o-'
~~ ~~ .~,u1

~.J

.~JL:. ui

~JU

~~.!U4'-:"~d-

~.J

'

.1~1

~JU

. ~~'":"t.:.S.JI~I

~.J

~ ....l..-J I

e-o-'

...JU. rS
~

~JU

H . :'JU.
.
rS.J
,ta.......:;

~JU

~jl,;.,..,lrS.J

~JL:.

. ~t,jl,;.,..,l

~.J

~.J
~.J

-1

-1

....

~l

,A

.....<
.....
.
.........
.

....

.>

.....

....

..

--<

rJ

~
.r
t
~

rt

J)

['

I.

to(.

I.

. L..

{,
I!

t'

.... c.. ...


...
.r
.r: r. ..
t [ ~ .[ ~ .c 't 1:.. ~ ~ .[ ~:~

L w::

I.

(".

I:..
,A

>

c c -; <

.[

~

.... ....
~ ~

~
.

1-

,-

.f.' 1'

'

li\

,[

(o

C.

.[ :,

lit

lit

.,

~p ~ !t~ lli\ ~l ...r ~ ~ :, -: ~

(o

li\ ,[ !t

h. :[ -c; \.E- \.E- ) ~p- l

l,.

C.

. . ~ ~ i
~
~
tH-o(
:dL
r~r~ff.fn:r~~
: : <i
t . . ~ ~ ~ ~
<t.
<t t 1 ~ ~

....I <.. .

\ t ~ _ :: ~.

J)

to(.

':;: ~.i' ~l. lc Ci.t \.EI <t~ . : ~ .c ~~ ~ . .c . 1;.1rt- rt::~


li\ .
~
1

r
~
! ~ :: 1: <t .r F. 1 \: <t ~ 't t ~
~ <r . .... 1 h~ "" . ~ h

.c-

r. c... t ~
.r ~ f.\\ ~ : .c: :
=" t 1 t" . .
fr- ~1.., c...li\f. 1'~ ~~r: Cip~t t1 <r~r c.~l . 1.(.~
1 .c c.~ t 't ~. '( t: ~. ,f r :

C.

c;

C;\

f'

.t
t
. ~
~. ~.r~~

..,

E::-~

(".~

.~

1'

f.

~ c...

1'

f.i. -(

I.
........

........

r: \.

't ~

C.

~l ;[

f.,

.~

...

C.

't

.t'

(o

C.

.~

(o

-cl.. 1c
.
i~. .[ .t'
- [' . . .c.~ t r-t
1: : f : t ~ ~
--<

.~
~

-.c
to(.

1p

C.

\..

.
F

tl

...::;;

tt

:r

.f~. ~I. ~
' ~

i:

354
y t--'1

~~ ~ ~L...~l.., ..::...,~ ~ ~L... L:.l. \


. , ...... t:...... o-- ~.J}'il dL. ill I~ dlll. y
.-L-'il JL!...:o ~ll:!J,_~J .r
~us.:...~

us.:... .t

~.JI~o-- ~ d.J.:a .o
~~.., u..,.J .:..}.-~I.,

. v-:o_,:;~ ~ ~ JI,JAJI.V
~ ~lli.l I ~ ~ ~Jot

e--L... c.J... U;!-o .A

. ~lS.....JI .J~ ~.> U_,.J ~~ ~.J ~L-.1.4 ~.> U.J.J ~~ ~I.J,....JI. \

r t-o''
l:!J,_ ~ ~.J l:!J,_ t.......U c,)..a ~ l:!J,_ ~ ~ ~.J.o o-- L:.i ~.J ~I

t t--'1
..U.:.......i

......._-":! ~ . ~u. ~.Jl:. .~.JJ\'1 o-- ......._-":!.., ~ o-- ~..JL:.

t--'1

.~lc4-

~.JU

. ~lc4-

~"

~d.-..1 ~I ::.,..1 . ~JL.; ~I

~JL.;

.~_,~11.:.1

~.J

I.:! ~U. ~I

~JU

~~1_, . ~u. L:.l .1~1

~.J

~ ~.J

.~t...S

L:JU. L:.l

~JU

~ ~.Jl:.l:! ~I ~.J o--

~.J

. ~u--

~JU

~~~.J

~.J

JL...!. ~

~JU

l:!J,....

~WI

(..b:.~~L.....J,....a..:.....l)

.v-=a.
.J

~I

~L.....

rSI~J:j
r.-Y\

'(. , \\,\A, \V,", \O, \ , \r, \ '(, \\


r. ,.,., .YA .w .n ,Yo .n .n .n .n

.~L.....

~ ~L.....

.l.a

..r-" L:.i

.'/.1-Hl L.4~1......~
eJI,\\

,\.,\~~WI

.c-JI ~ 'ii,~J 'it.~ 'il ~ .~.J ~ .~.J ~ ~J.J ~ ~.J t.......:;


.
.c-JI ~~.J ~~~WI ~J:j

't-"1

r. ,.,., .YA.W .n ,Yo .n.Yr .n ,.,.,


.,. t-"1
-~J.J~~~WI.\
.:.,...:..J~-.,.
. ~'it~.J~ .r
~J

'itt:...... .1

-~.J~.J-~ 0

r t-"t
4 ~~ c4. UJt~ 4 J,.:..Jt c4-

UJi~

~r~td;l~~

UJI~

.UJ.M.oJI .~_,s

~.ll.:.

~ d1..6.t ~ ~w t ~.u

UJI~

- ~.ll.:.

ro 0

~.ll.:.

~.).J~)

~.ll.:.

.i~

~~~

.i,..u

~.ll.:.

356

~r~' ~ ~L....I:'' . ~, 4

e----'
~J.:.

~~ ~L....~~f ~1_, .~_, t......:; ~WI

~"'

.t...........i._, ~"' ~w ~w'

~J.:.

e----'

~ d..........f~f

~J.:.

. ....i,..,....~

...._i...,.,~

~ ...._i...,.,~ 4 ~' ~)'_, 1:'1,:.,...

~J.:.

c.)"~ ~)'"',:.,...

...L..~

~ ~)'_,.14 ~.L.o C:'i

,:.,...

~J.:.

.v-.-,t ~.L.o,:.,...

...._i...,.,~

H~ )'_, ~ ~.L.o vA

~J.:.

.J........, vA ~ ...;....., ~...;.....

...L..~

.t.....Wf

~ v:-.-,1 ~.L.o ~"'


. v-.-~ "':"~

JL....!.

~J.:.
...L..~

!"'-

:J

-H

., 1

~
~
.}
:7'

IJ

'\

..

.j

1
~
-].

J.

'1l; . J
~.?; J

!J '..,
-

~~_t ~

J .,..

.. ::=-..::

... ~ ._l) '4 J ~~

.,-

]) .:1:~ -l 1-~ ~

,.

....

.....

.....

": ~

<

.....

--:

,. ,
.....
. .
. >

<.

..

>. . . . .0 .

--::

..........
,_ ,_
. .... .
r: --: -a

'":

.-;J. ....--::. ....;: .: ...... .


-

ol..)

.~

!J

IJ

1 ~

~,..,

i.J

.?;~
J ~

q l

J
.:_

~ .~

. ~ 4
~

:tJ. 1
:_ ~~ -t, ~
::

..:: . ,..J ol..) t,


?"
.1 ~
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'1. '1. '\


4 l ; l ; .-

~-

~ J

. ~ ' \ ' \ l; '.

l) l) -

:l

.,.

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]

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l;

'l '\._._., l '-1

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J
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.,.
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.,.

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;

:t 1; ~ ~ =-~ :1.; =-~


] :}1; ~. ~ ~ -l -l ~ ~~ ~
'\,. ~~!1. .. l;l)l;
~ ] J ::. \ ~ ~ ~ \ ~ \

~ "t ~ ~

<

..

>:

r:

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j.

J.,.

..,

J .r
!-

1;

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~.., 1 ~
, !J
J .., ~

,-J . ' -1 ._

t, ~ "t ~ ~. F~

j . '""'.., ,..., :J.

lj. ....L1 .J 1 .J 1 .J 1 .J

.....

- ..,:..1 ..,:..1 ..,:..1 ..,:.1

,_::>

3.58

re-o-'
.~, r~ .:.~.w..~ ~ '.) . ,
- ~'.)

4 .b'l ' r~ t . Y
.t..... J .l.o '-:!-i L.. ~ 1r~ .r
'i c.>'-:o-- J:,t utS u41 . t
- ~' r~ e--4-Ll -=-.> .o
- ~~~.~w. . ,

. ~1 ('~ ~ t......>.UI ~ I ('~ UJ..a..JI U .V


- ~~ I ('~~ t......>.UI .b'll ('~ UJ..a..ll U .A
-~~-~~ . \

e-o-'
~.L:.

~.J
~.L:.

~.J

~~ ..::.L...!S
( J,._.!.) ..>+..!.
J~i o_,.:.tS <.?~ ~~ .J~l ~~ .J~i.":-'i <>.;:. . 0 1~.>a 'J~l o'--='-' 'JI.ji .1.~ c.r'~ 0 _,.:.LS
U-

lolA

0~ ,.J'ii

r .~1. \\o "

. ' .. -L ." .r ..

,.,. ... ' ..

. Y. ,\'\ ,\A,\V " ,\o ,\ ,\T' ,\Y ,\\


. \ , ... . T' . , Y'\ ,YA , YV ,n ,Yo ,yt ,YT' ,yy ,Y\

\ ,., '\ ,, A. ,V. ,,, ,o,


0 ~ ,.J'ii

r .~1 . \\o.
~r~l

.t . T . ,'L , \,

, \\ .. ,\ ... -L r ... Y.. , \ ..

..,A ~L....rS . H,:iJ '

~W I ~

~t~'i 1

~ r~ rS

~ t~'i ~ ~~L....,.S
. ~L....l ~ Jj ~ I ~

...>+..!. \ y 4..:.-J I ~
c,r'WI ~~ .J~'il ~~ .J~i '"':-';

<>.;:. . 0 1~.>a 'J~i 0 ~ ._,l.ji .1.~ <.?WI 0 _,.:.tS vA U-JI J ,._.!.


.J~'il 0 _,.:.tS
~ ~~~r~rS
1
~ .1.~ ~ <.?w o,:.lS ..>+..!. ~ ~

r rS

~ 4..:.-J I ~t~l

,.S

~ U-J ~r~rS
. J~l~lll.A

... J_,i ~~ \\

( ~ birthday o!IJ~ ~

c..r---1)

J~ ~~

'e---1
~ ..;.~ ~~ &--

t.:.l . o!IJ~~ ~'i_, ~ o!I J-":!~ ~~ ~ ~..>- ,:,L:........I L.:.i .~ ~ cr"""""l


<1~1 .:c....t ~ oJJ'il ~ ~ ~.1.o ..;.~ 0 J}il
~'i_, L.......U v...-_,'i oJJ'il ~ 0 ~ ~.u &-- ~ .U- \Y J..:...l , \WA U- ~..>-"'i ~ t.:.!
"':-' 1 J+o!. ..,... 1..1" 1..-S..:i

360

ye-o--'
~Jl:a

ill I~
~Jl:a

. ..::...:....,.. ~-' J~JJ ~I

.t.....IS Yo

. Yo.~~~

ill I~

,Yo.'":".,...,.~

~Jl:a

T'

e-o--'

t-'":"-1 OY \
~~~~_,~

.Y

. J4-J4 ..::..lL... ' T'

vl t
vl ,0

.~~" o. ~.J-'"1
' '":"~ YT' ~

.c:,_,..J ~ L.. J.:.l ~,l.a "..::.O.)j '


.~~~U. t. ~ .,&..J.....JI .V

u......IIJ~

(e-ill I.J .)o..J.I.J J_,..-iLJ J,..- J......a.:>....l)

te...i
. \. ,\ ,A,V ,, ,o ,t ,Y" ,Y ,\
. y \\.\A.

w.".

\O. H.'"".

\Y."

.r. ,Y. ,\
.' . ... r .. Y\ .YA .w .n ,Yo .n .n .n ,,.,
\ ,\ A V. ' ,o L

.~I,H\.

,Y"\. ,Y" , \\VY ,\VY ,VY ,\\\,\\

. ~ \Y u.....J I ~ . ~L....i t ~I~ ('4i V t~'il ~ . ~L....

yt

('~I~ . a:io~ '~WI~


.J_,.........l t u.....JI~

- ~.;JI ..t:..!JI,~~I . ~I

'":"' j .:,;.:..01~~

,_,.A u......ll J~

.)_,....!.~~~

<.?WI~~ ,J'_,'il ~~ .J~i J_,....!. ~ ~.,a.JI


. .J.4..!..J <.?WI c.)_,.:.IS.J J'_,'il c.),.:.ts J_,....!. ~ .l:..WI
J4i.J c.)L.....:_..:a.J Jl,jl J_,....!. ~ ~.;J I

v--1...:.. ~I ~I~ -.IJ4 ~I . l:..WI ~


v--1...:.. ~ I ._,:.1_,.A ~ .IJ4 ~I IS.......~ I~
.~ ~ ~I.J ~.,a.JI.J ~_,JI ~ - ~.J ~ ~ ~t:..!JI ~
.~
~-~~.~ <.)" ~JL......!. ..,
. .J ...
~<-l~.ts......,~i .J L-~..,
. ...l
_,.......~ ~~
-~ L.. .'i ~ l~.)_,u ~ ~ ~
.l~i ~ l~.)_,u ~ ~ ~
-~ ~ .~.,..:. ~~.1~1 ~ _,J- ~
. ~L...'i ~~~
-~.,S l:.UJ~ts ~~I

. t:..!JI ~ ~_,s I~Jfo ~~ I


.~

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Please Note
I . Suggestions on how to use this activity are in the Arabic introduction to the book.
2. Directions, particularly the first time, can be given in English. Using Arabic would be preferable, of
course.
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material from the book.
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Test 1 (Teacher)

Part 1. Dictation (..)l..l)


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375

Test 1 (Student)
Name
Part 1. Dictation
Listen to tM sentences read to you twiu at normal speed, one phrase at a time, and write them down.

Part 2. Listening
Listen to tM three selections read to you twice each and answer the questions in English.

First Selection
l. Where is Halab (Aleppo) located?
2. How is the weather in Aleppo in the summer?

Second Selection
1. What was the weather like last Saturday?

2. What time did he have breakfast?


3. What did he eat for breakfast?

4. What did he drink?

5. How did he come to school?


6. What time did he get to the office?
7. How long did be work?

Third Selection
l. What does Su'aad do?

2. When did she come to Egypt?


3. How many people are in her family?
4. Where did they live the ftrSt week?
5. Does the house have a dining room?

Part 3. Reading
Read the following three selections and answer the questions in English.
First Selection
New words:
price

size

.)~.1.14~'
\O

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2. What color are the men's shirts?
3. What color are the girls' shirts?
4 . How much are the men's pants?
5. How many girls' dresses are there?

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3. How is the weather in Basra in the winter?
4. Is there a university in Basra?

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2. Where is Saida?
3. What is it close to?
4. How old is Ali's father?
5. How old is his sister?
6. Where does his brother live?
7. Where does Ali live?
8. What does Ali's father do?

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388

Test2
Name

............................................................. f"""""'il

I. Dictation ..~I
Listen to the phrases of the short paragraph and write them down. Each phrase will be read twice giving you
enough time to write.
II. Listening e-e-l
Listen to the two selections read to you twice each with a pause between the two readings. and answer the
following questions in English:
First Selection
l. When did he travel to Damascus?
2. What time did he get to Damascus International Airport?
3. How long did the trip take?
4. What happened to his suitcase?
5. What did they tell him to do while waiting for his suitcase?
Second Selection
l. What does Dan Williams study?
2. Where does he live? With whom?
3. When did be arrive in Jordan? (day and time)
4. How much did Dan pay the taxi driver?
5. Where did Dan eat the second day?
Ill. Reading i~l
Read the following selection and answer the questions in English.
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1. What borders Kuwait from the east?


2. What is the total area of Kuwait?
~ Where are the agricultural areas located?
4. What is the percentage of agricultural land in Kuwait?
5. What is the weather like in Kuwait in general?
6. What is the average temperature in Kuwait in the summer?
7. What is the percentage of Kuwaiti Arabs to the total population?
8. What is the percentage of Muslims to the total population?

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IV. Fill-in the blanks ..:..U l.,rll I ~I
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IV. Grammar. Translate the following into Arabic:

his house, her car, I lost him, my name is Sharif., my car, she asked. I was, she beard, you, m.s., wrote,
they were, she asked them. he walked. you (f.s.) arrived. they asked her, you (fern. sing.) knew, she lost
me.

Vocabulary:
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house

he heard

t--'

be walked

be was

~LS

he arrived

J-.J

he wrote

he asked

JL..o.

helost ~
he knew

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405

Test3

............................................................. r--"1

Name
Parti-Dktatioo (. )l..l)

n.

Part
LlstenlDg Ct----1>
Listen to each of the three selections read to you twice, with a pause between the two readings, and answer the following
questions in English:
First Selection

1. What does his cousin do?


2. How many children does he have?
3. When did he talk to his cousin on the phone?
4. How long has it been since he saw his cousin?
5. How did they go to New York?
6. What time did they arrive in New York?
Second Selection

1. How long did he work last Thursday?


2. How did he go back home?
3. What time did he get home?
4. Why couldn't he sleep?
Third Selection

money

U"_,u

to bring, get

l. What does Muhammad want?


2. What should Muhammad look for?
3. Who has more money?
4. How long should Muhammad wait?

m. Reading (t .,JI)
Read the following selection and answer the questions in English. (New words are listed after the questions.)
Part

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406

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l. What is the population of Riyad?


2. What is Riad's elevation from sea level?
3. Where is it located relative to the city of Jedda? How far from it?
4. What is the name of the agricultural area mentioned? Where is it locaed?
5. What is the weather like in Riyad in the winter?
6. What is the average annual reainfall in Riyad?
7. Wben did Riyad become the capital of Saudi Arabia?
8. Who is Abdul Aziz bin Saud?
9. When was Imam Muhammad bin Saud University founded?
10. Where are most of Saudi Arabia's ministries located?
11. Write 3-4 sentences describing "alDir'iyya.. (location, history, etc.)

~,:0

to range C:-'l~c:_,l_,:;

palace ( .,_,....l . ~) .,..-1

at the hands of ~ c).&

unification

wall .,._
IV. Fill-In tbe bluab .:..Li I~ I ~I
Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph using the words below.

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407
Part V: Grammar
Translate the fol/Qwing into Arabic:
her kitchen
.......................... .
your, f.s., grandnlother .......................
I write .............................. .
she walked
...............................
she flies ............................. ..
I say
...............................
you, m.s., flew
we lost them

your, m.s . neighbors


...............................
myaddress
........................... .
sheopened
...............................
you. m.s., hear him ............................ ..
you. f.s., walked ............................. ..
he lives ...............................
you, m.s. heard him .............................
he asks us ...............................

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~

to open

to build~

helost ~

he walked

heasked Jt....

hewrote

address

I.JI~

grandmother

LV

he heard

t-"'

he flew (t.~) JU.

he said (_,) JU

he lived

uI~

kitchen

neighbors

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Test4

..... .... .... ..... . .... . .............. ;.... . . ..... r--"'

Name

Part 1-Dictation < ~~!): Listen to the sentences and write them down. Each sentence will be read twice. Write fast.
Part %-Listening <t L.....:........l): Listen to the two selections read to you twice each with a pause between the two readings
and answer the following questions:

First Selection
1. Why did Dan travel to Jordan?
2. Where did Dan speak to Abu-Sharif from?
3. What did Abu-Sharif tell him when he called him on the phone?
4. How did Dan travel to lrbid?
5. When Abu-Sharif asked Dan where he was living what was Dan's answer?
6. Who helped Dan look for an apartment?
7. What was the rent of the apartment?
8. How does Dan go to the university? Why?
Second Selection
1. What did Muhammad lose at the airport?
2. Who did Muhammad speak to after losing his money?
3. Why was the embassy closed?
4. What did Muhammad get up to do?
5. Who is Ali?
6. What does Ali do in the evening?
Reading <~ I_,..1): Read the following two selections and answer the questions in English.

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1. Where is Irbid located?


2. What is lrbid the center of in Jordan?
3. What is the origin oflrbid's name?
4. What is the population oflrbid now?
5. Why did the population oflrbid increase greatly?
6. Where is Yannouk University located?

421
7. What is the name of a cheap hotel in lrbid? What is the name of an expensive one?
8. Where is al-Sa'di Restaurant located?

the Old Testament il

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IV. Flllin the blanks ..:.Lei__,i.J I ~ I


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a. Translate the following into Arabic:


she asks you, m.s. .............................. .
she helps .............................. .
I said ...............................
you. m.s. work
.............................. .
my wife ...............................
their problem
...............................
you, f.s. learned
...............................
they traveled
...............................

she likes ...............................


you, f.s., spoke
...............................
I helped them
...............................
she brought ...............................
we saw
she helped her ...............................
you. m.s., gave me ...............................
you, pl., brought ...............................

Vocobu/ary.
to like :,_
wife

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to askJl.....

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toworlc

problem t1S..!....
to travel

~L...

to bring

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to see .JW.

422
b. For any 15 of the following 25 phrases, all taken from the reading passage about .l.! J! above, indicate whether they
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438

Test5
#'j.t\

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listening (t L...w.-lj
Listen to the two selections read to you twice each with a pause between the two readings and answer the
following questions in English.

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439

TestS
Name

............................................................. r--"''

Part J-Dictatlon
Part 11-Listenlog (t L..:......l)
Listen to the two selections read to you twice each with a pause between the two readings, and answer the following
questions in English:

First Selection
1. What did Um-Sharif hear?
2. What was the second reason that Um-Sharif gave for not wanting her son to many an American?
3. What did Um-Sharif tell her husband?
4. Who is Najwa?

Second Selection
5. Why did Dan decide to go to Aqaba?
6. What places in Jordan had Dan visited?
7. What does Muna do?
8. Which country is easy to visit?
9. Why was Muna going to Aqaba (two reasons)?
10. Why is it difficult to visit Saudi Arabia?
Part Ill-Reading (i.I>A)
Read the following selection and answer the questions in English.
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.Covering Islam'-:-'~ rY--il ~ t.U.l.ll ~ U_,_,a..ll ~~......! U..J

I. Where was Edward Said born (be specific)? When?

440

2. What did his father do?


3. When was Palestine divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state?
4. When did Edward Said move to Cairo? Who took him there?
5. What did Said do in 1951?
6. Where did Said get his B.A. degree?
7. What was Said's Ph.D. degree in?
8. Where did he work until his death?
9. In what ways did Said defend the issue of Palestine?
to. What did he criticize the United States for?

11. Why is the phrase~~ ,_c .J used at the beginning of the fifth paragraph?
~owr

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degree~

obtaining J~

researcher ~4

department ~

cause, issue ~ .-.

defender ~l.~.oo

decision

rights

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J~

essay, article Jli.

interview ~U:.

in spite of the fact that

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IV. F111-ln the blanks ..:..UI.,&JI ~I


Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph using the words below.

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Part V-Grannnar ( .u I.,.A)
a. Translate the following into Arabic:
she sings
...............................
she wants to sing ..............................
he sang
...............................
you, m.s., said
she says
they found her

our visa

I found you, pl.


I say
she said
he wanted to sing
they said

Vocabulary.
towant .~

to say (.,)JU

to sing (i.,!)~
to find

H.

..L.c!-.J

441

b. Verb Forms
For each the verbs listed below, all taken from the reading selection above, identify the root, the stem and the pattern,
using thejU skeleton, and the form number. Follow the example.
Example

Form and#

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Verb

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~ r .

<.

t.r .~~ );~..

~.rt

\<it<~ ~ \.-<:'c_~
~t

\. l r. f ~ ~: .~

~ r

I; .

~ ~

~.

ft:1
1: T r

~~

t{r
t' (

t
;r. 1
. ft. .

r
f~

~:

o(

~1:"

f.

t.

<.,..

II

'

C.

<

<.

\.

1..

1..

1..

::s

S:

li\ ...

t"

~ 't. -a

~ ~ <t,_ 'l '5. ':t


1' ~ \. !; :( :( ~

<.

.[

<(

-.f-~. Cr

o(

<.

~ ~: . f ~
~ [ t:r- ~ f. Cf C.f E(l;" ~0~

l.

<(- li\

-1

1..

.(.

00

_,

.ft t{t 't\1


f ~} 1 \.

r:11.f.

ft. c; c;

f~ ~ f
J.l.,_
~
~
\o t ~~ 1 .~
~ :~
e.
{ r f f
.r:.
~
r
01
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.
E
.
or ~
n f' t ~ - '!.
-1 - .r "

(,.

f t f .ft.~E: l

~~

$- ~

~ 1-

t ~
~.-

=
f.\,'\

r:
1

1'

, C

r. i t.

r.:.

<.

o[

1..

1 t- o:.r-~.~ \:"
-

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c

'\

I'

r:-

t 1: ]'

1...

<.

~ ~-

.r _ ~..

. 1' 1.. l
1. 1 t ; ~

1.t r-

li

('I

~\...

."

{.

1
t-

t c .
1 ~ ~

t. _ -

r:,

"

t ~ t 1 ~ E: ~ l ~ ~
t. r- - ~r ,... ... 1 f .: r - ~ .f- l ~ .
~ - \. r. ~
~ ~
t 'L - ~
<.

1.

.c.

f.

Oo

: E. ) t f ....r.

~ .r

r.

r
r.

., t

~~

<.

lt

f.
((.1

~ =.

._.

t~,..
~

<.

r \. \f.'

c_ l.

rt

~. ~

. . r: ~.-

\'t.b~~
<i~..f
.r ~.. _ . .:. t ..,
t:
c. '1..
t'\ t-. C <;: ~- ' C <. t. r f
1..
II\ ..c ~
t..<. c; c
V\

~.. , .r ~. ~

<.

<.

i- t.t-t-1:
~t~
~ ~
~r. r ~ _.. "
t t. { 1 t
':t [. r :~ ~

~f.

.t

' (

r-: t.

r l.

r. t ~
(:,t. c..~. 1~

t..

~ <(tr~ 'J <..t '\. ~~


.(

r ~
~..

<.

rr

f. <iE:

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1 .[

r.

~:

r.

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~,..

<-

.r r-

-'::::

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r .r- 1
1..<.

<.

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t. "'-

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~' ~

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>

'

t. -

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t:

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l

r.G.

t'

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.[""

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1.

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f' - c.

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~
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r~ ~

.t~
\c.: ~:r.

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~{

,.

C.

t~

li\

r~r~

t~

r~

t~

' '- C.

\g \g

<;:

f' [

\g

E t' ~
- ~ .
cr: ~
~~

\.

li\ <t_

<;:

C.

l, ~ .

<:

C. C.
~
~

"2
"t

._ (.

...

t~

t~

t~

t~

t~

t~

t~

r~r~r~r~r~r~r~r~'\

t~

\g \g \g \g \g \g \g \g

'"

C.

t c:. ~t~ ... ~ ~ ~~ i:t. l~ t~ .r. ~


r t- r ~ ~f: ~ :' ~~ ~ ... \. 1- :\, ...
~ ~. ~ ~ f ~ ~ 1. :t t ~. ~ t . t \. l. f .r ~.
\[;
r. -~ r f. - 1.. r.
f [. [ ~r t t ~ 1
f'" f. f ~ ~ ~ [ }. ' ~ k k1
:_:[ ~: :;:<C l :t. ';! 1 l ~ t \

- ~
L. (. oe1.
;,

't:

~
to
~.

E
-

C
li\

.E-

r.

"

r:t
t- \.- ~ o(:).': ... ~-1~

~~~}~t

'L

f'~tf
~ ~
\. ...
E ~ 1 ~ J

...
C!.

t,; - t~
.r .:.
~ l.<i_
. t:r-.:.

~ -~

.
~

l
r.

449

~\_;A)\~:~~\

APPENDIX3
GRAMMAR SUMMARY

450

Topics (The topics in this section are ordered according to their order of appearance in the
grammar notes in the body of the book. Topics divided into different parts in the book are
presented under one heading here.)
1. The Definite Article, the Sun and Moon Letters
2. The Construct ( W~')
3. Number
4. Possession
5. Having With~
6. Having With e'
7..Gender: Masculine and Feminine Nouns and Adjectives
8. Wanting With~

9. Subject/Person Markers
10. Moving to the Past with o\1'
11. Negation
12. The Arabic Sentence, Word Order, Agreement
13. Object Pronouns
14. The Relative Adjective(~)

15. Cases
16. Prepositions Followed by\..

17.Ji
18. The Comparative and Superlative(~ ~)
19. Pronouns Attached to Prepositions and Conjunctions
20. The Imperative
21. The Future Tense
22. Passive Voice in~ (Modem Standard Arabic, MSA)
23. The Conjunctionc.i
24. The Resumptive Pronoun
25. The Accusative of the Absolute (JUtM J~\)
26. Roots and Patterns
27. Fonns of the Arabic Verb
28. Noun Patterns
29. Looking up Words in the DictioMtj'

to.

451

Transcription
In this Appendix, the Arabic letters will be used to represent Arabic sounds whenever possible. However, in
some cases a transcription system based on the roman alphabet will be employed to reflect a more accurate
and consistent pronunciation of these sounds.

Transcription

Arabic Letter
(the glottal stop, i

.,;.....A) i

aa
b

'":'

..:..

!h

..!.

It

c:

kh

db

V"

sh

V"

(,)6

vO

J.

Illi

.La

t.
f

t
....

&h

J
m

..A

(oo in moon)

uu

(as a vowel) .J

(oo in door)

00

(win woman)

(ee in meet)

ii

(ai in wait)

ee

(yin yes)

to\

(as a semi-vowel)
(as a vowe9 '!

(as a semi-vowel)

452

1. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, THE SUN AND MOON LETTERS


.Definiteness in Arabic is expressed by attaching the prefix Jl "the,. to nouns and adjectives:
big door

baab kabiir

~ ~4

the big (the) door

ilbaab ilkabiir

~I ~4-11

(Note that ~ ~4-1 I is a full sentence that is translated as "The door is big...)

If Jl is followed by a sun letter, it is assimilated to (becomes the same as) that letter, which results in a
doubled consonant in pronunciation but not in writing. The sun letters are the following:

o J ..Jo. .J. va c.JA . ,_;. ' IJM j '.) .:, J . ~. ..::..


the sun

~I

the watch, the hour, the time

issaa'a

Tuesday

J remains unchanged before moon letters,

~L...JI

tbthalaaUPa'

which include atl the consonants not listed above:

the moon

ii.Kamar

~I

Wednesday

il'arbi'aa'

-~.;\'1

Thursday

ilkbamiis

~I

Kuwait

ilkuweet

~,s.JI

As in English, nouns that are introduced for the first time do not take the definite article, and nouns that have
been introduced take it:

This is a house. Thebousehasfourbedrooms. r~

...J.,;;. t 4-i~l

~ l.l.A

There are at least three important areas in which Arabic and English clearly differ.
1. After a demonstrative pronoun like this, that, etc., the definite article is not used in English; in the
equivalent Arabic structure, the definite article is used:
this house ~lilA
This is a house. ~ lolA
2. In definite adjective-noun phrases the definite article appears only once in English, but as many times as
there are adjectives and nouns in the phrase in Arabic:

The new Jordanian (female) student

~~~ ~J.;'il 4-Jl.I..JI

3. When nouns are used in a generic sense, the definite article is used in Arabic, but not in English. Compare
the English sentences and their Arabic equivalents:
State schools are cheaper than
private schools.
Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938.

453

2. THE CONSTRUCT (U~~\)


When two nouns are closely associated. as in the case of possession or something being part of something
else, they form a special grammatical construction called the constnlct (UL.;..!):
the student's name

ism iT-Taalib

~LJ...J I t"""l

the capital of Yemen

'aaSimat il-yaman

~~~

university street

s}pari' iljaami'a

~4JI

The following two points about L...;L......o.! are important to remember: first, the L of t.J..H_,.J.I

t.JW.

~~I

is

pronounced like any other ..::.. in the first part of the Ul...o!:

bedroom

&hurfit noom

('~ U_,i

the capital of Syria

'aaSimat suurya

4J.,...... L......ol.e

the state of California

wilaayat kalifomia

l:.UJ~ts: ~')'_,

a hundred students

miit Taalib

~L.L.~

Cairo University

jaami' at ii-Kaahira

i~W1~4-

Second, the first part of the UW.! never takeS the definite article; it is made definite by association with the
second part:
a bedroom
('~ U_,i
the bedroom

r~~ U_,i

But not,

Note that if three or more nouns are found in an L...;L...o! relation, each two of them form an L...;L......o!
construction to which the above two points apply:
The address of the students' house (dorm) '-:")li..JI
The University of Kuwait (female) student

In the two phrases, none of the words


second phrase the U...H.r-

~ 4JI~

~~I ~4- ~U.

t.....-...4 .L;a.JU. ~ 4JI~ can have the definite article. In the

-~of both ~U.

and ~4- is pronounced as..::...

A very common Ul...o! phrase is the one consisting of the word U..... "year" and a certain year, like U.....
\\ '\ V. Remember to pronounce the U.-H.,...

-~

as ..::.. in such phrases.

454

3.NUMBER
The Singular, the Dual, and the Plural
A noun in Arabic can be singular, dual, or plural, and an adjective can be singular or plural.

The singular
A book or one book is expressed as

.l...:o. I_,

"':"~

refers to or no number at all. (Note that"':-'~

or simply "':-'L.:...S, with the number following the noun it

~1_,

is ungrammatical.)

The dual
The dual is expressed by attaching the suffix~ (een) to the noun. If the noun ends in
then the t of

(J.~ .,>l I

U.~,>il

-L...:..JI,

-L:J I is pronounced when the dual suffix is added.

~o

~oboob

DWbeen

female students

Taalibateen

t.JU.

(Note that"':-'~~~ is ungrammatical.)

The plural
Nouns and adjectives are pluralized in a variety of ways, but for the most part they follow general patterns.
At this stage, I suggest that you try to remember the plurals of individual nouns as they are introduced; you
will develop a feel for the plural patterns later.
The following rules concerning number are particularly important to remember at this stage because they
involve frequently used constructions and because they might be counter-intuitive to speakers of other
languages.
l . For the numbers 3-l 0, the plural form of the noun is used and the noun follows the number. (Note that the
u..~.,...

..L:a of the number is dropped before the noun.)


three books

.thala.th kutub

four boob

arba' kutub

ten boob

'lllllrkutub

three pages

thala.th Saflteat

seven pages

sabi' Saflteat

ten pages

'amtr Saflteat

2. For the number 11 and above, the singular form of the nouns is used. (Note the addition of the suffix _,
arto the numbers 11-19 when a noun follows them.)
eleven boob
tda.slllr Dtaab
"="'~ _,..!.1~1

3. After

rS "how many",

~entybooks

eimiin Dtaab

..
"="'~~~

a thousand books

'alfkitaab

"':-'~~i

fifteen pages

.khamisTamu Safha

a million pages

malyoon Safha

t...l...~";.IL.

.... ;

t...L.. I)
~
-

only the singular form of the noun is used:


How many boys (children) do you have?

tot

~ d~

.l-1_, rS

455

How many rooms are in your bouse? ~ ~ ~ U~ ~


How many brothers and sisters do you have?

~.!I ~ ~i J

ti ~

4. You will notice that the numbers 3-10 have two different shapes each, one with U.J-:'~ -~ and one
without it. This is an area where Levantine Arabic differs from~ (Modem Standard Arabic, MSA). In
Levantine Arabic, the U...J-:1.>-" ~~ is dropped when a noun follows the number: ~) " four'' but~ t':')
"four books". In u , , U..J-:1.J-A ~~ is used when the noun modified by the number is masculine, and is
dropped when it is feminine: "":-'~~) but ..;;.4JU.. t':') "four students, masculine and feminine, respectively.
Whereas the dual in Levantine is generally restricted to nouns, in ~it is used in nouns, verbs, adjectives,
and pronouns. In nouns and adjectives, the dual ending is either 01 or~: depending on the case of the word,
the first nominative and the second both accusative and genitive. (See Cases below.)
In Egypt, there are two seasons only. They (dual) are...

Sound and Broken Plurals


Plurals are of two main types in Arabic: sound and broken.

Sound plurals
Sound plurals are of two types, too: masculine and feminine. Masculine sound plurals are formed from nouns
of masculine gender by adding the suffix ~ (iin) to the noun.
teacher-teachers ~-r-1Cbristian-Christians U!

'!, :. .. ~

Muslim-Muslims ~-~

Feminine sound plurals are formed from nouns of feminine gender, generally ending in U...J-:'~1 -L:..JI by
adding the suffix .;;.I aatto the noun and dropping U..J-:'~1 -L::J 1:

teacher-teachers ..;;.LJ......-W......
student-students ..;;.4-JU..-~U.
page-pages ..;;.l.:....1.....o-t:...i.....
Some nouns that have a feminine sound plural do not have U...J-:'~1 .. ~I , as in JU..... "airport", which is
pluralized as .:..IJ U......

Broken plurals
These plurals are formed by changing the vowels of the word; the consonants are usually not affected. Think
of the English words WJOSe-geese, foot-feet, woman-women. The use of the terms sound and broken to refer
to plurals might be misleading, since it might suggest that sound plurals invlove the majority of nouns. This is
not the case, however. Broken plurals are at least as common as sound.plurals and involve the most common
types of nouns.
Broken plurals follow patterns, some of which are more widespread than others. Some of the more
common types are represented by the following words:

foo

456
restaurant/restaurants ~1..1.....-~

office/offices ~IS...-~

kitchen/kitchens ~1..1.....-~
,

month/months J_,....!r- J+oo!.

shop/shops ~lSJ-C:,lSJ

week/weeks ~L....i-t,~i

city/cities c:,..u-~..u

book/books ~-"'="~
boy/boys J"i _,t-..J~

door/doors '"="'~i-'"="L:a

4. POSSESSION

5. HAVING WITH

house/houses ~~-~

his book

kitaab-u

~t.:os:

4...+ '":"t.:os:

her book

kitaab-ha

~t.:os:

l.H '":"l..:os:

their book

kitaab-hum

~t.:os:

~+ '":"t.:os:

your, m.s., book

kitaab-ak

~t.:os:

d+ '":"t.:os:

your, f.s., book

kitaab-ik

~t.:os:

d+ '":"t.:os:

your, pl., book

kitaab-kum

~t.:os:

rS+'":"I..:os:

my book

kitaab-i

<rr.t.:os:

(.S+.....l.:..S

our book

kitaab-na

~t.:os:

~+'":"l.:i.S

his room

ahurfi-t-u

~~

4.-+U~

her room

ahurfi-t-ha

~~

LA+U~

their room

purfi-t-hum

~~

~+U~

your, m.s., room

ahurfi-t-ak

d.:>.l~

d+U~

your, f.s., room

aurfi-t-ik

d.:>.l~

d+U~

your, pl., room

purfi-t-kum

,..s:...e~

rS+U~

my room

ahurfi-t-i

<?~

c.F" u~

our room

ahurfi-t-na

~~

~+U~

..

J.;.s.

to'\

he has

'ind-u

she has

'ind-ha

they have

'ind-hum

you, m.s., have

'ind-ak

you, f.s., have

'ind-ik

you, pl., have

'ind-kum

I have

'ind-i

we have.

'ind-na

457

6. HAVING WITHeLike

~.

e;-- is a preposition that combines with a pronoun to indicate possession. The prepositional

meaning of r:-- is 'with". When used for possession, e;-- indicates having something with a person at a
particular time. This meaning can be contrasted with that of~. which indicates general possession or
'
ownership.
He has (owns) a large house. . ~ ~ .~
I have twenty dollars with me, on me. J'1.J.J ~~ cr-"

The following table shows t"'" in combination with the different pronouns:

,'

.
.
r-+-

u...

he has

ma'u

she bas

ma'ba

they have

ma'bum

you, m.s., have

ma'ak

you, f.s., have

ma'ik

you, pl., have

makum

I have

mai

we have

ma'na

'

"+, '

cr-"'

L.:.a...

7. GENDER: MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


Nouns and adjectives are generally made feminine by atttacbing the U.~..r- .. ~ to the masculine form:

4JU.

student, m. ~U.

myoldersister i~l ~i

myolderbrother ~I<:.',...i

student, f.

Maryam is Jiving in an apartment U..!. ~ t:.S:L... ~..r- Ayman is living in a house

8. WANTING WITH

~ ~

VSL... ~i

The word ~ is used in combination with a pronoun suffix (the same set of suffixes that are used to indicate
possession) in Levantine Arabic to express the equivalent of the English verb to want:

ov

he wants

bidd-u

she wants

bidd-ha

LA~

they want

bidd-hum

LA~

you, m.s., want

bidd-ak

.d~

you, f.s., want

bidd-ik

.d~

you, pl., want

bidd-kum

LA~

I want

bidd-i

<:.'~

we want

bidd-na

LA~

458

9. SUBJECT/PERSON MARKERS 1
Arabic verbs have two tenses: the perfect and the imperfect. The perfect corresponds roughly to the past tense
in English and generally indicates completed action, and the imperfect corresponds to the present tense and
indicates actions that have not been completed.

Subject/Person Marlcers on the Perfect Verb


Different persons are expressed on the perfect verb by attaching different suffixes to it, except in the case of
the third person masculine singular (the one corresponding to he), where no suffix is attached:

(_,.A)

he wrote

katab

she wrote

katab-at

:- .-.. ;<

..::....

they wrote

katabu

l,.;.s

(~)

1,_

(~)

you, m.s. wrote

katab-t

::.:...:.s


..::....

(~I)'

you, f.s. wrote

katab-ti

,~

,..::....

(~1)

you, pl. wrote

katab-tu

I~

I~

AI)

I wrote

katab-t

..::....

we wrote

katab-na

~
~

u.

Subject/Person Marlcers on the Imperfect Verb


Different persons are expressed in the imperfect verb by attaching a prefix or, io some cases, both a prefix

and a suffix to the verb:


he writes, is writing
she writes, is writing

yi-ktub
ti-ktub

-~

(_,.A)

-~

(~)

1,_-~

(~>

they write, are writing

yi-ktub-u

I~

you, m.s. write, are writing

ti-ktub

-~

(~I)

you, f.s. write, are writing

ti-ktub-i

IF~

(~1)

you, pl. write, are writing

ti-ktub-u

I~

1.,-~

(AI)

I write, am writing

-aJctub

~1

-1

(~i)

-:..:.

(~!)

we write, are writing

ni-ktub

The prefix b- is attached to imperfect verbs in Levantine Arabic when these verbs are not preceded by
another verb:
He plays, is playing.. ~ _,..
He likes to play .~~

Tables that include the conjugations of all the verbs introduced in this book are presented in
Appendix 4: Verb conjugations.

_,.A

459

Note also that in place of the English infinitive Arabic uses fully conjugated verb forms (without"':-'):

He likes to travel. (He likes he travels.)


She likes to eat out. (She likes she eats...)

'.H JSL:. ~

We want to visit Egypt. (We want we visit ...).->--" JJ_;.:. L:.~


(For more on the conjugation of verbs, see Appendix 3.)

Root Types
Arabic words are divided into three main categories: verbs, nouns, and particles. Particles are words or parts
of words like prepositions, conjunctions, the definite article, question words, and other "function" elements.
Verbs and nouns are the main categories, which include the great majority of words in the language. All
verbs and nouns derive from three- or, less commonly, four-letter roots. The latter will be excluded because
of their rare occurrence in this book.
Three-consonant roots are divided into the following five types:
Sound roots have three consonants in the three consonant positions, no doubling of any two consonants, and
no _,, I, or t..S in any of the three root positions. Roots like "':-'. ..:.. d "to write", ....i. Jt "to know", and

t. r V" "to hear" are sound roots.


Assimilated roots have _, in the first root slot, as in .1. G:. _, ''to find".

Hollow roots have _, or c.:f in the second root slot, which is often realized as I in the perfect tense of the verb:

0Jd

(0~/ 0~) "to be", J.,.J (J~/Ju) "to say", and Jc.:f.J.. ~/ .)U..) "to fly".

Lame roots typically have c.:f or _, in the third root slot, which are realized as t..S ("& J~ ...&.1 I, pronounced
exactly like I) or, less often, I in the perfect form of the verb. Examples of lame roots are c.!d-r (/~
~"to walk", Jt.J (~~/~.1) "to call for",

c.:f d .c: (~/~)"to speak, tell".

Doubl~roots have the same consonant in second and third positions: '-:-''-:-'C: (~/~)"to like", JJr'
(~_/J-O) "to pass".
All verbs derived from the same root type follow the same conjugation pattern. An example of the conjugation
of verbs derived from sound roots was shown in the different forms of~ above. The conjugation of the
verbs derived from the other roots types is shown in the following tables.

Hollow Roots
Perfect

yili.Juf

......~

.sblaf

....iW.

,..

tili.luf

_IDlafat

..:..lw.

yili.lufu

....i_,..!.:;
I_,...~
. ~

maafu

I~W.

tsmuf

....i_,..!.:;

ili.lft

Imperfect

tili.Jufi
ts!JJufu

r-A

...:....&....!.

::..:.1
.:..:.I
_,;.;.I .

~_,...!.:;

iliifti

...:....&....!.

1~_,...!.:;

s!JJftu

l_,:...t...!.

460

'amtuf

~ft

niD,luf

m,rlha

Notice the deletion of the I in the second and first person and the change to ~ in the perfect.
Whereas the vowel of the perfect form ofhoJJow verbs is always I, it can be realized as I, <! or ~ depending
on the individual verb. There is no general rule detennin.ing what vowel a certain hoJJow verb takes in the
imperfect; there are _,verbs, <! verbs, and I verbs, as in ....i~-....iW., ~- JU. "to Oy", and ~-rU "to
sleep". It may be helpful to mention that, in terms of frequency,_, verbs are the most common, foJJowed by
<!and I verbs, in that order.

Lame Verbs
Imperfect

Perfect
rnaalit

.J-A

timshi

maalltt

yi~

mu

vA
r-A

yimshi

I~

rna meet

~I

timm

v--:

mameeti

~I

tiqlp

I~
,

mameetu

timshi

'amm
nimm

I~
- ..

~I

mameet

L:.i

mameena

Ual

Notice the deletion of the c.s in the third person pronouns and the change to <! in the second and third person
pronouns in the perfect and the change from c.s to <! in the imperfect, except in the cases where I_, takes over.

Doubled Verbs

.,

Imperfect
ymurr

.,

Perfect
marr

.j-6

marrat

ymurru

.~,

..:...j-6

1_,~

marru

1_,-;..

tmurr

marreet

tmurr

tmurri

.,

.,
<!~
.,

tmurru

1_,~

'amurr

:;.i
.,

nmurr

j4A

..

.J-A

vA
r-A

~.j-6

~I

marreeti

~.j-6

~I

marreetu

~~-;..

~I

marreet
marreena

..

~.j-6

t.:....

..J-6

L:.l

Ua l

Notice the deletion of the c.s in the third person pronouns and the change to <! in the second and third person
pronouns in the perfect and the change from c.s to <! in the imperfect, except in the cases where I_, takes over.
Notice also the long vowel before the suffix in the second and first persons in the perfect conjugation, as is
the case in the lame verb conjugation.

461

Conjugation oJ"':-i (to come)


Imperfect

Perfect

..

yiiji

'aja

4-i

(,~)

tiiji

'ajat

~I

(<.r')

yiiju

I~

'aju

l~i

(~)

~
tiiji
~
tiiju I~-

jiit

(~I)

jiiti

(~I)

jiitu

I~
-

c..r.i

jiit

(,:.:.1)
(L:.i)

jiina

(~!)

tiiji

'aaji
niiji

The Imperfect ofAssimilated Verbs in ~


Three-letter roots whose first element is..,, such as tl.J "to be located",

J-.J "to arrive, reach", and ~.J "to

find" are called assimilated. One characteristic of verbs derived from these roots is that they lose the initial _,
in the imperfect form of the verb in ~. but not in Levantine, as in ~ "it, he reaches", ~ "it, she is
located".
(A more complete presentation of verb conjugation in Arabic is given in Appendix 3.)

10. MOVING TO THE PAST WITH 0 tr

ul..S (with its conjugations) is used to "move" the time of an event or a situation to the past, as shown in the
following examples:

ulS
I had (with me) ~ ulS
he had .~

I was tired

u4a=a ..:....:.S

it was necessary. ought to j 'i

ulS

ulS

he has

.~

lhave ~
I am tired

u4a=a L:.i

it is necessary that, must

rj 'i

ui.S

When
is followed by a verb in the imperfect, both
and the following verb are conjugated for person
and the combination is translated in the simple past or the past progressive:

. ..

I knew, used to know. . ...A~


I ..:....:.S
,

I was working. .JA,:....!.i ..:....:.S

11. NEGATION
Negation in Levantlne
Verbs are generally negated in Levantine Arabic by inserting L.. before the verb to be negated:

I did not sleep well in the hotel. - J~I ._;. ~fi ~ L.. L:.i

f'\\

462

They said "we don't know".

. ....;~

Non-verbal elements (nouns, adjectives, prepositional phrases) are negated by inserting J.-.
noun, adjective, or prepositional phrase:

L.. I_,JL:i
before the

Their apartment is not far.. ~ ~ ~

Jedda is not the capital ofSaudi Arabia. . ~J,._JI t......l..e ~ ~


But I am not from the city of New York. . ..!I J~~ ~,l..e ~ ~ ui USJ
The main exceptions to these rules are the high-frequency words: ~ "to have", ~ ''to want", t"A "with as a
preposition and in the sense of to have', and~ "there is, there are". These words are not verbal but foJtow

the verbal negation pattern, i.e. by using L.. .

I don't have a big house.. ~ ~ C.j~ L..


~He doesn't have a

lot of money.

.~

V",U u... L..

There is no airport in Irbid. ~J! ~ JU- ~ L..


She doesn't want to go. CJ..,.:a LA~ L..

Negation In~

Like spoken Arabic, negation rules in ~distinguish between two main categories: vetbs and nonvetbs
(nouns, adjectives, presposional phrases). Unlike spoken Arabic, which uses only L.. to negate vetbs regardless
of tense,~ uses diffetent particles for the different tenses:
l. To negate vetbs in the perfect (past) tense, either La or, the more formal ~. is used. With L..., the verb
remains in its perfect form:

They couldn't attend her Jive concerts.


With rJ. the verb is turned into the imperfect. This is similar to English negation of past tense verbs, as in We
knew them in contrast with We didn't know them.
They couldn't attend her live concerts.
Certain changes accompany the use of r-J Only those changes that you will encounter in the reading
selections of this book wiJt be discussed here. First, the i:J of plural vetbs is dropped after
"they were not able to"

I~

rJ

rJ:

"they are able to"

(Notice plural I at the end of 1~.)


Second, the long vowel of a boJtow verb in the imperfect is shortened in pronunciation and dropped in
writing.

463

"he was not"

"he is/will be"

"she was not"

"she is/will be"

2. To negate verbs in the imperfect (present), 'i is used:


She doesn' t like math at all .. i~i ..:..~~~~ ~ 'i
They do not understand Islamic history. . ...,..y._....11 ~ }.:J I u~ 'i

Nonverbal elements are negated by using ~ or ~. the exact equivalents of t.P-- in spoken Arabic. ~
is used only with adjectives, and~ is used with adjectives, nouns, and prepositional phrases:

0i

. .1~1 ~ ~ J .ll:i ~ :c :.:iJ-'"!


L......o1_, ~i
It became clear that Bourquiba was not able to govern the country.

CasaBlanca is not the political capital of Morocco.

12. THE ARABIC SENTENCE, WORD ORDER, AGREEMENT


Arabic sentences are of two general types: those with verbs and those without verbs. Sentences that have
verbs are called verbal sentences, and sentences without verbs are called equational sentences.

Equational sentences
The Arab world is big.
. ~ c,.r.'.,...JI ~WI
Note the absence of the equivalent of the English verb to be. The Arabic sentence literally translates as: The
Arab world big.

In an equational sentence that consists of an indefmite subject and a prespositional phrase, the prepositional
phrase precedes the subject:
He bas three cars.
There are 22 countries in the Arab world.. t.l J.l

,- ,-

c,.r.'.,...J I ~ W I ~

Another way of expressing the same meaning is through the use of~ in spoken Arabic and dl.:...A "there is,
there are" in~ :
He has three cars.
There are 22 countries in the Arab world. c,.r.'.rJI ~WI~ U_,.1 H d~

Verbal sentences
There is a certain amount of flexibility in the word order of verbal sentences: with the exception of certain
constructions which dictate a specific word order, a verb may precede or follow its subject. The following
two word orders are grammatical:

#,

..

,--,, ~ c,.r.'.rJI ~WI u~ .1~ ~~


. ~ u~ ,--,. ~ ~:;. c,.r.'.rJI ~WI c:,IS:... .1~
- ~ u~

Non-human Plurals

464

Non-human plural nouns, particularly in~ are treated as singular feminine nouns for purposes of verb,
adjective, and pronoun agreeemenl

this area U.la.~.J.I l-t


this mountain

~I

ll.t

these areas ~L:..LIl.t


these mountains J~l l-t

... ~~I_, ~~I_, JI,.,.._JI..,.-4--i ~ ._,:J1 ~_,.._If J~.UI


The Arab countries that are in Asia are Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, etc.
There are Christian minorities. . 2 .: .: ..:..4f.:i 1 .dt..:....
41

., .,

Verb-Object-Subject Order
An interesting word order in verbal sentences is observed when the object of a verb is a pronoun. The
pronoun in such a case is attached to the verb, resulting in a verb-object-subject sequence:

Borders Iraq Syria from the east. (Iraq borders Syria from the east.)

. J~I ~

4.>,_.... JI_,..JI ~

Borders it Iraq from the east. (Iraq borders it from the east.) . J~ I ~ J I,.,.._! I LA~

Verb-Subject Disagreement
As was mentioned above, Arabic sentences may start with the verb or the subject. In ,_, , . i, if the verb
precedes the subject, then it (the verb) remains in the singular even when the subject is in the plural.
More than five million workers work in Saudi Arabia J:-~ ~)I... ~ ~ ~t ~.1,..._...J I ~ ~
Ifthe subject-verb order is used, then the verb agrees in number with its subject:

(Where 0 ~ is translated as "they work".)


Other examples of this type of disagreement are:
The Muslims are divided into Shiica and Sunna.
The Algerians attempted independence from France.

. t:.......JI _, t......!JI
- . L ll......i:....
IJ'"II u.,.-r-----.

.t......:. ~ 4>-C
J~'ll u~..>-'
. I,_,,
J .Jlo..
~

Pronouns ofSeparation
Equational sentences often have a pronoun that agrees with the subject in number and gender where a verb to
be would be found This pronoun is called "pronoun of separation" because it separates the subject from the
predicate. Pronouns of separation are generally found when the predicate of the sentence is a noun rather
than an adjective:
Saturday is the first day of the week. t.~VI ~ r~

J:,t (_,.A) ~I

.~~~.J ~~I.J JI_,..JI (c,.,.A) 4--i ~ ._,:Jt ~_,.._II J.J.UI


The countries that are in Asia are Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, etc.
This is our apartment .l "ii .~. (~) lA

465

.J..:..~I ~'/1 ~I~ (,jA)C:.,~ ~ v-iJ.jl


The weather in Lebanon is the weather of the Mediterranean.
The sentence is grammatical with and without the pronoun.

13. OBJECT PRONOUNS


The same set of pronoun suffixes that are attached to nouns to show possession are attached to verbs to
indicate the objects of these verbs. The English equivalents are words like them, her, me in sentences like I
saw them, He visited her, My son called me, etc.

Note the following:


I . The object pronoun follows the subject marker. So think of the verb with the object p ronoun as being
constucted in two steps:
a. construct the verb with its subject marker,
b. attach the object pronoun.
2. The object pronoun for me is ~ not just ~.! as in the possessive.
3. The I at the end of the plural forms of the verbs is dropped when the object pronoun is attached.
4. When the object pronoun is preceded by a long vowel as in the word I~'L-.Y' the second person singular
feminine and masculine are distinguished by a~ (-)after the ..:.1 of the pronoun.

He asked.. Jt.... (,jA)

They asked.. l~t..... (~)


They asked him. . .~t.....

He asked him.

They asked her.. LA~t.....

He asked her.

They asked them ..~~t.....

He asked them.

They asked you, m .s.. ..:J~t.....

He asked you, m.s..

They asked you, f.s .. ..:.1 ~t.....

He asked you, f.s.

They asked them .. ~~ I.....

He asked you, pl.

-~~t.....

He asked me.

They asked us .. L:.~t.....

He asked us.

They asked me.

Remember that final I is silent

! '\ o

.Jt.....

(.~)

I.....
4l'
, ..

(v--)

r-+11......

(~)

.dJt..... (~I)
.dlt..... (~I)
'
.~t..... (_,:..:.1)
~I.....
(L:.i)
.wt..... (~I)

466

She likes... ~"':")(~)

They see.

She likes him.. ~

They see him.

She likes her.. ~

They see her.

.LA_,A~

She likes them..r~.._, i:

They see them.

. ,.....,..~

,....

She likes you, m.s.. ~

They see you, m.s..

. <!J_,A~

~I

She likes you, f.s.. (: ,;:

They see you, f.s.

._<!J,.A~

~I

She hkes you, pl. .\ <...,, ; ..

They see you, pl.

She likes me.."' ._._,;:


She likes us.. ~

#"'

. I_,A~"':')(r-A)

.,..~

rS .

.,.,.
~

~~

_,:ul

They see me.

~_,..~

L:.t

They see us.

. L:._,A~

~I

14. THE RELATIVE ADJECTIVE(~)


Many adjectives are derived from nouns by suffixing the ending~ (fern.,~) to the noun from which they are
derived. If the noun ends in a vowel or U...H>-" .. ~. the ending is dropped when the adjectival suffiX is
added. If the noun has a definite article, that is dropped too.

Feminine

Masculine

Egypt-Egyptian

.
~~

~~

America-American

~J-Ai

~.)-At

lS...i
_ .)A

~,j.,.......

~el~l

Saudi Arabia-Saudi

~,j.,.......

climate-climatic

~L:.....

mountain-mountainous

( .. ~

agricultural

~IJj

L:.....

tli..

c,riJ j

~IJjJI

IS. CASES

Nouns and adjectives in u , . ; may have one of three cases, depending on their function in the sentence:
nominative, accusative, or genitive. The rules of case assignment are numerous and can be quite intimidating
to the Ieamer. TypicaiJy, the bulk of Arabic language teaching in the Arab world is spent on the case system,
while the number of Arabs who can use the system fluently for speaking purposes may be limited to a few
hundred or a few thousand at the most, and the number of people who actually use the system for ordinary
conversation may not excceed half a dozen. (This is out of a population of over 280 million people). The
reason for the failure of the Arabs to master the case system is not that the system is too difficult or that the
Arabs are bad language learners; rather, it is because the system is not used in ordinary conversation by any
group of native speakers. People who use it in ordinary conversation sound funny and strange. While a full
mastery of the system is not needed by every learner or Arabic speaker, it is essential for radio and TV
announcers and by people giving formal, particularly political and religious speeches.
Different degrees of mastery are required for different functions and purposes. Most Arabs with a high or
middle school education master those aspects that they need in order to understand~ when they read it
and listen to it and in order to write it. In this comse, only those aspects of the case system which are believed

to be clearly applicable and essential for reading, listening to, and writing~ will be presented. (If you
are planning to be an Arabic public speaker or a radio or TV announcer, then you will need to go beyond this
course.)

467
The three cases are indicated by certain endings, which vary according to the following factors: first,
whether the noun or adjective is definite or indefinite; second, whether it has a dual or a sound plural ending;

and third, whether it ends in t.l..-'":'.,.11 ~ t.:..JI. These endings are shown in the following table:
Singular and Broken Plural
nominative
Singular
indefinite

definite

,.>SJ-A

feminine

~~

masculine

jS.,.ll

js.,.ll

jS.,.ll

feminine

L....a.WI

L.-WI

L....a.WI

. ..

...

indefinite
definite

Sound Plural

definite

ljSJ-A

L....o~

Broken Plural

indefinite

genitive

~.)-A

masculine

accusative

..

~;lb

,.......
.~

'-:"YJ,.JI

""="YJ,.JI

'-:"YJ,.J I

masculine
feminine

..:..W........

0~

::,~,
..:..LJ......J.I

femimine

..
..

'-:"~

-nominative
.

masculine

,L....o~

accusative/genitive

~
.

.
..

,..:..W........

~I

..:..LJ......J.I

The endings:, .:. (or i), and_ are called nunation. Nunation is mutually exclusive with the definite article; if

the noun or adjective has the definite article, then it cannot be nunated. Similarly, nunation is absent when the
noun or adjective ends in a pronominal suffix. So whereas ~l..I.J I and ~U. are acceptable, ~LJ.J I and

~U. are

not. Nunatton and final short vowels are generally dropped phrase-finally, and pause forms are

used, except when reading or reciting poetry and the Qur'an and when quoting sayings in Classical Arabic.
What do you need to know about the case system?
(Remember that the case system is never used in ordinary conversation.)
As a listener
You need to remember that case assignment is a grammatical function and has no bearing on the meaning. In
,
,
,
,
other words, ~U.., L:-JU.., and ~U., all mean ..student" (m.), and
!. , and ~ I. both mean

..Muslims" (m.).

u.J

As a reader
Two types of reading activities should be distinguised: silent reading and reading aloud.
Silent reading: what applies to you as a listener applies here, too.
Reading aloud: the situations where this skill is needed outside of the artificial classroom environment are
quite limited. For your purposes as a learner of Arabic at the elementary or intermediate level, you can
expect the case endings to be provided for you, and all you have to do is read them. In fact, it is common
even for highly educated Arabs to ask an ..expert" to provide case endings before delivering a speech or
before making a presentation that requires the use of~
As a writer
Only those aspects of the case system that influence the shape of the written word are needed. These include

468

the following:
a. the masculine singular indefnite in the accusative case:

4-Ju.

b. The sound masculine plural: using ~ where c:,~ is required is also considered incorrect

16. PREPOSmONS FOLLOWED BY \.t


Prepositions are generally followed by nouns. In cases where a verb follows instead of the noun, the particle
L.. is inserted between the preposition and the verb:
before noon

but.
before he arrived

J,-_, L.. J.:.l

In such cases L.. does not add to the meaning of the preposition, so J.:...:i and L.. J.:..l mean exactly the same
thing. Other words (prepositions and nouns functioning like prepositions) that behave in a similar way and
that you wilt encounter in this book are: ~ "after", J~i "first", at the beginning, J~ "instead", c:,_,~

"without",

and~

"like, as".

17.~
This particle has two distinct uses:
1. When it is followed by a verb in the perfect, it simply affirms that the action has taken place; it does not
translate into anything in English.

-~~I c:,_,i.J I c_,_. ~~I ~IvA ~..>-Ai.J 4.JJ.Jl ~I,........~ ~LA

.u_,

Many of them emigrated to Europe and America in the second half of the twentieth century.
2. When .U is followed by the imperfect form of the verb, it has the meaning of probability, and is
translated as may, might, or can:

The temperature may reach more than 120 degrees.

18. THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE (J;-~~

Jai\)

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives have the same structure: ~~ ('areal) of the corresponding
adjective:
~
"big-bigger, biggest"

;.st-

"cold-colder, coldest" .l~i--lJ4


The comparative is generally followed by the preposition c:,..., and the superlative directly by the noun

compared:
"Syria is bigger than Jordan in area." .~L.....I.4 c)-lJ'ilc_,_. ,r.oSl 4J,....
"Egypt is the largest Arab country in population." .c:,lS-.1 I .l~ ~~ tl.J.l ~~ .,.-

469
"Most Arab countries are in Asia."

. . 4--i ~ ~.,.aJ I j_,.l.ll ~i

Lebanon is one of the smallest Arab countries in area .~L....11 ~ ~.,.aJI J_,.l.ll ~i '-":" 0 l:...:J
The comparative/superlative of adjectives with three or more syllables is formed by using one of the
two comparative adjectives .r.-Si or ~i and the verbal noun of the adjective to be compared. The adjective
then receives the accusative case. (See Cases below.)
......... .. ,
"lower, literally, more in lowness" L..~..i..:.UI _;.si
"low" (,Joe, , ,

19. PRONOUNS ATTACHED TO PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS


The pronoun suffixes that are used to indicate possession on nouns, wanting with ~ and having
with ~ and t-" can also be attacl,ted to other prepositions and conjunctions to express the equivalent of
English constructions consisting of a preposition and an object pronoun such as on it, in them, to you, etc.,
or a conjunction and a subject pronoun such as but he, because they, that we, etc.
Prepositions
The following list includes most of the prepositions you will encounter in this book:~ "in",~ "on", '-":"

"from", J (or Jl) "to, for'.3,

~~ "to, for',.,

~"about", ~"after",~ "before" and their

pronunciation when the pronoun suffixes ( "him", LA "her", ('-"' "them", .!1 "you, m.s.", _.!1 "you, f.s.", rS
"you, pl.",~ "me", Li "us") are attached to them:

fiiha

fiih

fiik

fiihum

fiikum

fiiki

~
~

fiina

fiyyi

'aleeha

'aleeh

'aleek

'aleehum

'aleekum

'aleeki

'aleena

'alayyi

'alayhaa

~!

'ilayhi

~I

'ilayka

~I

'ilayhim

~!

~!

'alaykum

'alayki

~!

'alaynaa

~!

'ilayya

~!

-.

This preposition is pronounced with or without a vowel, depending on the neighboring sounds. In

general , the vowel is inserted if J is followed directly by a consonant.


4

This is the~ equivalent of Levantine J.

~
~

470

ilha

4JI

ilu

ilak

.:JJI

ilhum

ilkum

~I

ilik

ilna

t.:..ll

iii

minha

minnu

minnak

minburn

minkum

minnik

minoa

miMi

'anha

'annu

'annak

'anhum

'ankum

'annik

' anna

'anni

ba'dha

LA~

ba'du

ba'dak

d~

ba'dhum

ba'dkum

~.I.A.!

ba'dik

ba'dna

L:..I.A..!

ba'di

Kablha

Kablu

Kablhum

'' ..-;

Kablak

Kablkum

Kablna

Kablik

Kabli

Note that when the preposition ends in a vowel, the second person feminine singular suffix is pronounced lei
rather than ik. Compare
ma ' ik "with you, f.s." with ~ fiilci "in you, f.s."

d:-

"',

ri.U "m front of', ,..),. "behmd",

JS, "every, all",~

"'

"some"
These words are considered nouns in Arabic, but they function like prepositions. Pronominal suffixes are
attached to them in the same way they are attched to the latter. So (.,.I:U translates as "in front of him".

..
..

(.,.I,U

Kuddaamha

'+ai.U

Kuddaarnu

Kuddaarnak

d.oi.U

Kuddaamhum


,.....,.u

Kuddaarnik

d.oi.U

Kuddaami

c,ri.U

Kuddaamkum

rL I.U
..

Kuddaarnna

L:....I.U

The equivalent in~ is ~ IJ.J

!V.

471

waraaha

U.IJ_,

waraak

.:1 I J-'

waraah

waraahum

waraakum

,..SI J-'

waraaki

waraana

I.:. I J-'

waraai ( waraay)

kullha

kullu

kullak

kullhum

kullkum

kullik

kullna

kulli

ba'Dha

ba'Du

ba'Dak

ba'Dhum

ba'Dkum

ba'Dik

ba'Dna

ba'Di

<::'IJ_,

Conjunctions
The conjunctions used in this book are ~ "but,"::,'J "because," and
"that", as in the sentence She said
that it is going to rain. The attached pronoun in this case functions as the subject of a clause:

::,!

ti-'J

li'annu

li'annak

.d:.'J

li'annhum

li'ankum

.d:.'J

li'annik

li'anna

G'J

li'anni

laakinha

laakinnu

laakinnak

laakinhum

laakinkum

d:.sJ
d:.sJ

laakinnik

laakinna

laakinni

'inha

~!

'innu

d:.l

'inhum

'innak
'inkum
'inna

.
~!
G1.

'innik
'inni

20. THE IMPERATIVE


The imperative form of the verb is derived from the imperfect form following two steps:
1. drop the imperfect prefix,
2. insert a vowel if the resulting form begins with a two-consonant sequence.

;':.'J
..'J

li'anha

Note that when the preposition ends in a vowel as in IJJ "behind", the pronoun u is not

pronounced. It is, however, compensated for by a lengthening of the final vowel.


~V\

.d:.'J

..'J

.
.
d:.!
.
~I

~I

.. I

472

See, look! ...J,_.!r-...J~

,.

,.

Wnte! ~~-~-~
The pronunciation of the inserted vowel depends on the stem vowel of the verb. The stem vowel is the vowel
between the second and third consonants of the root. If the stem vowel is: (u), the inserted vowel is

pronounced as_ (u), and if it is_


(i) or _(a), then the inserted vowel is_
(i).
,
,
Write!

uktub

~I

Walk!

im:j

Listen, hear!

isma'

~!
~I

Although the two verbs l.:i..t,"he took," and ~t,"be ate" generally behave like sound verbs in the perfect and
imperfect conjugations, their imperative forms do not follow the rules above, as the following table shows:
~I

~I

I.Jl:i.

l,lS

~I

'!l:i.

l:i.

l:i.t

JS

JSt

The verb 4-t bas no imperative form from the root itself. Its imperative counterpart is based on the stem JW
in both Levantine and~:

J~

~I

vl~

~I

I_,.I~

~I

(See Appendix 4 for more imperative conjugations.)

21. THE FUTURE TENSE


Future tense is indicated in Levantine by placing the word
verb:

~IJ

(going) before the imperfect form of the


"I am going to see him." u_,..!.l ~IJ

In

~.

the tense is indicated by attaching the prefix '-'"" to the imperfect form of the verb or placing the

word ...J,_ before such a verb.

e-i~ and

e-i'"":! ...J,_ mean the same thing: "he will pay"

22. PASSIVE VOICE IN~


Whereas in Levantine Arabic passive meaning is generally expressed by Form VII verbs and the passive
participle construction, in u , i a verb can be made to convey passive meaning by an internal vowel
change. Only the passive formation processes in u ,; i that you will encounter in the reading passages of
I

this book will be discussed here. These are represented by the two verbs ~..J "was born" and
considered".

fVY

..

J : . .:

"it is

473

.l.l~ is derived from the perfect verb .J:, which consists of the three root consonants and two short vowels,
~arked on the first and second consonants. (The vowel sometimes shown over the last consonant of a perfect
verb in the third person singular masculine as in ~ of :J~ is a person marker rather than part of the verb
itself.) The change from active to passive involves changing the first two vowels of the verb (and aJI Form I
sound verbs in the perfect). The first one is replaced by ~ (.:_) and the second by ~ ~):

Active

Passive
.l.l_,
(wulida)

.J~ (walada)

In the imperfect Form Vill verb..>~.._<., the change is from


Active
~

Passive
, "'

(yactabir)

J: :.i~ (yaftacil) to J :. i~ (yuftacal):

(yu tabar)

Other examples found in the book are:

Active

Passive

...

Ju
A

~
'A

he built/it was bu ilt


he held/it was held
he said/it was said

J~

J~

.. .

'

he publishes/it is published
be says/it is said

be caJis/it is caJied

be believes/it is believed

23. THE CONJUNCTION ~


In many ways .....i is similar to _, in that it has the general meaning of and , but it bas an additional element
indicating a special connection to a previous statement. Probably the best English equivalent is the semi-colon
(;). Among its most common English translations are: so, and so, so that, and then, and because .

... ~.WIJ~'YI_, -=..4l.:a..:J I ~4- ~~ <r..,AJ I_, ~.,ro!J I ~_, ~~l_,f':!.WI ~

ul..c ~

Amman combines the old and the new and the Eastern and the Western; (so) side by s ide with the old
buildings and antiquities...

.....i is also used in conjunction with L..i, in which case it does not translate into an English equivalent:

. ~ -=..~ .~u <r..,a.JI r--&JI l..i


As for the western part, most of it is residential houses.

24. THE RESUMPTIVE PRONOUN


The Arabic equivalent of the English phrase the house which you live in is rendered as ::..,;.1 vLJI .-. :

. JI

~ ~L... the house which you live in it. Such a phrase is based on ~I and ~I ~ ~L... ~I.

English relative clauses like the house in which you live have their origin in house and you live in the house,
before the two elements are cobmined to form the relative clause. When a relative clause is fonned by

474
replacing the second occurrence of~ I by the relative pronoun ~I (English which), the pronoun that
replaces the object of the preposition (or the object of the verb) is retained in Arabic but not in English. The
pronoun that is retained in Arabic is called the resumptive pronoun . In the following examples, the resumptive
pronoun is enclosed in parentheses:
This is the room that you are going to sleep in (it) tonight . ~ I (LA)v-i ('L:..:i ~I J c}J I U ~I .lA
This is the food that the Secretary of State talked to me . ()~ ~ ~ ~Jlall ~.J.J c}JI JS'JI.JA lolA
about (it).
The talk that we beard (it) about Sharif. . ~~ ~ ( )~ c}J I ('~I

He was thinking about the meat that his wife bad cooked (it).

.(LA)~ ~.J.J

c}J I t..-.LJ4

0 1S

25. THE ACCUSATIVE OF THE ABSOLUTE (JU-l.\ J..,W.\)


Jl.J...ll J,....U I is a noun derived directly from a verb with which it is used in the same sentence. It is always

assigned the accusative case. A literal English translation would sound redundant. In the following sentences,

J.U..ll J,a.UI is written in boldface.


The population increased a big increase.. i,& ~,j ~.J.I 0 lL .1~ .1I.).J
(The population increased greatly.)
(The people of the city received him well.)
.< 1~b J~u--..,
I ... 1 . .J d.Jj ~
tt .ll.J
That influenced Nizar's state of mind a big influence. . I ~..,...
(That influenced Nizar's state of mind greatly.)

26. ROOTS AND PA'ITERNS


Roots are the basic elements of meaning, and words derived from such roots represent extensions or modifications
of the basic meaning of the root. For example, the root ~ lktb/ bas the basic meaning of writing. The
following list includes some of the words derived from this root and their meanings:

writer ~IS

bewrote~
it was written ..~<~.I

~l:i.S

something written, a letter '-:-'~

booklet .. ~ ~<

book '-:-'l:i.S

to correspond ~l.S

writing

office~

correspondence

~~

'-:-'GS

library, bookshop

:i .. ~<.

old Qur'anic school

Derived words follow specific patterns. Consider, for exampl~. the following words from the above list.
written '-:-'~
writer ~IS
office ~

it was written ~I

The first word is created by adding I between the first and second consonants of the root; the second by
adding both(' before the first consonant and .J after the second; the third word (~I) by prefixing 0 1; and

EVE

475

the fourth (~) by prefixing ('


A pattern may indicate place, doer, instrument, habitual or repetitive action, recipient of an action, etc.
Consider the following set of words:
rider, passenger ~IJ
ridden

._..,s.;..

raft~;..
These three words derive from the root~J "to ride". The derivation of these three words corresponds to
that of ~LS, '-:-'~ and~ above. Furthermore, the meanings of ~IJ, '-:-'.,S...r", and~;. correspond
to those of ~I.S, '-:-'~ and~: The meaning in the first pair is that of the doer of an action, the second
pair the recipient, and the third pair the place of the action.
Patterns, Pronunciation, and Meaning
When a child learns his first language or when an adult learns a foreign language, most of their time is spent
on learning new words; the set of sounds and their pronunciation is limited, grammatical rules are limited, but
the vocabulary is vast.

Arabic (and other Semitic languages) has a system of word formation that is particularly helpful in acquiring
new vocabulary. It is the system referred to as the root and pattern system. A limited number of roots,
combined with a limited set of patterns produces the great majority of words.
The creation of such words is not as regular and straightforward as plural formation in English, for example,
but knowledge ofword patterns is helpful in at least three important respects:
1. Dictionary use.
This applies in the case of verbs in particular. Arabic dictionaries are arranged by root: all words derived
from the same root are listed under that root. In Arabic-English dictionaries such asA Dictionary ofModern
Written Arabic (edited by Milton Cowan), the Arabic-English dictionary most widely used by foreign
students of Arabic, verbs are not listed as they are found in the language but rather by their roman numeral, as
you will see below. Take for example, the verb J..,..i..:O....I. At some point in your first year of Arabic study you
'.

will be able to tell that the root of this verb is J-'-:-'- J If you tried to look up for the verb J:...i.:a......l under this
root, you will not find it, but you wiU find the roman numeral X, since ~I is a Form X verb. Try looking
up a verb in your dictionary.
2. Predicting pronunciation
If you recognize the pattern of a word, whether it is a verb or a noun, you can make sound predictions about
words of the same pattern share the same structure. For example, if you see the
its pronunciation, since
word
for the first time, you can predict that it is pronounced t \ .
Since the number of verb
patterns is more limited than that of noun patterns, your predictions about the pronunciation of unfamiliar
verbs will be more accurate. Taking the verbJ:...i.:a......l as an example again, you can be sure from its structure

e ..

all

that it is pronounced J': i ~ .~since all Form X verbs have the same prefix (..::.........1) and the same vowel
pattern.
Predicting the correct pronunciation is important in a language like Arabic since short vowels are not usually
included in written texts.
3. Predicting meanings
Knowledge of the word patterns is helpful in predicting the meanings of unfamiliar words of which you

tvo

476
already know a relative. For instance, if you know the Arabic word

.JJ.a.

"he limited" and you see the word

.J~ for the first time, you can predict that its meaning will most likely be ''it was limited", because you
know the prefix ..::; in the second word indicates reflexive meaning. You will also be able to predict the
meaning of the word ~~ "limiting" on the basis of your knowledge of .J~ because it is the verbal noun
that is derived from the Form II verb following a regular pattern.
Roots and Stems
As you know by now, most Arabic words derive from three-consonant roots. Words are built from roots
following regular patterns. There are verbal patterns and nominal patterns. One of the most common nominal
patterns is the one that the following adjectives belong to:~ ~. ~. ~~ ~.Jo ~
The verbs follow regular patterns too. There are 12 verbal patterns, called ,:l).Ji (singular ,jj~ in Arabic,
that are commonly used in moden Arabic, ten based on three-consonant roots and two on four-consonat roots.
Verbs based on four-consonant roots will be excluded from this discussion because of their rare occurrence.
The most common verbal pattern or form is Form I. It consists of the consonants of the three-consonant root
and accompanying short vowels, as in ~ ,jlS, J.-.J, i~,

c.J"J.J ,

etc.

Other forms are constructed by modifying the structure of Form I in specific ways, such as doubling the
second consonant, inserting I between the first and second consonants of the root, adding a prefiX, or a
combination of these. The modification of the shape of the root generally corresponds to a modification in the
meaning. So, for example, '-""~.J is translated as "he studied", but '-""~.J (with doubling of the middle
consonant of the rooot) is translated as "he taught". '-""~J.J is consequently considered the causative of '-"' J.l,
and the pattern to which it belongs is described as causative.
One important step in recognizing the form of a specific verb is to identify its stem, which refers to the verb
in its simplest form: the third person masculine singular in the past umse, the equivalent of he -ed in
English, as in '-"' J.l "he studied", '-""J~ "he taught", ~"he was able to", ~l"he received", etc.
If a verb is in the passive, its stem is the active form in the third person masculine singular in the past tense.
So the stem of ~
. "it was published" is .>-W
, -: "he published" and ~
, :. "it is considered" is ~
, :. I "he
considered".
Notes on Root Types
Assimilated Roots
There are two important points to remember about verbs derived from assimilated roots:
a. in the imperfect form of the verb, the initial .J of the root disappears in ~ but not in Levantine, so the
equivalent of J.-,::.

in~

is J.-,::0 in Levantine.

b. the .J is assimilated to a following .;::.. in one of the verb forms, hence the term assimilated. More on this in
the discussion of Form VIll later.
Hollow and Lame Roots
The I and c.s of hollow and lame roots are assumed to derive from .J or 'I at the root level although .J and 'I
may not be apparent on the surface. There are good arguments for this assumption. For example, related
words and conjugations frequently show .J and 'I as the following words, related to ,jlS, and ~. show:
!walked~

imperfect of ,jlS: ,j~

walking~

being ,j"fi

477

(he is) walking, a pedestrian

he constructed, made up
it was made up of

Arabic dictionaries list these two verbs under the roots

u-_,-..:I and c.F"d--r

u'.,S

u-.,s:.

At this stage, you are not

expected to know whether a certain hollow or lame root is a .,1_,-root or a ~4-root. Either one should be
acceptable. When using the dictionary, if you don't find the root under .,1_, then look under ~ 4 . which is the
next letter of the alphabet.

The jaj Skeleton


When discussing word derivation and word patterns, Arabic grammarians use the skeleton ~ "to do" to
refer to the three consonants of the tri-literal (or three-consonant) root: .....; refers to the first consonant,

to

the second, and J to the third consonant. The pattern of a word consists of the root ~ and any additional
consonants or vowels added to it. For example, the word ~has the pattern ~: the root is J- '-:-'- ..:1,
and the vowel 1.# is added between the second and third consonants to form ~

27. FORMS OF THE ARABIC VERB


The thousands of Arabic verbs follow a surprisingly small number of patterns, namely 15. Three of these
forms are virtuaJiy nonexistent in Modem Arabic, both u , i and the spoken dialects. Of the remaining
twelve, nine are frequent enough in modem Arabic to be included in this book. the other three will be left
out.
o

In place of Ja.._.A and its derivatives, used by Arab grammarians working in the Arabic tradition, Western
scholars of Arabic use a system of roman numerals I-X and Ql-Q4 (for quadriliteral roots) to refer to the
different verb forms. According to this system, ~ is Form I, ~is Form II, ~ is Form V, etc.
The first form (Form I) is the simplest in form and the most common in use; it consists of the the root
consonants and the accompanying short vowels. Examples of Form I verbs are~ '-:-'..>--..!.. ~. ~_,
c.>" J-4

(JLS, ~.

:r,... Other forms are constructed by modifying the structure of Form I in specific ways,

such as doubling the second consonant, inserting I between the first and second consonants of the root,
adding a prefix, or a combination of these.
Different meanings and grammatical functions are associated with the different forms, such as causative,
intensive, passive, and reflexive. It should be emphasized, however, that there are many exceptions to this
generalization. In other words, there are verbs that belong to a certain form but do not have the meaning that
is generally associated with it. To illustrate, Form ll verbs generally have a causative or intensive meaning,
but the Form II verb~ "he thought", has neither a causative nor an intensive meaning.
Form!
Of all Arabic verb forms, Form I is considered the least regular in shape, modifications, and the general
. meanings associated with it. A major problem faced in deriving the imperfect from the perfect of Form I is
the unpredictability of the vowels of the verb in the imperfect. For example, the stem vowel (the vowel
between the second and third consonants of the root) of~ is.: (yaktub), that of .....;~is; (yac rit), and

that of~ is.:.. (yaftaH). For hollow and lame verbs, the long vowel of the imperfect (in second or third
position of the three-consonant skeleton) may be .J f.! or I: C::.J~ ~. r~

tVV

478

The Derived Forms


These forms, numbered II-X are more regular in shape and derivations. The meanings associated with each of
them are more predictable than Form I verbs, but keep in mind that there are still a great many exceptions.
Form//
Shape

Perfect

'JU

Imperfect

,-

(Double the middle consonant of the root. This is indicated by a i :W. (:) over the doubled consonant.)
Verbal Noun
~ (Note that there is no: (i:W.) in the verbal noun.
Meaningcausative
Examples
to remember (Fl) ~,j
(F2) to remind, to make someone remember
fi,j

tl..A
Form /II
Shape

to be lost (Fl)

'
~

Perfect
~u

Imperfect

(F2) to lose something

J.d..L.

(Insert I between first and second consonants of the root.)

Verbal Noun
UU...
MeaningAssociative
Examples
~L.... tohelp
Form IV
Shape

to fight (with)

Perfect
~i

(Prefix i to the root.)

Imperfect

Verbal Noun
Jl.&j!
Meaningcausative ofFI
Example
~.J
to return (Fl)

~ Ji

Form V
Shape

Perfect

Imperfect

JaL4

to return something

,-

This form is related to Form II. It is constructed by prefixing ..:a to Form II verbs.
Verbal Noun

~ (These verbal nouns are rare. The only example you will see in this book is the word

~ ..specialization".)
MeaningPassive or Reflexive of II.
Examples

!VA

479

~. .

~I

to teach (FII)
to found (FII)

Form VI
Shape

to learn, teach oneself

~t; to be founded

Perfect
~~

Imperfect

~~

This fonn is related to Fonn III in the same way that V is related to II. It is constructed by adding the prefix
~to Fonn III verbs.
Verbal Noun
Fonn VI is the rarest fonn of the ones introduced in this book. There is only one example
of a verbal noun ofFonn VI in this book. It is~W "alliance".

Meaning Reflexive of III (It is generally traslated as ...with one another.)


Example
l_,i.JW they became allies (with one another)

Form VII
Shape Perfect
~I

Imperfect

(Prefix ..:a (1) to the root. As in the case ofFonns IV, VIII, and X, initial i or I that appears in the perfect
tense is deleted in the imperfect.)
Verbal Noun
Jl.a.i.:.l
MeaningPassive ofFl

Examples
~

to pull (Fl)

~I to be pulled back, withdrawn

to annex (Fl)

~I to be annexed, to annex oneself, to join

Form VIII
Shape Perfect
ja.:o..AI

Imper.fect

(This fonn is constructed by adding I before the first letter of the root and .::.. after it. Remember that the I
that appears in the perfect tense is deleted in the imperfect.)
Verbal Noun
JL.a.:...il
MeaningOriginally re'flexive of I, but such connection is mostly absent in modem Arabic.

Examples
~I

towait

~I

to be interested

~I

to be finished, come to an end

:. I

to consider

Important Note
When an assimilated verb(~., .J,...o., ,._u.,) is changed into Fonn VIII verb is derived from an assimilated

480
root, the initial_, assimilates to the..::.. of the fonn, resulting in a doubled::..:
From the root J-., , we get the Fonn VID verb ~I (ittaSal)

"to contact" (from ~_,1 [iwtaSal])

From ~.,,we get ~I (ittaHad)"to be united" (from ~_,I [iwtaHal])

Form X
Shape

Perfect Imperfect

~~~
'

(This fonn is constructed by prefixing..:......! to the root)

Verbal Noun
JLa.L......I
Meaning Originally reflexive of IV, but such meaning is mostly absent in modern Arabic.
Examples

J:i : J..-,:......1
~..:.~1

to use
to meet, welcome

~-J,i:.-1

to become independent

~-~I

to continue

Form Summary
General
Meaning or
Grammatical
Function

Verbal
Noun

Passive
Participle

Active
Participle

Imperfect

~~~~~

~Ja..i

Perfect

<J~)

J,-L

~u

Causative

J,..L

J._;

Associative

lliu....

~u....

~l.i...

J,:cu

Causative

Jla..il

J,..L

~i

, _,

'

Reflexive of II

J.a.ll..

Reflexive of ll

J,:c~

J,:cLL;

VI

Passive ofl

Jl.a..i..:.l

~I

VII

Reflexive ofl

Jt.a:...il

~I

VIII

Jiio o

~I

J1a..t

Ql

'

'
X

J~l

'
X

J.u':;

'

_,
J1a.i...
'

fA.

481

Notes
1. An x in a cell indicates that the derivation or function is either rare or unpredictable, and consequently is of
no use to you at this stage.
The categories marked by an x are either rare or unpredictable.
2. The stem vowel, i.e. the vowel between the second and third conosonants of the root, of Form I verbs in

both the perfect and imperfect can be one of the three short vowels, a(~). u (~).or i (~).

ConfUsing Verb Forms


A verb like~ can be read in at least the following ways:

'

~,

She knows, is aware (Form I)

~
1-,

She informs

(Form IV)

She teaches

(Form II)

He learned

(Form V)

At this stage, there is no way for you to tell which form is the verb in from its shape alone. The diacritics are
crucial. In most instances, however, not all diacritics are shown; only those thought by the writer to be
important are. The ~ C> is a diacritic that can distinguish major categories, such as Forms I and II, and II
and IV. So if the verb you encounter in the text has the shape~. the choices are narrowed down to Forms

II and V. The only way to distinguish these two forms is by writing either~(-) or 4.....:a...:o.. over..::.., the first
identifies the verb as Form II, the second as Form V.
The following pairs of forms are likely to be confused at this stage:

I and II
Two diacrtics distinguish Form II from 1: -~ over the middle consonant of the root in both the perfect and
imperfect forms of the verb, and~ over the person marker in the imperfect form.

I and IV
In the perfect, Form IV has i before the first consonant of the root, and in the imperfect Form IV has L........
over the subject marker, while I has ~.

II and V
In its perfect form, II is not confused with V since it lacks the prefix ..::.. . In its imperfect form, however, it
looks like V. The feature that distinguished the two then is ~ in V and L...... in II over the prefix..::...

III and VI
The difference between is the same as that between II and V.

VII and VIII


Since a root may have as its first element a 0 or a ..::.., it is often difficult to tell whether a certain verb belongs
to Form VII or VIII; 0 could be the Form VII prefix, or part of the root, and..::.. could be the Form VIII infix
or part of the root. In general, it is more likely in a..:..:. sequence that 0 is part of the root and ..::.. is the Form
VIII infix than the..::.. being part of the root and 0 a prefix. So, if you see an unfamiliar word like~. you
can assume that the root is - '":-'-0 and that the..::.. is the infix of Form VIII; you will be right most of the
time.

!A\

482

28. NOUN PATTERNS


As in the case of vetbs, Arabic nouns (and adjecives) foJJow specific patterns of derivation which
share similar meanings or grammatical functions. Whereas the number of verb patterns is limited to fourteen,
the number of noun patterns is much higher. Some noun patterns are more common than others. Some of the
most common noun types are participles and verbal nouns, which are derived regularly from certain verb
patterns. The following table shows some of these.

l . ~or~
This is the noun counterpart of Form I verbs. It is the basic form for nouns and it generally represents
singular nouns that are not derived from other sources.

bouse~

sea ~

dayr~

2. ~u (Feminine ~u) This is the active participle of Form I verbs.

~L....

living, inhabitant
going

e1'.J

Important Note
Active participles are not verbs; they behave as nouns and adjectives. Compare VSL.... to the verb

-VS--

~ ~L....Iiterarilly means "someone living, inhabitant", while VS,..... translates as "be lived" and~

as "be lives". As an adjective or noun ~L.... has the following four forms only:
He is living, an inbbitanl .<)SL.... .JA
She is living, an inhbitant. . t:.SL- vA
They (m.) are living, inhbitants.. ~L
Tbey (f.) are living, inhbitants.. .:.L:.SL-

As a verb,~-~ is conjugated like ~~ conjugated under Subject/Person Markers above.

The ordinal numbers 2 to 10 are formed following this pattern


~~-~I
v--a~-~

~~.)~.)i

~1......-~

V"JL.....-~

~-~

v--~-~w

~-~
(Note that ~~ does not have a final consonant and that
3.

J~

V"Jl-

is not regularly derived from

~).

(Feminine U~ ). This is the passive participle of Form I vetbs.


known ~.J.JA-A

found, present J~.,..,.


written~~

4. ~ (Feminine~). Words of this pattern are generally adjectives.

483

small ~

big~

cheap, inexpensive ~ J

far~

5. w~ Words of this pattern are generally adjectives describing temporary states:


tired w~
hungry wk.J-'!'

thirsty

wl...!...L...c

w)l.c j

upset

6. Ja,L or Ua.i.... Verbs that have this pattern often refer to places.
office~

restaurant ~

school t.....J.~.a

bookstore, library ~
~J..>--

farm
7.

~-

This is the pattern of the verbal noun of Form II verbs.


improving~

founding ~to
limiting J.:!~

8. ~i. This pattern refers to colors (masculine) and adjectives with a comparative/superlative meaning.
white ~i

.1_,.....i
red ,r-i

black

bigger ~i
better

9.

J,.._;.

o:.-i

cheaper~)

Words in this form are plurals of nouns with the structure Ja...A

month-months J,._.!,- ~
house-houses.:..~-~

10. ~U:.. Words in this form are generally plurals of nouns of place with the structure (i)~.
restaurants ~U....-~

office-<>ffices ~tS:.-~
school-schools '-"' J I.~.a-t.... J .~.a

II . tJW Words in this form generaJiy refer to occupations.


industry, manufacturing ~1...:....
agriculture ~I J j

484

29. LOOKING UP WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY


The first step in looking up a word in the dictionary is to identify its root. To get to the root, all affixes and
modifications of the stem need to be removed. Let's take the two words ..::..,.,.....-..:..:U and ~La......._, as
examples.
The context and the structure of the word ..::..~U (the subject marker and the..::... following c:,) show that it

is a verb. Another two pieces of information that you need to know are the root of ..::..~U and its form.
Recognizing roots of words is a skill that takes time and practice, but as you learn more Arabic you will find
it easier to recognize roots. Rules and explanations help, but the skill is developed mainly through practice
with the language itself. Once you can identify the root of the word as ~ and its form as Form vm you
will be able to find its meaning in the dictionary. (See the note on confusing Froms VII and vm above.)
The word ~La...._,, on the other hand, has the structure of a noun. Probably the quickest way to reach that
conclusion is by comparing the shape of the word to the shapes of the verb forms, whose number is quite
limited: it does not match any of those shapes. You should be able to tell that the _, is the prefix "and" and
the is the possessive pronoun "his". The..::... in final position is most likely the U....H..>-" ,.t.:;, which changes
to ..::... when a suffix follows it. So the word you are looking form is U..L-.... By now you should be able to
identify the root as J,.....c:

ris most likely a prefix as you have seen with so many words, the t.J...H.,_. ,.t.:; is

never part of a root, and the I is an unlikely candidate for a root consonant when it is preceded and followed
by such consonants as: J- rt Your task is made even easier if you know other words derived from the
same root such as~. ~ J..~. etc. Try looking up

~La..._, in your dictionary.

Weak roots, i.e. assimilated, hollow, lame, and doubled are harder to recognize than sound roots. But the
more Arabic you know, the easier it will be to recognize relationships among families of words and the root
of each family. The following hints may be helpful:
1. The consonants of a root generally stay stable from one form to another in the same family. If you look at
the words uI~. .Jl-:J., ..::... .JU. you will notice that the consonants J. and .J stay the same. This is an

. indication that they are part of the root. The alternation between'! and I is typical of hollow roots.
2. I and I.S derive from _, or l.j So, after taking out all suffixes and prefixes and arriving at the form .JL.I..,
you do not look up the word under JU., but rather under~ or J,J.. Once you have reached this stage, the
work is mostly done, because if you cannot find the word under the first form, it will be under the second.
However, you can for the most part tell whether a verb derives from _, or '!by looking at the other members
of the family; if most of them tend to have a _, in them, then it is a _,-verb and if most of them tend to have a
~

then it is a '!'verb.

3. Certain consonants cannot be a part of an affix and hence have to be a part of the root. These consonants
include..::..., ..!., ~ C. .l, ,j, .J j , <.J"'> .I., "'-, t t:,.. and J. Some consonants like "':"....;., J, occur as prefixes

t.

but not as suffixes; the consonant-A occurs as a suffix only.

tAt

485

J'-'~' ~~ =e\)\ ~'


APPENDIX4
VE!iB ~;ONJUGATIONS

486
This appendix includes all the verbs introduced in the book. The first part consists of tables of sample conjugations
of all verb types, and the second includes the rest of the verbs not used in the sample conjugations. These verbs are
listed by root and next to each the sample conjugation it foUows.
Some of these verbs like~j and JIJ1 are used exclusively in ~ (Modem standard Arabic orMSA) and are

consequently found in the written selections only. Other verbs, such as t. IJ and ~I are used exclusively in
~~(spoken Arabic). The rest of the words are common to both. Words, including verbs, that are exclusively one

or the other are distinguished in the word lists in the body of the book and in the glossary by the symbol "+" for the
~nly and " " for the ~.Le-only verbs. The same distiniction is maintained in this appendix. It should be
mentioned here that a certain amount of subjectivity is unavoidable in designating certain verbs as ~~ or ~
verbs. White t.IJ clearly belongs to the domain of~Le and ~j to that of~. verbs like l..J,

t.A and

JU are not easy to classify into one or the other. For such verbs, I have used my own intuitions. Another Arabic
speaker might use a different classification.

The differences in verb conjugations between the two language varieties are, however, quite limited, as shown in
the foUowing table:

L:...l

~1

,:..:.1

~I

~I

rJl

I~

I~

~j

I~

I~

~I

~I

~I

~I

rJl

I~

~I

u ~
. -

v-:.
~

~t

~
~1

1~1

..

('-"-'

u~

1~1

~I

The following abbreviations are used in the tables:


Perf=perfect
lmperf=imperfect
AP=active paticiple
PP=passive participle

,.,.
~

Perf
Imperf
Imp

lmp=imperative
VN=verbal noun

Imperf
Imp

487
Part One: Sample Conjugations
Form I Verbs

hewrote

L.:.:..l

t.:.i

_,;ul

..:,..;.I

::..:01

r-A

I~

~I

I~

I~

~~

I~

1~ 1

~I

.J-16

Perf

1mperf

Imp

AP ~IS
pp ......_,.:oS..o

he hoped J.i

..
..

v-:.

t.:.i

Fl

..:,..;.I

::..:01

t..:.L. i

..:Li

J..i

~~

r-A

..d.i

l,l..i

j..J

Perf

~w

J.t:.

..-

..d.i

w,i..t.:.

..

..d.i

_,Lu

J.t:.

J..lo:!

1mperf

J.t:a

(.)

.J-16

he took~i

t.:.i

,:UI

L:.~i

..:...~i

l_,:;~i

..:...~i

..:...~i

l_,~i

..:...~i

~i

1_,~1..:>

1,~

~I.:>

1_,~4

~I.:>

~t.:.
pp

..:,..;.I

L.:.:..l

<!~1..:>

::..:01

r-A

v-"

<!~

.J-16
~~

~4

Perf

1mperf
Imp

j~t...

he carried

L.:.:..l

t.:.i

,:UI

..:,..;.I

::..:01

r-A

.:..1.-

I~

.:..1.-

.:..1.-

1,(-

v-"
.:..1.-

J..-:.

~~

I~

J.-:;

I~

J.-:;

I,L.al

~I

~I

AP

J,..~

PP

J~

.J-16

j-

Perf

1mperf
Imp

he drank

L.:.:..l

t..:...;>"""'

..

~~

t.:.i

_,;ul

..:,..;.I

::..:01

r-A

v-"

.J-16

~-~

I~.->-
I-H~
, -

~~

~~

~,~

~-->-

~~

~~

1-Hr
I ,

~~

~.>--!

1-H~I

,.,r-~1

...... ~1

......~i

.-

AP ~}.!.

PP

J.-

~,y!..a

tAV

-H.>--!

.-

~~

Perf
1mperf
Imp

488
beopenede:.l

AP

~I

~I

'~

I~

.'

e:.l

Perf

I~

1mperf

1~1

~
~I

L:...l

L:.i

~I

L.:.......i.t

e:.li

I~

~I

Imp

-u

~
pp c:,:.L

be arrived J-..t
~I

.:..L.~

.:..L.~

I_,L.~

.:..L.~

I,L-_,:;

~_,:;

~_,:;

I_,L-..H

~_,:;

' I_,L-_,1

~_,1

~_,1

L:.i

~I

L.:J:.~

.:..L.~

I,.:U:.~

~~

~_,j

L:...l

~I

.'

~~
~..H

Perf

1mperf
Imp

AP J-1_,
,

.u_,
,

hewasbom
~I
,

~I

L:...l

L:.i

~I

L.:..U_,

.::...U_,

I_,:;.U_,

.::...U_,

.::...U_,

I_,,U_,

.J~

.J_,i

I_,.J_,:;

<!.J.,:;

,.J.,:;

I_,.J..H

.'

.::...U_,
,

.u_,
,

Perf

.J.,:;

.J..H

1mperf

he went

c:l .;

L:.i

~I

~I

~I

L:....;

..:::.-.)

.'

..:::.-.)

I_,:;..,a..)

..:::.-..)

1~1.;

.::.-I.;

c:l..;

Perf

C:J.,.:a

(J.;i

1~_,_,.:; .

~_,:.;:.

C:J.,.:;

1~_,~

C:-'~

C:J~

1mperf

~J.)

C..t.;

L:...l

,.,..._,.)

Imp

AP ~ 1.;

There is a difference in the imperfect conjugation of verbs based on assimilated roots between ~and Levantine. The

~ conjugation

is as follows:

v.w

t.:.t

,.:U'

~I

::..,;.,

,...

J,...:.

J-1

EM

~
,

,..
~

489
be brought '-:-'4~I

t..:.i

_,.:..:.I

.............

I~
-

~~

I~-

..

~I

~I

rJ&

1..9-:'4-

Perf

~I~

1mperf

y.

I~

Imp

he slept

AP

rt..:.

~I

~I

t..:.i

_,:..:.1

t..:.....:.

I~

Perf

rL:..:.

rt..:.t

I_,...L:.;;

1mperf

l_,...t..:.

Imp

r-jL.:a

he walked~

t..:.i

_,.:..:.I

t:.......!....~

l~

~I

~I

~I

_,.A

Perf

~~~I~

.-

1mperf

1~1

~I

Imp

he called

t..:.i

~J

~I

~I

Perf

1mperf

he remained ~
~I

t..:.i

_,:..:.I

~I

::.WI

r--

.~.

.J-A

t..:.....i.

I~
- -

I -

Perf

~~

I~
- -

I~
-

1mperf

I~
- I

- I
~

- I

AP ,_,.a"L...

N\

Imp

490
be passe<f

l.:.al
L.:...~ '
.>-"
~ .

.)'W

L:.l

~I

~I

~I

,-A

~.>-"

~~:;...

~.>-"

~.>-"

I.J:;_.

O.:..jA

:;..t

.,

I.J~

~.

~~
~,

I.J.>-"

~.>-"

.,

I.J~

:;...

,.... ,
Perf

.>-"
~

.>-"

Imperf
Imp

becounted~

L:.al

L:.l

~I

~..:..:!~

~.u

I.~

~i

I.J~

I.J~

~I

~I

~ .u

~.u

~~
~

..

(.S.U

,-A
I.J~

I.J~

,....
.u

Perf

1mperf

.:...u
~

Imp

.u

he remained

l.:.al

L:.i

~I

~I

~I

~
Jja:,

.:1'1;

I~

.:r~e

JJ;.t

I~

~
)J.

I,LJ.

,....

.-.,:rl;

,-A
l)ja

~
~

JJ;.

Perf

I~

lmperf

JJ.

Imp
became

t.:-1

4
~

~j

~I

~I

,-A

~
J~

~I

1..:.1

\,.I!..a.:.

~I.a..:.

JJ;.

,....

~i

I.Jo'!'t

~
~t

4-i

Perf

'~

Imperf

Imp

AP~

2 This is the

(.:,.L conjugation ofdoubled roots.

~ uses a different pattern, of which there are no examples in this book.

The same applies to other doubled verbs like :U, and JJ-.
3

The~ conjugation table for this verb is different from that ofLevantine. as shown below:

v.-.;

t.:.l

~I
I,........,.

..:..:,1

~I

.V'!'I

u~

V! :'!';

I_,JLA:o

~LA:o

'

JLA:o

rJt

..,.

1_,.~

..::.4-

4-

Perf

1.)~

I,'H

Imperf
Imp

491
Form II Verbs

,..

J:;...

J;...

Perf

he recorded, registered
L:..:..l

L:.i

~I

~I

~I

w:;...

r-A

I~

~
,,

~
,,

1,4.:...

'

~I

' ,
I~

1,4:...

,, ,

~
,,
~

~
1

I~

~
,,

1mperf

Imp

AP~

pp

J;.:..

VN~

,..

J::a.

d..;..

Perf

1mperf

he left, Jet
~I

~I

r-A

I~

,~

l,k

I~

~
~

~
~

I~

L:..:..l

L:.i

~I

L:....l.i.

~
~i

I_,Li.

Imp

Form lll Verbs

he traveled ;.t....

l.:...:..l

~I

r-A

I.,..j-J
- 't....

.;::..,;.L...

.;::..;.L...

I_,;.L...

.;::..;.L...

;.L...

Perf

1_,~w

~~w

~w

1_,~'---:!

~w

~-

' l.....u

Imperf

I_,~L...

~~L...

~L...

~I

t:.;.t.... .;:..;at....
~L...i

~w

,..

~I

L:.i

Imp

AP~L-.

he called csJl:.

,..

t.:...:..l

L:.i

~I

~I

~I

~Jl:.

~JL:.

I~Jl>

~JL:.

~Jl:,

I_,Jl>

.;::,~l:.

csJl:.

Perf

~JL:..:.

~Jl:.i

I_,JL.:..::i

~JL.:..::i

~JL.:..::i

I~

~JL.:..::i

~~

1mperf

I_,JL:,

~Jl>

~.A:.

r-A
J

Imp

Form IV Verbs

VN c:,~!

he announced

,..

vui

~I

~I

r-A

l~i

~i

~i

l,.:.ki

~i

oki

Perf

I~

~
,

I~

~I

1mperf

1~1

l.:...:.. l

L>i

~I

L:.ki

~i

~i

~I

Imp

492

v-;

~i

..

he wanted

~,J_,i

.::...JJI

~,J_,i

~~

~Ji

0.J~.;..

.,..

::...~.;~

1_,.,1_,1

.::...JI}

,~I)

Perf

~.,;..

0.J ~~

~.,;..

~~

1mperf

::..:,,

,.::...J.,i

t-A

..::...:a I

F'
~

~ -

-->-'

+.~1,;1

VN i.JIJ!

.,..

ut

~I

..::...:a I

::..:.1

t-A

L:..a.l

~~

~~

1~1

~~

~~

l~t

~i

c)a..ei

Perf

~i

I~

I~

1mperf

1~1

~I

~I

Imp

VN ~~I

he liked, loved

v-;

~~

~~ ~i
~~
~
,

F'
". i

..
..::...:a I
,

I
~

~I

0~

::..:,,
, 1

t-A

.~.
,

1~1

~I

0~

~
,

.,..

.~1,
~
,

~t
Perf
1mperf

~only)

FormVVerbs
he learned~

.,..

::..:,,

r-A

..::...:a I

~~

~I

I_,:...W

,~

I~

~~

l,..l...::u

~
~

~
~

I~

..::...:a I

::..:,,

I~

,, i,

APF

L:..a.l

~
~

Perf
Imperf
Imp

VN,t:.

be bad lunch I.S~


L:..a.l

~~

, ,

_,:..:.1

~~

~.li.:i

~~~

(.S.li.:U

(.S.li.:i

l_,i ~ i

,,

, 1

1_,~

.
.

, ,

.
.

, ,

,~.li.:i
, ,

~.li.:i

~.u.:.::;

I.S.u.:.:;

~~

(.S.li.:i

, ,

.t-A
, ,

l_,.li.:i
l_,i \:

-~
.::...li.:i

, ,

.,..

I.S~

--

Perf

1mperf

, ,

I.S.u.:.:;

I.S

Imp

493
be died
~

,''

4-i,.:;

~~

,,,

~~

..:,..:.1

., , ,

.,,,

~,.:;

~,.:;

...

~I

_,A

I.j-A.,...
. -

;-!,.:;

;..-;:.
Perf

Form VI Verbs

he allied himself ...A]t...:;


~~

~~

~~

UJw .:Aw
....&JL:..i:. ....&Jwi

~~w

1~W:.

..:,..:.1

Perf
~W:.

...AJW:.

~~~

...AJW:.

...AJ~

lmperf

'

VN ....&JW

Form VII Verbs

he (it) was divided ~I

I..:.I

~I

J -, ~I I

.-...

,;e~

~~

~'

1~1

~~

..:,..:.1
'
.- . ,.i I

~I

~
.-,. - li I 1,_..:..i;.1 .-. I ~ .I

r-A

-:..

,JJI

~I

Perf

Imperf

- . 'I
he joined ~

t.:.i

~I

.
, ., ., ;, .1 .- .. ,;,.I
'

'

., . i

r----

~I

..:,..:.1

~I

I.J i:~ l

, -,I. oft ',I

.
.-. , . .; ,I

I~

~I

..:,..:.1

I - , - I

~I

..::..: -~1

'

'

'

r-A
1,;...:..;..:.1
I

..

~
~I

-" I

Perf

Imperf

_,A
~

Form VDI Verbs

hemet

:. -

I~
:. I

AP

:.

~
' '
PP ~

VNt~l

:. I

~'

:. I
~

~
~I

:.
~

r-A
I

'

, -

~I

_,A

Perf

Imperf
Imp

494
he agreed (with) ~I
~I

l .i~l

~I

~I

~I

~I

~I

~I

1~1

,,

I_,H~i
,

.)A

.-.ii11

Perf

Jtii

1mperf

he occupied ~I
~I

~I

.)A

1~1

.-):;,I

~I

Perf

t_,ji.;.

j\,i

1mperf

L:.i

~I

~~ - .:E,I

~i

~I

VN J)U.I
,

he chose ,;~ I
~I

L:.i

~I

~I

~I

1.:.~1

..:..~1

1_,:;~1

;=-~I

..:..~1

Perf

,)t.:..;,..:.

J~i

1_, ).:=..~

'! ,;'UA:.

,;'UA:.

lmperf

I.J~I
..J

'!J~I

,)~ I

.)A

he bought <S~I
L:...:..l

L:.i

~I

~I

.)A

~~I

Perf

-.. -

'!~

lmperf

'!~

- .. 1

'!->-'"Form X Verbs

he received J...e..::w..l
~I

L:.i

l , I !;; ...1.- J :i cel

~I

::.Ut

r-A

.)A

1_,-..... i .. J .-.l:ii ,1

':ii . I

1~1

~I

Perf

1_,1 ,;:;,I

Imperf

~I

1_,,,...; .

AP~
, ,
pp~

VN J4-i;a-1

l,ij ... ",

4./ ;

1~1~1

Imp

""'
.P

f, .

.~ '

'1

"d

:l,

' '&

:l,

'"d
n

~ ~.

'1

,f f ,

1. '

1..

"i

"d

:l,

a.

,..

' '&
3 .,

'

1~,,

" [~

1.

'

,,

'

if

"

[ t- r
'

_1,

'

r::
- 1 s:

'

'f-..... ~~
t

r.r:" f

~ if

'1 1 '

~ lt'

'

,, .l~' f,i

'F:, '\
n

'
1't
,r.t

l
[' ~
~' \
::r.

'f:-..,, ~~r: <rt'

'

.~ '
t: '[, \

I~
r1~~.~~,
r~ l~ ~~
I t'

tt_,
'

~ '[, 1.

0"

[.

rt:fr

- -

t' I,,
'

['[[

l .f:.

c.. .r , .

' f.
t
_ f~' r
~ ~

-I:-. 1-:-.

.~ ' ~. :.'
'[, t: '[,

'1 1

~'[, ~t: 1
'[, .. . :.

,f'[, 'lt: '[,f,l..:.

~. 't. E

t: '[, f

'1

10

-i

:;'
~

~ ~

(7

'~

::i, :l,

'& ri'

("'I

l, f

cr

)'
-

"~

l[. f- \

~ ~

t1:'t t '
ff
l, ) 1.

~ ~ ~

t' l' t ' ~

l)

t'l't t

fff

- - -

) ' )

't 1': ~l:'t[

t'

~ ~

496
Part One: The Rest of the Verbs IDtrodac:ed In the Book

~~b

~)b

J+...=~t

~ !

~~b
J+..,::~i

t
~'-"""""'
.la.t=JSi

~~

~~=~'

~~~

~=.!J~

"':"4-=t4

~=~

~=u~

~~

~=r=

J.w.=~

~=~

~~

J+..,::.)-.,..

J;...=)t
,

.r-=~

~'=r~'

J+..,::d-.,.

~=~

~=~

~,.s.

"':"?..li..L..

,;,;-~

~L.....=JJL:..

Jl)=t.J.L:..t

fo=vak

~~~

~1=~1

h-=~J

...r-=JJ

~J

~ ~~ I

~e-iJ

~U".)J

~~j

~=fij

~t= ~)

J.-=~.)

J.w.=~

~=.!-.

- .<

c:'.)=.)lj

~e-:o

J.-=J.>-'""
~,J
~~=~1

J.-=~.J
.-. ~ "'

.r-=J.)
"':"~.)

;ss:;..J
l=t

~~

~e-i .)

~~.)

~t..Jj

h-=,JS.)

~~~.).:i
~=J......

~l= t._>oAJj l

~ ~-

.. , ., . ,

~~

"':"4-=Jij
J.w.=~
~L.....=~l....

"':"?t---

~e---"

~1= ~1

.,.at.......=t"'L....

J.;..=;-..

.,.aL.....=d .)w.

~l=._j~t

~~
~I~I

~eU~~= ~1

c: 1.)= ._jw.

~t=.)~t

....,.:.S::.) ~

~~=~I

~~

"':"4-=c:l-

J.;..=~

h-=tc::,...

.r-=~

~~,yJa

~.)!...-

.u.

... ;< ~

~tl'

~~
~u.

~~

"':"4-=.JU.

~~~~

J+...=~

' .;<:=.

497
J.-=...i~

.rtL...=~J~

J.-=~~

~~=~I

(S~-~

~...i~

~=~

~I=J-.:.....1

'-:'~

'-:'4-=~~

c. 1_,:......1=JL.a..:o......l

c:'J= J~

~i=~i

'-:'~~

_;.L...=.JJU

J.-=..li.A

~i=.)...li

. ~t._,.i..:>

~r:U

'-:'~r+i

~'=c.~'

J,i:......l=~l

~fo
~J~

c:'J=Ju

c:'J=Ju

~=.la.l

~~

~~

~=~

c: 'J=ru

~...Ak

.,,)=rui

.r'L...=(".Ju

~-~

c:'J=wi.S

~~

~~

'-:'~~

~~

(S~=~

~i= ~i

J,i:......l=:,...:.....l

~~=~I

(S~I=~I

C. IJ=..::..L..

~~

'-:'~~.)-"

~
J.-=J.>:a

~-~

~I~ I

~ ~~=~I

~=~

~i=~i

~I=.U:..:.I

~...ili

~~=~I

.rtL...=~LA

~i=~i

~ I=Ji.:>,:.l

~~.>-"

J.-=...i.I.A

J.-=~

~~_,.:.

~=~,.:.

J-.,=~.,

J-.,=.u.,
~e:l.J

J-rw.J.J

~~=~I

~l=..t.l,:.l

~...i'.i.J

'-:'~

J-.,=~.,

!\V

~-

'-:'~.

~~

,ril-=~

,.,

J-r-U.J

498

APPENDIX5

ARABIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARY

Symbols and Abbreviations


.~

f.

feminine

m.
s.
t

masculine
singular
generally used in Modem Standard Arabic (MSA) but not in Levantine
generally used in Levantine but not in MSA

(plural)

499

to wait

;:..:.......!

sorry .....J-i

.....J-i

Alexander

.J ~'il

August ':-'i

r-1

father ':-'1

name ( c.r-L...l ~) r-1


polite way of asking the name f"':!_,s.JI r--11
entry visa J,.o..~ ~to

~~

the Assyrians 0 ~ .)_,...!.'i I


origin ~~
the Royal Academy

~ I ~I

to affinn, emphasize ( ~i) II

to be affected (~G) V

except '..JI

influence ~to

~0 YI

rent ~i

c.r=JI

who, that, which (m.s.)

C!.:JI

~)

(....i-11

thousand

The Arabian Nights ~.J ~


~ UJI

May God keepyousafe(answer


~)l._J I ~

UJ

.....1..11
.....1..11
UJI

tenant ..>;'!'t.:.....:.
for the sake of u W. u--~
1.- ~~ 1V"'"

to come (~-4-1) I
coming~

lcame ~
Sunday ~'i'l

!UJ~

.uJ~ UJ~

to take ( ~~-~1) I

~~

to be late (;..t.) V

~~

may God keep them safe~ UJ 1

last, final ~ i

r41 ~~ UJ I

other ~i

Ah, the good old days! 0 L..~


("God bl~ the days of the past")

last time .-;,.. ~i


c}J I

that, which

another, other( f. of ~1) <.S~i

+v-11

to

next to, side by side

~~

sister (-=-1,.0.. ..:.1,.0..1 - ~) ~~

~I)

let's go!
barely, with difficulty

(JI!l) IV

archeological, historic <!~1

who, that, which (pl.) ~ll l

to

to stir

(JS~-~i) I

who, that, which (f.)

t..H

to influence (~i) II

~I

now

~I
. I

son (.~i d ~~
cousin (father's side) j..:c 0.:0 1

ruins, antiquities; effects, consequences .Jl!i

certainly, for sure


to eat

.AS I

at all i~1

~4- ~I

finally

i ~j

literature (":-' l..1i . ~) "":-'Ji

':-'J1

to nationalize (~I) ll

if ljJ

i-1

March .Jiji

mother

imam, leader of a Muslim prayer

rL..!

therefore

o.l!

nation ~1

date ; history; calendar ~.J~

t)

nationalization f"":.""'"G

Jordan oJ.)'i'l

L!J)

land, soil (.,..I)

d u"-)
U:.)

as for...

+... ....i . L.l

the Ottoman Empire 4;.~1 ~.J_,J.I.r.t-"'il


matters, affairs -"I

,.rol

conference ;.::.:;..

Annenians
rabbit ~.Ji

~)

to establish, found (~1) II

:.,..1

to hope (J.~-J..l) I

J..i

secretariat, headquarters t:.L..i

v.,..l

founding

the Umayyad state ~_,...'i'l U_,.l.ll

_,...I

on the basis of '-"'I......I ~

, ,
th at '-'' L~!

+01
UJI .w. o!
to

God willing

t\\

to be founded (~to) V
~t

folUlder

v:-:;..

foundation

t...:...{..

professor, teacher

jlj....j

500

begiMing ~~~
'

early +J.:--'\f..;~
instead of +v.,..
:,0~--.L,
'
. J.w.

_you,m.s.

oranges

it depends ("you and your luck") .1!!

, .\_,

yesterday ~J4-e

::,.;.1

you, f.s.

J..;4

man, humankind

post office ~_;.

to wait (~1) X

cold

program ~L.:...;.

only
to be happy (41) VII

female (.!.L.:.! ~) ~I
people, family J,A1
welcome, hello

;u.1

welcome to you ~ ;,...__, ;l.l

simple~

happy ..~.,......;..

Europe 4-J..;.JI
Europeans ~_,..;_,!

potatoes~

watermelon ~

hero~
stomach~

after~

first Jjl

J,l

first thing ~ Jjl

the day before yesterday

c: ..;4-- Jjl
which? ~~~

after ..AA.FL... ..AA.F~I ~

May }.~1

afternoon

_,.jaJ I ~

band ~-.~1

the day after tomorrow

fi~ ~

what

after that +d.Jj ~

what happened?

~I

~ ..;L.. ~I

also ul...S= +L&..t


-

after it, her La~

then~~

September

far~

yes

J~l

1~1

at a distance of ~ ~

some~
cowi~

the Biqaa' (Valley) t~l

tJLL

J.i.,a

grocery store

to remain Jk: (~ ' I


remaining, rest ~

B.A. U"~.i~
tomorrow ~
early 1../J~+):.;..

nonsense ~ ~ ... ~
country (J~ ~) ~

J-4

rL!J I J~

downtown ~I

the country, the homeland

petroleum, oil

(~)I

J_,~

tolookfor(~~~)I
searching~
the Mediterranean J......_,:o.ll ~'i I ~I
the Red Sea r-'1 I ~I

the Black Sea J.,....'il

~I

the Dead Sea ~I ~I


lake (little sea) i..; ~-. ':

I want to tell, speak ~~ 1.1~

local, domestic ~.FJ-4

Bulgarian

~
bus~

towant Jot

~I

toamountto, reach (+~~)I

well (..;4i d ~

todiscuss

remaining, staying .~

Greater Syria

the Babylonians ~~4-1 1

~
1./J~

to begin (l~l~) I
starting at "":"' :I ~I

elementary
0

._..:.1~1

lJ.t

501
educated~

brown

. ~)WI

girl, daughter

Tuesday

trio, three-way, three-pronged c,;~

-:

~
~

daughter of good people Jy..,JI ~

(one) third ~

daughter ofa cursed one u,..lll ~

snow

female cousin (mother's side) Jl& ~

then, after that ~~ ~


during J)b.= +. ~1

from a good family U"L:. ~

tomatoes

iJJ~

gasoline~~

Monday ~tl
secondary ~~

pants, trousers

u~

second, next v=-~

to build (~) I

the second (following) day ('.J-! v=-~


revolution i J~
rebel, revolutionary (JI~ . d

..

J.,...

41 ~

building, construction ~
(a) building ~~
door

revolutionary council J_,!. ~

'":-'4

'-:'~

gate (think of '-:'4) ~I:H


house, home ~

jacket ~4mountain (J~ - ~) ~

mountainous ~

the house has two doors ~4 ~


dormitory '-:')ll..J 1~
the Byzantines u~~~
white~l

cheese~

eggs~

grandfather ~

to sell (~4) I

grandmother ~
new~~

e!-4=t~

seller, vendor

between~

again, anew ~~ v.o

to try, experiment ( ..../~~:~) 'u


to take place (41~-(S~) I
part

(l~i

commercial 1.1J~
.>+a
under ,-.',.:-.

.~

Algeria ,;.1~I
the Comoros (islands of the moon) .,....AJI

J~

bridge~
body~
,

geography

dry~
magazine :cr?
living (sitting) room

~~~

museum ( ~1..{.. - ~) ~

....a...:.

to translate (~~) Ql

~~

translator

~~

to leave (dj.'l

October J~l ~_A.


November c.r-~
..
~.>-"'

fatigue , . .: 1

0"_,4. U_,

.!I~

tired u~

revolutionary council J_,!. ~

apples

presidency council LJ..:._J ~

that, those (f.)

to collect, gather, save (money) (~~) I

to take place, to be accomplished

to meet, congregate (~I) VIII

c.&

+db
(~)-1

db

July

meeting t t..;4-l
social c,.r~l
the Arab League ~..,._.II ~4-JI

cultural ...,...~

Friday ~I

0 . '

j;..

502
mosque ~e--4university ~4-

love

Jove~

group~~

until; in order to; even

society, organization ~~

even if _,J ,_,:...

national assembly ~.J ~


society :.

pilgrimage ~

pilgrim (f.), someone who has performed ~


the Hajj to the Muslim holy places
to reserve (~) I

total t~
group, collection ~~
camels J~

reserved~
size ~

toborder (~~'I

republic ~~

Central Africa ~_,JI ~~! ~~


Republic
Democtatic ~I~.UI ,a.:.,s.JI ~.>~
Republic of Congo

limiting~~

borders J.J.IA

until now, so far ~ ~


~

.,

'

)v

to speak ~-~.!.~.!.~

modern ..!.t.:!~

.&o!o

foreign ~t

nextto

yard, garden ~~

south":-'~

eleventh ~ lj;...

side by side, next to

to edit (.>~)II

":-';'4- ~I

soldiers J~

liberating ~~

funeral ij~

bot cr6.= .)6.

sex. gender ~

heat~

nationality ~

free~
freedom ~';..

fighting, warring

.
fighting

neighbor (1)1~ .r::) .>4-

.>~

. v-.-

good neighborliness .;I~

.
.

":-'~
,

r".'f;

hell

":-'jA>

(..u.1

neighborly

.;J4--

prizei~

":-', Jt-:....

~.;La....

passport .).:.. j

h\Dlger t~

movement ~;..

h\Dlgcy l)l.&~

respect ("

vrn

r~

'.;;7-'

Icame ~
to bring, get('=-'4-)I

cr';..

(political) party

":-'~

sad

bring! (imperative)
good

~~

arithmetic ":-'t.........
according to ~

V+

t~
~

to come (~4-1= +~4-) I

be reasonable! !~ r'~

thief

coming (active participle)

I_;..

to move (d~-<!1:,.) II
torespcct(r~r~')

~
~
~

Pound Sterling ~.,.:0.....1 ~

World War I ~_,'i14J,W1 ":-'.,.JI


civil war

!)~

crazy

accident .!.Jl.

war

beautiful~

accountant .. ; J......
toenvy (~-~)1

o.'(

..

!~

~fo~

see.>~

,.fJt

anny

503

lawyer~~

V:...l

better, the best

improving ~

neighborhood. quarter (of a city) :;.=iJ~

J_,..

to surround (~-J.~i) IV

.1._,..

good neighborliness Jl~ ~

~'if ~I

to obtain, get, earn (~~)I

the Atlantic Ocean

to try (J,~-J~~) III


condition, how one is
around

did not get

j_,..

J...- L...= ~ rJ
,

I;..

to attend (~)I

+J~

preparation ~

neighborhood J~=(t.;..l G:):;.


live:;.

cr

you(formal) ~~

toput(~)I

tobepuzzled (~)V

to memorize (~) I

station

to surround (~-J.~i) IV

U-.:.
~

party, celebration

the Wailing (Western) Wall ~I J.:.~

concert (singing party)

. ..

see .I._,..

(.:.L:.f ~

barefoot vl~

L:.~l

rights~

life ~

human rights u~~ l J~

personal life : ; , ~ ~

law school J~ ~
torule (~~)I
ruler ,.S~

government t...~ .

to inform (_;;..1) IV

state, public ~fo

to speak, to tell, narrate (~-~)I

bread, hashish and a moon .,...._i_, ~.J ~

tale, story ~~

bakery ~

to occupy (J;.a.l) VDI

service (..:.L...~ G:) t...~

occupation J~ I

to graduate (t~) V

local~

expelling, driving out G: I~!

milk~

.,

outside G:/~

the Allies .UWI

map~;..

lamb

to ally oneself (....iiW) VI

, .

.J_,;..

alliance +....l.ll..a..:.

fall (autumn) ~~

beautiful(sweet) ~=~

field of specialization ~
private, personal

sweets d-:!~

:,.ta.

especially L.~
more, most fertile ~i
fertile

...;-:a.

rL~I

arrival
red .r-i

green~~

donkey(~

vegetables J~

.G:) J~

to carry (J;-=-~) I

green(f.) . 1~

~~ ~ (-1~ d 1...:;.
airlines~~ .I.~

bathroom
thank God ill

thank God for your safe t...)I.....J I ~ ill ~I

fertility ~~

railway

civilization J~

for life ~' I..S;..


where, when, in such a way that +~

sometimes

J....-

obtaining J,.......

J~

about, approximately ~ _,1:.=._,.1

4>---

hot~~

protection ~~

0.'"

1-

S04
Damascus~;
operahouse 1.>-f~ .,IJ

depression, being low

~I
.'

low ~

.>.JJ

publishing bouse ~ ( .>.JJ . d .> IJ

during J~
,

J..o.

Ca.sa Blanca .~I .,1~1

gulf~

role J.J~

the (Arabian) Gulf ~I

country(J~ ~) u.,J
tbe Umayyad State ~.,_.'i I U .,~I

to finish ( ~) II

J.JJ

to differ, vary (~1) VIII

to last ~I=(("IJ) I

behind .IJ~

o.J~

cali p h

administration i.>IJ!

to leave, let ( c)a...=J.a.) II

administrative <j.>IJ!

may God keep them safe ~ 4lJ I

.:11'-! ~J

Thursday~l

without

beware, be careful

director, principal ~;,_.

afraid, worried

~J

to choose ( JUA.I) VIII

religious ~J

fine~

religion

city ( 0:S:.. ~) ~~

>

.>
to remember (~l: fil) I

chicken ~4-J

is mentioned, worth mentioning fi~

ticket~~

inside J,o..IJ
,

.:!J,j

~ ll

c. I J = ..;.l

~,j

to broadcast (~~Ill) IV

~,j

radio, broadcasting station ul,j!

to smoke (VO..J.:VA-J) 11

like this/that, also ~ ~


to go

entrance ~:L..

(~l d~l

for that (reason)

J,o...s

income Jl~

memory i.,SI.l
that .:.U.;

~J

the Tigris (River) ~-J

_,s:,

to enter (~J.:~) I

male

o;.J

degree~~:.

~JJ

to study (V"~J.:V".JJ) I

I,.)":.)J

secondary school ~.,.:.t!J I t -J.U. 1

d t-IJJ
~~~ (V".J~~ ~) V"-;:.

study (~IJJ

, -

teac er, mstructor .il..:...-I=~=V".,.,.

school t-.,~

bead V"IJ

.)

support~:.

V"IJ

to call for; invite (~J.:lJ) I


invitation, call (to a religion)

at the head of V" I J ~

(,..e:.

straight

president( '--i.> .~) ~~


editor-in-chief~_;;:.~~

\:C~J

<j~J

to pay (~J.:~) I

e-iJ

prime minister .I J~~ ~~

to be paid~~~

main~~

wann U:'IJ

opinion <11~

(jiJ

God~~
housewife ~ ~~
to connect, tie (~~:..~.>) I

~J

fourteen H= ~ ~)

~J

'-:'.)

to knock (J~JJ) I
minute

shop (~IS~ . ~) 0 lSJ


, .. ,
to destroy (>AJ.:.>AJ) II

~J

.JJ

:a.: l.s

physician, doctor

o. 1

~J
~J

~J

4fi,J
,>AJ

505

Wednesday -~J'~I

quarter, (one) fourth ~.>

.)

the Empty Quarter ~~I ~.,JI

...

J.....
.J

exactly ~.>J4

spring ~J

correct J.~.,;..
crowdedness

square~~

salary ~IJ

~j

to return (~ .>-:e~:.>) I

to plant, grow (t-.>~-t.>.i) I

to return (something) (~.>) II=(+~)) IV


to get back, retrieve (~~1) X

agricultural ~ 1.>)
fanner
farm (t.>l;.

t,.>';.

man (J4-.>
, c::) ~l
, .r +h'J

d ~-.>:;...

'

businessman J~l

'

cultivated crops .:..UJ.>.,;..


blue J:,jl

leg (h.>l d ~.J


to welcome (~-J) II

to be 'upset ~)
upsetu~~

leader

h:,

trip

~U=~~

u...J

cheap, inexpensive ~J
to answer ( ..;J) I

awful, lousy .:..:;)


time~.,=~j

to prosper (~~.:,1) VIII

.,

rice .i.>

~j

prosperity J lAJj!

letter (J:.L..;J .c;:) UL..._J


J- .>
humid .).:J

flowers .>,Y. ~

in spite of ~ r-i.,J I ~= ~-J

'

'

prosperous
to marry someone (to)

~J.,;..

k~.>-.rc::~~) II

t::J.i

to get married (c::~.>=a) V

to go up, increase (~JI) VIII

tlJ

d ~.)

rA J

to ride ~.>-r~J

~J

tofocus (~~~:,}n

~J

number (ru)

wife 4J~

passengers ":"~J

c:: J.>-"-'"

to visit (JJE J lj) I

.>J~

. center :j.~

visit i}-:!j
like

~J

elevation, increase t U:.>l

husband C::J~

married

to refuse, tum down (~-.>) I

~='=''j

central ~.~~~

terror, terrorism ":"LAJ!

~J

togoup, increase tL'JI= (~~-Jij)l

to go (c:J.>-rtl J) I

(.JJ

to exceed~ (~~-Jij) I

torest (~~c.I~I)X
rest t.IJ

plus, in addition to J!-1 j

see JJ..i

C:11J
sports Wa4,J

going

going to, will

math .:..(...;.4,J

~I J=:.,..
to ask (JL....)l

to rest (c.l~l) X

JJ_;.....:.

to want ( +J.;!;.-JI Jl) IV

in charge

...;.JJ
~J

rest t.IJ

responsibility ~J,;...-

see

JJ.>

JJJ

because of ~

"':"""""

feathers ~J

~ .>

Saturday ~I

sports Wa4,J

~J

..

toswim~-~

math

name of a dish ~

o.o

..::.o(...;.4J

506

May yourbandsbeblessed

~~~~~

week t.J-:0-1

the Seleucids c:,~_,L..J I

-re--

centimeter J \ . ; .
to allow (~~)I

c=.w

tolerance
dark brown
to bear

;..:...1

<e=-:e:--) I

e--

lady ::....
Mistress of All and JIJ.II ~ jJ JsJ I ::...,
~utyoftheH~
,
mosque e:-4-=< ~L.....:.. d ~
al-AqsaMosque ~'il ~I

to record ( J;...) II

to listem (~-~1) VIII

v--

registered ~
to jail (;.;.....I I

v--

don't pay c:,,_,.


~J u,_,.
e---1 e-attention ("hear from here [one eara] and let fly from here
[the other ear]
fish~

name

r-'

..

~=u-

age

was jailed +~
to withdraw

,.,.-

to name, call (~-;:,-) II

year(~ .::..1_,.:.- - ~)

.,:..-

c.rw1 ~ 1
sixth '-"',Jt......

&-

(.;.....:..:.1) VII
coastal ~t......

the High Dam

secret <I~

sandwich ~J,L......

annual

Jf-

former, previous

theater

t:.....

k ,JL.....:. -~) t~

-u.~

quickly

.:..I.,::... i~
easy J+plain, meadow (J.,;._ ,~) J+-

J+....

to take part in (~) Ill

r-+-

Saudi Arabia ~J,.-.-.1 I

(c I~ d ~

tJ-

to help (~L.....:~t......) Ill

tourism

to steal (J;...) I

help

tounstic ~4;black J,_l


Mr. ;..;....

pricingi~

..,._....

price (JlA-1 d ~
to travel (;at....) m

._,1.....

JJ-

embassy ~U:...
travel~

tJ-

to close (~fi...,) 11

J,_

J,_

sugar~

tropical v=-1~1

I.P"""

wall

see tJ-

excellency ~
Mr. ;..;....

living, resident

habitation

negative

4J(...

cr.L

Sultan, ruler c:,u...L.

J4-

salad ti.L..

>!-""'

ambulance .Jla.....l i J L.....


-

biography ~ >!-""'
political ~
control )....;....

4fi-

inhabitants c:,~

my dear sir <I~ 4

transport vehicle, truck~

~t......

.;So-

residential ~
poor, unfortunate ~

ladies and gentlemen ~Jt......J ~~~

car ).~.....

.lA..t.tl

~t...-

Syria4~

tll81'ket (JI;...t - ~)

J.,.....

sea level ~I~

t-.4;-

clock, time, hour, watch t&t......

t.,.....

fast~.,......

for a number of years

tourist

c.,....

I hope you're OK .:l:...a)l....


YI.S..HJ UJI

t.-J, ~ r~'

peace be upon you and God's blessings

to greet((~) rf...,) D
Muslim rJ.-.-

vJo..1.....
,_l-

r-l-

507
apartment

ti.!.

thanks a lot~~ i~

aff."""
...;..., IJ..J_,_....
'

don't mention it! !..,.~I_,~ i~ 'i

tea~

to form (~-~) II

young man ~W.

problem~
to take off (clothes) (~-ei-:.) I

window .:J~

northJL......!.

to resemble ( ~~1)

suitcase~

the Arabian Peninsula

handbag ~ u...:....!.
month

winter .t..:...:.

#I

tree

(Jt..;.!.t ~ d ~

to encourage (~) II

-.;+.!,

encouraging ~

famous.>~

personal

what u4 1~_,..!.
consultation .>'j....!::.

..

.,......_

see _,:...:.

to become famous (#1) VIII

fame

IV

~~I~~~~

(.>~ d ~

to become famous

February J.~

v---

intense ~~

J_,..!.

to drink ( ..,..k..,.._
.,...!.) I

to see; look for

'!_,..:.....

baked, grilled

(a)drink

police U..~

a little ~_,...!.
thing, something ~

&

>-

~~
street t .>W.
to supervise (...J.,...!-1) IV

the Chechens 0~ I

..r~

J.

policeman

something sweet ~ ~

Communist

'4~

I will be honored ...;~I


(we are) honored, pleased to meet you W~
east

J.,...!.

J_,...!.

participation .:11~1
to participate, take part ( .:J~W.) Ill

hall, hallway tJL..


to become Jt..-= (~1) IV

.:I_,..!.

company, corporation 4S_;.:.

good night! !~ ~ ~

airline

morning C:~

0 1~ ~.,...!.

the Circassians ~~I

good morning ~I C:~

to buy (cj~-<S~I) VIII

L......
.
L......

buying .l.>fo
shore, beach (~1~ d c_,..U...!.

;_,.L...!.

health-related ~

popular~

true, correct

popularity ~

friend

....,...I...

health
bonappetit! !.~_,

hair~

...

desert . 1~

poet

desert-like <.F-'1~
press, journalism u~

poetic<.!~
feeling J~

.A-

to worlc: (~-J.i.:W.I) Vlll

(~ d ~

uppennost in one's mind JW. JU,

journalist. journalistic
newspaper

(1~ c::) ~L!.

bowl ~

busy J~

(..,......:..)I

hospital u; ;, '.

to wake up

0.

<.!~

508
weak ~

bank

U..

the West Bank ~_,AJI U-.AJ1


to include (~f.:.) I

.....1a.wa

to come out, be issued (..>~..>~)I

to issue ( ..>~1) IV

issuing, publishing

to join (~1) VII

guest (...J~~)~

friend ~~~

J~

(c::,_) II

C.,-

to declare

frankly~~~

hostess~

bank ~~

...J.y-A

difficult~

I,

narrow~

issue ..>.J~

,.....

to lose (~)II

.>I~!

..>.lo.O

most difficult ~~
elevator~

level~
fresh ijU.

physician (~4-J.l

d ~

to cook ~-~I

small, young ~

while (he was) young

kitchen~

stamp

topray

Tripoli

I.J"'4.I~

J).

J~

eJL..

prayer-~

peace be upon him

J~

,J.-, ~ ill I vi-

lost and found box ..:..IJ~,11 J.J~

way, road ~).

industrialization ~

raJ-

industrytc~

children J~ ,l=JUJ.l

J&.l.

manufactured goods -=-l~

girl . - ... :=U.U.

voice -=-,-

childhood tJ.,U.

picture (..>:,:. ~) -~,....


hall, hallway tJL...

weather v-iJ.
request, ask for (..).!....:~) I

to demand (..,...J~..)u.)

m
student (~~ ~) ~U.
request, application, demand ..,..U.
to come out, go out

to shout (~-cl....} I

to become ~I:=(..>L..) I
summer~

(ello} I

to look (at) ~)V


cookingpot

el(~yl.) ll ~/,1-

fit, good, suitable

dish (J4J.l ~) ~

restaurant

:k
el-

zero~
the Crusaders v.:...
~
ll,ellj..,l
.... ...ll,ell

nature~

. ..
peaceful means ~ J~

.JA.J
class, grade

'of course~

package

page t.l...

(~l_,j. . d e-:oLJ-

...P

..

the whole time .::..1.,.1 I J_,J.

officer (J.~ d ~
the Free Officers .>I_,.'i I J.~ I

tastier, the tastiest~~

victims~

OK~

suburbs ~1.,;..

length, height J_,J.

against~

to fly, take off (..>U.) I

..>.J;.

plane i..>~.;.u.
pilot ..>4J.

necessity
to hit ("':"_,..)I

Alia' International Airport ~,JJI ~ ..>U.:.

o .A

509
golden age ~~ ~

member

toremain ~I

juice~

to appear (~~)I

capital~

to show (~..,+l;.i) IV

(.t.....i.1 ~) ~

_,...A.c

thirst~

noon _,.Ja

vacation~

to give (c.,.l.~-~1) IV

toworship (~-~)1

bones~

temple~

it was convened ( +~) I

to express (~~) II

to believe (~~1) VIII

is considered

X;:':

it is believed (that)

+J ..:.,:':

Hebrew ~~I

arrest J~l

(Ulll)

Ab~id~

mind~

to please (~1) IV

opposite~

to like (be pleased by) ~1

relationship U~

to wonder(~) V

to learn (~) V

old (person) j~

teaching, instruction, education ~

to count (~)I

scientist, scholar r:~~

number (.~1~1.~) .1~

world~~

nwnerous

grade~~

~~

scholarship, branch of knowledge ~

for a number of years ...:..~.,:.:.... i:W


.,
'/
ready, willing
~

t ~'i I ~

population (number of inhabitants) 0 15:... .1~

sociology

sciences

r.,k

biology i~l ('_,i.e


educated, literate

moderate

J~

average

r-la.:...

non-interference

. ..
teacher jl,:,_i=r-1-

-.

Ja.~ I ('~

landmarks r:~u:..

J~

j;,:..
('~

Iraq Jl_,a.ll

d ._,..;_

._,....,.c

to declare (~1) IV

to propose, offer (v"o~) I

v"-..,.c

the highest ~1

to oppose (v"oJ~) Ill

wedding (._,..l..,.c1

high~~

( ..JJA:!- ..J..,.c) 1

to know

see _,i.e

to get to know

on~

(well)-known ..J_,.>A-'"

in spite of ~.r,:.,.. ~_,.II~

as we know it, her 4J~ ~

~~
at the head of ._,..lJ ~

at a distance of

for the sake of

ethnic group J~
battle ( .:1 JU:..

oW. ~

right away J_,J. ~

~~
in any case JL.. JS ~
as you wish ~ ~

d ~;:.

J..,.c
.:1 ..>

bachelor .....~1

'-:'_i.

military 1./~

military coup t.j~ '-:'~ 1


.. . .. ,

bythe way

camp~

Peace be on him (')L..J I ~

general, public

..J..,.c

(~ ..J~) II

ru

Amman o~

o.\

honey J-.c.

J-.c.

toeatsupper (~)V

theMiddleAges~_,JI J~l

510
it depends (~)VIII

bedroom (sleeping room)(',.:. U.,

J.o.

the Gaza Strip (~ t ~

age~

invasion .J~

.J~

to work (~-J,...) I

J,...

tobecomeupset, angry J.ej=(~) I

'.'
'. 1) X
touse(~~

..lo..U

.l.ll

;ctions, works JL...&1

to close, shutdown ~(JUl) IV

c.:;u

worker ( J~ . ~) J..L

c,r~u

wrong
expensive

,
u-.

currency

from~

high prices, inflation -::J.i:.


to sing (c,t'.i~-~) II

grapes~

-l:.f

..,

singing

singer~

to them, to where they are

rich ~
.>~I

.>~

forest ~u

tocbange (~~)II

the Jordan Valley

not; other than ~

not suitable, unfit


unknown

at. to have

. when tl=...~

e:JL... ~

'-i.,.,._.

,....~

address, title (~.,t.;.:c - ~) !)I~

tomean (~~)I
in other words ~
institute~

Teacher's Institute ~ ~
~,_. J+LA

Music Institute

to return ~A .u) I
reconstruction -~ .U!
return

so, and so .J
to open, open up, conquer (~-~) I

opening up, conquest ~

shame on you ~ ~

to borrow (.>1...:0-1) X

Jesus Christ ~I~

clll;-

J.l

.,.:;.J

to look for ((~)~~)II

explosion .>4-Lo I

period (of time)

the Euphrates (River)

cooperation 4Jj.A:.

openness c~l
key

t~:r.J~

year t:.-=~

..:..1~1

individual

tolive ~-~~..;.~)I

alive;;.=~
family
theRoyaiFarnily

J;.

~UI

u:.~

..

U:.WI

eyes~~

horse ...,..-_;.
furnished ..;..,~

..;. ~

t.J~

t,_,.i

to devote one's time (t~) V

t~

branches, tributaries

dress

to depart, leave ( .)'.u.)

uU...:.

to eat lunch (~~) V

failure~

season (J_,.-l d J.-l


please, go ahead ~

lunch - I.Ji.

J.-l
J....u

Morocco ":'.,.til

truly, in fact ~

Ja.l

tolose ~~)I

.W

0'.

"':'~

west"':'~

better v.-1~1
to eat breakfast (~1) IV

departure .)Ju:.

strange

~ .,

room u~

. dining (eating) room

rt.J. U..,~1 U~

living (sitting) room ...,..,4. U~

...J~

511

poor~

Jerusalem ..,...WI
sacred, holy ...,..~

only ~ L ;';
tothink (~~)II
~

to introduce, offer (r~) II

idea~

r;U

coming

cSu

Ill 000 of a J~J ~

...,...U

ancient ~~

peasant

introduction L ~

reader +(*

Palestine~

(J:;a) II

(J i ~

...,..,U

money

how much
to settle down

~l_,.l

fruit

in front of 1::.

to decide

I X

artist

hotel J~

approximately ~I~=~~

.'

understanding

concept, idea (~U.:. . ~)

close to &-- ~.;:i=--=-~


~~

negotiations

r+a

('.,.L

..::..w.:,U:.

to suggest (c~l) Vlll

piastre (11100 of a dinar)

..;.~

village~~

in

in the eyes of ).U ~

there is, are

to be divided (r:-ll=~l) VII

use, profit (~l_,j G:) -.~u

department, part, section * ~=~

e~JL.....:i.:il

law u,.:.U

poem(~W . t)~

DomeoftheRock i~ 14J

palace ;_::.

grave, tomb ~

short~

the Holy Tomb

U...

..,..'Jill ;.ill

the Copts J.t.;,.\' I

the Gaza Strip -~ t t..t...i


tositdown ~- ~I

to welcome, receive

(~-~1)

.ul;t

reception J4b-l

.:r.

tribes J:.~

to become independent (~I) X

beforeL...~

seat

independent ~
minority

B.C.

J~ l

J.:.l

less than &-- Jli

in exchange for ~U:.

(..::..4Ul.d Q.ii

fighting Jt..:..l

military coup <i~ --=-~1

killing~

shirt~

Cairo i_,.AllJ I

When followed by the perfect, it is generally


used for affirmation or to indicate completion of
an action; when followed by the imperfect, it is
translated as "may" or "might".
maynot 'I~

coffee house, cafe (._,-Ali.. .d ~

the holiest ...,..J.Jl

law u_,.:.L.:i
the Suez Canal ~,j...J I

the Phoenicians ~ ~ e:.,: i II

story (~ d ~
economics ~I

grammar

,J';A

fava beans J_,.l

Carthage 4U.~

cat

v6_,.l

above

century (u_,_,l .G:) 0~

economic

!'+'

to understand (~ I

closer '"=' .,li

close, near

uG..a

1:;. .G:HsJL.:i
,

-.w

0"

512
the Kurds .,lfi'JI

coffee i_,.J

~I

to lead (u) I

theKa'ba ~I

leadership i~

enough <?IS
all, every JS

leader (iu . t) .LoU

discovery

everythmg

-c.r- JS.

everyone ~I .J

to say (JU) I

+J~

it is said

college~

contractor

College of Commerce, Business iJ4=o ~


Chaldeans r.:,~l~

to cost ( ....ak:...ik) II

J_..,u....

to rise, get up, be built, take (('_,.i.:('U) I


place
to undertake ( ~ .. ('_,.i.:rU) I

law school c:,,.:.ut..... J~~ ~

to resist

J~

itwassaid

JS

.,~

('~

(rfl) III

to bold; reside ( +rU1) IV

costs ~~

tospeak~~=(~~)V

t...U!
t...:,U:.

residence

rJS

resistance

talk r~

word; speech LJS

seeJ~

J I.;:.. rS

strengthening ~~
,,
,, ,
force (.::.1~ d i_,.l

how much, what is the price of? Y~.>~--

rS

strong~

Y ~I .J

rS

see.,~

as

+d

how much, how many ~-/.i&=rS


a few questions
bow many?

also, as well L.. ~=tt....s:


as we know it, her f4j.,._. L..S

also

ut....S

to complete ( j.S1) IV

as if~~

J,..s

Jl..S!

December Jj1 c:,,.:.ts:

full, completeJ,..IS

January c,.ra~ c:,,.:.ts:

completion

shoes

iJ~

to become big (;.s) I

big~

church (~t)~
ChurchoftheHolySepulcber

to write (~~)I

4.....~1 ~

the Canaanites C:,~ .<I I

book

(.~t)~

writing ( .::..~ . d ~

r.:,,S.

I bad ~~~ c:,ts:=~ c:,IS

office~

wasnotr.:,IS L..=+~rJ

library~

place (~L..1 d c:,ts::.


a certain place L.. c:,ts::.

written~~

more than

good ~_,!.
how~

what if, imagine if _,J

.&

writer ( ~~ . t) ":-';'IS

electricity -4~
to be (ukr.JIS) I

r.:,,.:.ts:

V: ~~

followed by a noun or a possessive pronoun ~~


translates as "most" or "most of'

abundance
many, plentiful

~
~

a lot, greatly

+i~

liar

~I:SS

~jS

to, for; to have, possess; because of

as such, like that, also

+.:.1.1 :IS

no

'i
O\~

513

what, that which

because

wedonothaveany- ~ L.
.-~
~
otherthan them in the house, the only ones we
have in the house

to dress, wear (~) I


clothes

water -L.

celsius~
hundred

IJ'*f:A...

yogurt~

Lebanon '-'~
.

~L.

.-..:::.,...=t:....
like~

as you know ....;_,...:; L. ~

to take refuge (~) I

4J

committee ~

to catch up with (J:O..l.:n.;;o.J) 1

JaJ

rw

butcher

for example )6:.

meat~.~

the Tawjihi exam ~,:.J 1 ula.:...l

pork~~~

(4J.l..l) VIII

butchershop ~

subject, course ~

to compose, set to music (~) n

period of time .-;..

tunes, music uWi

city (u~ d ~~
to pass (through) . (~:;.) I

composer v...L.

to extend

wearing ~'i

no less than ~ 'i L.

M.A.

0'1

Val

r) 'i

have to, must

to continue, last (;.i-1) X

until now, still

J I~

pleasant, nice ~

another time ~I! .:;.

Mercy on us! !~ 4

passing J.J;...
woman ii;..l .;:,:.

to play...,......, I

;_,..

cursed (one) u,...l.

v...J

4.J.J= ..;.

i_,..

,a.J

to become sick (~~~-;.) 1

~->-"

continuously

wife

sick

u:;..

._,11

to receive (uili) V

to meet <A-~1) VIII

area ~t....:.

meeting, interview

Christian~

not ~=J.;o
not bad

Syriac 4~4~1 Ul.JI


to give, deliver (~1) IV

~->-"

sauce

language

J~~

meeting point

.w

fl

but~

L.= ~rJ
when U

Egypt~

dialect~
~
if you please~~

was not ulS

not possible, bard to believe J_,la... ~


towalk,go (~~)I
walking~

past, last ~

rainy ~L..
rain _,J....

_,.&.....

color

not~~
why
night, evening

with; to have

u-.,J

c.J4J
~

tonight ~I

with the people V"L:J 1 t-"


together ~ t-"
the Mongols J ,a.J. I

utS:.

to be able (uC;;'.1) V

place (0L..i. t)

O\'f

not L.

L.

514

possible~

achievement .J~l

to commit suicide (~') vm

.rW

king~

toelect (~~I)Vlll

ownership ~
kingdomm..:.

1.1~

the Mamlukes ~WI

waterpipe ~).

run u4L-

election~~

to call

'

(<S.!U) III

Jjj

occasion~

to fall, land; stay (in a hotel)

(Jr.-JJ;.) I
, ,

millionu~

rainfall .).J.I J.J,j:.

for(thesakeof)

among the most ancient r~l

-t......:.

,_:.
_,.._.

to forget (~) I

to found, establish ~1=( +U.:.I) IV

U..:.

women

for a long time ul.o.)

v:

from where? ~ ~_, u,..

from which? ~~~

V:

tU.:.

climate

.J~

since :;;:_.

spreading, publishing ~

profession ~

activity J.~
'

v:

if you please ~ u,..

widespread .)_.. -... .

publication

u,..

all of it ("from its beginning LA.,.a.Y 4Jjl u,..


to its end")
again, anew ~~ V:

to publish (~)I

was published

V:
~~ 4>:

from

ratio, percentage ~
person, soul t....:..;.

vL-

water

4--=+-Lo

to die ( -=--"":!""-=-Lo) I

the middle of the night~ I u-:a

v.-a
-~
.::.~

death~;..

baDanas .)~

to be victorious ((uk) ~~') vm


over, to defeat
,
victory .)t-:.:.1

music~~

luck,lot

half

water

hundred +t:...=~

~~

to be distinguished by (~:/:' :.,) V


discrimination ~
:.

(~ d ~
'
'
on a large scale t-'-' JU...:. uk
in the ;yes of ~ vl.
area, region

.;,t..:.......

excellent

to clean ( ~-...W) II

port -~

the Nabateans .J.~~ I

J..:W

clean~
- 4 .
l:':L Jill~~~~
Palestine Liberation Organization
yeS, can I help you? ~ ~

the

same, self~
oil J.,~-J.l~.

wasexiled
~
to criticize (~-~1) VIII

~
..W

criticism ~
to move around (~) V

Ji.:.

vm
transporting Ji:.

to move, relocate (Jll:.l)

Nebucbednezzar ;.:. lao~

prophet ,;:.
toresult (~~)I

11,;::.

_;....

female (.!>L:.l .!;:) ~~

(&)I

prose
to succeed. pass (an exam)

successful ~I.:.

success cW
.

oH

515
those
~

while (he was) young

'i~

moving, relocation JU:..:.I

he.,_.

daytime .>tiriver ( J~i

.,_._,
here 0 .,_.
she~

herelam

. G.)

.,.+:.

the Orontes River ~I

Ji:.

end~

and_,
to find ( ~J) I

to face

the Tawjihi exam

deputy ~L.:.

~"

found, available, present .j~.';..

pain~:.,
( 4h-4~) V

(u+>i) IV

to end, finish

people

other people ~t!.J I '-""L.:J I

~"
~"

~.,:.

with the people '-""L.:J I ~

to sleep
bedroom (sleeping room)

rL.:.

r,.:.

r_,;. u~

face~:.,
tobecomeunited(~~)V
to unite (with) (~I) Vlll

'-""L.:.

'"=",.:.
'-"',.:.

see'"="_,;.

.lA"

April 0 ~
the Blue Nile J .>j':il J.:..:JI

union ~I
Sunday .l.:a.':il
eleventh ~ 'i.jL.

this lA ,l l.A= ~

one, anyone, someone .l.:a.l.,= ~

these days r4':t'l lA="r4':iLA

by himself .~_,J

united~;..

telephone 0_,.i.~.:.=...&:.l.A
,

.....i.:i.A

union .~:.,

(_;..LA) Ill
to attack((~) ~) I

to aim ( ...J_..Lf.:...J.l.A) I

..J.l.A

to emigrate

behind .1.),
MinistryofEducation ~a.:.JI_, ~_;.JI Jij_,

~. .)LA.

Secretary of State

.>j-'

goal ...J:U.

~.),

non-profit ~_,.11 ~I ...J~ 'i

prime minister .I.>~~~~


to weigh (o~J) I

0 j,

scale 0 1~

c.j.l.A

this (m.)

ll.A

to flee

.t...:....,l ,.J........_,

intermediate, middle, average

J,.:..,.;;::..

wide

Aa . .l.n ..- L
......
~"'......e

e::-1_,

the Golan Heights

..

reaching +J-.,:.
transportation

..::..Y.:.I;..

arrival

0!-1;..

vJ.,

national homeland v--~ ~J

job (

....u.;..

.....c.IJaJ .d

~J

'

~ .> .)A

'

..).A

rj.A

0 '/~1 ~ ~
now
+ 0 ~ 1=~

they f-A

j...Ai
importance ( ';I
Important +rLA=f"f'"

.,

'

there o.!JL.{.

o.!ll.:...\

there is, there are ~ +o.!JL.{.

national, nationalistic ~J
employee

'":"JA

more, most important

J.,-~
situation ~J

citizen

'

defeat ~;.

(~~ +J.-.r~J) 1
,

('-:-':,_.)1

fleeing '"="-';.

intermediary ~"

to reach, arrive at

gift (~1;. G.)~-;.

this (f.), these (non-human plural) lA

weight o~J
middle

JJ;._,

.j_,;j,.

'-""~

'-""~

Indians
engineer

engineering t...~

0\0

516
to promise ( .U~) I
the Balfour Declaration

JA ~~

appointed time (~1,_.

C::) ~-.;...
to agree to (~'") m
to agree (among themselves) (~1) VUI
agreement, accord ~I J~I

,.

'>

to die ,..:..L.=( ~~ V
death, passing away .:..,..=U~

time&..':,~~
to be located, fall r;l-!-r._:.~ I

eA-'

to sign (r._:.~) n
signing&~

location, site ~;..


located ~1_,

(...il_,) II .(...U_,) I

to stand, stop

~_,

v-4 ...u;..
standing ...u I_,

bus stop

or (usually used in questions) t/oi~

4. 'i _,

'i _,

to give birth ( .J~) I

.JJ_,

don't wony

to be born (.J_,.-t) Vll=(+-:J~) I


place of birth -:J-;_.

A.D. (-(") ~~J~

(("J) ~I J.:.l

B.C.

state ~'i,
the United States

~' ..::.4'i;l

c.r,

the Vaudals c:,~IJ.i_,JI

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Credits
Cover design by Weonyoung Joy Lee (Classroom: copyright 199 L by George
Baramki Azar, Minarets of Cairo: John Feeney, Saudi Aramco World/PADIA);
San'aa: Jom Heise; Makka: Ali Mansuri; Baghdad: Roger McLassus; Beirut:
Robysan, German Wikipedia; Amman: Gary Jones; Jerusalem: Wayne McLean;
Cairo: Martin Steiger; Tunis: BishkekRocks; Algiers: Damien Boilley; Casablanca:
Jaak.ko Sakari Reinikainen; Bourguiba: Goverment of Tunisia; Rafik Hariri: French
Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Mahmoud Darwish: Avi Katz