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Apart from the states of the system, the ESO can also estimate (a) Uncertainty in the states, (b) Non-linearities in the system and (c) External disturbances. These uncertainties, non-linearities and external disturbances are treated as the total uncertainty or disturbance. Formulation 2. Consider an n-th order single-input-single-output (SISO) dynamical system represented by _____________________________(1) ________________________________________(2) Where

is the coefficient matrix of the modelled part of states, is the matrix for uncertainty in states, is the coefficient matrix for modelled part of input is the uncertainty in input, is the coefficient matrix for output, w(t) is the external disturbance.= 3. Equation (1) can be rewritten as ____________________________(3)

where 4.

is called the total disturbance. Now, define an extended state _________________________________(4)

and

__________________________________(5)

Thus equation (3) can be rewritten as ______________________(6) ___________________________________(7) where

Design of Observer 6. Condition for Observability. Let the observer be of the form

____________________(8) ________________________________(9) where L is the observer gain and _______________________________(10) Substituting equations (7) and (9) in (10) gives _________________________(11) Subtracting equation (8) from (6) and denoting __________________________(12) The observer error dynamics can be expressed as __________________(13) Using equation (11)and (12), the above equation can be rewritten as __________________(14)

For a special case of h=0, the pair is observable. Thus it can be inferred that for cases where rate of change of uncertainty asymptotically reduces to zero, the pair is always observable. We now choose the observer gain as _____________________(15) such that the observer dynamics is stable and has the desired transient behaviour. In this case, the error, eo, will go to zero asymptotically, i.e., . This will ensure that . 7. To be more specific, the generalised form of the observer can be expressed as

..........

____________________(16) ________________________________(17) where gi(e) can be a linear function or a non-linear function. In case gi(e)is a linear function then it is equated to e itself. In case gi(e)is chosen to be non linear function, it has been selected heuristically based on experimental results as

_________(18) Note:- In case of only one output,

and

. Similarly,

and

.

Design of Control Law 8. Condition for Controllability. The controller to be designed is taken as a pole-placement controller of the form ______________________________(19) where . Substituting for u in equation (6) gives __________________(20)

__________________(21) For special case of h=0, the pair is controllable. Thus for all cases of h

reasonably small, the pair is always controllable and the above poleplacement controller with gains K can be used in the feedback loop to achieve a desired stable transient behaviour. 9. Observer-Controller Structure. In order to use the ESO estimated states in the controller the choice of u is made as ______________________________(22) where the controller gains, K, are designed using pole-placement as ________________________(23) 10. Corollary. Consider a second order pole placement problem were the poles have to be placed as per the characteristic equation ____________________________(23) ______________________(24) Equation (22) can be represented in the form of the coefficient matrix given by ________________(25) For pole-placement, the controller gains have to be chosen such that __________________________(26) where

or _________________________(27) Thus, the control law given by equation (22) can be rewritten as ____________________(28) 11. In case of a tracking problem (regulator), the control law can be written as ______________(29) where Conclusion are the desired values of x.

12. This Extended State Observer has been found to be more robust and superior in performance in comparison to other observers like high gain observer, and sliding mode observer.[2].

[1] S.E. Talole and S.B. Phadke, ”Robust Missile Autopilot Design using Extended State Observer”, in Proc. International Conference on Avionics Systems,(RCI, Hyderabad, India),pp.68-74, Feb 2008. [2]W. Wang and Z. Gao, “A comparison study of advanced state observer design techniques,” in Proc. of the American Control Conference, (Denver, Colarado, USA), pp. 4754–4759, June 2003.

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