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21N9303SJ

IIIIIIIIIIII
MGM
23 13007567

OF

EXPERIMENTAL

INVESTIGATION

CONDENSATION

HEAT TRANSFER IN

MICROCHANNELS

A thesissubmittedby
QIAN SU

for thedegreeof
in partfulfilment of therequirements
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

in the

School of Engineering and Materials Science


Queen Mary, University of London
Mile End Road

London, El 4NS
UK

2007

Abstract

The thesis describes experiments aimed at measurement of heat-transfer


coefficients for condensationin a multi micro channel tube. Experiments were
performed with steam and R113, fluids chosen to cover a wide range of
thermophysicalproperties,in particular, surfacetension which plays an important
role during condensationin small, non-circular channels.
The aluminum extruded condenser tube used had cooled length 748 mm and 13
parallel channels each with height 1.38 mm and width 1.41 mm. The upper and
lower outer surfaces were cooled separately by water in counter flow in channels
above and below the test tube. The mass flow rates in the two channels were
adjusted to be the same. Coolant temperatures were measured at 17 positions
along each of the coolant channels as well as at inlet and exit. An accurate direct
inlet-to-outlet
the
of
overall
coolant temperature difference was also
measurement
junction
directly
10
with
a
measured

thermopile for each of the two coolant

streams with junctions downstream of mixers. Temperatures of the condenser tube


wall were measured at 10 positions on each of the upper and lower surfaces using
embedded thermocouples. Temperatures and pressures of the vapour were
in
measured chambers at the inlet and outlet of vapour stream. Pressures were also
in
just
the
condenser
channels
upstream and just downstream of the
measured
cooled section.

Data have been obtainedfor caseswhere the vapour was saturated(for both steam
and R113) at inlet. Runs were made for complete and incomplete condensation
within the tube.
Earlier investigations are critically reviewed and seen to exhibit wide scatter and

disagreement.For reasons which will become clear in the thesis, the present
be
unfortunately,
cannot,
claimed to have superior accuracy and generally
results
fall within the ranges of earlier data. A new and innovative test section has been
designedand will be usedin forthcoming experiments.

-2-

Acknowledgements

I wish to expressmy sinceregratitude to my supervisorProfessorJohn W Rose,


for his guidance, supervision and encouragement during the course of this
researchproject. I am particularly grateful to QueenMary, University of London
who provide me the studentshipduring my study. Without the studentshipit were
impossible for me to carry on this work.
I would like to give my specialthanks to Dr. HuashengWang for his endlesshelp,
useful discussions and important advice for my work.

I would also like to expressmy appreciation for the assistanceprovided by the


technical staff of the Department of Engineering, in particular to Mr. M. Collins,
Mrs. J. Ma and Mr. C. Straw for their tireless efforts in modifying and
maintaining the experimentalapparatus.
I wish to extend my gratitude to my colleagues and friends at QMUL. Special
thanks go to Dr. G. X. Yu, Mrs. J. Hefford, Dr. Y. J. Chen, Dr. H. X. Yan, Dr. W.
Z. Xiang, Takahiro, Satesh and Srinivas for their kindness, friendship, advice and
encouragement.

Finally, I wish to thank and dedicate this thesis to my mother, father, sister and
Zhijia for their never ending love, support and encouragement,without which I
could never have accomplished so much.

-3-

Contents
Title Page

Abstract

Acknowledgements

Contents

Nomenclature

List of Tables

13

List of figures

15

Chapter 1

Introduction

23

Chapter 2

Literature

25

Review

2.1 Introduction

25

2.2 Indirect measurement of vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient

30

2.3 Direct measurement of vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient

34

2.4 Correlationsand models

44

2.4.1 Yan and Lin (1999) correlation

44

2.4.2 Wang et al. (2002) correlation

45

2.4.3 Koyama et al. (2003b) correlation

48

2.4.4 Bandhaueret al. (2005) model

49

2.4.5 Cavallini et al. (2005) model

52

2.4.6 Wang and Rose (2005) model

53

-4-

Contents

2.5 Comparisonof correlationsand models

56

2.6 Conclusions

58

Chapter 3

Aim and Scope of the Present Investigation

70

Chapter 4

Apparatus and Instrumentation

72

4.1 Apparatus

72

4.1.1 General layout

72

4.1.2 Test section

73

75

4.2 Instrumentation
4.2.1 Evaporator heaterpower

75

4.2.2 Coolant heaterpower

75

4.2.3 Coolant flow rates

75

4.2.4 Temperatures

76

4.2.5 Coolant temperaturerise

76

4.2.6 Pressure

77

4.2.7 RegulatedAC/DC adapter

77

4.2.8 Working fluid and coolant pumps

77

4.2.9 Data acquisition system

78

Chapter 5

90

Experimental Procedure

5.1 Preliminary tests

90

5.2 Procedure for tests with pure refrigerant R-113

90

5.3 Procedurefor testswith pure steam

92

Chapter 6

Observations and Results

-5-

93

Contents

93

6.1 Observations
6.1.1 Measured quantities

93

6.1.2 Derived quantities

94

99

6.2 Results
6.2.1 Heat-transferrate to coolant

99

6.2.2 Vapour massflux to channels

100

6.2.3 Vapour-side heat flux

105

6.2.4 Vapour-sideheat-transfercoefficient

105

Chapter 7

Summary of Results and Discussion

155

Chapter 8

Preliminary Design of New Test Section

158

Chapter 9

Conclusion

165

Appendix A

Thermophysical Properties of Water and


166

Saturated Steam

A. 1 Nomenclatureused in Appendix A

166

A. 2 Propertiesof water substance

166

A. 3 Propertiesof saturatedsteam

168

Appendix B

171

Calibrations

B. 1 Calibration of thermocouples

171

B. 2 Calibration of the current and voltage transformers

175

B.2.1 Calibration of current transformers

175

B.2.2 Calibration of voltage transformers

175

-6-

Contents

178

Appendix C

Uncertainty Analysis

Appendix D

Coolant Mixing Cylinder and Dissipative


Frictional Temperature Rise in Coolant

182

D. 1 Coolant mixing cylinder

182

D.2 Dissipative frictional temperaturerise in coolant

183

Appendix E

Critical Heat Flux Analysis

Appendix F

Test Section End Mixing Chambers,


Pressure Tappings and Water Jacket

Appendix G

192

Correction for "Reflux Heat Loss" between


Evaporator and Test Section

Appendix H

190

199

Heat Balance for Test Section for R-113


Tests with Complete Condensation

200

Appendix I

Estimation of Steam Leakage Rate

202

Appendix J

Heat Balance for Test Section for R-113

204

J.1 Nomenclatureused in Appendix J

205

J.2 Resultsof R-113 tests

206

J.3 Resultsof steamtests

214

218

References

-7-

Nomenclature
A

area

A,,

outer cooling areaof the test tube

A, i

inner heat-transferareaof the test tube

A.

crosssection areaof one channel

Bo

Boiling number

cP

specific isobaric heat capacity

Cl

constantin thermocouplecalibration equation(equation (B. 1))

C2

constantin thermocouplecalibration equation(equation (B. 1))

C3

constantin thermocouplecalibration equation(equation (B. 1))

d, De

diameteror hydraulic diameter

thermo-emf reading from thermocouples

ei

thermo-emf reading from the coolant inlet thermocouple

entrainmentratio

friction factor

zero transpiration friction factor

jo

functionof 0.

Fr

Froude number

specific force of gravity

Ga

Galileo number

massflux

hfg

specific enthalpy of evaporation

width

H(e)

function of void fraction (equation (2.25))

current flowing through heater

E heater

superficial velocity

surfaceroughness

KL

heat loss constant (equation (G. 1))

L'
L

dimensionlesscharacteristicdimension, defined by equation(E.3)


length

in

massflow rate

-8-

Nomenclature

Mleak

leakagerate at the inlet mixing chamber

mv,ey.(6,5)

original vapour mass flow rate given by equation (6.5)

mv,,
(6.6)
eq.

vapour massflow rate from the heat balancegiven by equation (6.6)

Mkak

leakage
rate given by equation(6.9)
average

number of effective channels

Nu

Nusselt number

P, p

pressureor perimeter

P.

reducedpressure

PI

vapour pressureat the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

P2

vapour pressureat the inlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

P3

vapour pressureat the outlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

Ph

phase change number

Pr

Prandtl number

heat flux

critical heat flux

power

QB

power dissipatedin the evaporatorheaters

QC

heat-transferrate to the coolant

QL

heat loss rate from the apparatus

vapour-sideheat-transferrate

radius or resistance

radial polar coordinate (seeFig. 2.20)

re

radius of curvature of the condensatesurface in the channel cross


section (seeFig. 2.20)

r;

distance from origins O1,02 to vapour-liquid interface (see Fig.


2.20)

rte,

radius of curvature of channel surface in the channel cross section


(seeFig. 2.20)

Re

Reynolds number

Si

perimeter of the vapour-liquid interface in channel cross section

T, t

temperature

T,

ambient temperature

TCPI

temperature of condensate returning to evaporator

-9-

Nomenclature

Tl

temperatureat the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

TS(PI)

saturation temperature corresponding to measured pressure Pl at

the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)


Ta(PZ)

saturationtemperaturecorrespondingto measuredvapour pressure


P2 at the inlet pressure tapping (see Fig. 6.1)

T2

temperatureat the outlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

TB(P3)

saturation temperature corresponding to measuredpressureP3 at


the outlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

U, u

velocity

friction velocity

voltage of the power input

V.

output in volts of the current and voltage transformers

volume flow rate

x, y

coordinatesalong and normal to channelsurface(seeFig. 2.20)

X, Y

fixed coordinatesdefined in Fig. 2.20

XR

arbitrary variable (equation (C. 1))

Xit

Lockhart-Martinelli parameter

length scale(used for film thickness)

coordinatedown stream

Greek symbols

heat-transfer coefficient

ft

constant in equation (B. 3)

8xR

uncertainty

Ae

thermo-emf read from the ten junction thermopile for coolant


temperaturerise

AT

temperaturedifference

ATS

coolant temperaturerise

ATS,

log-meantemperaturedifference

density

thermal conductivity

Ad

Taylor instability wavelength, defined by equation(E.4)

-10-

Nomenclature

dynamic viscosity

kinematic viscosity

or

surfacetension

vapour massquality
frictional two-phasemultiplier factor
"loss coefficient" for a single abrupt contraction
void fraction
surfacetension parameter(equation (2.42))
condensatefilm thickness

angle, polar co-ordinate (seeFig. 2.20)


streamwiseinterfacial shearstress

yr

angle between the normal of channel surface and Y coordinate (see


Fig. 2.20)

Superscript

non-dimensionalturbulent parameter

Subscripts

anul

annular flow

bottom

free convection condensationterm

coolant

end

end of the effective condensationlength

eq

equivalent all-liquid

frictional

forced convection condensationterm

gas

interface

in

inlet

L, I

liquid

LO

liquid phasewith total flow

-11-

Nomenclature

mean

max

maximum

mix

mixing chamber

out

outlet

R, r

refrigerant

saturation

strat

stratified flow

top

tap

pressuretapping

TP

two-phasemixture

vapour

wall

-12-

List of Tables
Table 2.1

Condensation heat transfer experimental investigations


26

inside plain and finned minichannels


Table 2.2

Channellength over which vapour quality fell from 0.95


58

to 0.05
Table 6.1

EstimatedA2 and n for preliminary steamtests

103

Table 6.2

EstimatedA2, n and n' for steamtests

103

Table 6.3

EstimatedA2, n and n' for R-1 13 tests

104

Table 7.1

Rangesof G, q and a

155

Table B. 1

Temperature ranges covered during calibration runs

172

Table B. 2

Calibration of thermocouples: values of Cl, C2 and C3

used in equation(B. 1)

173

Table B. 3

Calibration test results for current transformers

175

Table B.4

Calibration test results for voltage transformers

176

Table C. 1

Uncertainty in the heat-transferrate to coolant for steam


180

tests
Table C.2

Uncertainty in the heat-transferrate to coolant for R-113


181

tests
Table D. 1

Results of test run to determine frictional temperaturerise


184

of coolant
Table H. 1

Heat

balance for

test

section (complete R-113


201

condensationtests)
Table I. 1

m,,,eq.
(6.5)9mV,eq.
(6.6) and ml A

for

all

of

complete

condensation steam tests

202

Table J.1

Measuredvapour-sidedata for R-1 13 tests

206

Table J.2

Measuredcoolant-side data for R- 113 tests

207

Table J.3

Measuredtop wall temperaturesfor R-113 tests

208

Table J.4

Measuredbottom wall temperaturesfor R-1 13 tests

209

Table J.5

Measuredtop coolant temperaturesfor R-113 tests

210

Table J.6

Measuredbottom coolant temperaturesfor R-113 tests

211

Table J.7

Derived vapour-side quantities for R- 113 tests

212

Table J.8

Derived coolant-side quantities for R-113 tests

213

-13-

List of Tables

Table J.9

Measuredvapour-sidedata for steamtests

214

Table J. 10

Measured coolant-side data for steam tests

214

Table J.11

Measuredtop wall temperaturesfor steamtests

215

Table J.12

Measuredbottom wall temperaturesfor steamtests

215

Table J.13

Measuredtop coolant temperaturesfor steamtests

216

Table J.14

Measuredbottom coolant temperaturesfor steamtests

216

Table J.15

Derived vapour-sidequantities for steamtests

217

Table J.16

Derived coolant-sidequantities for steamtests

217

-14-

List of figures
Fig. 2.1

Photographsof the test tubes (Yang and Webb (1996))

60

Fig. 2.2

Cross-sectionview of test section (Yang and Webb (1996))

60

Fig. 2.3

Photographsof the test tubes (Kim et al. (2000))

60

Fig. 2.4

Photographsof the test tubes (Webb and Ermis (2001))

61

Fig. 2.5

Test tube with louvered fin D1 = 1.46 mm (Wang et al.


(2002))

61

Fig. 2.6

Test tube and test section (Bandhaueret al. (2005))

62

Fig. 2.7

Schematicof the test facility (Bandhaueret al. (2005))

62

Fig. 2.8

(a) Schematicof the test section; (b) Cross-sectionview of


locations of thermocouples (Yan and Lin (1999))

Fig. 2.9

Schematic of a TEC test section in cross-section(Baird et


63

al. (1999))
Fig. 2.10

63

Details of test tube, test section and test rig (Cavallini et al.
(2003,2004))

64

Fig. 2.11

Photographsof the test tubes (Koyama et al. (2003a,b))

65

Fig. 2.12

Schematicof the test section (Koyama et al. (2003a,b))

65

Fig. 2.13

Distribution of temperature, pressure, heat flux, heattransfer coefficient and quality: (a) Tube type B at G= 270
kg/m2s;(b) Tube type B at G= 650 kg/m2s(Koyama et al.
66

(2003a,b))
Fig. 2.14

Photograph of flattened tube cross sections (Wilson et al.

(2003))

66

Fig. 2.15

Schematics of the test section (Shin and Kim (2004))

66

Fig. 2.16

Schematicof the test rig (Cavallini et al. (2006))

67

Fig. 2.17

Details of the coolant flow passage geometry (f is fin


thickness, c is the flow passagewideth, a is the distance
between two thermocouples in the water and in the wall)
(Cavallini et al. (2006))

Fig. 2.18

67

Saturation,wall and water temperatureduring condensation


of R134a in a circular 0.96 mm inside diameter
microchannel at G= 278 kg/m2s (Cavallini et al. (2006))

-15-

67

List of figures

Fig. 2.19

Comparison between experimental data and the present


correlation (a) Tube type A, (b) Tube type B (Koyama et al.

68

(2003b))
Fig. 2.20

Physical

model

and

coordinates

for

horizontal

microchannels(Wang and Rose (2005))


Fig. 2.21

68

Dependence of vapour-side heat-transfer coefficients on


local vapour mass quality and mass fluxes (comparison
results by available correlations)

Fig. 2.22

69

Approximate experimental ranges of mass flux and vapour-

side heat-transfercoefficient (summarisedfrom Table 2.1)

69

Fig. 4.1

Schematicof test rig

79

Fig. 4.2

Test rig set up (before insulation)

80

Fig. 4.3

Test rig set up (after insulation)

80

Fig. 4.4

Details of vapour inlet mixing chamber, pressuretapping


81

and test section inlet


Fig. 4.5

Cross section of test section showing the water jacket and


82

microchanneltube
Fig. 4.6

Photograph of outside and inside view of identical upper


and lower parts of nylon water jacket

Fig. 4.7

83

Photograph of nylon side supports of microchannel tube


with thermocouples

83

Fig. 4.8

Thermocouples installation in coolant channels

84

Fig. 4.9

Thermocouples installation

in the upper and lower tube

surfaces

85

Fig. 4.10

Cross section of condensertube

86

Fig. 4.11

Circuit diagram showing power distribution to heaters in


main test rig

86

Fig. 4.12

Arrangementof thermocouplejunctions

87

Fig. 4.13

Wiring arrangementfor 10junction thermopile (4 junctions


88

shown)
Fig. 4.14

Details of coolant mixing cylinder and position of


89

thermopile tube
Fig. 6.1

Schematicof the test section

-16-

107

List of figures

Fig. 6.2

Photographof the test tube

Fig. 6.3

Photograph of the test tube used for preliminary

107
tests in

107

2005
Fig. 6.4

Run No. R-la, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m, = 1.46 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.5

108

Run No. R-lb, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 1.48 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.6

109

Run No. R-2a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces"and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 1.49 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.7

110

Run No. R-2b, R113: Temperature distribution along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


flow rate m =1.47 x 10"3kg/s
Fig. 6.8

111

Run No. R-3a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 1.45 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.9

112

Run No. R-3b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 1.49 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.10

113

Run No. R-4a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

flow rate m = 1.46 x 10-3kg/s


Fig. 6.11

114

Run No. R-4b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 1.45 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.12

115

Run No. R-5a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.01 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.13

116

Run No. R-5b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.03 x 10-3kg/s

-17-

117

List of figures

Fig. 6.14

Run No. R-6a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m=2.02

Fig. 6.15

x10"3kg/s

118

Run No. R-6b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.05 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.16

119

Run No. R-7a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.01 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.17

Run No. R-7b, R113: Temperature distribution along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


flow rate m = 2.02 x 10-3kg/s
Fig. 6.18

126

Run No. R-10b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.52 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.24

125

Run No. R-10a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.51 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.23

124

Run No. R-9b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.45 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.22

123

Run No. R-9a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.53 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.21

122

Run No. R-8b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.05 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.20

121

Run No. R-8a, R113: Temperature distribution along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


flow rate m = 1.98 x 10-3kg/s
Fig. 6.19

120

127

Run No. R-11a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.50 x 1073kg/s

-18-

128

List of figures

Fig. 6.25

Run No. R-11b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

flow rate m = 2.37 x 10-3kg/s


Fig. 6.26

129

Run No. R-12a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.50 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.27

130

Run No. R-12b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.48 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.28

131

Run No. R-13a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.97 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.29

132

Run No. R-13b, R113: Temperature distribution along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


flow rate m = 2.97 x 10-3kg/s
Fig. 6.30

133

Run No. R-14a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.90 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.31

134

Run No. R-14b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.93 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.32

135

Run No. R-15a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

flow rate m = 2.85 x 10"3kg/s


Fig. 6.33

136

Run No. R-15b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.93 x 10-3kg/s

Fig. 6.34

Run No. R-16a, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.91 x 10"3kg/s

Fig. 6.35

137

138

Run No. R-16b, R113: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 2.89 x 10-3kg/s

-19-

139

List of figures

Fig. 6.36

Run No. S-la, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

140

flow rate m = 1.46 x 10'4kg/s


Fig. 6.37

Run No. S-lb, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
141

flow rate m = 3.23 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.38

Run No. S-2a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
142

flow rate m = 2.14 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.39

Run No. S-2b, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and ,in coolant channels, vapour mass
143

flow rate m = 3.15 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.40

Run No. S-3a, steam: Temperature distribution along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


144

flow rate m = 2.07 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.41

Run No. S-3b, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
145

flow rate m = 1.92 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.42

Run No. S-4a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
146

flow rate m = 3.13 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.43

Run No. S-5a, steam: Temperature distribution

along the

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

flow rate m = 3.11 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.44

147

Run No. S-6a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 3.75 x 10 kg/s

Fig. 6.45

148

Run No. S-7a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 4.38 x 10-4kg/s

Fig. 6.46

149

Run No. S-7b, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 4.28 x 10-4kg/s

-20-

150

List of figures

Fig. 6.47

Run No. S-8a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass

Fig. 6.48

flow rate m = 5.51 x 10-4kg/s


Run No. S-8b, steam: Temperature distribution along the

151

test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass


152

flow rate m = 5.24 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.49

Run No. S-9a, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
153

flow rate m = 5.69 x 10-4kg/s


Fig. 6.50

Run No. S-9b, steam: Temperature distribution along the


test tube surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass
flow rate m = 5.66 x 10-4kg/s

154

Fig. 7.1

Vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient (R-1 13 tests)

156

Fig. 7.2

Vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient (steam tests)

156

Fig. 7.3

Approximate experimental ranges of mass flux and vapour-

data
blue
heat-transfer
The
marked
and
coefficient.
red
side
represent the present work

for

R-1 13 and steam

respectively.

157

Fig. 8.1

Schematicof test tube

159

Fig. 8.2

Details of upper part of test tube

159

Fig. 8.3

Details of pressuretapping in upper part of test tube

160

Fig. 8.4

Details of thermocoupleholes in upper part of test tube

160

Fig. 8.5

Details of lower part of test tube

161

Fig. 8.6

Details of thermocoupleholes in lower part of test tube

161

Fig. 8.7

Details of inlet mixing chamber

162

Fig. 8.8

Details of outlet mixing chamber

162

Fig. 8.9

Details of water jacket

163

Fig. 8.10

Details of enlarged view of water jacket and microchannel


tube

163

Fig. 8.11

Details of identical upper/lower part of water jacket

163

Fig. 8.12

Details of enlargedview of upper/lower part of water jacket

164

Fig. 8.13

Details of test section assembly

164

Fig. B. 1

Sketch of the temperaturecalibration equipment (HETO)

177

-21-

List offigures

Fig. D. 1

Details of coolant mixing cylinder and position of


thermopile tube

185

Fig. D. 2

Details of purposebuilt test rig for coolant mixing cylinder

186

Fig. D. 3

Details of coolant mixing cylinder used in the purposebuilt


test rig

187

Fig. D. 4

Temperatureprofile acrossinlet to mixer

188

Fig. D. 5

Temperatureprofile acrossoutlet from mixer

188

Fig. D. 6

Temperatureprofile acrossinlet to mixer

189

Fig. D. 7

Temperature profile across outlet from mixer

189

Fig. F. 1

Photographof inlet mixing chamber

193

Fig. F.2

Details of inlet and exit mixing chambers

194

Fig. F.3

Photographof pressuretapping

195

Fig. F. 4

Details of pressure tapping

196

Fig. F.5

Pressuretapping slot on microchanneltube

196

Fig. F.6

Details of upper and lower parts of water jacket

197

Fig. F.7

Details of side supportsof water jacket

198

Fig. J.1

Schematicof the test section

204

-22-

Chapter 1
Introduction

Microchannel tubes have been used for around 20 years in small condensers of
in
for
They
consideration
wider
use
are
now
under
air-conditioners.
motor vehicle
larger scale applications. For the small condensers, development has been on a
trial-and-error

empirical

basis which

Considerable

attention

has

is not suitable for larger equipment.

recently

been

directed

towards

theoretical

understanding of the condensation process in small channels and to fundamental


experimental investigations.

The number of available experimental heat transfer data during condensation


inside microchannels is limited, and most are for one fluid only, namely R134a.
Most of vapour-side data have been obtained from overall measurements using a
"Wilson plot" technique, which gives high uncertainty values for the heat-transfer
coefficients. In the case of direct measurements of vapour-side heat-transfer
it
is
bounds
to
easy
not
claimed
of
error
are
probably
since
optimistic
coefficient,
quantify the accuracy of measurements of local surface and vapour temperatures

and heat fluxes.


In the present experimental study, steam and refrigerant R-113 were chosen as
Atest
fluids
different
to
their
thermophysical
owing
widely
properties.
working
in
fabricated.
designed
Steam
R-113
an
and
or
vapour was generated
rig was
The
horizontal
tube.
through
and
passed
a
multi microchannel
evaporator
hydraulic diameter of the rectangular channels was 1.36 mm. The effective
in
length
748
The
test
section
was
mm.
cooling water entered the
condensing
below
the
two
through
rectangular
cross-section
and
channels
above
counterflow
10
The
tube
and
temperatures
and
cooling
at
tube.
wall
test
water
were measured
17 locations along the test section respectively. For each location, measurements
10
bottom.
To
the
top
and
measure the tube wall temperatures,
were made at
thermocouples were embedded in each of the upper and lower surfaces of the wall,
inserted
into each of the top and bottom coolant
17
thermocouples
were
while
inlet
Vapour
and exit pressures and temperatures were also measured
channels.

-23-

Chapter 1

together with the pressuredrop along the test condensertube. Specially designed
coolant mixing cylinders were used to ensureaccuratemeasurementof mean inlet
and exit coolant temperaturesfrom which the total heat-transfer rate was also
determined.

Unfortunately,

the results obtained in the present study are not as accurate as

intended and expected. This was primarily due to the vapour leakage at inlet to the
test condenser tube for steam tests and maldistribution among the channels which,
at the conclusion of the investigation, were found to be partially blocked by
deposits at the entry for both steam and R-113 tests. Owing to the time restriction,
it was not possible to rebuild a new test section. Effort

was made when

interpreting the results to correct for both deficiencies. The results are broadly in
line with the earlier, widely spread data.

A significant contribution of the current study is in highlighting uncertainties in


the earlier experimental investigations. Problems in design of an apparatusfor
study of condensation in microchannels have been revealed and methods to
have
been proposed.A new test section has been designedin the
them
overcome
courseof the presentwork and this will be built and testedin a subsequentstudy.

-24-

Chapter 2
Literature

Review

2.1 Introduction

Heat transfer in microchannelshas received increasing attention in recent years.


There are as yet no reliable or accepted models for use in design. Successful
application over the past 20 years or so in motor vehicle air conditioners have
beenbasedon empirical trial-and-error methods.Part of the problem is the lack of
reliable experimental data which this thesis aimed to address. Relatively few
experimental studies of this problem have been made to date and, as discussed
below, these are susceptible to large uncertainties. This section of the thesis is
devoted primarily

to

discussion of

earlier

experimental heat-transfer

measurementsfollowed by a brief outline of proposedcorrelationsand attemptsto


model the process.
Table 2.1 summarisesexperimentalinvestigations over the past ten years.In many
from
inferred
heat-transfer
the
works
condensing
side
earlier
of
coefficients were
overall (vapour-to-coolant) measurements using either predetermined coolant-side
forms
or
various
of so-called "Wilson Plot" techniques. Where the
correlations
heatis
in
thermal
this
resistance
relatively
small, as
vapour-side
case, vapour-side
transfer coefficients found by these methods are subject to very large uncertainty.
As may be seen from Table 2.1, all of the data (except one investigation) relate to
fluid
that
the
so
range
of
properties is relatively limited preventing
refrigerants
been
More
have
investigations
testing
of
models.
recently,
experimental
rigorous
made in which the tube wall temperature has been measured and attempts to
determine local heat-transfer coefficients

by measuring local heat fluxes and

local
vapour temperatures. Measurements have generally been made
of
estimation
using multi microchannel tubes with the possibility of maldistribution of vapour
among the parallel channels. The various investigations and results obtained are
discussed in detail below.

-25-

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Chapter 2

2.2 Indirect measurement of vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient


Yang and Webb (1996)
Yang and Webb (1996) made measurements for R12 using two multi channel
tubes as illustrated in Fig. 2.1. The tubes with total length 508 mm (active cooled
condensing length 455 mm) were located in a water jacket as indicated in Fig. 2.2
and cooled in counter flow. Cooling water and vapour inlet and exit temperatures
and mass flow rates were measured. The coolant-side, heat-transfer coefficient
was enhanced by wrapping fine wire around the outside surface and was obtained
using a `modified Wilson plot as described by Farrell et al. (1991)'. Detail of this
is
not given; neither is the magnitude of the so-determined, water-side
procedure
coefficients which were used with the overall measurements to extract the mean
(over the tube length) vapour-side coefficients by subtraction of resistances.
Wilson

plot

methods are notoriously

dangerous (see Rose (2004)), when

determine
to
the values of the coefficients. In this case there must be
attempting
doubt regarding the form of the dependence of the coolant-side, heat-transfer
coefficient on flow rate for flow over a flattened tube with wire wrap. The authors
also note that the coolant temperature rise had to be more than 1K to be measured
with sufficient accuracy so that the coolant flow rate was limited.

Flow rates are

but
it
seems that the coolant flow may have been in the laminar or
not reported
transition regime and it was apparently in laminar flow (see Kim et al. (2003) who
used the same test section). In the former case special precautions are needed to
obtain an accurate mixed mean temperature (none is mentioned) and in the latter
case a true mixed mean temperature cannot be obtained (see Fujii (1992) and Rose
(2004)). Apart from the accuracy of the water-side coefficients, of particular
importance when obtaining vapour-side coefficients by subtraction of resistances,
are the relative magnitudes of the vapour and coolant-side coefficients which are
it
is
However,
probable that, notwithstanding the external wire wrap,
not given.
the coolant-side

resistance was

significantly

higher

and the vapour-side

coefficients therefore subject to large uncertainty. Furthermore, as will be seen, in


investigations
later
using similar experimental arrangements, the
several
distribution of coolant over the upper and lower surfaces of the tube have been
found to differ substantially unless special means are adopted. In view of the

-30-

Chapter 2

(but
in
the
the
estimate
remarks,
quoted
not
substantiated)
uncertainty
above
vapour-side coefficient of 10.6% seems grossly optimistic. The reported
condensing-side,heat-transfercoefficients (values given in Table 2.1) were higher
for the micro-finned microchannels and increased with both vapour mass flux
(massvelocity) and inlet vapour massquality as expected.
Kim et al. (2000)
Using the same test rig as that of Yang and Webb (1996), Kim et al. (2000)
conducted measurementsfor condensationof R22 using the channels shown in
Fig. 2.3. The samedata reduction method as that used by Yang and Webb (1996)
was used to obtain the vapour-side heat-transfercoefficient so that the results are
subject to the sameuncertainties as discussedabove. They reported vapour-side,
heat-transfercoefficients (see Table 2.1) of the micro-fm tube were higher than
for the smooth microchannelsand essentially independentof the massflux.
Webb and Ermis (2001)
Webb and Ermis (2001) also used the sametest section as that of Yang and Webb
(1996) to condenseR134a in four tubes (see Fig. 2.4) and produced the data by
the samemethod. Their results consequentlyagain have large uncertainty. For the
same mass flux and inlet vapour mass quality, the heat-transfer coefficient was
increase
decreasing
hydraulic
diameter.
to
the
with
reported
Wang et al. (2002)
Wang et al. (2002) investigatedcondensationof RI 34a inside a 610 mm long tube.
Louvered fins were brazed to each side of the flat minichannel tubing as
illustrated in Fig. 2.5 and cooled by air in cross flow. The tube wall temperatures
by
seven thermocouples embedded externally in the tube wall.
measured
were
Another seven thermocoupleswere installed in the air duct about 3 cm upstream
and downstreamof the wall thermocouplespositions.
A pair of "mixing blade flow conditioners" were installed upstream and
downstream of the test section to mix the laminar air flow, where the bulk air
temperatures were measured. Inlet and outlet refrigerant temperatures were

-31-

Chapter 2

measured using platinum RTD (i. e. Resistance Temperature Detector) probes,


inlet
but
details
located
in
Pressures
the
at
and
plenums,
no
are
given.
presumably
by
drop
two pressure
the
test
across
section
and
pressure
were
measured
exit
transducers and a differential pressure transducer respectively. But again no
details of location of the tappings and installation technique are given. The
following
by
flow
measured
complete
condensation
meansof
rate
was
refrigerant
a Coriolis meter and air volumetric flow rate by laminar flow "elements" at the
inlet and outlet of the test section.
The heat-transferrate was determinedfrom the energy balanceon the air side. The
heat-transfer
coefficient was found from the overall coefficient based
vapour-side,
flow
heat
cross
exchanger methods (uniform). It is interesting that
on standard
they measured the air flow temperatures along the air duct and the tube wall
temperatures,but they did not calculate the vapour-side coefficient directly. In
in
the
approximations
and
particular the relative resistanceson the air and
view of
it
is
hard
believe
to
that the vapour-side coefficients were
sides
refrigerant
measuredwith an accuracyof 8.2% as claimed. The heat-transfercoefficient was
increase
inlet
flux
to
as
with
vapour
mass
at
and
vapour
quality
mass
reported
expected.
Kim et al. (2003)
Kim et al. (2003) made the measurementsof R22 and R410A using the same
tubes and test section as their early investigation (see Kim et al. (2000)). Here
they reported that the cooling water Reynolds number of around 1000 - 1300,
in
laminar
in
difficulties
transition
the
or
regime with the attendant
evidently
temperature measured mentioned above. No special mixing precautions are
heat-transfer
They
that
the
reported
coefficient of R-41OA was slightly
mentioned.
higher than that of R-22 while the reversewas the casefor the of micro-fin tube.
Bandhauer et at. (2005)
Bandhauer et al. (2005) deduced vapour-side, heat-transfer coefficients from
for
condensation of R134a in three multi-microchannel
measurements
overall
tubes.The tubes and test section are shown in Fig. 2.6 and a schematicof the test

-32-

Chapter 2

facility in Fig. 2.7. Superheated vapour was partially condensed to the desired
vapour mass quality at inlet to the test section using either of two water-cooled
pre-condensers.

In the test section cooling water flowed in counter flow in

lower
the
and
surfaces of the horizontal test condenser tube.
over
upper
channels
No special precautions are mentioned to ensure that the coolant flow rate was the
same for both channels. This is noteworthy as other workers (Yan and Lin (1999)
and Cavallini et al. (2004)) as well as the present investigator, have found that
unless steps are taken very large differences may occur between the two coolant
flow rates. Temperatures and mass flow rate of the coolant at inlet (presumably
before the flow was divided into the two streams) and exit (presumably after the
streams were re-united) were measured. Temperatures of the vapour at inlet and
exit were measured (presumably in inlet and exit plenums). No vapour pressure
measurements are mentioned although Fig. 2.7 suggests there were measuring
points at the vapour inlet and exit. The refrigerant flow rate was measured
following complete condensation by means of a Coriolis meter.

Since the vapour-side, heat-transfer coefficient was obtained by subtracting


resistances,stepswere taken to ensure that the thermal resistanceon the coolant
side was relatively small. This required a high coolant flow rate and consequently
a low coolant temperaturerise which was apparently not possible to measurewith
sufficient accuracy. To overcome this difficulty Bandhauer et al. (2005) used a
"thermal amplification technique". The coolant from the test section was
in
loop
through a secondary cooler where the secondary
a
closed
circulated
had
The
lower
higher
stream
temperature
a
much
water
rise.
velocity and
cooling
insulated
loop
well
was
so that in the steady state the heat-transferrates
cooling
is
for
The
the
two
the
time
taken
coolers.
to
same
were
achieve steadyconditions
flow
The
coolant
rate in the secondarycooler is not given, nor are
not mentioned.
described
precautions
regarding coolant mixing prior to temperature
any special
In
flow
is laminar, which may be the case
the
circumstances
where
measurements.
here, this can lead to very large error in measurement of the mixed mean
temperature (see Fujii (1992) and Appendix D of this thesis). The authors
heat-transfer
the
that
rate was measuredto within 2%. This seemsmost
consider
in
unlikely view of the above comments.

-33-

Chapter 2

It is not stated explicitly how the mean, vapour-side coefficient was found. It is
presumedthat this was based on an overall coefficient using the measuredheattransferrate and the logarithmic mean temperaturedifference betweencoolant and
heat-transfer
The
coefficient was obtained using a standard
coolant-side,
vapour.
correlation (seeKakac et al. (1987)). The authors consider that their method gave
the vapour-side, heat-transfer coefficient to within 20%. As in the case of the
indirect
methods, and in view of the comments above,
who
used
other workers
this claim seemsoptimistic.
The condensing-side,heat-transfer coefficients were reported, as expected, to
increaseboth with massflux and inlet vapour massquality.
2.3 Direct measurement of vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient
Yan and Lin (1999)
Yan and Lin (1999) investigated condensationheat transfer for R134a flowing in
a close-packedrow of 28 circular 2.00 mm I. D tubes in parallel as shown in Fig.
2.8 (a). 5 mm-thick copper plates were soldered above and below the tubes on the
outer surface of which were soldered 10 larger coolant tubes. The coolant flows
were presumably supplied via plenums to each of the upper and lower and the
flow rates were said to be controlled to be the same by a by-bass valve. The
coolant inlet and exit temperaturesand flow rates were measured.No details of
now rates or mixing arrangements are given. It is not said whether the
temperaturesfor the upper and lower coolant streamswere measuredseparatelyor
before and after the coolant streams were separatedat inlet and reunited at exit.
Thermocoupleswere solderedto the outer surfacesof 10 selectedrefrigerant tubes
length
their
and at angles of 45 from the top and bottom as
midway along
indicated in Fig. 2.8 (b).

The refrigerant flow rate was measured by a mass flow meter before the
design
is
It
that
stated
a
of connection pipes to the refrigerant tubes at
evaporator.
the inlet and outlet was such as to ensure the RI34a flow rate in each small pipe

-34-

Chapter 2

details
done
but
how
"nearly
this
the
no
are
was
or ascertained.
same"
given
was
The vapour pressure and pressure drop at and across the test section were
measuredby pressuresensors.Inlet and outlet refrigerant temperatureswere also
locations
details
But
the
are
not
given
of
of the measurementpositions
measured.
which were presumably in the plenums. Measured and saturation temperatures
were reportedto "nearly the same".
The condensingheat-transfercoefficients were based on the centre position wall
thermocouples,taken as arithmetic averagesfor all ten measurements.The vapour
temperaturewas taken as the arithmetic mean of the temperaturesat inlet and exit.
The reportedvapour-side heat-transfercoefficients (see Table 2.1) increasedwith
both vapour mass flux and inlet vapour mass quality as expected and decreased
with increasingthe saturationtemperature.
Begg et al. (2(02)
Begg et al. (2002) made measurementsfor condensation of steam in single
1.7
4.0
diameters.
is
is
interesting
It
the
tubes
this
that
to
with
mm
note
circular
date
fluid
broadly
investigation
having
to
than
with
a
other
refrigerants
only
Unfortunately
detailed
description
is given of the apparatus
no
properties.
similar
heat-transfer
The
vapour-side
coefficient is said to have been calculated
or results.
from the measuredaveragetube wall temperatureand the saturation temperature
taken as to the measuredinlet vapour temperature.It is noted (see Table 2.1) that
thesedata show the highest range of vapour-side heat-transfercoefficients for the
lowest rangeof massfluxes among all investigations to date.
Baird et al. (2003)
Baird et at. (2003) studied condensationheat transfer for R123 and of R11 in two
internal
diameters
having
tubes
of 0.92 and 1.95 mm, using the test
circular
in
2.9.
Fig.
The
depicted
test section consisted of 10 "essentially
section
independently
but
cooled zones, each 30 mm in length and thermally
contiguous"
insulated from adjacent zones by 2 mm thick compressedfibre insulation. Each
block,
"soldered
a
copper
to the tube wall", to which a
comprised
zone

-35-

Chapter 2

"thermoelectric

cooler (TEC)"

was attached (see Fig. 2.9). A heat transfer

compound was used to ensure good thermal contact between the TEC faces and
the copper blocks.

Other surfaces of the block were insulated. Each TEC was

water cooled and, a heat balance between the electrically determined heat-transfer
rate and that to the coolant was said to be within

10%. A thermocouple was

inserted midway along each copper block. The position of the thermocouple with
respect to the condenser channel is not given and the measured temperature was
taken to be that of the channel wall.

Inlet and outlet refrigerant temperatures were measured with thermocouples


placed in the flow upstream and downstream of the test section, presumably with
junctions located in plenums. The inlet pressure and pressure drop across the test
section (i. e. across the whole ten cooling zones) were measured by an absolute
differential
transducer
and
a
pressure transducer with pressure tappings
pressure
again presumably in plenums. The subcooled refrigerant liquid flow rate was
measured by a Coriolis-effect mass flow meter prior to returning the evaporator.

The Lockhart-Martinelli correlation (1949) was used to calculate the pressure


drops for each cooling zone. Vapour temperaturesbefore and after each cooling
zone were taken as the corresponding saturation temperatures. As mentioned
above, the wall temperaturesalong the test section were assumedequal to the
block
temperatures and the local heat-transfer rates were
copper
measured
determined from the TECs. The calculated vapour-side heat-transfercoefficients
were said to have uncertainty of 20%. As expected,the refrigerant heat-transfer
increased
(see
2.1)
Table
with both vapour massflux and inlet vapour
coefficients
determined
latter
from
the
an energy balance acrossthe evaporator.
massquality,
Higher heat-transfercoefficients were found for R123. Their results also indicated
that the heat-transfercoefficients increasedwith increasing heat flux but were not
diameter.
by
tube
affected
Cavallini et al. (2003)
Cavallini et al. (2003) conducted the measurementsfor condensationof R134a
inside a multi-channel tube 1.8 m long with 13 rectangular channelswith 1.4 mm

-36-

Chapter 2

hydraulic diameter (see Fig. 2.10 (a)). As shown in Figs. 2.10 (b) and (d), the test
section consisted of three water-cooled heat exchangers. The first two were used

desired
inlet
the
the
to
achieve
value
of
vapour
mass
quality
at
as pre-condensers
of the measuringsection.
In the measuring section, the cooling water flowed in counter-flow on the upper
and lower surfaces of the test tube, within the PVC jacket. The cooling water
temperaturesalong the channelswere measuredby 22 thermocouplesinsertedinto
the flow. It is not statedprecisely where they were located and whether junctions
were placed in both upper and lower channels. The coolant flow rate was
flow
by
meter and its temperaturerise acrossthe measuring
a
magnetic
measured
by
four
in
junction
located
junctions
thermopile
a
measured
with
section was
is
It
not stated that whether the flow rate and temperaturerise
chambers.
mixing
for
lower
for
No
the
upper
and
coolant
means
channelsseparately.
were measured
flow
the
that
coolant
rates were the same for the upper and lower
ensuring
channelsare mentionedor are evident in Fig. 2.10 (d).
As shown in Fig. 2.10 (c), six thermocouples were soldered in the outermost
channelsat the two edgesof the tube which were blocked to exclude refrigerant.
A numerical study was conducted to confirm that the temperature difference
between the measuring thermocouple location and the mean inner surface could
be neglected.
It is statedthat the "refrigerant temperatureat the inlet of the test section is also
both
by
into
inserted
adiabatic
thermocouples
means
of
an
sector,
using
measured
the refrigerant flow and the tube wall. " (see Fig. 2.10 (d)) and that the "vapour
in
T-type
is
the
test
by
temperature
two
sector
measured
saturation
means of
thermocouples,fixed to the aluminum tube in the adiabatic sectors, before and
jacket.
"
(see
PVC
Fig.
2.10
(b)). No comment is made regarding
third
the
after
flow,
to
the
refrigerant
with possible resulting maldistribution, caused
obstruction
by inserting the thermocouplesin the small channels.

-37-

Chapter 2

The inlet pressureand pressuredrop acrossthe test section were measuredby an


absolute and a differential pressure transducer, connected to the pressure taps
before and after the test tube (seeFig. 2.10 (d)).
The measuredtemperatureat exit from the measuring section was comparedwith
the saturation temperature corresponding to the measuredpressure at the same
location and the agreementwas within 0.2 K was found.
The subcooledrefrigerant massflow rate was measuredby a Coriolis flow meter
prior to entering the boiler. The heat-transferrate was determinedfrom an energy
balanceon the water side. Using the log-mean temperaturedifference betweenthe
(see
heat-transfer
tube
the
the
wall,
average
vapour-side
and
coefficient
vapour
Table 2.1) was obtained with claimed uncertainty of 7%. The vapour-sideheattransfer coefficient increasedwith both vapour mass flux and inlet vapour mass
quality.
Koyama et al. (2003a)
Koyama et al. (2003a) made measurements for condensation of R134a in multiB)
A
(865
long;
Type
Fig.
2.11,
tubes
with
smooth
channels
and
mm
see
channel
For
(955
D).
long;
C
Fig.
2.11,
Type
with
microfms
mm
and
and channels
see
tubes with smooth microchannels, four subsections (each 150 mm long) were
by
For
below
(see
2.12).
tubes
Fig.
supplied
separately
water
above
and
cooled
6,
having
increased
to
'subsections
the
microfms;
number of
was
with channels
again cooled separately above and below. No details on steps to ensure that the
In
flow
lower
the
over
upper
the
rates
and
given.
surfaces were
same are
coolant
both cases, two heat flux sensors (each having length of 75 mm) were fixed both
lower
total
in
tube
outside
a
the
and
surfaces
upper
giving
each
subsection,
on
16
24
for
the tubes with smooth and microfmned
of
and
sensors
of
number
Thermocouples
buried
in the outer surfaces of the
respectively.
were
channels
tubes at the centre points of each heat flux sensors. The refrigerant temperatures
by
in
inlet
thermocouples
the
measured
and outlet mixing chambers.
were

-38-

Chapter 2

For tubes with smooth multichannels, the vapour pressuresat the inlet and outlet
mixing chambersas well as at the inlet and exit to each subsectionwere measured
(see Fig. 2.12). For tubes with microfinned channels, the pressure was only
inlet
in
the
and outlet mixing chambers. Presumably the pressure
measured
tappingswere installed in the adiabatic sectionsbetween eachsubsection(seeFig.
2.12). The subcooled refrigerant flow rate was measuredby a mass flow meter
before entering the evaporator.

In each subsection,with the above measuredvalues, the vapour-sideheat-transfer


coefficient was calculatedfrom:

Awoq
a_
A.; (T, -Tj

2Hq
s(1 -T

(2.1)
,

is
Aw0
the outer cooling area of the test tube (presumbly the product of the
where
length
of subsection),A,,,;is the inner heat-transferarea of the test tube
and
width
(presumbly summedover all channels),q is the wall heat flux basedon the outer
surfacearea of a subsection(presumbly the averageof measuredvalues), H is the
S
is
test
tube,
the wetted perimeter of the test tube (presumbly
the
of
width
is
T.
the arithmetic mean of refrigerant temperatureat
over
all
channels),
summed
the inlet and the outlet of a subsection (presumbaly taken as saturation values
correspondingto the observed pressures),and T,,.;is the inner wall temperature
from
the measured outer wall temperature by using one dimensional
estimated
An
how
is
their
details
in
No
Fig.
2.13.
example
of
results
on
conduction.
shown
T, was obtained are given. It presumably was calculated from the corresponding
however,
from Fig. 2.13, it can be seen that the
pressures,
saturation
measured
distribution
is
(the
line
temperature
not
saturation
solid
with open circles)
distribution
(the solid line with cross); there are more
the
pressure
with
consistent
points on the the saturation temperatureline than those of the pressureline, and
for
(a),
Fig.
2.13
line,
the
two
near
the
temperature
ends
particularly
of
saturation
there are two abrupt drops in Ts, but the pressure line is smooth at the same
positions.

-39-

Chapter 2

The reported vapour-sideheat-transfercoefficients (see Table 2.1) increasedwith


both vapour massflux and inlet vapour massquality. The channelswith microfms
gave higher coefficients.
Koyama et al. (2003b)
Koyama et al. (2003b) used the same test rig as that of Koyama et al. (2003a) to
in
R134a
tubes of Type A and B (see Fig. 2.11) only. The same data
condense
by
Koyama et al. (2003a) was used to obtain the
that
as
used
method
reduction
vapour-side heat-transfercoefficient. The results were reported as essentially the
sameas those from Koyama et al. (2003a).
Wilson et al. (2003)
Wilson et al. (2003) investigated condensation heat transfer for R134a and R410A
in 1.22 m long flattened smooth and microfinned tubes (see Fig. 2.14). The height
of the microfins was 0.2 mm and, the corresponding hydraulic diameters ranged
from 1.84 mm to 7.79 mm. Cooling water flowed in a counter flow above and
below the condenser tubes. It is not said whether the temperatures for the upper
and lower coolant streams were measured separately or before and after the
coolant streams were separated at inlet and reunited at exit. No details on steps to
ensure the coolant was well mixed prior to the temperature measurement are given.
The vapour inlet pressure and the pressure drop across the test section were
measured by an absolute pressure transducer and a differential pressure sensor
inlet
the
at
and outlet pressure taps. No details of location of the taps
respectively
and installation methods are given.

Inlet and outlet refrigerant temperatures were measured, presumably by


thermocoupleslocated in plenums, but again no details are given. The "local"
refrigerant temperaturealong the test section was "linearly interpolated" from the
measuredinlet and outlet refrigerant temperatures.Tube wall temperatureswere
4
"wall-mounted"
by
thermocouples located "at" upper and lower
measured
surfaces.

-40-

Chapter 2

The test section vapour mass quality was taken as the averagebetween the inlet
by
Coriolis-type
flow
The
a
mass
mass
rate
was
measured
refrigerant
and exit.

flow meter prior to the evaporator.


The authors reported "local" (presumably meaning for a given vapour mass
quality) vapour-side, heat-transfer coefficients. It is not clear how the vapour
temperatureand heat flux were determined.
Without explanation the uncertainty in the heat-transfercoefficient measurement
2.1)
heat-transfer
(see
be
The
Table
20%.
to
vapour-side
coefficients
said
was
increasedwith both vapour massflux and inlet vapour massquality. The 18 helix
higher
heat
tube
transfer than
apparently
showed
significantly
microfmned
angle
both smoothand axial microfinned tubes.
Cavallini et al. (2004)
Using the same apparatusand test tube as Cavallini et al. (2003), Cavallini et al.
(2004) obtainedexperimentaldata of R134a and R410A.
The test rig and test section were the same as used by Cavallini et al. (2003),
flow
Obstacles
the
that
to
the
channels
coolant
were modified.
coolant
except
It
in
introduced
to
temperature.
an
attempt
establish a more uniform
pattern were
is not explained why this was considered to be important and the results did not
differ substantially from those of the previous investigation.

The data reduction method was the same as used by Cavallini et al. (2003). The
both
heat-transfer
for
R134a
increased
R410A
coefficients
with
and
vapour-side
by
inlet
flux
higher
vapour mass quality and,
and
values were given
vapour mass
R410A (seeTable 2.1). Comparedwith the results for R134a from Cavallini et al.
(2003), their range of mass flux (200 - 1000 kg m2 s) was lower than that of
Cavallini et al. (2003) (400 - 1200 kg m2s 1), but the range of the refrigerant
heat-transfercoefficient (2.5 - 16.5 kW m2 K-) was wider than that of Cavallini
kW
(4.5
13.5
m2
K"').
(2003)
et al.

-41-

Chapter 2

Shin and Kim (2004)


Shin and Kim (2004) investigated condensation for R134a in a 0.691 mm circular
tube. They developed a novel method to measure the heat-transfer rate. Their test
section is shown in Fig. 2.15. Horizontal

fms were attached to two identical

in
the
to
the
tubes
one
upon
other
parallel
cross-flow
cooling
air
a
mounted
copper
duct. The refrigerant flowed horizontally

in one tube and a heater wire was

inserted into the other tube. Temperatures at three identical locations on the
both
fms
tubes were measured by attached thermocouples. For
the
of
surface of
fixed refrigerant and air flows, the input power of the heater tube was adjusted so
that the fm temperatures were the same as those with the refrigerant tube so that,
heat-transfer
for
heat-transfer
the
the
the
same
external
coefficients,
rate
with
be
heated
input
to
tube
tube.
to
the
the
was
considered
equal
power
of
condenser

The refrigerant inlet pressureand the pressure drop across the test section were
measuredby a pressure transducer and a differential pressure transducer at the
inlet and outlet pressuretaps. The averagevapour temperaturewas estimatedfrom
the saturation values corresponding to the measured pressures. The wall
temperaturesof condenser tube were measured by six thermocouples soldered
(three
for
liquid
for
lower).
The
the
three
surface
outer
upper
and
refrigerant
onto
massflow rate was measuredusing a receiver.
The reported heat-transfer coefficients (see Table 2.1) were said to have the
(conditions
for lowest mass flux, highest heat flux and
3.5%
of
uncertainty
lowest vapour mass quality) to 19.9% (conditions for highest mass flux, lowest
heat flux and highest vapour mass quality) and increasedwith both the massflux
and vapour mass quality. Details of uncertainty estimation are not given.

Cavallini et al. (2006)


Cavallini et al. (2006) conducted tests using a new test section (see Fig. 2.16) for
local
heat-transfer
the
of
coefficient of RI 34a condensingin a single
measurement
0.96 mm circular microchannel. The heat-transfer coefficient was obtained from
the measurementof the heat flux and the measurementof the saturation and wall
temperatures.The heat flux was derived from the water temperatureprofile along

-42-

Chapter 2

the channel,in order to obtain local values of the heat-transfercoefficient from the
streamwise temperature gradient.

The test section consisted of a 50 mm long desuperheaterwhich proceededthe


long).
desuperheater
(230
The
mm
provided the vapour at a
section
measuring
desired vapour mass quality before entering the measuring section. In the
by
flowing
the
vapour
was
cooled
cooling
outside the
water
section,
measuring
tube surfacein counter flow. A complex coolant flow passage(seeFigs. 2.16 and
2.17) was designedwith the aim of increasing the external heat-transferarea and
thus decreasingthe effective external resistance,where the coolant was mixed
in
flow
direction
Temperatures
the
the
was
changed
continuously.
well and
by
15 thermocouples. The coolant temperature
were
measured
channel
coolant
rise across the measuring section was measuredby a thermopile of which the
junctions are presumably located in plenums. The subcooled refrigerant and
coolant flow rateswere measuredby Coriolis-effect massflow meters.
The wall temperatureswere measuredby 13 thermocouples.The thermocouples
in
diameter
0.5
0.6
installed
holes
in
mm
the
mm
cylindrical
machined
wall,
were
from the internal tube surface.
The inlet vapour temperature was measured by a thermocouple which was
in
before
in
the
the
tube
the
stainless
steel
capillary
section
soldered
adiabatic
inlet
At
location,
the
the
transducer
same
a pressure
measured
measuring section.
(see
2.18,
Fig.
2.16).
in
Fig.
the
As
good
at
pressure
port
pressure
shown
vapour
(within
agreement

0.15 K) was found between the measured and saturation

temperatures. The outlet vapour temperature was obtained by subtracting the


inlet
drop
from
the
temperature
vapour temperature. The refrigerant temperature
drop was measured by a four junction

thermopile. The thermopile junctions were

(the
in
the
to
tubes
same
the
stainless
steel
capillary
soldered
adiabatic sections

before
differential
A
the
and
as
pressure
ports),
after
measuring section.
positions
pressuretransducerwas connectedto the pressureports at the inlet and outlet of
the measuring section (see Fig. 2.16). Significant disagreement(about 4.0 K; see
Fig. 2.18) between the measured temperatures and the saturation temperatures

-43-

Chapter 2

corresponding to the measuredpressureswere found, suggesting the subcooled


condensatein the exit mixing chamber. The outlet vapour temperaturewas taken
as the saturationvalue correspondingto the exit pressure.
Using local heat fluxes determinedfrom the gradient of the coolant temperatures,
the measuredwall temperatureand the vapour temperaturewhich was assumedto
vary linearly betweenthe saturationvalues at inlet and exit, the local heat-transfer
coefficient was calculated.Only two casesof results were reported (seeTable 2.1)
and the vapour-sideheat-transfercoefficient increasedwith both the massflux and
vapour massquality.
2.4 Correlations and models
Established correlations for large tubes have been found unsatisfactory for
microchannels.Recent investigators (e.g. Yan and Lin (1999), Wang et al. (2002)
and Koyama et al. (2003b)) have modified condensationmodels for large tubes to
data.
Bandhauer et al. (2005) and Cavallini et al.
their
experimental
correlate
(2005) have proposednew models. A pure theoretical approachhasbeenproposed
by Wang and Rose (2005).
Although surface tension has been mentioned often as an important parameterin
microchannelscondensation,only a few correlations and models (e.g. Bandhauer
Cavallini
(2005)
(2005),
et
al.
and Wang and Rose (2005)) include it.
al.
et
2.4.1 Yan and Lin (1999) correlation
Yan and Lin (1999) investigatedthe condensationheat transfer for R134a flowing
in a close-packedrow of 28 circular 2.00 mm I. D tubes in parallel as shown in
Fig. 2.8 (a). In order to correlate their data, Yan and Lin (1999) proposed the
following empirical correlation based on an equivalent Reynolds number
Akers
(1959)
to
the
et
al.
model.
according

-44-

Chapter 2

Ctd Pe*33Bo

1'04
6.48Re,,,
'3Re=

(2.2)

where

Bo =9
hfgG

(2.3)

Gd

Re =

(2.4)

PL

Ggd

Re, =
q

(2.5)

JUL
G., = G (1- x)+

pL

o.s
(2.6)

In the above equations,a is the heat-transfer coefficient, d is the tube hydraulic


diameter,I is the conductivity, Pr is the Prandtl number, Bo is the boiling number,
flux,
is
heat
hfg
is
the specific enthalpy of evaporation,X is the vapour mass
the
q
quality, G is the mass flux, p and p are the dynamic viscosity and density and
`v'
`L'
denote
and
and
vapour and liquid.
subscripts
It is noted that the effect of surface tension is not involved and the inclusion of
Reynolds number as well as the equivalent Reynolds number to correlate their
data is unusual. They claimed that the average deviation between their data and
the correlation was about 9.2%. However, it is found that their correlation gives
the vapour-side heat-transfer coefficients 104times higher than others discussed
below, suggestingan error of some sort.
2.4.2 Wang et al. (2002) correlation
Wang et al. (2002) investigated condensation of R134a inside rectangular
1.46
hydraulic
diameter. Comparing with the available heatmm
with
channels
transfer correlations, they found that the Jasterand Kosky (1976) correlation (for
large tubes) agreedwith their stratified flow data best and the Akers et al. (1959)

-45-

Chapter 2

correlation predicted their annular flow data well. Since they thought that the
be
in
Akers
(1959)
Reynolds
used
correlation
could
not
number
et al.
equivalent
the same for different flow regimes, the authors developed two correlations for
flow.
Their
flow
heat-transfer
based
annular
correlation
was
stratified
and
annular
by
by
(1972)
Azer
boundary-layer
analysis
proposed
et
al.
and
modified
on
Traviss et at. (1973), give

Nui

= 0.0274 Prei,

0 6792 0.2208

'X

0',
1.376+ 8X''655

(2.7)

X2
a

where

1- x
x

0.5

0.9

0.1

pv

fL

pL

pv

G1 x)d
ReL =
PL

(2.8)

(2.9)

Their stratified flow heat-transfer correlation was establishedon the basis of the
The
filmwise
forced
of
condensation
convection.
and
single-phase
superposition
Nusselt number of the stratified flow was defined as
Nus, =E Nuslm + (1- e) Nu.
mt
nvec.

(2.10)

fraction
Nuflm
the
e,
void
and NuCOnecUo
were derived from the correlations
where
(1964),
by
Zivi
Chato
(1962)
and Dittus-Boelter (1930), and expressed
proposed
as below:

E=

E1+

Nufl, = 0.555

)2/3

1-x

P"

PL

(PL
PL

)ghr
d3'a
P
8
ALPL(T. -TW

8p
0.4
Nuconvechon
0.023
Ree.
=

-46-

(2.11)

(2.12)
(2.13)

Chapter 2

From equations(2.7) and (2.10), the vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient can be


obtainedfrom
for annular flow (Fr > 8):
a= Nu,,,dA.L/d

(2.14)

a= NuskgAIJd

(2.15)

for stratified flow (Fr <_8):

uL
They used the Froude number Fr =
as the transition criteria between the
S
below:
Fr
calculated
as
and
regimes
for ReL<_1250:
[(1+1A9X0.039)/X

Fr = 0.025ReLS9

Jr
a

s
Go.
L

(2.16)

for ReL> 1250:


[(1
104

Fr =1.26Rei

+ 1. O9Xtt.

039 )/

Xa

l. S

(2.17)
Gaos
L

where Xu and ReL are determined from equations (2.8) and (2.9), and Gar, is
expressedas
23

9pLd
GaL =
PL

(2.1)

In the above equations,X is the vapour massquality, Pr is the Prandtl number, d is


the tube hydraulic diameter, G is the mass flux, T. is the saturation temperature,
Ta,is the wall temperature,g is the specific force of gravity, u is the mean flow
is
length,
L
hfgis the specific enthalpy of evaporation,A.
the
characteristic
velocity,
is the thermal conductivity, it and p are the dynamic viscosity and density and
`v'
`L'
denote
and
vapour and liquid.
subscripts

-47-

Chapter 2

It is noted that the surface tension is not involved in the above correlation. Their
correlation predicted over 79.2% of their data within 10%.
2.43 Koyama et al. (2003b) correlation
Koyama et at. (2003b) made measurementsfor condensationof R134a in multichannel tubes (see Fig. 2.11 (Type A and Type B)). They compared their data
with the predictions given by correlations based on large diameter tubes (e.g.
Moser et al. (1998), Haraguchi et al. (1994b) and Dobson and Chato (1998)) and
found the poor agreement. In order to correlate their results, they proposed a
combination of forced and free convection condensation terms which were
obtained from the work of Haraguchi et at. (1994a, b), except that their two-phase
multiplier was replaced by the multiplier given by Mishima and Hibiki (1996).
The correlation is shown as follows.
n
Nu = (NuF2+ NuB2)1

(2.19)

where NuF and NUB are the forced and free convection condensation term
follows:
and
expressed
as
respectively
(1) Forcedconvection condensationterm:
NUF= 0.0112PrL'37(oP/XU)Re2.7

(2.20)

where
0,,,

=1+21(1-6-0.319d)Va
0.9

Xtt _1x

+X
0.5

Pv
X

ReL _

PL

0.1

(2.22)

Iv

G(1- x)d
1L

(2) Gravity controlled convection condensationterm:

-48-

(2.21)

(2.23)

Chapter 2

1/4
GaPaP
r
`
NuB = 0.725 H(s)(

(2.24)

where

H(e) =e+ 101(1-s)o'' -1]+ 1.7x 10-4Rem

[(1_0.4+0.6

W(1-

re)
-.

(2.25)

PL+0.41-x
P(2.26)

E=

1+0.4

x
2d3

Ga =

gpL2

(2.27)

JUL
)
-Tom;
1(h.
Ph=p,

(2.28)

fg

ReLO=

Gd

(2.29)

PL

In the above equations,e is the void fraction estimatedby the Smith correlation
(1971), T. is the saturationtemperature,T; is the inner wall temperature,d is the
is
diameter,
G
is
force
flux,
is
hydraulic
the
of gravity, X
tube
mass
g the specific
is
hfg
is
the
the
cp
the vapour mass quality,
specific enthalpy of evaporation,
density
heat
dynamic
isobaric
and
the
capacity,
p and p are
viscosity and
specific
flow.
`LO'
denote
`L'
`v',
liquid
liquid
total
and
vapour,
phasewith
and
subscripts
It is again noted that the surface tension is not involved in the above correlation,
but the authors stated that surface tension effects would be investigated in their
future work. Although they claimed that the above modification of the Haraguchi
led
2.19)
b)
better
Fig.
(see
(1994a,
to
of
correlation
the
a
agreement, graphs
et al.
Nusselt
experimental
and
numbers show large overpredictions of all
predicted
their data at most conditions.
2.4.4 Bandhauer et al. (2005) model

-49-

Chapter 2

Bandhauer et al. (2005) deduced vapour-side, heat-transfer coefficients from

in
for
R134a
three multi-microchannel
condensation
of
overall measurements
tubes (see Fig. 2.6). Their data were compared with correlations in the literature
that assumedgravity-driven or shear-driven condensation,and those that used a
homogeneousflow assumption or two-phase multipliers to predict heat-transfer
in
for
larger
found
developed
They
those
tubes
that
models
result
coefficients.
developed
from
data.
Subsequently,
deviations
they
the
a
measured
significant
(1973)
Moser
boundary-layer
Traviss
based
the
et
analyses
al.
and
of
et
on
model
drop
being
from
(1998),
the
the
shear
stress
requisite
calculated
pressure
with
al.
(2005)
developed
for
Garimella
et
al.
specifically
microchannelswhere
of
model
the effect of surfacetension is considered.Their model is describedas following:

PLCP.
Iu
T+

a=q_
T, -Tq,

(2.30)

where

T' =SPrL +51n PrL

5+

-1 +1

T*= 5PrL + 51n(5PrL+ 1)+J

dY++

"*
L_i
PrL

(ReL< 2100)

(2.31)

(ReL> 2100)

(2.32)

1_."l+z(i5

Y+ =

YPLU

y
R'

(2.33)

PL

RPLU'

R+ =

(2.34)

PL
SPLU'

(2.35)

JUL
a=

(1-

U0 =

-50-

(2.36)
z'
PL

(2.37)

Chapter 2

J-

z, =( lJ

_(
l

xd
4

&

1.
PL

1+11-xl

l x)

0.13 -1

0.655

0.74

(2.39)

/! v

G2x2 1
Ale2.5 d

AP= 1f
If
L2

(2.38)

f; IA = AXE Rei

(2.40)
(2.41)

= jL I/ a

(2.42)

JL= [G(1X)] / IPL(1- E)]

(2.43)

(
Xa

(dP/dz)L

)L

1/2

dP/dz

(dP/da)"

fLG 21 x)2

2 PL
f. G2x2
=

(2.44)

(2.45)

(2.46)

2dp

Gd(1- x)
ReL_
1+
L
Gxd
Re =
Fc
P, -,
fL = 64 / ReL
f = 0.316 Re 25

(2.47)

(2.48)
(2.49)
(2.50)

For equation(2.41):
Laminar region (Rei.< 2100): A =1.308 x 10"3;a=0.427; b=0.930; c= -0.121
Turbulent region (Ret, 2100): A= 25.64; a=0.532; b= -0.327; c=0.021
In the above equations,c is the void fraction calculated by the Baroczy (1965)
by
factor,
introduced

is
friction
is
the
tension
the
surface
parameter
correlation,!
Lee and Lee (2001), cp is the specific isobaric heat capacity, Pr is the Prandtl
diameter, d is the tube hydraulic diameter, r is the
interface
is
D,
the
number,
interfacial shearstress,Ti is the saturationtemperature,TM,is the wall temperature,

-51-

Chapter 2

AP is the pressuredrop, L is the tube length,y is the length scale,R is the radius of
the cross section of flow, 6 is the liquid film thickness, X is the vapour mass
quality, a is the surfacetension,p andp are the dynamic viscosity and density and
subscripts `v' and `L' denote vapour and liquid. The resulting model predicted
86% of their data within 20.0%.
2.45 Cavallini et at. (2005) model
As mention above that Cavallini et al. (2003,2004) conductedthe measurements
for condensationof R134a inside a multi-channel tube with 1.4 mm hydraulic
diameter and the authors compared the experimental vapour-side heat-transfer
coefficients against correlations available in the literature, and found that no
correlation was able to predict their data at all the conditions. In the view of that,
Cavallini et al. (2005) developeda model to predict the heat-transfercoefficient of
condensation inside microchannels, based on analogy between heat and
momentum transfer. They accounted for the effect of surface tension in the
frictional pressure drop calculation. Their model was designed for annular and
annular-mistregime, as describedbelow.

(r/PL).
PLC
a_
T'

S
(2.51)

where
r=

(r: 5 5)

(2.52a)

(5 < 5'' < 30)

(2.52b)

(30:5 5)

(2.52c)

J_ (Reil2)'5

(ReL< 1145)

(2.53a)

S=0.0504Re1Y8

(ReL> 1145)

(2.53b)

b+P,L

T' = 5PrL + 51n PrL

-1 +1

T' =5 PrL +In(1+5PrL)+0.4951n

30

ReL = G(1X)(1-E)d1jlL

-52-

(2.54)

Chapter 2

t=I

14
l

_ 02Lor dz

(2.55)

Jr

_ 02

2fc_G2

f,LO

dpL

fLo = 0.046(Gd/PL)-0'2

(2.57)

= Z+ 3.595FH(1-E)0'

o2

(2.58)

W =1.398 P.

(2.59)

Z= (1X)2 +X2 (PL/ Pv) (acv


I PL)02
F=

H=

(PL/ P)v1

(1-X)0.414

132

iPvl/L)

(1 'pvI/cL)

E=0.015 + 0.44 log [( gc/PL) (Lfg /Q )2104]


E=0.95

(2.60)
(2.61)

X0.9525

0.44

(2.56)

3.542

(2.62)

(E < 0.95)

(2.63)

(E > 0.95)

(2.64)

Pgc=Pv [1 + (1-X)E /X]

(2.65)

Jg= G/p

(2.66)

In the above equations,G is the total mass flux,

is the vapour massquality, d is


,X
the tube hydraulic diameter, P,, is the reduced pressure,cpis the specific isobaric
heat capacity, Pr is the Prandtl number,j8 is the superficial gas velocity, v is the
surfacetension, and p are the dynamic viscosity and density and subscripts`v',
`L' and `LO' denote vapour, liquid and liquid phase with total flow. The above
data
their
experimental
predicted
within 30% for all conditions.
model
2.4.6 Wang and Rose (2005) model
Using the Nusselt theory (1916) approximations and including the transverse
due
to surface tension in the presence of varying surface
gradient
pressure
(2005)
Rose
film
Wang
developed
for
theory
and
the
a
curvature,
condensate
thickness on the inside surfaces of channels for various channel shapes.Figure
2.20 shows the co-ordinate systemsused for sides (Cartesian) and for the comers
(polar).

-53-

Chapter 2

(T, -TT)
hfs8

1A
(1+lAL/S)

1a
3dP.
3vL a(g dz

S
z

a1+
S3
-1ar;
k r
2v

(Pi -P, )9 a
0"
(Ss sinyi) + -a -3vL a
ac
3vL

()267

where
o251a2

1=
r

(2.68)

+(MlaC)2

usedwhen consideringchannel sidesand


(Pc -P)g

a [sf(S)5+
Qas
(.
ff,
5)
3vL
r t9'
rwoIV
rt"V

3v
[S
+1a
4v c

A (S)

"]=1A.
dz
1+

[s
(s)=il
f.
+1a
VL c3z

r,

(T.

-T.
hfarwIn rMl(rM -S)

__
In
rr
rte,1(rr - S)

(2.69)

where

a2r /aq, 2

1- r2 +2(ar la P)2 -r
(ar /ai0)2
r2 +

rc

3/2

2+

2r

-rwe +rw8-

(2.70)

3+

rw -

rW-

-8)
w
2)(r

(rw
1+

r`"

-8)

rw

Z(Tw

2_,

TwT- SI

3)

aZ

TW

(2.71)

rw - lS

WTWB

fs V) _ (rw - 8) 1+

fs(s)=-rw5+

rw a
s

S
rwr
In

[i+

+2(rw -)Z

the
neighborhood of corners.
considering
when
used

-54-

rw
In

(2.72)

(2.73)

Chapter 2

In the aboveequations,6 is the liquid film thickness,A is the thermal conductivity,


v is the surfacetension,g is the specific force of gravity, p and p are the dynamic
viscosity and density and subscripts`v' and `L' denotevapour and condensate.
The required four boundary conditions in the section of the channel are provided
by the condition that odd derivates (l

and 3rd)with respect to x or rpare zero at

(top
of upright trianular section or middle of upper and lower
of
symmetry
points
horizontal sides).The required streamwiseboundary condition is given by the fact
that the film thickness is zero everywhere at the inlet, z=0 (seeWang and Rose
(2005)).

In order to solve, it is necessayto obtain estimatesof the surface shearstressand


pressuregradient. These are related by a momentum balancefor one-dimensional
below:
flow,
as
given
vapour

(U2A )+ S'
p-"
"+
=0
"
dz
4, dz
.

(2.74)

Si
A
and
are the area of vapour flow and perimeter of the vapour-liquid
where
interface in channel cross section, respectively, U is taken as the local average
is
the
which
vapour
of
calculated from the inlet mass flow minus the
velocity
in
to
the
up
position
rate
question, ri is the streamwiseinterfacial
condensation
below:
as
and
expressed
shearstress

Ti =2

fPvUv

(2.75)

Churchill
based
f
is
(1977)
"suction"
for
the
on
equation
where
with correction
due to condensation,thus

-55-

Chapter 2

(2.76)
0=-

2m
1"p Uv
.

(2.77)

f
flux,
is
friction
is
factor obtained by the
the
the
single
condensation
phase
m
Churchill (1977) equation.

At a given location z along the channel, the local heat-transfer coefficient as is


given by

1
ax =ql(T, -TW)=
1+c21/8

Al
8

(2.78)

for the sides


and

as =q/(T, -T,

1-

)=
1+

rwln[rr, /(rw - s)]

1'
rwIn rq,/(r v-

(2.79)

for the corners. 'arises from interphasemass transfer theory as was found to be
in
negligible all solutions abtained.
The averageheat-transfercoefficient c. around the circumference of the channel
is
by
location
calculated
at a given

a==qs/(T. -Tw)

(2.80)

heat
flux
is
by
integrating
the
mean
qs
obtained
the heat transfer aroundthe
where
T.
Ta,
bulk
the
and
and
are
section
vapour temperature and tube wall
channel
temperaturerespectively.

2.5 Comparison of correlations and models

-56-

Chapter 2

The various correlations and models discussedabove are compared for typically
representativeconditions, namely condensationof refrigerant R134a condensing
in a1 mm squarechannelwith a vapour-to-surfacetemperaturedifference of 6K
(taken to be uniform) and the massfluxes of 100,400 and 700 kg/m2s.
Figure 2.21 shows the comparison results of the dependenceof vapour-sideheattransfer coefficients on local vapour mass quality and mass flux. In Fig. 2.21,
different colours of lines are used for different correlations and models and
different types of lines for different massfluxes. It is seenthat the correlationsand
models broadly agreewith each other and show that the vapour-side heat-transfer
both
increases
with
vapour mass quality and mass flux. There are
coefficient
however significant differences. The liquid single-phaseheat-transfercoefficients
obtainedby the Gnielinski correlation (1976) correspondingto each massflux are
also shown in Fig. 2.21. It is seenthat predicted values generally approachbut are
somewhat higher than the single-phase values as the vapour mass quality
approacheszero.
The results predicted by the theoretical model by Wang and Rose (2005) are also
2.21.
in
Fig.
The
different
from correlations and models,
curve
shapes
are
shown
indicating where the surface tension effect is important at relatively high vapour
is
dependence
It
that
the
seen
quality.
of heat-transfercoefficients on mass
mass
fluxes is strong at lower massflux and weaker at high massflux.
The channel lengths over which the vapour mass quality fell from 0.95 to 0.05 for
in
Table
2.2.
is
It
are
given
seenthat the condensationoccurred within
case
each
the similar lengths for each case, except that given by Wang and Rose (2005)
theory at the highest massflux.
The results predicted by Yan and Lin (1999) correlation are not shown, since the
heat-transfer
vapour-side
coefficients are approximately 104 times
predicted
higher than others,evidently indicating error.

-57-

Chapter 2

Table 2.2: Channellength over which vapour massquality fell from 0.95 to 0.05
Condensinglength /mm
t, orreianon

ana mouci

G= 100 kg/m2sG= 400 kg/m2sG= 700 kg/m2s

Wang et al. (2002)

203

545

698

Koyama et al. (2003)

180

492

703

Bandhaueret al. (2005)


Cavallini et al. (2005)

237

496

696

270

489

653

Wang and Rose(2005)

222

553

1005

2.6 Conclusions

From the investigations discussed, there are ranges of experimental data:


C),
(20
90
temperature
mass flux (10 - 1400 kg/m2s), vapour mass
saturation
1.05)
heat-transfer
(0.1
and
vapour-side
coefficient (0.5 - 27.8 kW/m2
quality
K). Figure 2.22 shows reported rangesof mass flux and vapour-sideheat-transfer
for
in
Table
2.1.
all
of
experimental
studies
coefficient
Within such a wide range of data,none can be said to be correct, due to very large
in
in
and
most
cases
uncertainty
estimates
most casesprobably too
uncertainties
for
Wilson
based
certainly
plot
results. All that can be said with some
optimistic degree of certainty is that heat-transfer coefficients for refrigerants vary in the
kW/m2
K,
increase
0.7
from
and
with increasing mass flux and vapour
-11
range
massquality.
The direct measurement allows determining the thermal resistance of
fluids
by
the
temperature
the
the
measuring
of
wall separating
condensationside
However,
heat-transfer
the
to
accurate
more
results
of
provide
coefficient.
so as
the determination of the local heat-transfer coefficient is still elusive, due to the
difficulty of measuring the vapour saturation temperatureaccurately. At present,
been
has
true
of
temperature
measurement
vapour saturation
not
the accurate
found in the open literature, and the vapour saturation temperature is
by
typical
two
methods: the linear distribution and remaining
approximated
former,
In
is
the
the
usually
temperature
refrigerant
constant.
or pressure
inlet
the
and outlet of the test section, then the saturationtemperature
measuredat

-58-

Chapter 2

is assumedas the linear distribution between the inlet and outlet (seeWilson et al.
(2003) and Cavallini et al. (2006)). In the latter, the saturation temperature is
assumedto be a constantas the sameas the measuredinlet refrigerant temperature
(seeYan and Lin (1999) and Begg et al. (2002)) or the averagevalue of the inlet
and outlet refrigerant temperatures. Thus, those claimed local heat-transfer
coefficients may not be so reliable as expected.Also, more very accuratedata are
highly needed.
Various correlations are probably little more than convenient summaries of the
author's own measurements. Unfortunately, it is not possible to validate
correlationsand models with such a wide range of data.

-59-

Chapter 2

(;t) . niootli muliichanncl,., 0i,

(, I : III,

lo-

IIII

IIIU1tICh1ai111:

1-, U,,

x. 037 mm

I. ()4

111111

Fig. 2.1 Photographs of the test tubes (Yang and Webb (1996))

x Cbimel
tTube

Was J. ck

aamuI

as Wia

Fig. 2.2 Cross-section view of test section (Yang and Webb (1996))

["RENNES]
(a) smooth nultichanncls L),= 1.41 mn1

(b) micro-tin multichannels D}, = 1.56 mnl

Fig. 2.3 Photographs of the test tubes (Kim et al. (2000))

-60-

Chapter 2

[ammommum

(,t) smooth multichannel,

I)h = 1.33 mm

[mmummouNnum

(h) micro-tin
MEN

multichanncls

*]

mma:

(C) nuirno-tin multichannels

DI, - 1.564 mm
"1401

uNN14"14H
(al) micro-tin

1DI,= 0.611 mn1

inultichannels

NMI

Dh = 0.44 mm

Fig. 2.4 Photographs of the test tubes (Webb and Ermis (2001))

Fig. 2.5 Test tube with louvered fin Dh = 1.46 mm (Wang et at. (2002))

-61-

Chapter 2

ry..

, TAM

xsrg.

ti

eino. ..

cOr.""

co=t

raN

m+acr_o

lb) TestS. cbon$chwri ;

Fig. 2.6 Test tube and test section (Bandhauer et al. (2005))

Fin. 2.7 Schematic of the test facility (Bandhauer et al. (2005))

-62-

Chapter 2

(a)
-%A

R-134A

cu
Smm

Di-2.0 mm
Do--3.0 mm

200 mm

PPER
PLATE

(b)
HERMO
6S

HPM

OUry2

PLATH

Fig. IS (a) Schematic of the test section; (b) Cross-section view of locations of
thermocouples (Yan and Lin (1999))

RN sealant
vapour seals

heat t

thpp

-----

solid plastic
insulation

----

--

s. sscrews with

insulating washers

n nua

water filed heat sink

5Dmm

thermoelectric

cooler (TEC)

appoy

copper spacer

TEC wires

Fig. 2.') Schematic of a TEC test section in cross-section (Baird et al. (1999))

-63-

Chapter 2

(a) Enlarged image of the test tube (5 out of 13 channels can be seen)

supwhaated
retngerant

mulhchannet test tube

Inlet

measuring

precondenser

precondenser

, sac
PVC jacket

sector

refrigerant
outlet

L
PVC tacket

PVC jacket

adiabatic sectors
braze

welded flange

(b) Experimental test section

292

SEC A-A
(enlarretl)

cam:'

Fl
44

ALUDANIUM
water in
TUBE

water out

(c) Location of thermocouples for measuring the tube wall temperature (measures
in millimeters)
3 'I

S. f`C

Ti ST -U--Opi

(d) Experimental test rig

Fig. 2.10 Details of test tube, test section and test rig (Cavallini et al. (2003,2004))

-64-

Chapter 2

I pc :A: Ih

O2 inne
.

I PC13:Dh = 0.807 mm

Ir

(': 1)

0.81')

uni

IN pc D: D1 = U.937 mm

He. II 1 Photographsof the test tubes (Koyama et al. (2003a, b))

11rc."urr I r1

tr

r'!;

heat Ilu\

kw

latrr

. rn.,, i
/',

TN

iarl rt

Mixing

chamber

Tn

Fig. 2.12 Schematic of the test section (Koyama et at. (2003a, b))

-65-

Chapter 2

tbll

; Ni
1.7

1.7
40

nL3
Lorl

i. 0

3'll

= 300

1.6

300

1.65

i.h
1.55

2280
20

'_U

411

t 30

Ey5
i()

iu
0

ti,

'1iU
4u

L.

e
10 3
Y

2211
-10
ll

1)

0.5
0
U

0.6
0. X
0.4
li. 2
hihi LenKih [m]

I00.2

0.6
0.8
0.4
Tuht" Length Iin I

(al

(h)

Fig. 2.13 Distribution of temperature, pressure, heat flux, heat-transfer coefficient


and vapour mass quality: (a) Tube type B at G= 270 kg/m`s; (b) Tube type B at G
= 650 kg/m`s (Koyama et al. (2003a, b))

Fig. 2.14 Photograph of flattened tube cross sections (Wilson et al. (2003))

Air Duct

'%C %C *l

'Al

VC

eater
Fin
fnp. rant

Ti

Fig. 2.15 Schematics of the test section (Shin and Kim (2004))

-66-

Chapter 2

ti

...

Fig. 2.16 Schematicof the test rig (Cavallini et al. (2006))

E T. r

ObeT..

-'

Section: A-A
Wa

T.. r

TWA

Cu babe

Fig. 2.17 Details of the coolant flow passagegeometry (f is fin thickness, c is the
ideth. a is the distance between two thermocouples in the water
flow passage%N
and in the wall) (Cavallini et al. (2006))

41

ii

" 5

"

. Sat (PT)

35
tr

(7c)

w_

" W.ta

53
1, .
S

"

"

."".

4a

25
o

40

BID

"4,

120

1eo

200

240

Fig. 2.18 Saturation, wall and water temperature during condensation of R 134a in
diameter
inside
(Cavallini
kg/m`s
0.96
278
G=
et
mm
microchannel
at
a circular
al. (2006))

-67-

Chapter 2

102

i02
lot

E
s

rilKl
o ye xr

I
O
,

Je

iY

;:
.1V^I

r, IKJ

:
7M

"O

y.
,w

fe
ov

e.r

"os
fe.

in,
V

101

10,

I0''

hyv

102

Nu,,

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2.19 Comparison between experimental data and the presentcorrelation (a)
Tube type A, (b) Tube type B (Koyama et al. (2003b))
-"

A
b

oan&mnk

iiX.
e

.,

, lb

0,

.
ir

a
+jar,
q'tX.

s,
Oix.

X x,

A-A cross section

bit

-. A

y '0

condemaw

T.

Ts

0xP-x.

Xb

*<
A

A-A cross section

dR

Fig. 2.20 Physical model and coordinates for horizontal microchannels (Wang and
Rose (2005))

-68-

Chapter 2

16-

G /kg m-2s'

R 134a
Square channel

100
400 Wang et al. (2002)

b=1mm

700

T= 50 C

100

--

AT=6K

12-

Koyama et al. (2003b)

400

. -700

100}

_ -

Bandhauer et al. (2005)

-400
----700
1001

400 r Cavalliniet al. (2005)


J

1
1
o00

} Wang and Rose (2005)

-400

....

7001
single phase (liquid) by
Gnielinski correlation (1976)

CS

----

- ---

700kgm2si
I400kg
m2sI

-----

100kgm2sI

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.0

0.2

X
Fig. 2.21 Dependence

heat-transfer

of vapour-side

on local vapour

coefficients

massqualit\ and mass fluxes (comparison results by available correlations)

30

gegg et at
(2002) (steam)

Cavallini et
al. (2006)
(R134a)

Baird et
Bandhauer et
(2003)
al.
at (2005)
(RI I,
(R134a)
R123)

25

Wilson et al
(2003) (R134a,
R41OA)

20

Kimeta]
(2000)
(R22)

15

Cavallini et al.
(2004)(R134a)

Koyama

Kim et al. Shin and


(2003)
Kim
(R22.
(2004)
R4I0A)
(RI34a)

et al.
(2003a, b)
(R 134a)

Cavallini et al.
(2004)(R410A)

Wang et
a1(2002)
134a)

Webb and
Ermis (2001)
(R134a)

Yan and
Lin (1999)
(R13\a)

10

Cavallini
et al. (2003)
(R134a)

Yang and
Webb (1996)
(R12)

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

G /kg mz s-'

Fig. 2.22 Approximate experimental ranges of mass flux and vapour-side heattransfer coefficient (summarised from Table 2.1)

-69-

Chapter 3
Aim and Scope of the Present Investigation
As seen in Chapter 2, relatively few heat-transfer data for condensation in small
channels (hydraulic diameter around 1 mm) are available. Moreover most of these
reported heat-transfer coefficients have large uncertainty; claimed bounds of error
are probably optimistic

- certainly

in cases where so-called "Wilson

plot"

techniques have been used to extract condensing-side, heat-transfer coefficients


from overall vapour-to-coolant measurements. In a few investigations attempts
have been made to measure local surface temperatures using thermocouples
attached to the tube wall and heat fluxes by attempting to measure the streamwise
temperature gradient in the coolant or by heat flux meters attached to the outer
surface of the multi-channel tubes. It is not easy to quantify the accuracy of these
measurements. Furthermore, the vapour temperature cannot be measured directly
in the small channels and is based on pressure measurements with the assumption
of local saturation conditions.

Multi microchannel tubes are now widely used in small condensersof motor
vehicle air-conditioning

units where design has been possible by trial and error.

For larger applications accurate data and validated models are needed. With one
exception, such models as are available are little more than correlations of

investigators own experimental data. The present investigation was intended to


help to rectify this problem.
Runs have been made for R113 using 4 different vapour mass fluxes and 4
different coolant inlet temperatures with similar coolant flow rates. The
3
for
fluxes
for
3
and
measurements
steam
were made
corresponding
vapour mass
coolant inlet temperatureswith similar coolant flow rates.
For each run, tube wall temperatures as well as vapour temperatures and pressures
at inlet and exit were observed. The data were processed to obtain vapour side
heat-transfer coefficients

under the various

conditions.

In the event, and

unfortunately, the results obtained in the present study cannot be said to be more

-70-

Chapter 3

reliable than existing data. This was primarily due to the fact that when the
apparatuswas dismantled at the end of the investigation, some of the channels
were found to have becomepartially blocked giving rise to severemaldistribution
of the vapour among the parallel channels.An attempt was made to interpret the
data in the light of the available information and results were obtainedwhich were
broadly in line with those earlier data which were considered to be among the
more reliable. Perhapsthe most important aspectof the presentinvestigation is in
highlighting the problems and indicating how these might be overcome. A new
test sectionhasbeendesignedand will be built and testedin a subsequentstudy.

-71-

Chapter 4
Apparatus and Instrumentation
4.1 Apparatus

4.1.1 General layout

An apparatus has been designed and built for investigation of condensation heat
transfer in multi-microchannel

tube (see Fig. 4.10). Figure 4.1 shows a schematic

diagram of the apparatus. Photographs of the assembled test rig before and after
insulation are shown in Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.3 respectively.

Vapour was generatedin the electrically-heated, stainless-steelevaporatorwhich


heaters
fitted
immersion
kW
1
two
with
was
stainless-steelsheathed
electric
controlled by variable transformers. The evaporator was fitted with a level
indicating tube. The vapour flowed vertically upwards into the stainless-steel
in
the
baffle
through
placed
suppressor
after
plates,
carry-over
passing
a series of
evaporator (close to the exit). At exit from the carry-over suppressor, the vapour
passed through the mixer and entered the inlet mixing chamber where the pressure
and temperature were measured. The vapour then entered the horizontallymounted, multi-microchannel

jacket.
in
located
a nylon water
condenser tube

Pressure sensors, differential

pressure transducer tappings and thermocouples

were located in the inlet and outlet mixing chambers. Pressure tappings were also
located before and after the nylon water jacket. At the exit from the test section,
the
by
before
to
the
passing
condensed
vapour
was
auxiliary
condenser
excess
liquid accumulator. The subcooled liquid was re-circulated by means of a gear
pump. The entire working fluid circulation loop, including the test section, was
wrapped with 50 mm thick glass fibre insulation.

It. should be pointed out that the R113 data were taken with condensate
continuously returned to the boiler and for steamthe return valve to the boiler was
in
became
boiler
done
tests
before
in
level
a
given
the
and
all
the
run were
closed
too low. It was becausethat the gear pump was not compatible with the quite low

-72-

Chapter 4

mass flow rate which could be generated with steam. The minimum flow rate
which the gear pump could provide was 0.22 1/min, while the maximum steam

flow rate was 0.041/min.


Cooling water was pumped from a coolant receiver to a stainless-steelvessel
fitted with two 1.5 kW immersion heatersto set the coolant inlet temperature.One
of heaterswas controlled by a variable transformer. At the exit from the coolant
heater,the cooling water was divided into two streamswhich were adjustedto the
sameflow rate by valves and measuredby flow meters.To ensurethat the coolant
was well mixed upstream of temperature measuring locations, the cooling water
entered two coolant mixing cylinders (details in Appendix D), prior to
temperaturemeasurement.The coolant enteredthe test section in counterflow and
flowed separatelythrough rectangularcross-sectionchannelsabove and below the
test condensertube. At exit from the channels the coolant flowed into coolant
mixing cylinders, prior to temperaturemeasurement.The coolant temperaturerise
in
directly
junction
(details
10
section
thermopile
measured using a
was also
(4.2.5)). The junctions were located in closed stainless-steeltubes placed in
coolant mixing cylinders. All thermocouples leads in the neighborhood of the
junctions were immersedto a depth of at least 100 mm. The coolant finally passed
through a heat exchangerto the coolant receiver.
4.1.2 Test section
Figure 4.4 (a, b) shows the inlet mixing chamber,pressuretappings and the water
jacket. Details of end mixing chambers and pressure tappings are given in
Appendix F.
Figure 4.5 shows the cross section of test section showing the nylon water jacket
lower
The
jacket
identical
tube.
water
upper and
consisted of
and microchannel
The
(see
for
details).
Figs.
4.7
side
4.6
as
side
supports
also
parts as well
and
hold
in
the
test
tube
the centre of water jacket. A silicon sealant
supports
flowing
The
between
lower
side
water
cooling
the
channels.
prevented
upper and
0bolted
test
tube
lower
the
were
together
with
parts.
supports
with upper and

-73-

Chapter 4

rings were fitted in the slots of upper and lower parts to seal the water jacket. The
external length of the water jacket was 808 mm. The upper and lower coolant
channels were 748 mm long and 5 mm high. Further details of the water jacket are

given in Appendix F.

The coolant temperatureswere measuredat 17 locations along the flow path. For
each location, measurementswere made in the upper and lower channels(seeFig.
4.6). The method of installation of thermocouplesin coolant channelsis shown in
Fig. 4.8 (a, b, c). The leads of thermocouples were approximately 5 mm long and
were bent towards the vapour flow direction to align the leads along an isotherm

in the neighborhoodof the junction.


20 thermocouples, 10 embedded in the upper surface of test tube and 10 in the
lower surface were used to measure the tube wall temperatures. Figure 4.7 shows
10 thermocouples embedded in the upper surface of test tube. Aluminum putty,
which has almost the same thermal conductivity

fix
to
used
of aluminum, was

thermocouples in position. Figure 4.9 (a, b) shows photographs of the


thermocouple grooves and two embeddedthermocouplesin the upper and lower
tube surface.Figure 4.9 (c) shows the details of a thermocoupleburied in the tube
surface.
Figure 4.10 shows a cross section of the microchannel tube with dimensions:

Total length: 1014.0mm;


External height: 2.03 mm;
Outside width: 25.45 mm;
Wall thickness:0.38 mm;
Number of channels:13;
Channelheight (except two end channels): 1.38 mm;
Channelwidth (except two end channels): 1.41 mm;
Hydraulic diameterof channels: 1.36 mm.

-74-

Chapter 4

The cross sectionsof the end channelswere taken as the combination of a semicircle and rectangle. The height of end channels was 1.06 mm and the overall

width was 1.41 mm. The hydraulic diameter was 1.21 mm.
4.2 Instrumentation

The circuit diagram, for the heater and for current and voltage measurements,is
shown in Fig. 4.11.
4.2.1 Evaporator heater power
The power dissipatedby the two 1 kW heatersin the evaporatorwas obtainedby
The
drop
heater
the
the
the
terminals
current.
potential
across
and
measuring
current was measured using a current transducer. The output signal from the
heater
drop
the
transducer
the
was
measured
across
along
with
current
potential
terminals using a precision digital multimeter (Thurlby Thandor model 1906).The
heater input power could be continuously adjusted in the range of 0-2

kW by

variable transformers connected to both heaters. The accuracy of power


measurementwas 0.2% of the measuredvalue
Taking account of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) when using electrical heaters for R113 tests, the nominal maximum input power was estimated as 1 kW. More
details are given in Appendix E.

4.2.2 Coolant heater power


The coolant heater was used to set the coolant inlet temperatureto the desired
in
dissipated
the
The
by
heater
the
power
coolant
measuring
value.
was obtained
heater
drops
the
terminals and the current. A variable transformer
across
potential
0
in
input
heater
the
the
range
adjustmentof
continuous
coolant
allowed
power
3 kW.

4.23 Coolant flow rates

-75-

Chapter 4

The coolant flowrates through the upper and lower of cooling water channelswere
measuredby two turbine flow meters. The flow meters could display flowrates
for
data
in
logging
Output
the
outputs
signal
or
control.
signals
and provided
range 0-5VD.

C. were directed to the data acquisition system.The accuracyof

the flow meters as shown on the manufacturer's specification was 0.5% of full
scale(nominal maximum flow rate 2.01/min).
4.2.4 Temperatures

All temperatureswere measured by copper-constantan(T-type) Teflon coated


thermocouples.The overall outer diameter of two wires together was 0.25 mm. 20
thermocoupleswere buried in the outer surfaceof test tube, 34 in the water jacket,
4 in coolant mixing cylinders, 2 in the inlet and exit mixing chambers of test
inlet
in
2
the
and outlet of evaporator,and 1 in the coolant heater.
section,
The wiring arrangementof the thermocouplejunctions is shown in Fig. 4.12. The
thermocouple leads from the measuring junction were soldered to thicker
The
led
data
to
cold
the
copper
wires,
which
system.
acquisition
enamelled
junctions of the thermocoupleswere placed in glass tubes well immersed(- 20 cm)
in crushed, melting, distilled-water ice in a large vacuum-walled vessel. These
arrangementsprovided the referencejunctions and at the sametime obviated any
thermal emf due to the lead wires.

The thermocoupleswere calibrated over ranges of temperatureexceeding those


for which they were to be used. The calibration of the thermocouplesis described
in Appendix B.

4.25 Coolant temperature rise

In addition to measuring the inlet and outlet coolant temperatures,two tenjunction thermopiles were used to measure the coolant temperaturerise for the
lower
The
junctions
coolant
channels.
and
upper
were located in closed stainless-

-76-

Chapter 4

steel tubes placed in mixing cylinders at the coolant inlet and outlet. The wiring
arrangement for the tenjunction thermopile is illustrated in Fig. 4.13. The
positions of the thermocouples together with details of the coolant mixing
cylinders are shown in Fig. 4.14.

4.2.6 Pressure

As shown in Fig. 4.1, pressure transducers were used in the test section inlet
mixing chamber and in the pressure tapping of adiabatic section of the test tube.
Also, a differential pressure transducer measured the pressure drop across the test
section, i. e. between tappings in the adiabatic sections at inlet and outlet. A1 mm
diameter hole was drilled in the inlet mixing chamber to connect to the pressure
transducer. In the adiabatic sections at inlet and outlet of the water jacket, 0.5 mm
deep and 1.0 mm wide slots were machined across the width of test tube so that
all channels accessed the pressure tappings. Details are given in Appendix F. The
atmospheric pressure was measured by a Fortin barometer.

For the two transducerswith the samepressurerange 0-4 bar, the accuracywas
0.15% of full scale, and for the differential transducer covering the range 01.5 bar, the accuracy was 0.04% of full scale. The connecting stainless-steel
tubes were sloped upward and had i.d. approximately 4 mm, sufficient to prevent
liquid.
of
retention
4.2.7 Regulated AC/DC adapter

A regulatedAC/DC adapterwas used to supply the power to pressuretransducers


input
The
flow
sensors.
voltage of adapter was 230 V A. C. and the output
and
V
C.
12
D.
which was suitable for all of sensors.
was
voltage
4.2.8 Working fluid and coolant pumps

A variable-speedgear pump was used in working fluid loop, which was controlled
by a variable DC output motor controller. The motor had a3- 12 V D. C voltage

-77-

Chapter 4

range and the flowrate could be varied continuously from 0.22 -r 2.2 Umin. A
three-speedcentrifugal pump was installed in coolant loop.
4.2.9 Data acquisition system

The data acquisition system was composed of the three CIO-EXP 32 analog
boards, one PCIM-DAS 1602116 analog/digital 1/0 board, four data cables as well
as a desktop computer. The CIO-EXP 32 analog board was a 32-channel board
and a signal conditioning accessory board that expanded that number of analog
inputs. One channel only could be connected with one sensor, therefore, to
accommodate 63 thermocouples, 2 thermopiles, 3 pressure transducers, and 2 flow
sensors, three analog boards were used. Because these analog boards were
mounted external to the computer, they were placed with a cover on the benchtop.
The

PCIM-DAS1602/16

analog/digital

1/0

board

was

multifunction

measurement and control board designed to operate in computers with PCI bus
accessory slots, also provided either 8 differential

or 16 single-ended input

channels, 16-bit A/D resolution, 100 kHz sample rate, dual 12-bit analog outputs,
32 DIO channels and three 16-bit counters.

The data were analyzed in real time using a PC and a data reduction program
developed by using LabVIEW. All of the information concerning the test
conditions and measureddata were displayed on the monitor during the test.

-78-

Chapter 4

To vacuum

Exit mixer for


uiPer coolant
channel

P
TirJ
Vapour
inlet
chamber

Testsection

TT
Exit mixer for
lower coolant

Relief

valve

T
yam/
condensate
exit chamber

A
f

Net mixer for


uppercoolant
channel M
Coolantflowmeter

del

City water

Inlct mixer
for lower

coolant
charnel
City water

Heatexchanger

Mixer

Coolantsupply
T=

(D

City water

Auxiliary
conda=

Coolant
heater

Coolant
receiver

Carry-over
W
F---

-To

drain

Coolant
pump

Evaporator

Working fluid
PUMP
To drain

Working fluid
Coolant
OT

To
ammPhere

Working
fluid
accumulator

Level indicating
tube

- t*1-

Cif,
water

Temperature measurement

Pressuremeasurement
Pressuredifferencemeasurement

Fig. 4.1 Schematicof test rig

-79-

I.)
n.
V
cID

c4
V

H
M

tb
'LZ

C
.Y

V
N

a
V
ci)
`)
V
N
V
r! 1

Chapter 4

w4
A
Am

I'rra

urc

Lipper coolant
outlet

Pressure
ansduccr

O-ring

coolant
thermocouple

Seal
Upper coolant
channel

gasket

flirntxxoupk
probc

Thermocouple
slot

Test tube

Lower

Seal

coolant

channel

gasket
Lower
coolant outlet

Inlet of vapour

. Material of vapour inlet chamber, pressure tapping and


water jacket: nylon

(b) Not to scale


4.4 Details of vapour inlet mixing chamber, pressure tapping and test section
inlet
(Note that fibre glass insulation was used between the nylon components)

-81-

Chapter 4

Upper part of
Upper coolant
nylon water jacket
channel

Microchannel tube

Nylon side
support of
test tube

Nylon side
supportof
test tube

Lower part of
nylon water jacket

tower coolant
channel

Silicon sealant

(Sketch not to scale)

Fig. 4.5 Cross section of test section showing


the water jacket and microchannel tube

-82-

Chapter 4

I'peer pail (outi(le

view)

Screw for supporting a thermocouple in coolant

Coolant top outlet

Coolant top inlet


O-ring

Spacer

fro

Spacer,

Coolant bottom inlet

Coolant botiom outlet


'

Lover part (inside view)

Fig. 4.6 Photograph of outside and inside view of identical upper and lower parts
of nylon water jacket

Fig. 4.7 Photograph of nylon side supports of microchannel tube with


thermocouples

-83-

Chapter 4

ee
(a) Photograph of outside top view (without thermocouples)

(b) Photograph of inside top view (with thermocouples)

Thermocouple

Thermocouple
junction

Silicon sealant

Material of screw: nylon


(Sketch not to scale)

(c) Screw used in coolant channels for supporting thermocouples


Fig. 4.8 Thermocouples installation in coolant channels

-84-

Chapter 4

(a) Photograph of thermocouple grooves on the microchannel tube

Will I

A! 7.-

10

5,0

..

(0

80

70

'

(b) Photograph of thermocouples buried in the outer tube surface

Thcmiocouplc wires

Aluminum

putty
Thcmmocouplc

Thcrmocouplc
slot(approx. to
half width above
and below)

I
AA

LJ
Section A-A
(All dimension iu mm)

Thcmiocouplc wuLs
Top vicw

(c) Details of thermocouple buried in the outer tube surface

Fig. 4.9 Thermocouples installation in the upper and lower tube surfaces

-85-

Chapter 4

25.45 mm

E
E
0

Fig. 4.10 Cross section of condensertube

Emcrg-ncv

Coolant
hcata
no. 4

Current

ttuns4uc

r antun

\blta
Rccuf

rcgulatur

Curren
transducer

l'IM llllli>tl

11

6 VA.

2200
IIl

out

111
IIT-,
IIT111

Fig. 4.11 Circuit diagram showing power distribution to heaters in main test rig

-86-

Chapter 4

Thermocouple
Wire I

Wire 2
er
data
tion

,Measuring
junction

wires

coppleads

Reference and lead


junctions in melting
distilled-water ice

(a) Thermocouple junctions

(b) Arrangement of reference


and lead junctions

Fig. 4.12 Arrangement of thermocouple junctions

-87-

Chapter 4

135 mm total length


100 mm immersion length

ir
E

s
7

Stainless steel tube

Copper and constantan wires


(insulated from each other)

10 soldered joints
(4 shown)

(a) Thermopile probe

Inlet probe
(10 junctions,
4 shown)

L-J
Thick copper wires

to dataacquisition

Copper-constantan
/
Outlet probe
(10 junctions,
4 shown)

system

Ice bath

(b) Wiring arrangement for thermopile

Fig. 4.13 Wiring arrangement for 10-junction thermopile (4 junctions shown)

-88-

Chapter 4

rmopn.
rims
nop{I.
be

material

Baffle

80th.:

R11 m
"Co
16 mm
Snn
8hos2.

of

construction

Urass

Bot ne supports

: Copper

Mixer Body and and pieces : Pitt

Me suppers

Baffle A
Baffle

Baffle

R11 mm
PCD "7
mm
8 ho MS 3 mm

coaoncni. t
(AII dimensions in mm)
(sketch not to scole)

Fig. 4.14 Details of coolant mixing cylinder and position of thermopile tube

-89-

Chapter 5
Experimental Procedure

5.1 Preliminary

tests

Prior to mounting

the water jacket

with

end mixing

chambers and the

microchannel test tube to the test rig, the end mixing chambers and water jacket
were filled with the water and pressurized by approximately 0.2 MPa. The upper
and lower coolant channels were tested separately to ensure no leakage between
channels or to the exterior. The test section was pressurized for 8 hours and no
leakage was found.

After assembling the entire test rig, the apparatus was pumped down to an
absolute pressure of around 5 kPa. The valve, connecting the vacuum pump to the
apparatus (see Fig 4.1), was closed and the pressure in the test section was
recorded at intervals. The apparatus was allowed to remain under vacuum
condition for 7 hours. A pressure rise less than 4 mmHg (0.5 kPa) over a period of
7 hours was considered acceptable. It is noted that all tests were conducted at
pressures above atmospheric.

After leak testing, the apparatus was thermally well insulated. The `heat loss'
in
for
frictional
test
the
test
coolant
the
temperature
rise
and
calibration
calibration
were then conducted (for details see Appendices D and G).

5.2 Procedure for tests with pure refrigerant

R-113

For R- 113 tests, as mentioned in Chapter 4, the return valve to the evaporator was
open so that the working fluid circulated continuously. Taking account of Critical
Heat Flux (see Appendix E) and the capacity of gear pump, the total maximum
input power was determined as 600 W (300 W for each heater). The evaporator
was filled with R-113 to a level so that the heaters were submerged by around 250
mm. The thermocouple cold junction
approximately

15% distilled-water

vessel was filled

with the mixture of

and 85% crushed ice. The coolant loop was

-90-

Chapter 5

filled with distilled-water and coolant pump was switched on followed by the
coolant heaters when needed. The coolant inlet temperature, when above ambient,
was set using the coolant heaters. City water was passed through the heat
exchanger in coolant loop (see Fig 4.1). The coolant flow rates for the upper and
lower coolant channels of the test section were measured by two flow meters and
set to the same required values by adjusting the valves. The apparatus was run at
the allowed maximum evaporator power for one hour after condensation first
occurred. The condensate gear pump was switched on when needed. The
evaporator heater power and the coolant inlet temperature and the flow rate were
then set to the required values for the first test and the apparatus allowed around
50 minutes to reach a pseudo steady state, at which the fluctuation of vapour inlet
temperature was within

0.5 K over a period of 10 -

15 minutes, before

measurements were taken. All of the R-113 tests were conducted at a coolant flow
rate around 1.1 Umin for each of the upper and lower coolant channels. A normal
day's testing consisted of four different evaporator heater powers with the same
coolant inlet temperature and flow rate. The following

measurements were taken

at each heater power:

1) Ambient pressure and temperature.


2) Potential difference across terminals of each heater and current flowing through
each heater.
3) Coolant flow rates for the upper and lower coolant channels.
4) Pressures at the inlet mixing chamber and the inlet pressure tapping.
5) Pressure drop across the test section.
6) Temperatures at the inlet and outlet mixing chambers.
7) Temperatures of the inlet liquid (condensate return) and outlet vapour of the
evaporator.
8) Temperatures of coolant inlet and outlet for upper and lower coolant channels.
9) Temperature difference between coolant inlet and outlet for upper and lower
coolant channels using thermopiles.
10) Coolant temperatures along the water jacket.
11) Temperatures of the condenser test tube wall.

-91-

Chapter 5

On completing a day's test, all heaters were switched off and after around 40
minutes the coolant supplies to the water jacket, the auxiliary condenser and the
heat exchanger in coolant supply were also switched off. After an interval of one
week, all tests were repeated with similar conditions to verify repeatability.

5.3 Procedure for tests with pure steam

Before commencing the steam tests, the evaporator was firstly emptied, and the
test rig was dried by passing nitrogen through it for several hours after which the
evaporator was filled with distilled-water.

For the steam tests, as mentioned in Chapter 4, the return valve to the evaporator
was closed and the condensate gear pump was switched off. In view of the quite
low vapour mass flow rate which could be generated with steam, it was necessary
to use a relatively high coolant inlet temperature so as not to condense all of steam
in a small fraction of the tube length. The evaporator was run at full power (about
2 kW), and coolant inlet temperatures of 50 C, 65 C and 75 C were used.
Except that there was no condensate return temperature to measure, the remainder
of the test procedure for steam tests was the same as for R-113 tests described
above.

Unfortunately, at the start of the steam tests, a leakage occurred at the inlet mixing
chamber which was located before the test condenser tube. Owing to the time
inlet
it
fabricate
to
mixing
not
possible
was
redesign
a
new
restriction,
and
chamber. Although many efforts were made seal the inlet mixing chamber, they
determine
the
An
to
successful.
wholly
attempt
not
were
was subsequently made
leakage flow rate and thus to correct the steam mass flow rate to the test
condenser tube. The procedure is discussed in Chapter 6.

-92-

Chapter 6
Observations and Results
6.1 Observations

6.1.1 Measured quantities

The following quantitieswere measuredand are recordedin Appendix J:


1) Ambient pressureand temperature.
2) Potential difference acrossterminals of eachheaterand current flowing through
eachheaterof evaporator.
3) Coolant flow rates for the upper and lower coolant channels.
4) Pressuresat the inlet mixing chamberand the inlet pressuretapping.
5) Pressuredrop acrossthe test section.
6) Temperaturesat the inlet and outlet mixing chambers.
7) Temperaturesof the inlet liquid (condensatereturn) and outlet vapour of the
evaporator.
8) Temperaturesof coolant inlet and outlet for top and bottom channels.
9) Temperature difference between coolant inlet and outlet for top and bottom
channels using thermopiles.

10) Coolant temperaturesalong the water jacket.


11) Temperaturesof the condensertest tube wall.
Thesedata are shown in Figs. 6.4 - 6.50 which illustrate temperaturedistributions
along the tube surfaces and in the coolant. The measured temperatures and
inlet
in
the
temperatures
to
the
corresponding
saturation
measured pressures
mixing chamberand the pressuretappings in the inlet and outlet adiabaticsections
6.36
Figs.
Figures
6.4
6.35
for
tube
R-113
test
also
shown.
tests
are
and
of
are
6.50 are for steamtests.
It is seenthat in some cases(Figs. 6.4 - 6.9,6.12 - 6.16,6.20 - 6.23,6.28 - 6.29
for R-1 13 testsand, Figs. 6.36 - 6.40,6.42 - 6.43,6.45 6.46 for steamtests),the
-

-93-

Chapter 6

surface temperatures cooled down to the coolant temperatures at some position


along the surface. It was presumed that the condensation was essentially
completed at these locations. For these tests, in subsequent calculations, the
condensing length was estimated from the graphs, e.g. in Fig. 6.4 (a), the
condensing length was estimated to be 0.34 m. In cases where the condensation

was not completed in the test tube, the subsequentcalculations used the whole
condensinglength of test tube.

In all cases an appreciable pressure drop was found between the inlet mixing
chamberand the pressuretapping in the inlet adiabatic section. This is seenin the
figures by the drop in the correspondingsaturationtemperature.
It is also noted that for those caseswhere the condensationwas completedat some
position before the exit, the saturation temperaturecorrespondingto the pressure
in the exit adiabatic section was much higher than the temperaturemeasuredin the
outlet mixing chamber, indicating that in the cases the condensateat exit is
significantly subcooled(almost to the coolant temperature).
In cases where the condensation was not completed in the test tube the saturation
temperature corresponding to the pressure in the exit adiabatic section was close
to the observed temperature in the exit mixing chamber which was significantly
higher than the coolant temperature, e.g. see Fig. 6.10.

6.1.2 Derived quantities


The thermodynamic and transport properties of R-113 were obtained from NIST
Refprop 6.01 database(McLinden et al. (1998)). The properties of water and
steam were calculated using the equations listed in Appendix A. Thermo-emfs
in
to
temperatures
converted
were
using appropriate calibration equationsgiven
Appendix B.

Coolant mass flow rate

-94-

Chapter 6

The volume flow rates of coolant through the upper and lower coolant channels
flowmeters.
For
two
turbine
each coolant channel,the mass
measured
using
were
flow rate was calculatedfrom

mc= VcxPC

(6.1)

where

me
VG

coolant massflow rate

measuredcoolant volume flow rate


coolant density evaluatedat the averageof coolant inlet and outlet

A-

temperatures

Evaporator heater power


The power dissipatedby the evaporatorheaterswas calculated from the potential
differencesacrossthe heaterterminals and the current, thus
2

QB= EVrxI1
i-I

(6.2)

where
QB
V

I,

power dissipated in the evaporator heaters

potential difference across heater i

current flowing through heateri

Heat loss between the evaporator and test section


The method of evaluating the heat loss rate QL is described in Appendix G and
from
obtained
was

-95-

Chapter 6

QL =KL(T, -T, )

(6.3)

where
QL
KL
Tl
T.

heat loss rate

constant=1.60 W/K (seeAppendix G)

temperatureat the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

ambient temperature

Vapour mass flow rate into inlet mixing chamber


The vapour mass flow rate was calculated from the input power to the evaporator
heaterswith a small correction for heat loss by equation (6.3), which causedreflux
condensationin the supply line betweenthe evaporatorand inlet mixing chamber.
As mentioned in Chapter 5, the R-113 data were taken with condensate
boiler
boiler
for
the
to
to
the
was
the
returned
and
steam
continuously
return valve
different
to
that
the
condensate
slightly
returned
evaporator, so
closed and no
for
flow
the two
to
the
rate
equationswere used calculate
evaporativevapour mass
cases.
(1) R-113 vapour mass flow rate into inlet mixing chamber
From a steady flow energy balance between the condensate return to the
by
inlet,
is
flow
test
the
the
given
section
and
vapour mass
rate
evaporator

m _

QB - QL
hfg +c,,

1(7

(6.4)

-TcR

where

MY
Q-

vapour mass flow rate


power dissipated by evaporator heaters calculated by equation
(6.2)

-96-

Chapter 6

QL
hf8

heat loss rate calculatedby equation(6.3)

specific enthalpy of evaporation, evaluated at the evaporator exit


temperature

specific isobaric heat capacity of saturated liquid, evaluated at

T0

(To,g+Tca)/2
vapour temperatureat the evaporatorexit

TCR

temperatureof condensatereturning to evaporator

c,,

(2) Steam mass flow rate into inlet mixing chamber

With no condensatereturning to the evaporator,the following equationwas used


to calculate the vapour massflow rate.

Qs -QL
MV_
hfg

(6.5)

where

my
QB

vapour massflow rate

power dissipated by evaporator heaters calculated by equation


(6.2)

QL

heat loss calculatedby equation (6.3)

Vapour mass flow rate into condenser tube


(1) R-113 vapour mass flow rate into condenser tube
The calculation was the same as that for vapour mass flow rate into inlet mixing
chamber(seeequation(6.4)).
(2) Steam mass flow rate into condenser tube

-97-

Chapter 6

As mentioned in Chapter 5, for steam tests, a leakage occurred at the inlet mixing

chamberand an approximatecorrection was made to the calculation for massflow


rate into inlet mixing chamberas indicated below.
For the testswhere the steamwas fully condensed(see Figs. 6.36 - 6.40,6.42
6.43 and 6.45 - 6.46 and heat balance for test section in Appendix H), the mass
flow rate in microchannels was determined from the heat-transfer rate to the
coolant in the test section. Thus in these cases,the vapour mass flow rate into
condensertube was calculatedas below:

Q.
m_
(p2)-Ts)
hf8+C
J(T.

(6.6)

where

MY

vapour massflow rate into condensertube

Q.

heat-transferrate to the coolant calculatedby equation(6.10)

hfe

specific enthalpy of evaporation

Cp,j

specific isobaric heat capacity of saturatedliquid

Ts(P2)

saturation temperaturecorrespondingto measuredvapour pressure


P2 at the inlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

T2

temperature at the outlet mixing chamber (see Fig. 6.1)

For the tests where the steam was not fully condensed(see Figs. 6.41,6.44 and
6.47 - 6.50), the vapour mass flow rate was estimated as below, based on the
inlet
leakage
in
the
(pressure
the
for
that
the
tests
rate
was
assumption
same
all
mixing chamberwas almost the samein all cases).

m = mv,at.(6.5)-m leak

where

vapour massflow rate into condensertube

-98-

(6.7)

Chapter 6

mv,cq.(6.)
Mkak

original vapour mass flow rate given by equation (6.5)

average leakage rate given by equation (6.9), see below

Since the pressurein the inlet mixing chamber was almost the same for all tests,
leakage
take
the
rate at entrance to the tube to be constant and use the tests
we
fully
it,
to
thus
the
was
condensed
steam
evaluate
all
of
where

Mleak= mv,gd6"5)
- m(66)

(6.8)

where

Mleak
mv,ey.(6.5)
mv,cq.(6.6)

leakagerate at the inlet mixing chamber

original vapour massflow rate given by equation(6.5)

vapour mass flow rate from heat balancegiven by equation


(6.6)

The averageleakage rate for the complete condensationsteamtests (9 tests) was


obtainedfrom
9

mie _

"9
m1eak

(6.9)

and, as indicated in Appendix I, found to be 2.05x 104 kg/s with a STD deviation
in
i.
'best
done
kg/s,
large
0.90
10"4
be
the
but
e. a
the
that could
x
uncertainty
of
circumstances.
6.2 Results

6.2.1 Heat-transfer rate to coolant


The heat-transferrate to the coolant in each of the upper and lower channelswas
from
the coolant flow rate and the temperaturerise as follows,
calculated

-99-

Chapter 6

(6.10)

Q= mecpATc

where
Q,
inc
cp
ATS

heat-transferrate to the coolant

coolant massflow rate

specific isobaric heat capacity of the coolant

coolant temperaturerise measuredby 10junction thermopile

The temperature rise of the coolant AT, was calculated from the thermopile
readingusing the following equation:

(6.11)

AT,=(OJXIdJee

is
from
junction
Ae
the
thermo-emf
the
ten
thermopile,
reading
where

(d)

is

the slope of the calibration curve for a single thermocouple(from the samereel) at
is
between
inlet
B),
(see
Appendix
the midpoint
and em
and outlet emf values
expressedas below:

em=ei, +21-10

(6.12)

in
discussed
As
is
from
inlet
the
thermocouple.
where ejn the thermo-emf read
Appendix D, the temperaturerise due to frictional dissipation in the coolant was
found to be negligible.
6.2.2 Vapour mass flux to channels
When the test tube was dismounted from the test rig, it was found to be severely
blocked as shown in Fig. 6.2. This may have been causedby decompositionof R113 in the electrically heated evaporator leading possibly to hydrogen fluoride,

-100-

Chapter 6

hydrogen chloride fluoride and chloride which attacked the aluminum tube. This
finding explained why there was the significant pressure drop between the inlet
chamber and the pressure tapping in the inlet adiabatic section, as

mixing

mentioned above in the description of Figs. 6.4 - 6.50.

In view of this situation, an attempt was made to re-evaluate the flow area of
"effective" channels, i. e. unblocked channels. From Fig. 6.2, it is apparent that
only the equivalent of around 2 channelswas unobstructed.An alternative method
basedon pressuredrop was also used to estimatethe effective flow areaand hence
a number of effective channels.The vapour massflux per "effective" channelwas
then calculated.

A crude method of estimating the effective channel area was based on flow
through an abrupt contraction from the face area of the inlet mixing chamber to
the effective channelarea.Thus from a steady-flow momentumbalance:
i_ PIIUi PU2
-

P
22

_ P, - P2= OP

(6.13)

where
PI
Pz

vapour pressureat the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

vapour pressureat the inlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

and

Ut = mI(p

Ai)

U2= mll(p,, A2)

(6.14a)
(6.14b)

and is the "loss coefficient" for a single abrupt contraction, given (seeRose and
Cooper (1977)) by

-101-

Chapter 6

5=0.45 1-2

41)

(6.15)

and

vapour velocity at the inlet mixing chamber

vapour velocity in channels

AI

cross section areaof the inlet mixing chamber(= 312.0 mm)

A2

effective channelarea

vapour massflow rate

vapour density, evaluatedat T1(seeFig 6.1)

Ul
U2

my
p

Substituting (6.14a), (6.14b) and (6.15) into (6.13) and rearrangingequation (6.13)
gives:

0.Am"
(2P,
)AZ
2Ui
AZ -1.45m2 =0
+
AP+P,

(6.16)

Equation (6.16) is a quadratic in A2 which may be solved. We then estimatethe


number of effective channelsn as follows:
n= A2/ Am

(6.17)

in
is
A2
is
A.
given
the cross section area of one channel (= 1.83 mm2).
where
Tables 6.1,6.2 and 6.3.

This methodwas firstly applied to the preliminary steamtestsin 2005 which were
presumedto have no blockage (see Fig. 6.3). The estimatedeffective channelarea
A2 and calculatednumber of effective channelsn are given in Table 6.1.

-102-

Chapter 6

Table 6.1: EstimatedA2 and n for preliminary steamtests


Date

/kgx1i

AP /Pa A2 /mm2

05-06-05
05-06-05

6.39
6.45

3411.2
3310.4

11.62
11.75

6.35

17-06-05

5.85

2990.1

11.32

6.19

01-07-05

8.54

5590.8

11.18

6.11

05-07-05

8.67

05-07-05
14-07-05

8.75

7142.6
6238.4

9.96
10.61

8.87
8.62

5880.0

11.14

5.44
5.80
6.09

5355.8

10.78

8.57

4861.0

11.65

5.89
6.37

8.58

4701.4

11.76

6.43

09-11-05
09-11-05

09-11-05

6.42

The approximate calculation method clearly underestimated the number of


factor
by
factor
We
(szl
this
2.13
13/6.1).
then
channels
used
a
effective
as around
to re-evaluatethe number of effective channelsshown as n' in Tables 6.2 and 6.3
for steamcasesand R-113 casesrespectively.

Table 6.2: EstimatedA2, n and n' for steamtests


AP /Pa

A2 /mm2

53551.4
29380.5
52727.1
30346.6
52206.0
28646.9
59159.6
54808.2
52830.0
84750.6

0.68
1.97
1.53
1.77
1.93
1.61
1.94
1.89

0.37
1.08
0.84
0.97
1.05
0.88
1.06
1.03

0.79
2.29
1.78
2.06

S-6a
S-7a
S-7b

m"X
/kg s 1
1.46
3.23
2.14
3.15
2.07
1.92
3.13
3.11
3.75
4.38
4.28

0.92
0.68

1.96
1.44

76560.2

1.68
1.24
1.30

0.71

1.51

S-8a

5.51

89858.5

1.49

0.81

1.73

S-8b

5.24

74615.8

1.62

0.89

1.89

S-9a

5.69
5.66

85338.6
71316.1

1.56

0.85

1.82

1.77

0.97

2.06

Run No.
S-la
S-lb
S-2a
S-2b
S-3a
S-3b
S-4a
S-5a

S-9b

-103-

2.25
1.87
2.26
2.20

Chapter 6

Table 6.3: EstimatedA2, n and n' for R 113 tests


g 103

A2 /Mn 2

R-la
R-lb
R-2a

/k s"
1.46
1.48
1.49

AP /Pa

41962.1
44740.1
37801.0

R-2b

1.47

R-3a
R-3b
R- 4a

1.45
1.49
1.46

R-4b
R-5a
R-5b
R-6a
R-6b
R-7a
R-7b
R-8a
R-8b
R-9a

1.45
2.01
2.03
2.02
2.05
2.01
2.02
1.98
2.05
2.53

R-9b

Run No.

n'

1.88
1.82
2.03

1.03
0.99

2.19
2.11

1.11

2.36

40655.4

1.92

1.05

2.24

42820.5
43658.6

1.83
1.86

1.0

2.13
2.17

41229.7
40470.3
65457.6
68185.9
57435.3
64916.8
63858.0
66877.8
61131.7

1.86
1.88
1.91
1.88
2.07
1.94
1.92

1.02
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.03
1.13
1.06
1.05

2.19
2.22
2.19
2.41
2.26
2.24

1.87
1.92

1.02
1.05

2.17
2.24

62832.9

1.94

1.06

2.26

1.93

1.05

2.24

2.45

87924.9
87463.0

1.88

1.03

2.19

R-10a

2.51

79430.6

2.03

1.11

2.36

R-10b

2.52

83303.6

1.98

1.08

R-lla

2.50
2.37
2.50
2.48
2.97
2.97
2.90
2.93
2.85
2.93
2.91

92402.4
83684.0
93282.0
78633.0
102600.3
109172.5
96420.0
95737.4
110630.6
105069.3
98110.5

1.83
1.85

1.0

2.30
2.13
2.15
2.09

2.89

96588.7

R-1 lb
R-12a
R-12b
R-13a
R-13b
R-14a
R-14b
R-15a
R-15b
R-16a
R-16b

1.80
1.98
2.0
1.92
2.01
2.05
1.81
1.90
2.0
1.96'

1.01
0.98
1.08
1.09
1.05
1.10
1.12
0.99
1.04
1.09
1.07

2.17

2.30
2.32
2.24
2.34
2.39
2.11
2.22
2.32
2.28

In view of this crude approximate calculation, we choose, for subsequentdata


2
for
i.
2,
to
data
only
value
a
e. we presumethe observed
n' of
related
evaluation,
below:
The
flux
as
channels.
vapour
to channelswas then calculated
effective
mass

-104-

Chapter 6

m
2

(6.18)
m

where
G-

vapour massflux to channels

vapour massflow rate into condensertube

averagecross section areaof one channel(= 1.83 mm2)

A.

6.2.3 Vapour-side heat flux

Since the heat-transferrate to the coolant was obtained for the upper and lower
streamsseparately,the vapour-sideheat flux is given by

Q-

(6.19)

2pL

where

q-

vapour-sideheat flux

QC

total heat-transferrate to the coolant

p-

averageinside perimeter of one channel(= 2.68 mm)

L-

effective condensinglength

Note that the effective condensing length for cases with the incomplete
it
0.748
for
the
m and,
caseswith
complete condensation was
condensationwas
from
the graphsas mentioned in Section 6.1.1 of the presentchapter.
estimated
6.2.4 Vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient
The meanvapour-sideheat-transfercoefficient, a, was calculatedfrom

a =q
AT.

105
-

(6.20)
"

Chapter 6

is
log(6.19)
by
ATII,,,,
heat
flux
is
the
the
equation
and,
given
vapour-side
where q
by,
between
difference
tube
temperature
wall,
given
and
vapour
mean
DT, -AT2
ATS,,,,=
ln(AT, / ATZ)
AT1= (T, - Tw)end
ATZ= (Ts- Tw)m

(6.21a)
(6.21b)
(6.21c)

is
is
T,
T.
temperature,
the
the tube wall temperature, and
saturation
where
subscripts `in' and `end' indicate the inlet of test section and the position where
the effective condensationlength ended,respectively. As in other investigations a
linear trend was assumed for the saturation temperature between the inlet and
outlet saturation temperatures corresponding to pressuresmeasuredat the inlet
and outlet pressuretappings, shown as TS(P2)and Ts(P3)in Figs. 6.4 - 6.50.

-106-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

00. ant uut. rt


Inlet mixing
chamber

\ ;,;,, ur in. ct

Outlet mixing
chamber

Water jacket

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel

tube

Coolant inlet

Fig. 6.1 Schematic of the test section

ri"iuaI tube

khi I rid vI v (atier dismuntin)

Fig. 6.2 Photograph of the test tube

Ii.

t,. " I'Iiot"

?
in
OUP
for
tests
the
test
tube
raplh of
preliminary
used

107-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
Inlet mixing
chamber

Water jacket

Outlet mixing
chamber

A, T:

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

60 3\

Multi-channel tube

T(P)
T

50 .

T(P)
__

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measuredtemperature

coolant

r(P)-

U
40

a,
CL
E
4)
30

O\
p-'

0.0

O'Ll-p'.

X
-0, -

0.1

0.2

---A

0.3

-C9-O----

O--UO-q

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant mass flow rate me = 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperature T,;,,= 23.67 C

so

T(P)

so

Io

Q coolant
surface
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure

TT(P)

temperature

measured

T(P3)
40
n
E
~
Tz

30

aax

n-o

Q-

vQ

--a--fin

20
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

distance

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

/m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant mass flow rate me = 17.9 g/s;
C
inlet
23.40
T,
temperature
coolant
1=

Fig. 6.4 Run No. R-1 a, R 113: Temperature distribution along the test tube
surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass flow rate m = 1.46 x 10-3kg/s

108
-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet
Inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Water jacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
T2

P, T

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

60

T(P)

"
A
X

T (Pz)

50-

Coolant inlet

surface

coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
T(P)

iC

40

n
E

Tz

30-lT

2011
00

0.1

0.2

.,,

tT--O-O

Q-(}-Q----

TI
0.3

0.4

II
0.5

distance

ti.
0.7

0.6

TIT
0.6

0.9

/m

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant mass flow rate me = 17.9 g/s;
coolant inlet temperature T,,,,,= 26.39 C
6\

T(P)

surface

T+

go

o
X

AT(P)

coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
T(P')

U
40-

E
T

30ppOX

201-T0.0

r.
0.1

I.
0.2

T'T'
0.3

0.4

I.
0.5

distance

I.
0.6

I
0.7

T'T
0.8

0.9

/m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant mass flow rate me = 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperature T,.,;,,= 26.06 C

Fig. 6.5 Run No. R-lb, R113: Temperature distribution along the test tube
surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass flow rate m = 1.48 x 10-3kg/s

-109-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
Inlet mixing
P:
chha
amber

Outlet mixing
P,
chamber

Waterjacket

Ti

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

60

P)

Coolant inlet

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

""
TA

50"
A
T"(p)/

40
T=
o ro

0-. 0_0. x_

o,

c! dv

30-

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

4A_M_

0.7

0.9

0.8

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate Mc= 17.8 g/s;
C
inlet
31.08
T,;
temperature
coolant
=
T"(P)

a coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,
TtPJ
50 - wo-

e
T(P)1-11

140
a
E
T
^t}

0.0

0"-Ll

0.1

p_D
i7 ''

02

0.3

n tit}

t i a__....

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.5 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 30.72 C
Fig. 6.6 Run No. R-2a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
10"3
flow
coolant
x
and
channels,vapour mass
surfaces
rate m =1.49

-110-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
mixing p,

Out
p,
hambxing

Waterjacket

T=
=

R, T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

TP)

"

coolant

A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T,

x
50

surface

Coolant inlet

measured temperature

7(p
TP

10ro

a) 40CL
E"
T=
x

30-

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,m= 30.01 C
60-

7(P)
m coolant

surface

A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T(Pj

so

n
T(Pj
aL 40CL
E
T2

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel:coolant massflow rate me= 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;.= 30.78 C
Fig. 6.7 Run No. R-2b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
10"3
1.47
flow
x
surfacesand coolant channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-111-

Chapter 6

Wet

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
9R

Waterjacket

P,

amber
chtlet
Ta

P,, Ti

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

60

T(pj

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

0 coolant
" surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T.
55-

7;(pj

r(P)

45

40

35

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

Tp

0.6
0.5
distance /m

0.4

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.4 g/s;
C
inlet
37.24
T,;,
temperature
coolant
=
60 -TAP)
r'

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

55-

r(Pj

7(P)

45aEi

T.

40

355'+*5
0.0

0.1

1
02

TT
0.3

T.
0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance/m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate Mc=18.4 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,in= 37.0 C
Fig. 6.8 Run No. R-3a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
10"3
1.45
flow
x
surfacesand coolant channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-112-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
g P:
et
chamber

Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber

Ii,

T,

ni

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T(P)

0
o

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

TI

50 m

Coolant inlet

T(P)
0

"/T(P)

45

"

ao

r
x

35
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
005 0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.9 g/s;
C
inlet
37.50
T,;
temperature
coolant
=
60

TIP

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T
551

T.(PJ
ro

45

40T

x
35
0.0

0.1

7777
0.2
0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance Jm

0.7

D.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m5= 18.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,= 37.22 C
Fig. 6.9 Run No. R-3b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
10"3
in
flow
x*
coolant
channels,vapour mass
surfacesand
rate m =1.49

-113-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Water jacket

P:

T,

P,, T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

P)

60 -T

" surface

Coolant inlet

0 coolant

A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,
56-

52m
T(P

TP, )
\p

T.

E
y"x

44

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.5 g/s;
C
inlet
43.79
T,;
temperature
coolant
=

60 -

: (Pd

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

56-

52
T(Pj
r(Pj

T=

', -n

0.48-

Sx
44 --a-C----

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me=18.4 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,m= 43.48 C
Fig. 6.10 Run No. R-4a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m =1.46 X 10"3kg/s

-114-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Wet mpg
chamber

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Waterjacket

p-

Ti

P, T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

T,
\

"
o

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

: Pd

56U
52T(PZ)
L

T(P)

E48
X
44

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.7

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,,;,= 44.11 C

60

-T'
TT(P)

surface
A

52

coolannt

saturation temperature corresponding

to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

56
i

r_-

T.

42
`

TAP)

E 48

wx

44
40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. = 18.4 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,= 43.78 C
Fig. 6.11 Run No. R-4b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 1.45 X 10"3kg/s

-115-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mpg
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Water jacket

P:

I., r

T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

TPa

60-

plant

inlet

"
o

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,

VPJ

so

/
JPIV

mT
L 40a

T.

_D . n. -0oao

0.0

0.1

02

o.. n

oD

0.3

"

0.4

40.0.

-0..

0.8

0.7

0.5

__
0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc;m= 25.79 C

\1"tr't
60T

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

so D
T(Pj "*

40

T!
l
X

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
06
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;n= 25.81 C
Fig. 6.12 Run No. R-5a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.01 x 10"3kg/s

-116-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

champ

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

P,

P3

chamber

P,. Ti

Tx

inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel
channeltube

(P)

-7

" surface
o coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T.

80

Coolant inlet

measured temperature

50

"

40

E""
I"T

T.
30
ffQO

"a
-a

OQ

20

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.9 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,, = 26.28 C

~TjP)
60-

o coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
surface

T,

X
50

T(P)

Fl
.V
v 40
Q.

T+

3043

0.0

-13--D-- n

0.1

02

0.3

-tV-r4-dln

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance Im

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 26.01 C
Fig. 6.13 Run No. R-5b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.03 x 1073kg/s
and
surfaces

-117-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Water jacket

P.

IPI,Thj

T,

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

T+

--

T"p+

eo

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure
measured temperature

coolant

(p1)
5O/T
Tpj

E"

40-

T.
.0c,

a0

2-G

--

0.0

0.1

02

V-0-0-0.

C,-

0.8
0.5
distance /m

0.4

0.3

- --.

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.7 g/s;
C
inlet
T,;
31.32
temperature
coolant
n=
--

60-7

r;

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

(P,)

T (P2)
So
e

r.(P).o

m
m

CL
a

T.

so
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc=17.6 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;.= 31.01 C
Fig. 6.14 Run No. R-6a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
10"3
2.02
flow
x
surfacesand coolant channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-118-

Chapter 6

chambag

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Out mixing
P3
hlet
ambe

Water jacket

P,

Ta

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T'

o coolant
" surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

; (Pa

60

Coolant inlet

7;(P)

so-

ro

40"

T=

'aooo0-Q0--cio-ado

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel:coolant massflow rate me= 18.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 30.26 C
T
60

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T(P)

T (Pj

T (P)

50

co

E 40m"
T
X

30
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. =17.9 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;n= 30.92 C
Fig. 6.15 Run No. R-6b, Ri 13: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.05 x 10-3kg/s
and
surfaces

-119-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
P
chamber

Outlet mixing
chamber

Waterjacket

T,

PI, T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

T"(P)

Multi-channel tube

Is

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T,
'

60-

Coolant inlet

measured temperature

T(P

TP)

50

s3
m

L
CL
E
::

T.

40

30
0.0

0.1

02

0.6
0.5
0.4
distance /m

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.0 g/s;
C
35.16
inlet
T,,
temperature
=
coolant

T"(P)

\T
60-

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

'

T'(P

T (Pj

50 -m
e0

aL
CL
T

a3
. 40

30

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me=17.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 34.86 C
Fig. 6.16 Run No. R-7a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
10"3
in
2.01
flow
x
surfacesand coolant channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-120-

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P:
chamber

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Outlet mixing
P=
chamber

Waterjacket

T=

Py T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

T,

T.(P)

"

surface

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

60

coolant

T(P,
T(Pa)

so
I4O

T~
X

30

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 18.1 g/s;
C
inlet
37.54
T,,;,,
temperature
coolant
=
T+
; (PI)

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

60

T(Pj
T(P)

50

T'

E
wx
Aft-

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 37.13 C
Fig. 6.17 Run No. R-7b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
kgls
10-3
2.02
coolant
flow
surfacesand
x
channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-121.

Chapter 6

Wet m ng
P:
chamber

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
TT

R, Ti

inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel
ultichannel tube

---T(P)
65
T,

Coolant inlet

"
o

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

60

55
T (P1)
CL

T.(P)
\p

50

T.
X

45

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTT,i, = 45.90 C

65

'

T(PJ

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

rA

U
m

55

CL

T.(P1)

50

X0 1
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc=17.4 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,in= 45.69 C
Fig. 6.18 Run No. R-8a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 1.98 x 10-3kg/s

-122-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet

e9P,
chamber

Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
T,

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

T(P)

~
65

Multi-channel tube

T,

Coolant inlet

"
o

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

60

55 -

(P1

/T

CL

p(pa)

SSo

Ta

tsoooo.

45

0.0

0.1

02

o.
_a. aao-o-oea
0.3

0.4

0.5

A__
0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 18.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,= 44.74 C
\

7P)

0 coolant
surface
o saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

65
T.
6010
m

55
Vp

E
so

T (P)

T=
X

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 18.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 44.40 C
Fig. 6.19 Run No. R-8b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels,vapour massnow rate m= 2.05 x 10"3kg/s
surfaces

-123-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
ming pchambcr

Waterjacket

Outlet
hchamber
T,

PI, T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

70

`T,

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

" surface

0 coolant

T(PJ

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

60-

measured temperature

T (P=)
50
m
I
m
"a40

3
nx

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.6
0.5
distance /m

0.4

0.3

0.7

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel:coolant massflow rate mc= 17.2 g/s;
C
25.26
inlet
T,;,
temperature
=
coolant
7

lTP,
`T
T.

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

60

q, 50 m

measured temperature
T()

f"tP

Z
2
W
40 CL

E
m

T.

30

a, na..

v
20

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

oN
0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance Im

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massnow rate me=17.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 25.23 C
Fig. 6.20 Run No. R-9a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
10-3
in
2.53
flow
x
surfacesand coolant channels,vapour mass
rate m=

-124-

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P:
chamber
ch
IA,
Ti

inlet

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
Ps
chamber

Waterjacket

T,

Coolant outlet

70 `

Multi-channel
channeltube

T(P)

Coolant inlet

" surface
0 coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T,
so-

measured temperature

X
T (P

T (P)

50

40
m"

T=

30
Qo-n

rodooo

o-

_x

20

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.7

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel:coolant massflow rate me= 17.7 g/s;
C
inlet
25.76
Tc,
temperature
coolant
i, =
70

T.(Pj

surface

saturationtemperaturecorresponding

so-

to measured pressure
measured temperature

C 50
QC
m

coolant

IA

T.

TJPj
(P)
`A

LO
CL 40
E

w"
T.

30
T7'

20I
0.0

TTTT'T'-TTrTr'T
0.1
02
0.3

tr rr"r..

0.4

r_. z_

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,m= 25.53 C
Fig. 6.21 Run No. R-9b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.45 x 10"3kg/s

-125-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Ct mpg
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Waterjacket

P:

T,

P., T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T(P a"

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T,
60

U
m

Coolant inlet

measured temperature

rP')
T"(P'

5o

m
m__
CL
m dp

"
"

T{

30
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.5 g/s;
C
inlet
T,;,
31.73
temperature
coolant
=
70

T(P)

a coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding

'
IX

60

to measured pressure
measured temperature

T.(Pj
(P,)

so;

a
E 40T2

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.6 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 31.27 C
Fig. 6.22 Run No. R-10a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.51 x 10"3kg/s

-126-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mpg
chamber

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
TA

P,, T,

inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel
channel tube

701-T(P)
\T

plant

inlet

" surface
o coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

'

60

measured temperature

(P

T. P.)

m 50

E 4o
w

"

r,
x

301
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 18.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 31.03 C
70-

I
IA

'T(p)
`T
T.

60X

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
measuredtemperature

TJ(P)
T"(P)

50
La

mop
T,
nn-

0.0

a. o

0.1

0.2

o--a

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m= 17.9g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 31.20 C
Fig. 6.23 Run No. R-10b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m" = 2.52 x 10"3kg/s
and
surfaces

-127-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
Inlet mixing
P=
chamber

Outlet mixing
p,
chamber

Waterjacket

T=

Py T,

inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel
channel tube

T (P)

mV

Coolant inlet

"
A

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

pj
T.(Pj

5p

T.
x

E.
40' -_al,

30

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 16.6 g/s;
C
inlet
T,;
37.14
temperature
coolant
=
70 --

T.(P)

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T.

so

measured temperature

/T(PI)
T.(P)

50

T
X

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 16.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc;m= 36.93 C
Fig. 6.24 Run No. R-l Ia, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m= 2.50 x 10-3kg/s
and
surfaces

128
-

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P:
chamber
IP1.
T,

inlet

Coolant outlet
Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
T:

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet

\T

Multi-channel
channeltube

T(P,)

Coolant inlet

" surface
0 coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X

60-

measured temperature

0
T(P
T (P+)

42 so

T.

Ex

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 18.2 g/s;
C
inlet
T,;,
37.42
temperature
coolant
=

7 (P)

coolant
& saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
surface

T,
'

60-

measured temperature

T(P1)
T.Wk,

r7 50
1

r=

EX

40

r,

30 1191111..

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

..

0.5
0.6
distance /m

.T

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. = 18.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTA = 37.10 C
Fig. 6.25 Run No. R-11b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour mass flow rate m,,= 2.37 x 10-3kg/s

-129-

Chapter 6

Inlet Mixing

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

P=

Outlet mixing
chamber

TT:

P" T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T(P,
)
70
T,
65

Co >5
;:
CL

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measured temperature

coolant

(P2)

40.00

45

QOOOOE3

Ei-

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. = 17.6 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,i,,= 45.03 C
\
70-

T.(P)

o coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
measuredtemperature
surface

T,

IX

66

60
55-

T(P

Ea

7P

so

T,

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.5 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,in= 44.88 C
Fig. 6.26 Run No. R-12a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.50 x 10"3kg/s
and
surfaces

-130-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet
Inlet
chamber

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

p,

Outlet mixing
chamber
T.

P., T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

70- \TA
T.

Multi-channel tube

: (P,)

"

Coolant inlet

surface

coolant
"0
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

65U 60q_
: (P1

j55

r, (p

so-

T1

40

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;.= 45.40 C
T.(P+)

70

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

"

/T(PL)

ilil 55
-N
m

TT(P)

50

0.0

0.1

411-

-------'z-^

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

T.

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;n= 44.97 C
Fig. 6.27 Run No. R-12b, RI 13: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.48 X 10"3kg/s

-131 -

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P.
chamber
IPInI

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T"(P+

'

"

surface

Coolant inlet

coolant

& saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

T,
'

60U
m

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Waterjacket

measured temperature

Pa

/T

T(P3)

50

"

a 40r:
T2

20

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,in= 23.76 C
-

T.(Pa

surface

\TA
70-

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

'
X

soU
m

measured temperature

T(P'

50

0
E 40S?

"

30
X

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,= 23.60 C
Fig. 6.28 Run No. R-13a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.97 x 10"3kg/s

132
-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
ccham

Coolant inlet
Water jacket

P:

p,

Outlet mixing
ber

T2

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

TJP1)
70-

Coolant inlet

" surface
o coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,

so-

r(P)
m 50

CL40E
"
"

T=

30

C,

20

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 17.7 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTA = 24.39 C

`T
70- `T

(P)

60-

surface
o coolant
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

T(P")
T(P
50
a

a 40E
m
T2

30
--g-d---"-p

0.0

0.1

C. 11_

02

0.3

0j

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massnow rate m = 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 24.16 C
Fig. 6.29 Run No. R-13b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.97 x 10"3kg/s
surfaces

-133-

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P:
chamber

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Waterjacket

P, Ti

T,

71

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

(P)

--7
\.

70

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

"
0

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,
60
T(Pj

U
m
1
450

T.(P )

40
. O t? pt?

0.0

0.1

0.2

E3-Q. Q.

0.3

p-0-

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

oo

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,m= 31.60 C
T (P)
70

T,

o coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

60
,

(P,)
TT, )

m
50

\A

LU
T=

40-

30
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.5 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,;n= 31.25 C
Fig. 6.30 Run No. R-14a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.90 x 10-3kg/s
surfaces

-134-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Wet mpg
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
chamber

Water jacket

P:

T:

A. Ti

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

(P)

rT.

I.

70\
T.

surface

Coolant inlet

coolant

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure
measured temperature

X
60
p
m

(P2)
T(P, )
SO-

a)
CL
E
"T

40rr

f fl-..

301
T,
0.0

T,
0.1

a__n

02

O ..

'T'T'T"
0.3

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.9

0.8

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.9 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;5= 31.12 C
; (P, )

70-

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

rIA
'
X

measured temperature

60
r(P2)

sor,

CL
E
ao

"

T.

. n..... a. a .a.. nox


o Q.. nnv
30.
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

"n -fs
-----

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 17.8 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,1= 31.03 C
Fig. 6.31 Run No. R-14b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.93 x 10"3kg/s
and
surfaces

-135-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Water jacket

P'

Outlet mixing
chamber
T3

A, T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

T(P)

"

0 coolant
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

surface

70-

Coolant inlet

60m

a)50T(P

T(P2)
T

a)
E"x

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance Im

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 16.7 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;.= 37.54 C

surface

--T(P,

coolant

I0

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

TI

measured temperature

so
m
, *T(P)

T'(P<

1 50-

40 "r.. 't3-....

30

0.0

0.1

T1

11. IL. 11.


-_ nn

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 16.7 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 37.27 C
Fig. 6.32 Run No. R-15a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.85 x 10"3kg/s
surfaces

-136-

Chapter 6

Met
g p,
chamber

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
p3
chamber

Waterjacket

T:

T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channell tube

--T(P)
T'

70

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measured temperature

coolant

so
.

(Psi

/T

7"(Ps
rip

r=
X

30

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m5= 18.2 g/s;
C
inlet
,,,
temperature
coolant
i =38.12
T.(P)

surface

T,

coolant

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measuredtemperature

60
T.(P2)
0)

T(P\

a> 6

EX

40.

----D-,,

30

0.0

0.1

ri

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate Mc= 18.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,i,,= 37.75 C
Fig. 6.33 Run No. R-15b, R113: Temperature distribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels, vapour mass flow rate m = 2.93 x 10"3kg/s
surfaces

137
-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet
mixing P:

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P
h

Waterjacket

T:

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

(P)

--7

70

Multi-channel tube

T+

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

coolant

U
6p
iu
r

(P

a
T(\

50.

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 16.9 g/s;
C
inlet
45.77
T,
temperature
coolant
1=
O coolant
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature
surface

\T
70

a>
a
T (pi
.

ci
50-

40
0.0

0.1

.,
02

1
0.3

0.4

0.5

''

0.8

TTTT
0.8
0.7

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 17.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 45.57 C
Fig. 6.34 Run No. R-16a, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
kg/s
10"3
2.91
flow
and
coolant
channels,
x
surfaces
vapour mass
rate m=

-138-

Chapter 6

c mixing
Wet
hamber P:

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
T2

PI, Ti

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

"
A

70

coolant
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

T,

surface

Coolant inlet

U
q_
6O

T(P2)

a
m

r(P

jill

so-

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 18.3 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTA = 46.23 C

. -7

(PJ

surface

coolant

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measuredtemperature

T,

70

50

\G

0.8

0.9

40

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. = 18.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc.m= 45.84 C
Fig. 6.35 Run No. R-16b, R113: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
10"3
2.89
flow
and
coolant
x
surfaces
channels,vapour mass
rate m =

-139-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Outlet mixing
p
chamber

Water jacket

P:

T,

A, TI

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

r,

plant

inlet

"
A

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

100
T (Pp)

(P)

90
8O

70

a>
60

,O

so

Te
0 COO

00

coo

40

OO

00

40
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 3.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 49.53 C
T+
`
110 '4
T(P+)

surface
e

coolant

saturation temperation corresponding

to measuredpressure

100

X measured
temperature

T (P'

T.(P.)

90
80

70
60

50-

12

0.0

0.1

ppp

02

0.3

13 0q13

0.4

0 13 0

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.8

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 3.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 49.39 C
Fig. 6.36 Run No. S-la, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate my=1.46 x 10-4kg/s

-140-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Water jacket

P2

Outlet mixing
chamber

T:

Py T,

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

110 F7
100

plant

inlet

" surface
0 coolant
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
n
X measuredtemperature

T(z

T.(P)

80

'P

70

d
CL
E
S? 60

r,
",
0 00000o00CPO

so

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.8

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 3.7 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;n= 51.70 C
110

.iT,

surface

T(P,

Coolant

A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

too
: (P

.: (P)

80

U
80
70

E3

CL

60

o ,o
13.

T.
13 ooo13

so

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

c30

0x

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.8

0.9

distance/m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 3.7 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 51.38 C
Fig. 6.37 Run No. S-lb, steam: Temperature distribution along the test tube
surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass flow rate m = 3.23 x 10-4kg/s

-141-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet
Inlet mixing
chamber

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Water jacket

IP'Tl

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

.-T,

110

: (P)
100

Multi-channel tube

plant

inlet

"
4

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

T(pj

A
T. P.)

so

a) 80o. o

T=

701

1X

goqo

ooca 0c0
60

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.1 g/s;
C
inlet
66.07
TT,
temperature
coolant
in=
T,

surface

110

coolant

A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

: (P1)
100

T(P

7 (P)

9o

'S

80
CL

' ""P

E
m

o,

70

13 onaQ

13 Q040

60
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me,= 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 65.84 C
Fig. 6.38 Run No. S-2a, steam: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 2.14 x 104 kg/s

-142-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Water jacket

p,

Outlet mixing
chamber

T2

P" T.

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

110

7 (P1)
100

(P

~T

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

coolant

: (P,1

90

80

a0",.

CL

O, O

70

p-

'o-moo

go

T.
1

qo

x
60
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.9

0.8

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 66.23 C
110-

T,
7 (P)

100

"-

o coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature
Q

7(P

T (P)

p''"
90O

m
d

o0
so-

CL
E
70-

T.

13C3QD q

so
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 65.87 C
Fig. 6.39 Run No. S-2b, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 3.15 x 10-4kg/s

-143-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Water jacket

P:

Tx

Py T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

"110

Multi-channel tube

T,
TI(PI)
T(Pj

Coolant inlet

"
A

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

100- N

p
T(Pj

m""

"

80
p...Q..Q

a
so-

p"

p.. 4...

p..

70

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.8

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 75.14 C
coolant
surface
A saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

--T,
110

100

T(P,
)

T(P

i
TiPs

U
90CL

-P

8so-

13

T
4
l
X

70

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m. = 3.9 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 74.77 C
Fig. 6.40 Run No. S-3a, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate my= 2.07 x 10-4kg/s

-144-

Chapter 6

Inlet mixing
P.
chamber

Coolant inlet
4

Coolant outlet
Waterjacket

Outlet mixing
P
chamber
T:

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

110

T,

"

T(P,)

surface

coolant

o
(P)

"7
QO..,

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

100T(P

so

Coolant inlet

"

A'O

O"

QQ'pO

aL
E

T.

80
00-

X
70

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureTc,in= 75.40 C
110

T.

100

80

surface

coolant

T(P,)

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

..

7(P)

measured temperature

". a"_q

80

T.

x
7U

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.6
0.5
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 75.19 C
Fig. 6.41 Run No. S-3b, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 1.92 x 10'4kg/s

-145-

Chapter 6

Incletmixing
P:

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Ouch
tlet mixing
P,
amber

Waterjacket

T,

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

T"
110 Tel)A
100

Coolant inlet

surface
o coolant
saturationtemperaturecorresponding

T(p)

to measured pressure
measured temperature

T.(P)

so
m

so

MCL

,
''".
60

T=

;O
'o

50-

0.0

0.1

0.2

o ao

0.3

40

00

0.4

0.5
0.6
distance /m

0o

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m5= 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 52.44 C
-T
110 \T,
100

-r(P2)

a coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
measuredtemperature
7(P)

so
U
so

-d,
70

o
-,-,
o

E
"+

T,
\

60

13 a

50

40 }110.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

ooogopo4a

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.8

II
0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 52.18 C
Fig. 6.42 Run No. S-4a, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 3.13 x 104 kg/s

- 146 -

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
g

Coolant inlet
Waterjacket

P:

p,

Outlet mixing
T

P, Ti

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

T,
(o
Pa"
X

T(P

100

surface

Coolant inlet

coolant

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure
measured temperature
T(Pj

9o

"

m"

C).
E

"

so

o'-..
p-o

Q. O

T.
o po

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

po

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,= 65.01 C
`T+

tt0

\T(P)

T(pj

100

surface

A
1to
X

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
measuredpressure
measured temperature
T(Pa

90
O

cs

b.

93,
IfT.

70
O"

44x

s0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 64.80 C
Fig. 6.43 Run No. S-5a, steam: Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m,,= 3.11 x 10-4kg/s

147
-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet

g P:

Water jacket

Outlet mixing
chamber
Ti

A. Ti

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

. -T,
T.(P)

110

Coolant inlet

"

surface

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure

measuredtemperature

coolant

iX

100-

"
oo..

90-

T,(P)

aQ.. Q..

E
::

_
OO

8U

70

0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,i, = 76.34 C

too

surface

--T,
NTtp,

A
X

T.pa%

coolant

saturation temperature corresponding


to measured pressure
measured temperature

too-

90

0.8

0.9

-----rr.

Q'V

R. -^

O"-------'-"

d
Eo
.2

T(P

80

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.8
distance /m

0.7

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.2 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;,,= 76.26 C
Fig. 6.44 Run No. S-6a, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
104
3.75
and
flow
coolant
surfaces
channels,vapour mass
x
rate m =

-148-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
Ps
chamber

Water jacket

P:

Ts

R, T,

inlet

Multi-channel
channeltube

Coolant outlet

120

1"

T,

'-TPs

100

surface

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

TP
+

110

Coolant inlet

J
T.(Pj

90m"

80
70
"

60

Cra`0'ao
00

50

40
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.8

distance Im

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.1 g/s;
C
inlet
51.81
T,;
temperature
coolant
=
n
120

7,

110

surface

T.(PJ

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure

measured temperature

100

Q
T(PP)

U'".

80

13

80

'
E

't a
-"P

70

T=

o
o

50
40 {
0.0

TTT
0.1

0.2

0.3

I.
0.4

II
0.5

13 13 ooX

0.6

0.7

T'T'
0.8

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate mc= 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;= 52.01 C
Fig. 6.45 Run No. S, 7a, steam: Temperature distribution along the test tube
surfaces and in coolant channels, vapour mass flow rate m= 4.38 x 10-4kg/s

-149-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Wet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P3
chamber

Water jacket

P,

T,

P., Ti
71

Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

120.

A
X

T.tP

100

0 coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
surtace

T"
T(Pi)

110

Coolant inlet

I(P)

90T.

""P O

70

T.
\

60
O'"".
"
000

50]

00

coo

p0

40
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4 0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,m= 51,.29 C
120

TI
T.(P,)

110

100-kU
q-

'(P')

surface
o coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature

I
1(P3)

90
80

7p

E3

13

so
QQ0QCl

50
40 1aIII.
0.0
0.1

02

0.3

I.
0.4

o4Q

DTI
0.5
0.6

0.7

III
0.8

0.9

distance /m

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,1= 51.01 C
Fig. 6.46 Run No. S-7b, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 4.28 x 104 kg/s

-150-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing

Waterjacket

P,

Outlet
chamber
T:

P., T.

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

120-6-

Multi-channel tube

T,

T.

"

coolant

saturationtemperaturecorresponding
measuredpressure
Ito
X measuredtemperature

P
110

0
I
m

surface

Coolant inlet

10

X
T.(pd

90

T.

..

Q '.

s0

52 n_

70
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.6
0.5
distance /m

0.4

0.7

0.8

0.9

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m5= 4.2 g/s;
C
inlet
65.98
Tc,;,,
temperature
coolant
=
120

7(pa

T,

surface

A
'
110

coolant

saturation ternperature corresponding


to measured pressure
measured temperature

T"(Pa
X
"1
T"(P')
m"

T.

90

ti . q_

80

13

70
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.1 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,in= 66.11 C
Fig. 6.47 Run No. S-8a, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 5.51 x 104 kg/s

-151-

Chapter 6

Coolant inlet

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Outlet mixing
Px
chamber

Water jacket

Px

Tx

F'
Vapour inlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant outlet

120

"
0

T.

Ito

110

Coolant inlet

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
measuredpressure
measured temperature

100

f
o so
E
Y4
801

,o

x
;

70

0.0

0.1

02

'

7TT*TTT
0.3
0.4
0.5

0.6

"""

0.7

T
0.8
0.8

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.1 g/s;
C
inlet
64.43
T,
temperature
coolant
in=
120

T,
T(p,

0 coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured terature
surface

110

I
T.(Ps)

a~" oo1
tr . x

e0

70
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.6
0.5
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m= 4.2 g/s;
'coolant inlet temperatureT,fi,= 64.22 C
Fig. 6.48 Run No. S-8b, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
kg/s
in
104
5.24
flow
x
and
coolant
channels,vapour mass
surfaces
rate m,,=

-152-

Chapter 6

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
chamber

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
chamber

Water jacket

P:

T:

PI, T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

Ti

120

Coolant inlet

"
A

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

110

T (PjQ

T(Pd

100
La
N
O.

E
N

90

06
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m, = 4.0 g/s;
C
inlet
75.31
T,;.
temperature
coolant
=
0 coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
surface

120--T,
N11TPI)

o
X

110
T.(P)

T(P
m 100

._

42

Ta
X

13
o

90

80
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
distance /m

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m = 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,; = 75.28 C
Fig. 6.49 Run No. S-9a, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
surfacesand in coolant channels,vapour massflow rate my= 5.69 x 10-4kg/s

-153-

Chapter 6

bile m IIg
P'
chamber

Coolant outlet

Coolant inlet
Outlet mixing
P3
chamber

Waterjacket

PI, T,

Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

120Ti

Coolant inlet

"

0 coolant
surface
saturationtemperaturecorresponding
to measuredpressure
X measuredtemperature

110

T (P)

T.(P1)

Ti

100

a,
CL
E 9o
d

O pb

-.. Qp

"
p

00

so
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

distance /m

(a) Upper tube surfaceand coolant channel: coolant massflow rate me= 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,;n= 77.19 C
120

surface

A
X

110

U
m

coolant
saturation temperature corresponding
to measured pressure
measured temperature
T(p

T(p
t00

T.

o
CL

"Cy13

go-

so
0.0

0.1

02

0.3

0.4
0,5
0.6
distance Im

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b) Lower tube surface and coolant channel: coolant massflow rate m= 4.0 g/s;
coolant inlet temperatureT,in= 77.04 C
Fig. 6.50 Run No. S-9b, steam:Temperaturedistribution along the test tube
in
and
coolant channels,vapour massflow rate m = 5.66 x 104 kg/s
surfaces

154
-

Chapter 7
Summary of Results and Discussion
The investigatedranges of massflux G, heat flux q and vapour-sideheat-transfer
R-113
tests and steam tests are given in Table 7.1. Figures 7.1
coefficient a for
and 7.2 show the vapour-side heat-transfer coefficient with the mass flux at
different heat flux and the log-mean temperature difference between vapour and
tube wall. It can be seen that the vapour-side heat-transfer coefficients increased
with the mass flux. For each case, specific values of results are recorded in
Appendix J.

Figure 7.3 showsthe current experimentalrangesof the massflux and vapour-side


heat-transfer coefficient together with the other investigations discussed in
Chapter 2, where the red circle indicates the data ranges for R-113 tests, and the
blue one for steamtests.It can be seenthat the presentresults lie within the ranges
of the widely scatteredearlier data.

Table 7.1: Rangesof G, q and a,


Fluid
R-113
Steam

Gq
/kg m2 s'1
400-810
40 - 155

/kW m2
15.2-69.6
66.5-287.1

-155-

/kW m2 K-'
3.47-7.56
7.14-26.43

Chapter 7

A
X

q=20 kW/m2;e m=4 K


q=45 kW/m2;ATS=7K

q=60 kW/m2;0

=12 K

7-

5c
'Y s
E

13

xn
0
5

44; 0

500

600

700

800

G /kg m'2s'

Fig. 7.1 Vapour-side heat-transfercoefficient (R-1 13 tests)

28
XA
24-

A
X

20-

E 16

12-

q=100 kW/m2;ATm=5K
Xq =150 kW/m2;nT =7 K
A

81
13

o
40

60

80

100

q=250 kW/mz;AT =10 K


120

140

160

G /kg m'2 s'

Fig. 7.2 Vapour-side heat-transfer


coefficient (steamtests)

-156-

Chapter 7

30

Begg et al.
(2002) (steam)
Baird et
Bandhauer et
(2003)
al.
a]. (2005)
(RII
(R134a)
R123)

25

(2(

20
K
(:

Y
E

Cavallini et
al. (2006)
(R134a)

in et al.
(R134a,
l0A)
al.

Cava llini et al.


(2004 ) (R I34a)

Koyama

Kim et al. Shin and


(2003)
Kim
(R22,
(2004)
R4IOA)
(R134a)

et al.
(2003a, b)
(R134a)

Cavallini et al.
(2004) (R410A)

Wang et
al. (2002)
(R 134a)

Cavallini
et al. (2003)
(R 134a)

15

Webb and
Ermis (2001)
(R 134a)

Yan
io
RI

Yang and
Webb (1996)

10

0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

G/kgms'2

Fig. 7.3 Approximate experimental ranges of mass flux and vapour-side heattransfer coefficient. The red and blue marked data represent the present work for
R-113 and steam respectively.

157-

Chapter 8
Preliminary

Design of New Test Section

In the light of experiencein the present investigation, a new test section has been
designedbut time did not allow this to be exploited in this study. However, the
researchis continuing and a new apparatusbased on the design discussedin this
chapterwill be constructed.
Referring to Figs. 8.1 - 8.6, a relatively thick cooper test tube will be fabricated in
two halves so the longitude grooves in one half will form to channels for
condensationwhen the two halves are assembled.The mating surfaces will be
lapped flat and diffusion bonded. The assembled tube shown in Fig. 8.1 has
thickness of 20 mm, width of 25 mm and length of 500 mm. Five pressure
tappings which accessall channelsare located at five positions along the tube (see
Figs. 8.1 - 8.3). At five locations along the tube, three thermocouple holes are
drilled in each of the upper and lower parts of the tube (seeFigs. 8.2,8.4,8.5 and
8.6). From the temperaturedistribution throughout the tube inverse solution of the
determination
local
temperature
conduction
equation
will
enable
of
overspecified
at the channel surfaces.
Preliminary design of the nylon end mixing chambers and upper and lower nylon
is
in
jackets
Figs.
8.7
8.12.
The
test
are
shown
section
of
assembly
water
illustrated in Fig. 8.13.

-159-

Chapter 8

diffusion

bond

r-C

L-C

500
w
C14

C-C
Upper and lower parts
tube;
Material
of test
Dimensions In mm

diffusion
copper

bonded

Fig. 8.1 Schematicof test tube

84

See

004

90

snn

B-B

H
J

First

angle

Dimensions

projection
In nn

Fig. 8.2 Details of upper part of test tube

-159-

Chapter 8

]ME

C-C
B-B

IJ

First
angle protection
Dimensions In mm

Fig. 8.3 Details of pressuretapping in upper part of test tube

C
M
M
M

C
C-C

B-B
00.4 (hole

dIarieter

can

be smaller

If

possible

iJ
L

NI

First
angle projection
Dimensions In mm

Fig. 8.4 Details of thermocouple holes in upper part of test tube

-160-

Chapter 8

See r ti. S6

B-B
B
J

First
angle projection
Dimensions in mm

Fig. 8.5 Details of lower part of test tube

045--ll'

B-B
00.4

.... __..

First
projection
angle
in nri
Dimensions

Fig. 8.6 Details of thermocouple holes in lower part of test tube

-161-

Chapter 8

A-A

J
MaterIal of Nxing chamber' nylon
Dinenslons In nn

Fig. 8.7 Details of inlet mixing chamber

B-B

L
Material of nixing chamber,
Dimensions in mm

Fig. 8.8 Details of outlet mixing chamber

-162-

nylon

Chapter 8

Front
Semi

vier

of

jacket

water

a10
*9.52

Content

OYt1t

Outside
Mnterlnl
of wo ter
Dimensions
In nn

Nit

Copvt

Jacket.

top

vier

of

water

Jacket

nylon

Fig. 8.9 Details of water jacket

r-B

41

A-A

B-B
A

J
First
angle projection
Dimensions in nn

Fig. 8.10 Details of enlarged view of water jacket and microchannel tube

ii

"i;
Front

Inside
DImmsiors

In

view of

top

;I;

;i;

"i.

upper/lower

view of

upper/lower

;i

part

part

mm

Fig. 8.11 Details of identical


upper/lower part of water jacket

-163-

Chapter 8

F-

C-C

45

1.-

D-D
CC

IIC
2J

DlMensions

In mm

Fig. 8.12 Details of enlarged view of upper/lower part of water jacket

23456

96
A-A

-----

[ten
No.
I

-3

A7

--.

L-

JIe

{+9
T

4
5
6

10

Descrtion
Grub screw
End ptate
G-rino
Chunber
lote
End
Jacket
Vater
Test tube

Na of
Iten
10X2
1X2
IX2
1X2
1X2
1N
I

Steel
N 1on66
Viton
N 1on66
N 1on66
lon66
Copper

Gnsket

PTFE

Dowel
Drin

2X2
IX2

N 1on66
Viton

Test

---.

section

assembly

Projection
Ihnenslons

--'
In nn

Fig. 8.13 Details of test section assembly

-164-

Moteriol

&lgnal

scale

bt

Chapter 9
Conclusion
Significant problems were encounteredin this experimental investigation. Namely
vapour leakage at inlet to the test condenser tube in the case of the steam
experimentsand maldistribution among the channelswhich were partially blocked
by depositsat the entry. Although it was not possible to solve this problem in the
time available, attempts were made to estimate the mass fluxes in the available
channelcross section.

The results are broadly in line with the earlier, widely spreaddata. Perhapsthe
main contribution of the present investigation was to highlight uncertaintiesin the
earlier work and reveal problems in design of an apparatus for accurate
condensation measurementsin small channels and to lay the foundation for a
subsequentstudy now in progress.A new test section has been designedand will
be built and tested in a subsequentstudy.

-165-

Appendix A
Thermophysical

Properties of Water and Saturated Steam

A. 1 Nomenclature used in Appendix A

cpf

specific isobaric heat capacity of saturatedliquid

isobaric
heat
capacity of superheatedvapour
specific
cam,
isobaric
heat
capacity of saturatedvapour
cp,,,, specific
hcg

specific enthalpy of evaporation

kf

thermal conductivity of saturatedliquid

thermal conductivity of superheatedvapour

k,..

thermal conductivity of saturatedvapour

pressure

P.

saturationpressure

thermodynamictemperature

T.

thermodynamictemperatureat saturation

Celsius temperature

Celsius temperatureat saturation

of

specific volume of saturatedliquid

specific volume of superheatedvapour

v,,,,

specific volume of saturatedvapour

Pf

dynamic viscosity of saturatedliquid

dynamic viscosity of superheatedvapour

fit "

dynamic viscosity of saturatedvapour

po

density of saturatedliquid

pv

density of superheatedvapour

p,,

density of saturatedvapour

Qf

surfacetension

A. 2 Properties of water substance


Specific isobaric heat capacity of saturatedliquid (cpf)

-166-

Appendix A

cpf=4224-4.18618

(o c 59<

+0.130802 -0.001403

36 C)
(A. 1)

0
0.6012
4188.6
+0.00902
cpf=
-

(36 C <0<

100 C)

(A. 2)

02
0+0.015
4267.7
cpf=
-1.9957

(100 C:5 0< 150 C)

(A. 3)

02
0+0.0257
4515
5.2486
cpf=
-

(150 *C:5 0< 200 C)

(A. 4)

cpf = 5596-15.8260 +0.051602

(200 *C:5 0< 250 C)

(A. 5)

(Cooper and Le Fevre (1969))


Thermal conductivity of saturatedliquid (kf)

kf = -0.92247+2.8395
T)

(273.15
T

(T77,
(27315,3.151
T
+0.52577
-1.8007

(A. 6)

0.0731
(.273.15

(Lee (1982))

Specific volume of saturatedliquid (vf)

0)
9.9917
10-4+
0
(6.5
10-9
10-8+
3.83333
x
x
=
x
of

(A. 7)

(Lee (1982))

Dynamic viscosity of saturated liquid (pf)

(A. 8)

0.00002414
10j
x
/Jf=

-167-

Appendix A

where
(247
.81
1T-140)

(Lee (1982))

Surfacetension (af)

75.6 - 0.138(T - 273.15)- 0.0003(T - 273.15)2


_
1000

(A. 9)

(Masuda(1985))

Specific enthalpy of vaporization of water (hfg)

hfg- 2.5016 x 106- 2.370 x 1030


hfg= 2.5016 x 106- 2.370 X 1030-7.9

(0 C:9 0< 100C)

3.5
10-4
0
x

(A. 10)

(100 C:5 0< 300 C)


(A. 11)

(Fujii et al. (1977))


A. 3 Properties of saturated steam
Specific isobaric heat capacity of saturatedvapour (cp,,,
g)
+ 1.2 x 10-180a5
x 103+ 1.65 x 10-36a2.5
c,,,,,-1.863

(Fujii et al. (1977))


Thermal conductivity of saturatedvapour (k,,,,)

-168-

(A. 12)

Appendix A

k,,,,_ (1.87 + 1.65 x 10-36s + 5.7 x 10-1395'') x 10-2

(A. 13)

(Fujii et al. (1977))


Saturationpressure(PS)

Ps=106 x exp {A 1+

Az

+ A3In (TR)+ A4 TR+ A5(TR)Z+ A6(TR)3+ A7(TR)4+

A8(Tj5 +A9(T1)6+A1o (TR)H+A11(TR)8}

(A. 14)

The pressureP, is in Pa.


T

TR_
1000
AI =15.49217901
A2= -5.6783717693
A3 =1.4597584637
A4 =13.877000608
A5= -80.887673591
A6 =123.56883468
A7 = -188.31212064
As = 660.91763485
A9 = -1382.4740091
Alo = 1300.1040184
All = -449.39571976
(Lee (1982))

Saturationtemperature(T,)

The saturation temperaturewas found at a given saturationpressureby using the


bisection method to find the relevant root of equation(A. 14).

-169-

Appendix A

Density of saturatedvapour (p,,s)

p`, s=2.167x

102

1+1.68

o.s

(A.15)

The pressureP is in bar.


(Fujii et al. (1977))

Dynamic viscosity of saturatedvapour (a,,,)

(o c :ge,< 100C)

es x 10
+0.04
A,.= (8.02
{I 2.02 + 0.0479 (0, -10()'94 }x 10
j=

(A. 16)

(100Cs 0, <200C)
(A. 17)

}x 10-"6
A = {15.65 + 0.0293(0, - 200)1.055

(200 C:9 0, < 260 C)


(A. 18)

(Fujii et al. (1977))

-170-

Appendix B
Calibrations

B. 1 Calibration of thermocouples
A total of 63 thermocouples were calibrated against a platinum

resistance

thermometer having an accuracy of 0.01 K in the range -200 C to 650 C. The


platinum resistance thermometer was calibrated by the Universal Calibration
Laboratories Ltd. (U. K. ). Prior to year 1990, the temperature scale in use was
IPTS-68 for calibrating the resistance thermometer. After 1990, the scale was
changed to IPTS-90. From -70 C to 250 C, the maximum difference between
the two scales is 0.04 K.

Depending on the application of the thermocouplesin the current experiment,the


C
from
20
to
calibration runs were carried out covering a range of temperatures
130 C using two constant temperaturebaths supplied by Heto Lab Equipments
(Denmark). The temperaturebath, illustrated in Fig. B. 1, containeddistilled water
higher
fitted
the
heater
to
obtain
or silicon oil and was
with a
and a cooling coil
filled
bath
lower
low
temperatures
The
with the
temperature
and
respectively.
distilled water was used for calibration from 10 to 50 C, while the high
temperaturebath which contained the silicon oil was used in the range of 50 to
300 C. Both baths were fitted with a bath, a stirrer, a heater, a cooling system,
Table
K.
0.005

high
temperature
automatic
of
an
and
accuracy
controller with a
B. 1 shows the range of temperatures covered during the calibration runs.

-171-

Appendix B

Table B. 1: Temperature ranges covered during calibration runs


Thermocouple location

Temperature range covered

Inlet mixing chamber


Outlet mixing chamber
Evaporator inlet
Evaporatoroutlet
Coolant heateroutlet
Coolant mixing cylinders

20 - 130 C
20 - 100 C
20 - 80 C
40 - 130 C
20 - 90 C
20 -110 C

Test tube wall


Coolant channels

20 - 110 C
20 -110 C

The data acquisition system was used to record each measurement.This method
can take into account of the errors caused by data acquisition system and
thermocouplestogether. Measurementswere taken at intervals of 30 minutes.
The thermocouple calibration data were fitted using the method of least squares
by equationsof the form:
32
CJ

= Cl

xV+

C2

C3

X+

(B.!

In the above equation, T is the Celsius temperature, and e is the corresponding


C3
C2
Cl,
in
by
data
The
and
the
emf measured
values of
V
acquisition system.
are tabulated in Table B. 2.

-172-

Appendix B

Table B. 2: Calibration of thermocouples: values of Cl, C2 and C3 used in


equation (B. 1)
Thermocouple location

Inlet mixing chamber


Outlet mixing chamber
Evaporator inlet
Evaporatoroutlet
Coolant heateroutlet
Coolant mixing cylinders:
1
2
3

C1 x 1011

0.35118
2.9195
-22.2191
5.0440
3.0944
3.4144
-0.5303
-0.58214

C2 x 107

-4.7966
-6.6611
7.5289
-4.8577
-6.9231

C3 x102

2.5115
2.5432
2.4139
2.5029
2.5399

-7.0307
-4.4622
-4.2434

2.5605
2.5199

-4.1305

2.5109

-0.85148

Top test tube wall:


1
2

1.5294
1.1536

3.4145

3.4579

5
6

3.4911
3.0849

2.2497

-6.9898
-6.2885

8
9

2.3105
2.2122

-6.3535

10

2.6286

-5.6941
-5.4482
-7.2366
-7.2752
-7.3137

-6.3044
-6.5684

2.5096

2.5212
2.5196
2.5408
2.5418
2.5428
2.5353
2.5306
2.5322
2.5288
2.5332

Bottom test tube wall:


11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

1.9197
1.7773
-1.0367
1.6431
2.4197
2.0610
3.1525
3.5171
2.5797
2.2940

-6.0491
-5.9378
-3.5576
-5.8462
-6.4055
-6.1412
-6.9882
-7.3148
-6.5518
-6.3566

2.5294
2.5287
2.4855
2.5295
2.5329
2.5256
2.5405
2.5455
2.5337
2.5299

Top coolant channel:


1
2

3.4045
3.0776

-7.3044
-6.9521

2.5501
2.5387
(Continued)

-173-

Appendix B

Table B.2: (Continued)


Thermocouplelocation
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Cl x 1011
3.7097
3.5838
3.7303
3.6809
2.6863

C2 x 107

3.8086
2.7289

-7.7291
-6.5906

2.7930
3.7664

-6.6467
-7.6785
-7.7499

12
13
14
15
16

3.1354
3.0659

17

3.5222

3.8086
3.4579
3.1475

Bottom coolant channel:


18
19

3.0287

-7.5993
-7.4999
-7.6150
-7.6010
-6.5394

-7.2772
-7.1410
-7.1325
-7.0653
-7.3483
-6.8878
-6.9647

2.5376
2.5390
2.5400

20
21

3.7499

22
23

2.7873

24

2.6714

25
26
27
28

2.6231
2.6704
2.6605
2.6634

29
30
31

2.5859
3.4365
3.0426

32

3.3660

33
34

-7.1118

3.3552

-7.0957
-6.9619

2.9381

-174-

2.5561
2.5560
2.5536
2.5565

3.1266
3.1971

2.7019

C3 x 102
2.5596
2.5583
2.5595
2.5586
2.5267
2.5614
2.5271
2.5282
2.5593
2.5621
2.5544

-7.0283
-7.5745
-6.6386
-6.5699
-6.5418
-6.4978
-6.5471
-6.5474
-6.6725
-6.4027
-7.2792
-7.0465

2.5560
2.5271
2.5268
2.5261
2.5251
2.5267
2.5271
2.5446
2.5260
2.5550
2.5540
2.5521
2.5535
2.5526

Appendix B

B.2 Calibration of the current and voltage transformers


In order to accurately determine the power input to the evaporator heaters, the
voltage and current were measured using transformers which were calibrated
againststandardvoltage and current meterswith high accuracyof 0.5%.
B.2.1 Calibration of current transformers

The two current transformers were calibrated against a standard current meter.
The results of the calibration test are listed in Table B. 3 and these results were
subsequentlyused to find the resistance of standard resistor in series with the
heater,R in equation (B. 2) for each transformer, using a least squaresmethod.

(B.2)

I =v'r
R.

is
I
the current of the power input, V. is the output in volts of the current
where
transformers,and subscript i is it' heater.

Table B. 3: Calibration test results for current transformers


No. of heaters

I /A

Vo/V

R /fl

0.8
1.6
2.4
3.2
4.0
0.75

0.062
0.124
0.186

12.937

1.6

0.129

2.4
3.2
4.0

0.194

0.247
0.309
0.061

0.259
0.323

B.2.2 Calibration of voltage transformers

-175-

12.376

Appendix B

As with the current transformers a similar method was employed to calibrate the
voltage transformers. Readings were obtained by measuring the voltage
independently using a voltmeter and recording the output from the transformer
using a separate voltmeter. The results of the calibration test are listed in
Table B.4 and these results were subsequently used to produce a constant f3 in
equation(B. 3) for eachheater,using a least squaresmethod.
Vi = Avj

(B.3)

where V is the voltage of the power input, Vo is the output in volts of the voltage
transformers,and i is i`hheater.
Table B.4: Calibration test results for voltage transformers
No. of heaters

VN

VoN

49.9
100.7

2.01
4.05

150.0

6.03

200.2
250

8.05
10.05

50.5
100.0

2.03
4.02
6.03

150.0
200.0
250.0

8.04
10.05

-176-

j6

24.876

24.876

Appendix B

high accuracy
RTD probe

temperature probe

motor & heater

resistance
meter

temperature
controller

r
I

II
calibration zone

cooling

Fig. B. 1 Sketch of the temperature calibration equipment (HETO)

-177-

Appendix C

Uncertainty Analysis
The following analysis indicates that the heat-transferrates to the upper and lower
4%
5%
1%
for
2%
R-113
to
to
the
tests
around
were
around
and
coolant streams
for the steamtests. However, these estimatesare largely irrelevant in the present
work in view of the grossuncertainties in calculating the heat-transfersurfacearea
when evaluating heat fluxes and heat-transfer coefficients as well as the mass
fluxes which were also affected by leakage at inlet in the steamcase.Overall it is
felt that the present heat-transfercoefficients may have an uncertainty of around
40%, though this is almost subjective. It is interesting to observethat the present
results lie within the rangesof the widely scatteredearlier data.
i. e.
For a quantity xRwhich dependson xl, x2,
xo,
...,

(C.1)

xR =J(X 1,x2i ..., xn)

Kline and McClintock (1953) suggestthe following equation for calculating the
resulting uncertainty, BxR,in the dependantvariable,

[[rJ2
GCR =a

220.5

a
&2

LFXI

...

a&
i-

(C. 2)

The above equation can be non-dimensionalisedto give the relative uncertainty,

R
xR

=LIXI

CI

/2+(X2&2)2+...

+(Xp&xo)215

(C. 3)

where

Xp .

(C.4)
SR

-178-

Appendix C

Only the uncertainty in heat-transfer rate to coolant, Q, was estimated by the


above approachby Kline and McClintock (1953). It is unnecessaryto apply this
method to other quantities due to the leakage at the inlet mixing chamber for
in
blockage
inlet
for
tests,
the
tests
the
test
tube
as
seen
all
of
and
at
of
steam
earlier chapters.It is impossible to estimate the uncertaintiescausedby them.
Combining equations (6.1) and (6.10), the heat-transfer rate to coolant was
calculatedas below:

v
Q= p, cpAT,

(C.5)

where

Q.
V

heat-transferrate to the coolant

measuredcoolant volume flow rate'


coolant density evaluated at the average of coolant inlet and outlet

A-

temperatures

cp
ATe

specific isobaric heat capacity of the coolant

coolant temperaturerise measuredby 10junction thermopile

Memory (1989) assumed negligible error in the property equations and showed
that the uncertainty

in cp due to the uncertainty

in measuring the coolant

temperature was negligible. The fractional uncertainty in the heat-transfer rate to


coolant is then given by

[(x;.

0.5

Z
&V..
).

+I

lXAT.

Ar.

(C. 6)

where
x

P.

"1

Vc

-179-

(C.7)

Appendix C

XT

1
OT

(C.8)

The uncertainty in the coolant volume flow rate was -4-0.01 1/min given by the
manufacturer which performed the calibration experiment for the turbine flow
meter. For the coolant temperature rise, a 10junction
an uncertainty level off

thermopile was used, giving

0.01 K.

Tables C. 1 and C.2 show the results of

K
Q.

for steam tests and R-113 tests

respectively.
Table C. 1: Uncertainty in the heat-transferrate to coolant for steamtests

QC

Run No.

S-la
S-lb
S-2a
S-2b

Top Coolant

Bottom Coolant

5.56
4.55

5.0
4.35
4.17
4.0
4.17
4.0
4.0
3.85
3.85
4.0
4.0

S-4a
S-5a
S-6a
S-7a
S-7b

4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.85
3.85
4.0
4.0

S-8a
S-8b

3.85
4.0

S-9a
S-9b

4.0

4.0
3.85
4.0

4.0

4.0

S-3a
S-3b

-180-

Appendix C

Table C.2: Uncertainty in the heat-transferrate to coolant for R-113 tests

-6Qc
/0/0
Run No.

Top Coolant

Bottom Coolant

R-la
R-lb
R-2a

1.32
1.22

1.04
1.04

1.15

R-2b
R-3a

1.05
1.13

1.03
1.06
1.02

R-3b
R-4a
R-4b
R-5a
R-5b
R-6a
R-6b

1.36
2.39
1.47
.
1.09
1.07
1.08
0.99

R-7a

1.12

1.10
1.25
1.21
1.04
1.0
1.01
1.0
1.04

R-7b

1.08

0.99

R-8a

1.92

1.50

R-8b

1.83

R-9a

1.04

1.17
1.01

R-9b
R-10a
R-10b
R-11a
R-1lb
R-12a
R-12b
R-13a
R-13b
R-14a

1.03
1.04
0.99
1.09
1.03
1.54
1.52
1.02

0.98
0.97
1.05
0.97
1.68
1.11
1.0

0.99
1.02

0.97
0.98

R-14b
R-15a

0.99
1.07

0.95
1.04

R-15b
R-16a
R-16b

1.01

0.96

1.38
1.33

1.30
1.07

-181-

0.98

Appendix D
Coolant Mixing Cylinder and Dissipative Frictional Temperature

Rise in Coolant
D. 1 Coolant mixing cylinder
To ensure accurate measurement of the mean coolant temperatures, it was
necessary that the coolant

was sufficiently

well

mixed

upstream of the

temperaturemeasuringlocations. This required careful design of the mixing boxes


locatedat the inlet and exit of the water jacket.
The current coolant mixing

cylinders were originally

designed and built by

Krishnaswamy (2004) who followed the basis of the work of Fujii (1992). Figure
D. 1 illustrates the design of such mixers used in the current experiment. The
mixer chamber in the box consisted of 4 brass baffle plates placed inside a copper
tube, two with 8 holes and two with 5 drilled holes towards the centre. The holes
were drilled in a manner that the coolant flow direction on entering the mixer
A
from
tube
the
the
to
vice-versa.
the
and
changed alternatively
wall
centre of
fixed distance between the baffles was maintained using copper supports. A
stainless steel tube containing thermocouple and thermopile junctions was placed
downstream of the baffles. The mixing cylinder was made of nylon to prevent
heat loss to the surroundings.

Aiming to guarantee the design purpose, the feasibility had been carried out by
Krishnaswamy (2004) before using in the main test rig. A purpose built test rig
was set up as shown in Fig. D. 2. Figure D. 3 shows the details of coolant mixing
cylinder used in the purpose built test rig. Traversing thermocouples fitted at the
inlet and exit of the mixer facilitated measurement of coolant temperature. Water
heated
using an electric heater element wound externally on a small-diameter
was

tube. At the exit from the heated tube, the water was passedto the mixer. When
steady state conditions were established after around 20 minutes, temperatures
were noted (using traversing thermocouples) at inlet to and exit from the mixer.
To ensure accurate measurement of water temperature, the thermocouple leads

-182-

Appendix D

were bent at right angles so as to run along an isotherm for a sufficient distance in
the neighbourhood of the temperature measuring junction. The results of two test
runs are shown in Figs. D. 4, D. 5, D. 6 and D. 7. It is observed that the temperature
at the inlet to the mixer is clearly non-uniform

while at the exit the temperature

profile is seen to be smooth with standard deviation about the mean value of 0.03
K and 0.07 K for each of the two test runs.

D.2 Dissipative frictional temperature rise in coolant


The dissipative frictional

temperature rise in coolant was assessed as described

below. Water was passed through the water jacket by top and bottom coolant
channels with all heaters off and the apparatus in equilibrium at room temperature.
Two ten junction

thermopiles were used to measure the temperature rise for

various coolant flow rates from minimum to maximum and then vice-versa. The

temperaturesof the coolant at the inlet and exit of the test section were also
measuredby thermocoupleslocated in coolant mixing cylinders.
The results of the test are shown in Table D. 1. Although a trend of increasing
temperature rise with flow rates was seen, the maximum indicated dissipative
temperature rise was only 0.07 K which was not significant in the present
experiment and no correction was incorporated to account for frictional
dissipation. The close agreement between the indicating of the thermopiles and
the inlet and outlet thermocouples may be noted.

-183-

Appendix D

Table D. 1: Resultsof test run to determine frictional temperaturerise of coolant


Flowrate
1min"

T,; /K

T,o /K/K

(T., - Tci,)
ot

Temperature
difference as
indicated by
thermopile /K

Top coolant channel


Run 1: Flowrate from minimum to maximum

0.27
0.47
0.70

299.34

299.36

0.02

0.04

299.58
299.79

299.62

0.04
0.05

0.07

0.92
1.03

300.03
300.18

299.84
300.09
300.25

0.06
0.07

0.07
0.08
0.09

Run 2: Flowrate from maximum to minimum


1.03
0.92
0.71

300.24

300.31

0.07

300.59
300.85
301.10

300.65

0.06

0.09
0.09

300.90
301.14
301.68

0.05
0.04
0.03

0.08
0.06
0.05

0.03

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.06

0.08
0.09
0.09

0.52
0.31
301.65
Bottom coolant channel
Run 3: Flowrate from minimum to maximum
0.28
299.33
299.36
0.47
299.56
299.61
0.71
299.75
299.81
0.93

299.99

300.06

0.07

1.03

300.14

300.21

0.07

Run 4: Flowrate from maximum to minimum

1.03
0.92
0.72
0.52
0.31

300.20
300.56
300.80
301.08
301.62

300.27
300.63
300.86
301.13
301.65

-184-

0.07
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.03

0.09
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.05

Appendix D

mopin
rues
rop0<<
be

cooloi

it

uot"rcol of oandruation

Baffle A

same 1 &o".

R-Ili
mm
PCD . 16 mm
8 Rohs 2.3 mm

Soft

supports 1 Coppsr

Wx r Body and end pieces i,, PTFE

fns supports.
Baffle A

Baffle B

Boffle B

R-11mm
PGD-7mm
8holh3ram

Coolant

Inlet

(All dimensions in mm)


(sketch not to scale)

Fig. D. 1 Details of coolant mixing cylinder and position of thermopile tube

-185-

Appendix D

Laminar flow
mixer
Water
outlet

ter

Water from
constant
head supply

Fig. D.2 Details of purposebuilt test rig for coolant mixing cylinder

-186-

Appendix D

Vater
Inlet
heated

Baffle A

pipe

Baffle B

R=9.14 mm

R=9.14 mm

PCD=12 mm

PCD=6 mm

8 holes, 2 mm dia.

5 holes, 2.5 mm dia.

00
Baffle

Baff 1e B

Distance betweenbaffles: 14 mm
Baffle thickness: 3 mm
All dimensionsare in mm

Material of construction

(Sketch not to scale)

1. Baffle: Brass
2. Baffle supports: Copper

3. Water (inlet/outlet) pipe: StainlessSteel


4. Mixer body and end pieces:Nylon

Fig. D. 3 Details of coolant mixing cylinder used in the purposebuilt test rig

-187-

Appendix D

35.0
Pipe inlet temperature= 15.97 C
Ambient temperature= 17 C
Reynoldsnumber= 766
30.0-

..
" .f

25.0f"+""".

"

"f

"f

20.04

.
15.0 i

"-, -"-, -"- "- r


-10
-5

-15

05

10

15

Distance from centreline / mm

Fig. D. 4 Temperatureprofile acrossinlet to mixer

35.0

30.0

Pipe inlet temperature = 15.97 C


Ambient temperature = 17 C
Reynolds number = 766
Standard deviation= 0.03 C

U
1

Tmixer

C
22.52
utlenmean=

25.0

a
i
F
20.0

15.0 +.
-15

-10

05

-5

10

Distance from centreline / mm

Fig. D. 5 Temperatureprofile acrossoutlet from mixer

-188-

15

Appendix D

30.0
Pipe inlet temperature =17.52 C
Ambient temp erature =18 C
Reynolds number = 766
U

25.0

'

Qf
53

"fffff"f.

ffff"ff
20.0
ff

15.0 1
-15

-10

10

05

-5

15

Distance from centreline / mm

Fig. D. 6 Temperatureprofile acrossinlet to mixer

30.0

Pipe inlet temperature =17.52 C


Ambient temperature =18 C
Reynolds number = 766
Standarddeviation = 0.07 C
Tmixeroutktmen- 21.48 C

25.0

4p
F, 20.0

15.0 1
-15

-10

05

-5

10

Distance from centreline / mm

Fig. D. 7 Temperature profile across outlet from mixer

-189-

15

Appendix E
Critical Heat Flux Analysis

Since electrical immersion cartridge heaters were used in the evaporator,


R-113
heat
flux
(CHF)
for
to
the
of
case
attention
paid
critical
was
particular
where film boiling would raise the heater surface temperature high enough to
decomposethe fluid releasinghydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride.
The model developed by Zuber (1959) was used to estimate CHF, described as
below:

1/2
q, =0.131 p, hfg[Ug(PL- pv)]''4

(E. 1)

where

critical heat flux


-

liquid density

pv

vapour density

hfg

specific enthalpy of evaporation

PL

a-

surfacetension

g-

specific force of gravity

The Zuber analysis is strictly valid only for boiling of pure fluids on large thick
Dhir
horizontal
Lienhard
facing
More
and
surfaces
well-wetted
recently,
upwards.
(1973a,b), Lienhard et al. (1973), Sun and Lienhard (1970) and Ded and Lienhard
(1972) have extended Zuber's theory to finite surfaces, such as small plates,
cylinders and spheres(see Collier and Thome (1996)):

"g

q
c'

f(L)

190
-

(E.2)

Appendix E

The ratio of qc/q.

in equation (E. 2) is given in terms of a constant or as a

function of a dimensionlesscharacteristicdimension, L'. Thus,

(E.3)

L'= 27cNF3L/2d
where the Taylor instability wavelength is
1/2

Ad= 2c NF3

(E.4)
g(P -P")-

The characteristicdimension, L, in equation (E.3) might be a radius R, a length L


or a perimeter P. Various relationships can be found in Table 4.4 of Collier and
Thome (1996).

Herein, the characteristic dimension was the radius of heater, R. The


thermodynamic and transport properties of R-113 were obtained from NIST's
REFPROP programme (McLinden et al. (1998)). Accordingly, subject to one
heater,calculatedby the above equations,the CHF was 1.89x 105W/m2 for R-113.
The heating areaof each heater,A, was 3.144x 10-3m2. Thus, the maximum input
power of one heater for boiling R-113, Q.., was estimatedas below.

Q=q,

' xA=1.89x

105x3.144x

10"3=594W

The rated power of each heater was 1000 W. Obviously, it was impossible to use
the heater at full power. Taking account of the safety coefficient which was 0.15,
Q
was corrected to 500 W. Hence, the maximum total input power for two
heaterswas 1000W, 500 W for each.

-191-

Appendix F
Test Section End Mixing Chambers, Pressure Tappings and

Water Jacket
Further to the description of test section in Section 4.1.2 of Chapter 4, more
details of end mixing chambers, pressure tappings and water jacket are presented
below.

The test section consisted of nylon inlet and exit mixing chambers, pressure
tappingsand water jacket.
The vapour pressure and temperature were measured in the inlet mixing chamber,
F.
1
Figure
in
the
temperature
the
chamber.
exit mixing
was measured
while only
inlet
both
inlet
details
Fig.
F.
2
and exit
the
of
mixing chamber and
shows
shows
deep
A
0.5
Figures
F.
3
F.
4
tappings.
mm
the
and
show
pressure
mixing chambers.
and 1.0 mm wide slot was machined across the width of test tube so that all

5.
in
F.
Fig.
the
tapping,
as shown
channelsaccessed pressure
The nylon water jacket included the upper, lower parts and side supports. The side
supports clamped the test tube horizontally

in the centre of water jacket, while

form
the top
lower
fixed
to
below
tube
test
the
parts were
above and
upper and
and bottom coolant channels respectively. The side supports with the test tube
between
O-rings
the side
bolted
The
lower
together
with
upper
were
and
parts.
details
More
jacket.
lower
the
supports and upper and
parts sealed
whole water
in
found
be
Figs. F. 6 and F. 7.
can

-192-

Appendix

0h1 1

1,11 1 10u11 it",

ak ',,,

"

I
i, ,, "

n, .,, I: "

Fig. F. I Photograph of inlet mixing chamber

-193-

Appendix F

Tu Neuwie
Inin+Juca

To protiwue
Inwnsduca

Tu
Ihemrocuuple

]
-

M1

To lrs lohe
0

pn e

Tnlalorvapour

0-

Ilo
L3

, -
Section B-B

Soction A-A

(a) Inlet chamber

To
lhamoc4lupJe

To le. l lohe

-+-

probe

EcA of

is

,h
no
L-D

so

Lc

SectionD-D

Section C-C

(b) Exit chamber


Matcrial of chambcrs:nylon
(All dimcnsionsin imn)

Fig. F. 2 Details of inlet and exit mixing chambers

-194-

condensate

4ppendix F

( a) f runs \iL/

-0
CItI

I- II, LIINLIIII

(h) Iop vi,: vv

(%I In. lr ic%

Fig. F. 3 Photograph of pressure tapping

195-

Appendix F

To pressure
transducer

r^

26

40

1111

L^

LB
Section A-A

Section B-B

Material of pressure tapping: nylon


(All dimensions in mm)

Fig. F.4 Details of pressuretapping

0,

Enlarged view of slot in direction Y


(All dimcnsions in nim)

Fig. F.5 Pressuretapping slot on microchanneltube

-196-

Appendix F

A
l

Spaccr

Spy

30

120
J
A

Spy

Spaccr

30

30

120

ri

30

Section A-A

Side view of upper part

Spaccr

J
B

Section B-B

Sideview of lower part

(a) Side view

"ffr+ffffffft

top coolant outkx


07
J

top coolan inlct


A

f1$ffffffffffffff

ffff*+*++ftf+

808
Outside top view of upper/lower part

ttom coolant outlet

O-ring slot

bottom coo ant


Spacer

Spacer
1

808

Inside top view of upper/lowerpart


Material of water jacket nylon
(All dimensions in nom)

(b) Top view


Fig. F.6 Details of upper and lower parts of water jacket

-197-

et

Appendix F

Slot for
clipping
tost tubc
sn

_
Part2

Part I

(a) Side vic%v


Slot for
thcrmocouplc
A,

1
9

Wires

or

a0aa

aaa

0'

444

41

:; 4

IIIIIIIIII

xo

xn

AJ

(b) Top view of Part I

Slot for

B1
(c) Top vices of Part2

W4!

IS

SectionB -B

Section A-A

Material of side supports:nylon


(All dimension in mm)

Fig. F.7 Details of side supportsof waterjacket

-198-

Appendix G
Correction for "Reflex Heat Loss" between Evaporator and Test

Section
Using R-113 as the test fluid to carry out the heat loss experiments for the
apparatus, the apparatus was allowed to run at full power to reach a steady state.
Subsequently, one of heaters in the boiler was turned off and the thermocouple
readings of inlet chamber of test section and boiler were noted. The heater power
was then further reduced and as soon as the reading of the test section vapour
thermocouple began to fall below that in the boiler, this indicated the power input
at which all the vapour produced in the boilers just condensed on the inside walls
of the apparatus before reaching the test section. This was found to occur at a
power input of between 31 W and 34 W, so a value of 32.5 W was chosen for the
heat loss to the surroundings.

It was assumedthat, since the apparatuswas well insulated, the heat-transferto


the surroundings was proportional to the difference between the arithmetic mean
of the vapour and ambient temperaturesas follows,

QL=KL(Tl-T.

(G. 1)

where QL is the heat loss rate from the apparatus,KL is the heat loss constant,Ti is
vapour temperature at the inlet mixing chamber (see Fig. 6.1), and T. is the
ambient temperature.
For the heat loss experiment, T1= 323.09 K and T. = 302.78 K derived a value of
KL = 1.60 W/K. By substituting this value into equation (G. 1) the heat loss from
the apparatuscan be calculated for any set of experimentalconditions.

-199-

Appendix H
Heat Balance for Test Section for R-113 Tests with Complete

Condensation
As mentioned in Chapter 6, since a leakage occurred at the inlet mixing chamber
for steam tests, for the complete condensation tests, the mass flow rate into
determined
in
from
heat-transfer
the
tube
the
to
the
was
coolant
rate
condenser
test section. In order to calculate the steam mass flow rate accurately, it was
necessaryto attempt the heat balance for test section, based on R-113 tests with
complete condensation.
For the R-1 13 tests where the vapour was fully condensed (see Figs. 6.4 - 6.9,
6.12 - 6.16,6.20

6.23,6.28
-

6.29),
balance
for
the vapour and
an
energy
-

coolant streams can be made.

Thus, for the vapour stream:

Q = m,, [hfg+ Cp.


(TS(P2)
T2)]
i
-

(H. 1)

where
Q

vapour-side heat-transfer rate

MV

vapour massflow rate

hfg

specific enthalpy of evaporation

cpl

TS(P2)-

specific isobaric heat capacity of saturatedliquid


saturation temperaturecorrespondingto measuredvapour pressure
P2 at the inlet pressuretapping (seeFig. 6.1)

T2

temperatureat the outlet mixing chamber(seeFig. 6.1)

and for the coolant stream:

Q. = m. cpAT.

-200-

(H. 2)

Appendix H

where

Q,
MC
cp
ATC

heat-transferrate to the coolant

coolant massflow rate

specific isobaric heat capacity of coolant

coolant temperaturerise measuredby 10junction thermopile

These are compared in Table H. 1. The SDT deviation between the two values is
9.3 %. This is not as good as might have been expected.
Table H. 1: Heat balance for test section (complete R-113 condensation tests)

Run No.
R-la
R-lb

Qc/W
238.7
251.9

Q, /W
243.6
244.0

(Qc- Q,,)/W

(Qr- Q, )IQ.: %

-4.8
7.8

-2.0
3.1

R-2a

289.0
308.1

241.0
236.2

16.6
23.3

280.1

47.9
71.9
55.2
-22.2

-10.6
-6.2
3.0
7.2
18.1
2.3

R-2b
R-3a
R-3b

210.3

224.8
232.5

R-5a

314.4

333.9

R-5b

347.5

336.9

-19.5
10.5

R-6a

351.9

326.6

25.3

R-6b
R-7a
R-9a
R-9b
R-10a
R-10b
R-13a
R-13b

403.2
323.0
420.4
426.0
435.2
469.7
522.9
518.8

330.3
315.6
421.9
408.2
405.1
405.8
502.4
500.1

72.8
7.4

-201-

-1.6
17.8
30.0
63.9
20.5
18.7

19.7

-0.4
4.2
6.9
13.6
3.9
3.6

Appendix I

Estimation of Steam Leakage Rate


As mentioned in Chapter 6, the leakage rate for steam was estimated from the
complete condensationtestsby

Mleak= mv,eq.(6.5)- mv,eq.(6.6)

(1.1)

where

miC
m,,,eq.(6.5)
mv,eq.
(6.6)

leakagerate at the inlet mixing chamber

original vapour mass flow rate given by equation (6.5)

vapour mass flow rate from the heat balance given by


equation (6.6)

Table 1.1 listed the values of mv, (b.5), m,,, (6.6)and mjekfor all of those tests
eq.
eq.
where the vapour was fully condensed.
Table I. 1: m,, (6.5)9
for
tests
steam
m,,
and
condensation
all
mi
of
complete
(6.6)
i
Ay,
my.
10"
10"
10"
x
x
X
mv,
m1
mV,
(6"5)
eq.
Run No.
ey.(6.6)
/kg s-1
/kgsl
/kgsl
S-la
3.90
2.44
1.46
S-lb
3.91
0.67
3.23
S-2a
3.82
1.69
2.14
S-2b
3.88
0.73
3.15
S-3a
3.84
1.77
2.07
S-4a
5.67
2.54
3.13
S-5a
5.56
2.45
3.11
S-7a
7.40
3.02
4.38
S-7b
7.42
3.14
4.28
The averageleakagerate was calculatedby
9

Em,
meak
_
1

202
-

/9

(L2)

Appendix I

This gives an averageleakagerate of 2.05 x 10'4kg/s with a STD deviation of 0.90


X 104 kg/s.

203
-

Appendix J
Tables of Observations and Results
A total of 32 experimentaltest runs were conducted using R-113 and, 15 test runs
by using steam.
For each test run, the experimental results were sorted as measured data and
derived data, where the measured tube wall and coolant temperatures were
tabulatedindividually.

In the expressionof column `Run No. ' for all of tables below, `R' stands for R113 tests, `S' for steam tests, `a' for the first-run results, `b' for the repeated
results. It should be pointed out that due to the failure of the test section in the last
stage of the experiment, the steam tests were not repeated completely, i. e. the
first-run results of Run No. S-4a, S-5a and S-6a are shown in the tables below,
while their repeatedresults with Run No. S-4b, S-5b and S-6b are not included in
the tables.

Coolant outlet

Inlet mixing
P:
chamber

Coolant inlet

Outlet mixing
P
chamber

Waterjacket

Pi, Ti

Ti

I
Vapour inlet

Coolant outlet

Multi-channel tube

Coolant inlet

Fig. J.I Schematicof the test section

-204-

Appendix J

J. 1 Nomenclature used in Appendix J

massflux

massflow rate

P1

vapour pressureat the inlet mixing chamber (seeFig. J.1)

P2

1)
(see
J.
inlet
Fig.
the
tapping
pressure
at
pressure
vapour

P3

1)
(see
Fig.
J.
the
tapping
at
outlet
pressure
vapour pressure

heat flux

QB

total power dissipatedin the evaporatorheaters

Q.

heat-transferrate to the coolant

T,

temperatureat the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. J.1)

TS(PI)

P3
to
temperature
at
pressure
corresponding measured
saturation
the inlet mixing chamber(seeFig. J.1)

T2

temperature at the outlet mixing chamber (see Fig. J. 1)

TS(P2)

P2
to
temperature
at
pressure
measured
corresponding
saturation
the inlet pressuretapping (seeFig. J.1)

Ts(P3)

P3
to
at
temperature
pressure
saturation
corresponding measured
the outlet pressuretapping (seeFig. J.1)

volume flow rate

Greek symbols

heat-transfercoefficient

AT

coolant temperaturerise measuredby 10junction thermopile

Subscripts

bottom

coolant side

in

inlet

out

outlet

top

vapour side

205
-

Appendix J

J. 2 Results of R-113 tests


Table J.1: Measuredvapour-side data for R-113 tests
Run No.

Pi /kPa

T1(Pi) /C Tl /C P2 /kPa T,(P2) /C

P3 /kPa

T,(P3)/C

T2/C

R-la

309

146.584

59.20

58.97 104.622

48.56

100.757

47.42

24.86

R-lb

312

148.692

59.67

59.53 103.952

48.36

100.986

47.48

26.11

R-2a

315

143.604

58.53

58.48 105.803

48.90

101.4

47.61

30.21

R-2b

310

145.044

58.85

58.87 104389

48.49

101.09

47.52

30.54

R-3a

312

148.855

59.70

59.65 106.034

48.96

100.499

47.34

37.23

R-3b

314

148.965

59.73

59.54 105.306

48.75

101.13

47.53

36.34

R-4a

309

150.831

60.14

59.98 109.602

49.98

101.264

47.57

46.97

R-4b

311

149.387

59.82

59.77 108.917

49.78

100.89

47.46

46.59

R-5a

412

172.34

64.61

64.37 106.882

49.21

101.249

47.56

25.42

R-5b

423

175.91

6530

65.12 107.724

49.45

100.918

47.46

26.19

R-6a

420

168.048

63.75

63.60 110.613

50.26

101.47

47.63

30.97

R-6b

425

174.953

65.12

64.96 110.036

50.10

101.021

47.49

31.14

R-7a

420

174.933

65.11

64.74 111.075 50.39

101.461

47.63

35.97

R-7b

429

178.273

65.76

65.61 111.395 50.47

100.619

47.37

41.69

R-8a

418

178.992

65.90

65.63 117.86

102.39

47.90

4730

R-8b

428

182.198

66.51

66.33 119365 52.62

102.197

47.84

47.08

R-9a

518

199.266

69.63

69.31 111.341 50.46

101.205

47.55

25.37

R-9b

508

199.905

69.74

69.51 112.442

50.76

100.855

47.44

25.94

R-10a

524

197.719

69.07

69.35 118.288

52.34

101.569

47.66

32.67

R-10b

524

200.102

69.78

69.57 116.799

51.94

101.156

47.53

32.71

R-lla

517

208.199

71.18

70.85 115.796

51.67

101.227

47.56

46.13

R-1lb

505

201.568

70.03

69.79 117.884

52.23

100.764

47.42

45.79

R-12a

527

214.41

72.23

71.83 121.128

53.08

101.723

47.70

46.95

R-12b

518

206.937

70.96

70.74 128.304

54.90

103.283

48.16

47.19

R-13a

618

221.847

73.46

73.09 119.246

52.59

102.533

47.95

24.83

R-13b

620

227.521

74.37

73.95 118.349

52.36

100.665

47.39

25.35

R-14a

609

222.008

73.48

73.08 125.588

54.22

101.708

47.70

35.18

R-14b

605

220.221

73.19

72.92 124.484

53.94

101.066

47.51

34.57

R-15a

597

233.113

75.25

74.75 122.482

53.43

101.11

47.53

46.99

R-15b

620

232.723

75.19

74.87 127.654

54.74

100.949

47.48

46.64

R-16a 608

223.884

73.79

73.34 125.773 54.27

101.481

47.64

47.41

R-16b 606

233.038

75.24

74.93 136.449 56.87

103.772

48.31

47.31

206
-

52.22

Appendix J

Table J.2: Measured coolant-side data for R-1 13 tests


Run
No.

Tt,.
PC

Tw.
PC

AT,
/K

Tb,io
PC

Tb,out
PC

ATb
/K

R-la

V,
A miri-'
1.07

Vb
/1 min 4
1.07

23.67

24.70

1.07

23.40

25.57

2.20

R-lb

1.07

1.08

26.39

27.64

1.28

26.06

28.15

2.12

R-2a

1.06

1.07

31.08

32.57

1.52

30.72

33.04

2.35

R-2b

1.07

1.07

30.01

32.06

2.08

30.78

32.77

2.03

R-3a

1.11

1.11

37.24

38.66

1.45

37.0

39.02

2.05

R-3b

1.08

1.09

37.50

38.48

1.01

37.22

38.84

1.66

R-4a

1.12

1.12

43.79

44.21

0.45

43.48

44.59

1.14

R-4b

1.11

1.11

44.11

44.93

0.86

43.78

44.98

1.24

R-5a

1.03

1.04

25.79

27.73

1.98

25.81

28.23

2.46

R-5b

1.08

1.07

26.28

28.12

1.86

26.01

28.78

2.80

R-6a

1.06

1.06

31.32

33.19

1.90

31.01

33.80

2.82

R-6b

1.09

1.08

30.26

32.83

2.60

30.92

33.61

2.72

R-7a

1.03

1.03

35.16

36.94

1.82

34.86

37.44

2.61

R-7b

1.10

1.10

37.54

39.22

1.71

37.13

39.69

2.60

R-8a

1.04

1.06

45.90

46.45

0.60

45.69

46.51

0.86

R-8b

1.10

1.11

44.74

45.33

0.63

44.40

45.69

1.33

R-9a

1.03

1.04

25.26

27.86

2.63

25.23

28.47

3.28

R-9b

1.06

1.07

25.76

28.10

2.37

25.53

28.88

3.38

R-10a

1.06

1.06

31.73

34.01

2.31

31.27

34.78

3.55

R-10b

1.09

1.08

31.03

33.76

2.77

31.20

34.60

3.43

R-Ila

1.0

1.01

37.14

39.42

2.31

36.93

39.71

2.82

R-11b

1.10

1.10

37.42

39.43

2.04

37.10

39.97

2.90

R-12a

1.07

1.06

45.03

45.82

0.82

44.88

45.57

0.72

R-12b

1.11

1.11

45.40

46.18

0.82

44.97

46.49

1.55

R-13a

1.03

1.03

23.76

26.87

3.15

23.60

27.78

4.21

R-13b

1.07

1.07

24.39

27.29

2.93

24.16

28.21

4.09

R-14a

1.05

1.05

31.60

34.39

2.82

31.25

35.29

4.09

R-14b

1.08

1.08

31.12

34.04

2.96

31.03

34.95

4.95

R-15a

1.01

1.01

37.54

39.90

2.39

37.27

40.36

3.13

R-15b

1.10

1.10

38.12

40.31

2.22

37.75

40.89

3.17

R-16a

1.03

1.04

45.77

46.76

1.02

45.57

46.68

1.14

R-16b

1.11

1.10

46.23

47.22

1.02

45.84

47.55

1.75

- 207 -

Appendix J

Table J.3: Measuredtop wall temperaturesfor R-113 tests


Run
No.

Top wall temperatures PC

R-1a

27.41t

35.93

32.24

26.91

24.37

23.72*

23.64*

23.31*

23.85*

23.81t

R-lb

29.641

37.65

34.54

31.65

27.38

26.42*

26.52*

26.26*

26.44*

26.431

R-2a

35.261 40.54

38.26 37.51 34.42

31.91

31.63* 31.21* 31.26* 31.29t

R-2b

34.871

40.46

37.9

37.44

34.31

31.73

31.09*

30.84*

31.16*

31.1t

R-3a

39.731

43.57

42.14

42.21

41.76

41.04

40.58

39.02

37.73

37.381

R-3b

39.65t

43.69

42.21

42.16

41.51

40.82

40.38

38.46

37.78

37.581

R-4a

45.01t

46.95

46.15

46.04

45.91

45.61

45.46

45.41

45.52

44.551

R-4b

45.421

47.02

46.36

46.3

46.2

45.95

45.97

45.89

45.78

45.021

R-5a

29.631

39.21

35.91

35.35

32.73

27.7

26.61

25.85*

26.24*

26.151

R-5b

30.091

38.89

35.77

35.51

33.14

28.28

27.13

26.54*

26.44*

26.33t

R-6a

36.251

41.53

39.35

39.14

38.17

36.51

33.71

32.1

31.7

31.511

R-6b

35.71

41.62

39.19

39.06

38.15

36.55

33.62

31.83

31.65

31.371

R-7a

38.431

43.51

41.82

41.83

41.48

40.59

40.38

39.06

36.55

35.291

R-7b

40.411

44.47

42.99

43.14

42.83

42.06

41.81

41.69

40.96

38.21

R-8a

47.071

48.75

47.95

47.8

47.65

47.36

47.28

47.07

47.01

46.391

R-8b

46.221

48.43

47.45

47.31

47.09

46.66

46.46

46.36

46.4

45.44t

R-9a

31.71 39.85

36.5

36.54 35.53

31.85

27.69

26.11

26.0

25.611

R-9b

29.871 39.61

36.38

36.45 35.01

31.96

28.09

26.77

26.25 25.891

R-10a 37.551 42.72

40.5

40.59 39.95

38.43

38.0

36.48

33.21 31.881

R-10b 36.161 42.67

40.22

40.33

39.59

38.1

37.31

35.59

32.96 31.811

R-11a 40.461 45.71

43.9

43.71 43.32

42.65

42.86

42.63

42.11 38.871

R-llb

40.751

45.29

43.57

43.74

43.39

42.5

42.27

42.23

41.49

38.871

R-12a

46.421

49.16

47.86

47.64

47.56

47.12

46.82

46.59

46.79

45.82t

R-12b

47.21

49.72

48.57

48.43

48.11

47.54

47.29

47.15

47.07

46.151

R-13a

29.911

40.04

36.8

36.88

35.99

33.16

29.0

25.86

24.97

24.081

R-13b

29.041

39.94

36.63

36.74

35.57

32.9

29.32

26.63

25.43

24.61

R-14a

38.261

43.69

41.29

41.4

40.81

39.31

39.01

38.28

36.14

32.24f

R-14b

36.551

43.57

40.84

41.2

40.55

38.97

38.25

37.87

35.18

31.911

R-15a

40.951

46.67

44.72

44.48

44.12

43.32

43.44

43.21

42.8

39.59t

R-15b

41.731

46.67

44.8

44.95

44.55

43.54

43.24

43.24

42.54

39.771

R-16a

47.191

49.99

48.67

48.52

48.38

47.82

47.64

47.46

47.29

46.421

R-16b

48.561

51.15

49.8

49.68

49.3

48.61

48.3

48.1

47.79

46.921

1:discardeddue to suspectederror; *: not used in heat flux calculation.

208
-

Appendix I

Table J.4: Measuredbottom wall temperaturesfor R-113 tests


Run

Bottom wall temperatures PC

No.
R-1a

24.761

35.92

27.171 27.55

24.15

23.66*

23.62*

23.58*

23.54*

23.41

R-lb

27.41t

37.38

30.151 31.79

27.72

26.59*

26.25*

26.25*

26.25*

26.151

R-2a

32.321 39.85 35.13t 37.34

34.95

32.08 31.51* 31.28* 31.25* 31.17t

R-2b

32.231

39.92

34.551 37.12

34.96

31.76

31.15*

31.03*

30.91*

30.82t

R-3a

38.61

43.14

39.85t

42.08

42.03

40.66

40.48

39.05

37.62

37.191

R-3b

38.61

43.21

40.01t

42.05

42.05

40.8

40.22

38.91

37.6

37.321

R-4a

44.42v

46.55

44.97t

45.87

45.81

45.46

45.46

45.34

45.22

44.341

R-4b

44.851

46.64

45.331 46.12

46.16

45.77

45.81

45.72

45.62

44.951

R-5a

27.9f

38.61

31.581 35.23

32.98

27.97

26.67

26.12*

25.94*

25.78t

R-5b

28.01f

38.39

31.141 35.58

33.94

28.38

27.0

26.64*

26.28*

26.11t

R-6a

3322t

40.93

36.181

39.06

38.67

36.19

33.84

32.07

31.62

31.331

R-6b

33.171

41.19

35.75t

38.81

38.78

36.34

33.98

32.66

31.34

30.931

R-7a

37.11

42.99

39.181 41.71

41.81

40.1

39.95

38.22

36.43

34.991

R-7b

39.311

44.12

40.64t

43.11

41.85

41.77

41.25

40.73

38.191

R-8a

46.361 48.4

46.93? 47.61 47.75

47.27

46.96

46.65

46.7

46.221

R-8b

45.461

46.121

46.6

46.51

46.32

46.13

45.291

R-9a

28.0

39.23 31.961 36.31 35.98

31.42

27.96

26.86

25.76

25.31

R-9b

28.11t 38.99 31.541 36.48 35.81

31.68

28.02

27.03

26.03 25.581

R-10a 34.221 42.31 37.211 40.42 40.44

38.06

37.87

35.52

33.17 31.761

R-10b 34.141 42.29 36.781 40.0

37.87

37.41

35.08

32.74 31.431

43.52 43.79

42.5

42.51

42.11

41.71 38.831

48.1

R-11a 39.731 45.16 41 A8t

43.01

47.16

47.11

40.24

R-11b

39.511

44.93

40.96t

43.56

43.71

42.26

42.24

41.77

41.31

38.831

R-12a

45.971

48.64

46.36t

47.41

47.67

47.11

46.82

46.6

4638

45.65t

R-12b

46.221

49.38

47.011

48.27

48.23

47.52

47.34

47.09

46.85

46.011

R-13a

27.05?

39.69

31A3t

36.64

36.54

32.33

29.21

25.63

24.73

23.791

R-13b

27.31t

39.4

31.061

36.66

36.33

32.29

29.57

27.37

25.17

24.261

R-14a

34.771

43.39

37.89t

41.37

41.44

39.18

38.92

37.19

36.03

32.241

R-14b

34.361

43.14

37.261

40.87

41.14

38.67

38.39

36.82

35.25

31.631

R-15a

40.261

46.17

42.181

44.43

44.62

43.11

42.95

42.03

42.29

39.57f

R-15b

40.381

46.36

42.021

44.89

44.89

43.21

43.14

42.69

42.24

39.76t

R-16a

46.61

49.53

47.241

48.34

48.44

47.73

47.39

46.89

46.9

46.221

R-16b

47.151

50.83

48.121

49.54

49.54

48.62

48.2

47.88

47.55

46.71?

t: discardeddue to suspectederror, *: not used in heat flux calculation.

209
-

Appendix J

Table J.5: Measuredtop coolant temperaturesfor R-1 13 tests


Run
No.

Top coolant temperatures/C

R-la 24.42 25.73 25.05 24.82 24.3 24.26 24.04 24.0 23.74 23.44 23.5 23.56 23.62 23.45 23.6 23.47 23.62
R-lb 27.33 28.03 27.57 27.23 27.04 27.09 26.82 26.61 26.36 26.24 26.29 26.24 26.19 26.14 26.28 26.04 26.13
R-2a 32.5 32.83 32.17 32.13 32.0 32.1 32.33 32.25 31.59 31.32 31.37 31.33 31.28 30.88 31.09 31.02 31.21
R-2b 32.03 32.57 32.27 32.17 31.91 32.12 32.1 31.98 31.35 31.04 31.09 31.06 31.03 30.9 31.08 30.88 31.03
R-3a

38.5 38.82 38.63 38.27 38.08 38.6

38.7 38.73 38.31 37.68 38.08 37.8 37.53 37.52 37.55 37.25 37.32

R-3b 38.39 38.59 38.29 38.37 38.27 38.44 38.59 38.61 38.25 37.72 38.15 37.84 37.53 37.55 37.52 37.28 37.21
R-4a 44.12 44.51 44.42 44.33 44.32 44.52 44.59 44.56 44.35 43.95 44.25 44.2 44.14 44.09 44.29 43.99 43.95
R-4b 44.94 45.04 44.97 44.69 44.55 45.09 45.22 45.04 44.91 44.75 44.98 44.89 44.81 44.61 44.92 44.5 44.67
R-5a 27.77 28.66 27.91 27.54 27.12 27.71 27.56 27.52 26.47 25.8 25.85 25.84 25.83 25.77 25.4 25.87 25.72
R-5b 27.85 28.73 27.99 27.66 27.62 27.75 27.96 27.87 26.98 26.23 26.39 26.24 26.1 26.15 26.2 26.05 26.05
R-6a 33.12 33.46 33.16 32.88 32.75 32.87 33.18 33.46 32.67 31.77 32.22 31.88 31.54 31.31 31.33 31.31 31.33
R-6b 32.72 33.27 32.97 32.84 32.68 32.8 33.03 33.17 32.49 31.4 31.97 31.6 31.23 31.23 31.24 31.07 31.03
R-7a 36.87 37.19 37.1 36.86 36.68 36.88 36.82 37.08 36.36 35.69 36.23 35.83 35.42 35.34 35.58 35.29 34.97
R-7b 39.08 3935 39.14 38.88 38.67 39.12 39.35 39.4 38.94 38.22 38.7
R-8a 46.37 46.45 46.48 46.43 46.4

46.5

38.4

38.1 38.19 38.4 38.02 37.65

46.6 46.48 46.28 46.22 46.37 46.37 46.38 46.14 46.32 46.07 45.94

R-8b 45.14 45.52 45.43 45.31 45.3 45.49 45.62 45.56 45.33 44.95 45.24 45.18 45.11 45.02 45.3 44.89 44.92
R-9a 27.82 28.75 27.8

27.6 27.04 27.73 27.57 27.83 26.7 25.45 25.8 25.54 25.28 25.25 24.96 25.35 25.15

R-9b 27.76 28.43 28.08 27.73 27.46 27.69 27.96 28.14 27.23 25.98 26.41 26.05 25.69 25.77 25.76 25.64 25.54
R-10a 34.01 34.26 33.86 33.61 33.48 33.7 34.05 34.3 33.41 32.4 33.16 32.59 32.02 32.45 32.12 31.83 31.66
R-10b 33.6 34.16 33.73 33.79 33.44 33.58 33.93 34.14 33.38 32.15 32.83 32.36 31.89 32.14 32.04 31.59 31.45
R-lla

39.21 39.74 39.53 38.76 38.54 39.3 39.22 39.07 38.69 38.06 38.56 38.24 37.91 37.95 38.35 38.0 37.15

R llb

39.23 39.67 39.5 39.09 38.9 39.31 39.37 39.52 39.05 38.25 38.84 38.41 37.99 38.26 38.35 38.09 37.38

R-12a 45.38 45.84 45.97 45.69 45.68 45.98 45.91 45.67 45.57 45.45 45.47 45.33 45.2 45.33 45.56 45.33 45.24
R-12b 45.91 46.24 46.11 45.95 45.98 46.18 46.34 46.27 46.01 45.61 45.94 45.86 45.78 45.7 45.97 45.56 45.49
R-13a 26.59 27.74 27.21 26.21 26.01 26.53 26.64 26.92 25.81 24.28 25.12 24.48 23.83 23.82 23.84 23.86 23.65
R-13b 26.85 27.65 27.5

27.0 26.78 26.74 27.04 27.36 26.35 24.77 25.69 25.0 24.31 24.6 24.53 24.41 24.13

R-14a 34.31 34.89 34.22 33.87 33.87 33.97 34.4 34.61 33.76 32.62 33.44 32.81 32.18 32.99 32.6 32.38 31.61
R-14b 33.84 34.41 34.07 33.78 33.69 33.8 34.13 34.38 33.63 32.23 33.02 32.49 31.96 32.48 32.39 31.96 31.2
R-15a 39.6 40.18 39.98 39.47 39.19 39.73 39.75 39.5 39.09 38.51 39.07 38.7 38.33 38.33 38.8

38.5 37.75

R-15b 40.09 40.5 40.23 40.01 39.88 40.08 40.14 40.32 39.77 38.86 39.5 39.06 38.63 39.03 39.16 38.91 38.18
R-16a 46.34 4658 46.65 46.46 46.44 46.65 46.6 46.33 46.23 46.14 46.19 46.16 46.14 46.04 46.32 46.01 45.93
R-16b 46.76 47.11 47.22 46.95 46.98 47.08 47.32 47.2 46.92 46.55 46.91 46.79 46.66 46.58 46.84 46.39 46.33
t: discarded

due to suspected

error,

*: not used in heat flux

- 210-

calculation.

Appendir J

Table J.6: Measuredbottom coolant temperaturesfor R-113 tests


Run
No.

Bottom coolant temperatures 1C

R-la

24.66 23.91 31.61 24.82 24.26 24.02 23.44 23.64 23.38 23.24 23.16 23.35 23.37 23.22 23.22 23.35 23.3

R-lb

27.23 26.49 33.521 27.34 27.4 26.93 26.06 26.34 25.99 26.06 25.92 26.0 25.99 25.85 25.85 25.98 25.99

R-2a 32.21 31.8


R-2b

37.71 32.44 32.77 32.17 31.13 31.64 30.98 31.25 30.99 30.99 30.98 30.75 30.73 30.94 30.96

32.2 31.53 36.951 32.3 32.08 31.84 30.91 31.31 30.74 31.01 30.81 30.77 30.8

30.3 30.37 30.7 30.69

R-3a 38.69 38.26 41.181 38.54 38.51 38.26 37.79 38.03 37.54 38.11 37.46 37.37 37.31 37.3

37.0 37.13 37.13

R-3b 38.35 37.89 41.341 38.48 38.65 38.31 37.78 38.09 37.57 37.93 37.15 37.38 37.31 37.28 37.06 37.08 37.1
R-4a 44.55 44.09 45.511 44.37 44.38 44.23 44.05 44.17 43.96 44.06 43.76 43.98 43.95 43.87 43.5 43.71 43.61
R-4b 44.98 44.68 45.911 44.76 44.87 44.79 44.62 44.65 44.45 44.77 44.49 44.56 44.52 44.36 44.09 44.37 44.33
R-5a 27.57 27.06 34.521 27.78 28.24 27.8 26.01 26.77 25.74 26.35 25.77 25.41 25.44 25.47 25.48 25.5 25.48
R-5b 27.94 27.11 34.821 28.18 28.14 27.73 26.34 27.19 26.04 26.62 25.98 25.92 25.9

25.9 25.82 25.88 25.89

R-6a 33.15 32.72 38.31 33.44 33.64 33.16 31.9 32.66 31.55 32.52 31.28 31.25 31.21 31.13 30.95 31.06 31.03
R-6b 33.11 32.44 38.11 33.23 32.97 32.84 31.67 32.42 31.32 32.5

31.1 30.95 30.93 30.7 30.55 30.75 30.75

R-7a 37.18 36.59 40.931 37.05 37.15 36.73 35.92 36.44 35.65 36.59 35.43 35.22 35.13 35.54 34.77 34.8 34.75
R-7b 39.39 38.93 42.15? 39.14 39.16 38.84 38.47 38.64 38.24 38.73 37.97 38.02 37.91 38.07 37.38 37.54 37.36
R-8a 46.58 46.28 47.551 46.35 46.33 46.24 46.04 46.14 45.98 46.21 45.99 46.08 46.09 45.94 45.7 45.81 45.67
R-8b 45.58 45.12 46.851 45.42 45.46 45.27 45.07 45.2 44.97 45.1 44.76 44.97 44.93 44.78 44.45 44.7 44.63
R-9a 27.67 27.05 34.731 27.9 28.61 28.32 25.96 27.0 25.51 27.01 25.33 24.98 24.98 25.11 24.94 24.95 24.91
R-9b 28.11 27.3

35.21 28.35 28.21 27.69 26.32 27.21 25,93 27.13 25.6 25.54 25.5 25.57 25.36 25.39 25.38

R-10a 34.08 33.51 39.281 34.27 34.54 34.02 32.71 33.7 32.37 33.6 32.05 31.86 31.74 32.34 31.28 31.47 31.34
R-10b 34.09 33.45 39.221 34.16 33.82 33.76 32.6 33.28 32.23 33.41 31.81 31.69 31.56 31.89 30.96 31.25 31.16
R-lla

39.61 39.0 43.141 39.55 39.65 39.44 38.52 39.14 38.3 39.14 38.1 37.89 37.77 38.15 37.16 37.41 36.92

R-Ilb

39.63 39.12 42.69? 39.46 39.45 39.11 38.61 38.9 38.33 38.98 38.07 37.98 37.86 38.22 37.31 37.43 37.25

R-12a 46.09 45.14 46.791 45.87 45.89 45.47 45.18 45.62 45.38 45.65 45.27 45.38 45.38 45.01 44.71 45.12 44.91
R-12b 46.3 45.85 48.021 46.1 46.15 45.95 45.72 45.9 45.63 45.92 45.52 45.63 45.58 45.44 45.06 45.32 45.23
R-13a 26.84 26.16 34.421 26.99 27.57 27.36 24.84 25.82 24.32 26.23 23.97 23.61 23.56 23.84 23.44 23.48 23.4
R-13b 27.39 26.54 35.351 27.81 27.28 26.94 25.39 26.39 24.92 26.47 24.48 24.29 24.22 24.5 24.04 24.08 24.02
R-14a 34.61 34.05 40.721 34.93 35.13 34.5 33.12 34.22 32.72 34.01 32.36 32.1 31.92 32.65 31.38 31.66 31.23
R-14b 3436

33.7 39.951 34.4 34.25 33.94 32.82 33.52 32.43 33.54 31.94 31.83 31.65 32.24 30.99 31.18 30.96

R-15a 40.24 39.74 43.781 40.22 40.11 39.8 39.03 39.56 38.77 39.57 38.54 38.38 38.25 38.73 37.74 37.93 37.46
R-15b 40.48 39.88 43.83k 40.37 40.23 39.79 39.31 39.61 39.05 39.67 38.79 38.75 38.61 38.96 38.06 38.19 37.98
R-16a 46.93 46.38 48.171 46.62 46.51 46.42 46.14 46.35 46.05 46.39 46.05 46.06 46.03 45.87 45.55 45.72 45.59
R-16b 4739

46.9 49.11t 47.21 47.0 46.92 46.7 46.88 46.53 46.8 46.35 46.53 46.48 46.32 45.87 46.12 46.03

t: discarded

due to suspected

error,

*: not used in heat flux

211
-

calculation.

Appendix J

Table J.7: Derived vapour-side quantities for R-113 tests


Run
No.

mX 10'
/kg s'

G
/kg m 2Sl

q
/kW m-2

m
/kW m-2Ka

R-la

1.46

399.3

66.0

4.65

R-lb

1.48

403.2

69.6

5.87

R-2a

1.49

407.0

64.5

6.47

R-2b

1.47

400.3

68.8

7.17

R-3a

1.45

395.7

34.9

4.93

R-3b

1.49

407.3

26.2

3.81

R-4a

1.46

398.1

17.3

5.07

R-4b

1.45

395.6

22.1

7.56

R-5a

2.01

547.8

58.9

4.62

R-5b

2.03

554.7

65.1

5.06

R-6a

2.02

550.9

43.8

3.80

R-6b

2.05

558.1

50.2

4.43

R-7a

2.01

548.1

40.2

4.84

R-7b

2.02

550.5

42.1

6.18

R-8a

1.98

541.2

15.2

5.52

R-8b

2.05

558.6

20.6

5.54

R-9a

2.53

688.7

52.3

3.53

R-9b

2.45

667.7

53.0

3.47

R-10a

2.51

684.6

54.2

4.81

R-10b

2.52

687.0

58.5

5.26

R-lla

2.50

682.7

45.6

6.66

R-11b"

2.37

647.5

48.2

6.61

R-12a

2.50

681.9

16.2

4.81

R-12b

2.48

677.3

24.8

5.86

R-13a

2.97

810.8

65.1

4.05

R-13b

2.97

810.3

64.6

4.05

R-14a

2.90

791.0

63.1

5.53

R-14b

2.93

800.2

64.8

5.62

R-15a

2.85

777.3

49.2

6.86

R-15b

2.93

797.8

52.6

6.96

R-16a

2.91

794.1

21.5

6.26

R-16b

2.89

789.3

28.7

7.53

212
-

Appendix J

Table J.8: Derived coolant-side quantities for R-113 tests


Run
No.

mctx 10`
,
/kg s-1

10'
mC,
bx
/kg s'1

Q.,,
/W

Qcb
/W

R-la

1.78

1.79

76.7

162.1

R-lb

1.79

1.78

94.8

157.0

R-2a

1.78

1.75

114.9

174.1

R-2b

1.78

1.78

155.9

152.2

R-3a

1.84

1.84

117.2

162.9

R-3b

1.79

1.81

80.7

129.6

R-4a

1.85

1.84

43.0

95.9

R-4b

1.83

1.84

73.9

103.3

R-5a

1.72

1.73

139.4

175.0

R-5b "

1.79

1.78

139.4

208.1

R-6a

1.77

1.76

142.5

209.4

R-6b

1.80

1.79

197.5

205.6

R-7a

1.70

1.71

132.7

190.3

R-7b

1.81

1.82

135.5

202.4

R-8a

1.72

1.74

51.0

71.0

R-8b

1.81

1.83

55.7

109.9

R-9a

1.72

1.72

186.7

233.6

R-9b

1.77

1.78

174.5

251.6

R-10a

1.75

1.76

172.0

263.1

R-10b

1.80

1.79

210.0

259.7

R-11a

1.66

1.68

164.7

201.7

R-11b

1.82

1.82

161.0

226.2

R-12a

1.76

1.75

68.8

61.0

R-12b

1.83

1.83

71.2

127.8

R-13a

1.71

1.72

222.5

300.4

R-13b

1.77

1.78

215.9

302.8

R-14a

1.73

1.75

207.1

299.9

R-14b

1.79

1.78

223.3

297.3

R-15a

1.67

1.67

171.7

223.5

R-15b

1.82

1.82

175.0

247.2

R-16a

1.69

1.71

81.5

90.9

R-16b

1.83

1.82

88.4

142.4

213
-

Appendix J

J3 Results of steam tests


Table J.9: Measuredvapour-side data for steamtests
Run No.

Pl /kPa

T,(P1)PC Tl /C P2 /kPa T,(P2) PC

P3 /kPa

T (P3)1C T21C
,

S-1a

1008

155.573

112.48 112.52 102.022 100.19

101.763

100.12

47.64

S-lb

1006

130.766

107.67 107.31 101.386 100.02

101.066

99.93

49.70

S-2a

989

153.354

112.04 112.17 100.627

100.339

99.72

63.0

99.81

S-2b 1000 130.664

107.29 107.60100.318 99.73

100.278

99.72

63.42

S-3a

991

153.329

112.04 112.17 101.123

99.95

100.945

99.90

70.28

S-3b

1020

129.463

107.02 107.38 100.816

99.86

99.832

99.59

74.49

S-4a

1401

162.582

113.82 113.88 103.422 100.58

101.947

100.18

50.94

S-5a

1376

158.53

113.05 113.08 103.722 100.66

101.57

100.07

62.46

S-6a

1430

157.881

112.93 112.86 105.051 101.02

102.068

100.21

99.71

S-7a

1780

188.802

118.43 118.46 104.051 100.75

100.963

99.91

51.32

S-7b

1789

180.827

117.08 117.10 104.267 100.81

101.746

100.12

50.03

S-8a

1816

195.497

119.52 119.48 105.639 101.18

100.786

99.85

99.14

S-8b

1758

177.434

116.50 116.58 102.818 100.42

98.559

99.23

78.91

S-9a

1855

199.658

120.18 120.15 114.319 103.42

109.366

102.16

101.85

S-9b

1852

183.759

117.58 117.63 112.443 102.95

108.705

101.99

101.56

Table J.10: Measuredcoolant-sidedata for steamtests


Run
No.

Ve
/1 min'
0.20

Tti.
PC

TI.
--t
PC

AT,
/K

Tb.jo
/C

Tbot
/C

ATn
/K

S-la

V
/I min l
0.18

49.53

64.43

14.93

49.39

59.40

10.05

S-lb

0.22

0.23

51.70

85.56

33.90

51.38

66.27

14.92

S-2a

0.25

0.24

66.07

81.43

15.39

65.84

77.71

11.90

S-2b

0.25

0.25

66.23

81.56

15.36

65.87

82.0

16.16

S-3a

0.25

0.24

75.14

90.17

15.06

74.77

85.53

10.80

S-3b

0.25

0.25

75.40

91.70

16.33

75.19

86.86

11.70

S-4a

0.25

0.25

52.44

76.04

23.63

52.18

70.78

18.63

S-5a

0.26

0.26

65.01

83.97

19.0

64.80

84.72

19.95

S-6a

0.26

0.26

76.34

93.35

17.05

76.26

89.27

13.05

S-7a

0.25

0.25

51.81

81.32

29.55

52.01

81.93

29.95

S-7b

0.25

0.25

51.29

85.44

34.18

51.01

74.58

23.60

S-8a

0.26

0.25

65.98

90.22

24.28

66.11

86.87

20.80

S-8b

0.25

0.26

64.43

89.81

25.41

64.22

83.84

19.66

S-9a

0.25

0.25

75.31

95.40

20.12

75.28

98.61

23.36

S-9b

0.25

0.25

77.19

97.04

19.88

77.04

98.41

21.40

214
-

Appendix J

Table J.11: Measuredtop wall temperaturesfor steamtests


Run

Top wall temperatures /C

No.
S-la

63.771 73.61

50.93

49.29*

49.17*

49.36*

49.06*

49.26*

49.26*

49.4t

S-lb

86.781

87.2

70.37

53.16

51.36*

51.1*

51.09*

51.27*

5128*

51.561

S-2a

80.09? 91.07

86.26

82.3

69.52*

65.76*

64.88*

65.28*

65.29*

65.75t

S-2b

79.751

91.9

88.17

88.23

86.85

81.92

66.84*

65.7*

65.56*

66.02f

S-3a

88.91

95.01

92.47

92.25

92.48

90.69

88.43

83.58

74.36*

74.591

S-3b

90.041

95.82

93.52

93.86

9335

91.93

91.02

91.63

88.16

75.811

S-4a

73.361

84.39

75.69

59.81

53.91

52.47*

51.83*

52.1*

52.02*

52.271

S-5a

81.41

92.5

88.75

88.34

86.82

81.7

66.69*

64.61*

64.34*

64.67t

S-6a

92261

96.96

94.75

94.76

95.08

93.67

92.38

93.22

91.42

83.51

S-7a

78.91?

91.28

87.8

85.72

83.79

76.86

62.11*

54.29*

52.72*

52.081

S-7b

85.131 92.62

87.81

82.47

76.65

56.1*

52.32*

51.35*

51.05*

51.231

S-8a

88.291 95.58

93.03

93.11

92.77

90.85

89.49

90.51

88.6

76.161

S-8b

88271

94.96

92.3

92.6

92.18

89.82

88.83

89.73

86.5

70.621

S-9a

93.791

97.89

96.02

96.41

95.64

94.62

92.82

94.38 '

92.46

84.691

96.79

96.02

94.95

93.98

95.03

93.13 86.021

S-9b 94.761 98.32 96.52

t: discardeddue to suspectederror, *: not used in heat flux calculation.


Table J.12: Measuredbottom wall temperaturesfor steamtests
Run

Bottom wall temperatures /C

No. '
S-la

56.781

68.38

49.42?

49.0

49.11*

49.1*

48.73*

48.78*

48.84*

49.03t

S-lb

69.47?

85.7

59.521

53.08

51.42*

51.04*

50.64*

50.71*

50.81*

51.051

S-2a

73.631

91.53

72.271

85.36

70.5*

65.53*

64.91*

65.04*

65.28*

65.78t

S-2b

83.881

95.24

87.98?

94.62

9438

88.21

67.34*

65.28*

65.42*

65.891

S-3a

82.171

94.65

80.04? 93.55

94.47

90.7

90.55

83.07

74.73

74.991

S-3b

85.571 95.56

86.23t

95.05

95.2

93.33

93.63

91.04

91.22

76.871

S-4a

70.961

88.01

71.621

60.15

54.05

52.3*

51.63*

51.63*

51.6*

51.88t

S-5a

84.731

94.77

88.811 92.38

92.16

84.5

68.07*

64.4*

64.17*

64.661

96.41

94.43

94.69

92.68

93.49 90.17?

S-6a 89.031 96.15 89.021 95.37


S-7a

80.04?

94.71

"83.91

90.56

92.21

83.71

66.58*

54.25*

52.65*

52.11t

S-7b

71.641

88.43

78.581

85.14

80.52

55.9

51.92

50.78

50.58

50.711

S-8a

84451

95.69

86.251 94.44

95.55

93.37

93.52

91.16

92.26

84.43t

S-8b

81.861

94.75

85.721 93.58

94.52

91.35

91.56

88.97

90.13

77.331

S-9a

96.931

98.66

94.42t

97.54

98.66

97.1

96.64

95.45

95.6

91.01

S-9b

95.5t

98.61

94.231

98.51

99.39

96.91

96.84

95.54

95.98

92.681

t: discardeddue to suspectederror; *: not used in heat flux calculation.

- 215 -

Appendix J

Table J.13: Measuredtop coolant temperaturesfor steamtests


Run
No.

Top coolant temperatures1C

S-la 62.7 57.53 50.11 49.47' 49.76' 49.39' 49.42* 49.11' 49.16* 49.29' 49.35' 49.46' 49.56' 49.44* 49.52' 49.37' 49.75'
S-lb 82.2578.13 71.73 63.61 54.23 52.17 51.6' 51.31' 51.28' 51.43' 51.42* 51.49* 51.57' 51.46' 51.76' 51.37' 51.88*
S-2a 77.8575.3276.35173.37 73.36 69.79 67.89 65.56 65.48' 65.85' 65.84* 66.07' 66.3' 66.06' 66.21' 65.97' 66.75'
S-2b 78.3277.1779.43175.46 75.59 73.85 72.93 70.41 69.09 67.27 66.51 66.4' 66.29*66.41' 66.68' 66.21' 66.85'
S-3a 87.2886.1586.61185.15 84.82 84.63 84.06 82.35 81.75 80.67 79.28 78.25 77.22 76.43 75.44 74.99 75.8
S-3b 88.78 88.15 88.721 86.77 87.54 87.39 86.95 85.45 85.03 84.48 83.67 82.72 81.78 80.47 79.74 77.34 76.99

S-4a 73.5 65.2571.29162.97 61.03 53.14 52.54 52.15.52.0' 52.16' 52.18' 52.29' 52.39' 52.31.52.56.52.18' 52.65'
S-5a 79.71 78.67 84.191 76.48 76.82

74.6

73.81 71.47 70.01 67.22 65.97 65.54' 65.11' 65.06' 65.26' 64.8' 65.44'

S-6a 90.92 90.51 91.861 89.39 89.34 89.73 89.49 88.56 87.96 87.83 87.53 86.58 85.62 84.45 83.31 80.97 80.33
S-7a 77.12 75.69 76.791 74.36

72.4

70.19 68.23 64.16 62.37 58.45 56.66 54.88 53.11 52.29 51.87' 52.32' 52.54'

S-7b 82.49 81.74 81.581 78.17 79.56 70.58 70.38 56.39 52.65 51.86' 51.94' 51.61' 51.29' 51.19' 51.44' 51.03' 51.47'
S-8a 86.91 86.44 86.88t 85.05 85.26 85.66 84.46 82.68 81.96 81.27 80.35 79.53 78.72 76.69 75.02 73.23 71.23
S-8b 86.33 85.76 86.6f 84.12 84.37 84.09 83.59 81.82 81.23 80.53 79.16 78.16 77.16

75.4

S-9a 92.41 91.66 91.49 90.26 91.03 90.44 90.29 88.89 88.32 87.54 86.36 85.88 85.39 83.88

73.86 71.21 68.64


82.8

80.82 80.12

S-9b 92.6 92.2192.76 91.56 92.2 92.26 91.94 90.33 90.37 89.52 88.97 88.07 87.17 85.9 85.13 82.68 82.03
t: discarded due to suspected error; *: not used in heat flux calculation.

Table J.14: Measuredbottom coolant temperaturesfor steamtests


Run
No.

Bottom coolant temperatures/C

S-la 6231 49.62 70.28149.57' 49.05* 49.07* 49.05* 49.17* 49.11* 49.23* 49.33' 49.43' 49.47* 49.2* 492'

49.47' 49.36*

S-lb 68.22 59.65 77.611 59.67

51.64* 51.53'

55.2

51.44 51.13* 51.28* 51.15* 51.26' 51.4* 51.54* 51.59' 51.09' 512'

S-2a 80.82 78.13 89.791 77.2 84.281 77.23 69.16 66.34 65.67* 65.61' 65.86' 66.25' 66.37' 65.78' 65.8' 66.36' 66.17'
S-2b 91.57 88.64 94.94' 89.19 93.321 89.49

86.8

84.86 84.51

79.1

S-3a 88.42 84.85 93.661 84.22 92.01 85.87 84.57 83.82 83.11 81.89

69.65 67.26' 66.63' 65.92* 65.97' 66.51.66.38'


79.0

80.31 79.75 80.17 75.13 75.55' 75.33-

S-3b 91.1787.0394.04187.94 93.641 87.09 86.2 87.54 85.42 84.53 83.06 84.69 84.06 85.77 83.05 82.86 79.37
S-4a 76.1870.6882.381 68.0 65.92 53.69 52.1' 52.42' 52.13' 52.12' 52.22' 52.31' 52.43' 52.01' 52.04' 52.4' 52.3'
S-5a 91.1886.5694.16187.71 893f 85.7 80.49 79.19 78.25 75.05 67.19' 66.26' 65.54' 64.9' 64.76' 65.2' 65.14'
S-6a 91.4389.6594.82189.71 93.41 90.35 90.41 89.63 87.89 87.46 87.78 87.55 87.21 89.471 85.4 85.3 83.29
S-7a 90.3587.1694.23' 85.57 89.14' 82.12 78.72 76.95 71.9 72.15 69.15 57.69 53.04' 53.86' 52.67* 52.53' 52.29'
S-7b 73.9669.4382.75' 70.23 76.351 70.05 61.04 58.85 52.1 52.67' 51.27' 51.5' 51.26' 50.96' 50.87' 51.2' 51.09'
S-8a 90.05 86.3 95.041 87.2 93.391 86.9 85.93 87.28 87.5 84.2 83.01 84.34 83.92 86.22' 81.62 81.83 76.93
S-8b 87.2184.7893.88184.91 91.07' 85.27 85.78 83.83 81.87 80.24 79.16 81.1 80.36 81.1v 77.18 77.62 72.94
S-9a 97.78 96.3 98.18195.29 98.611 97.4 96.98 94.62 95.58 93.75 92.85 93.33 94.19' 91.11 89.41 87.64 83.94
S-9b 97.4697.68 98.61 97.62 99.241 97.61 97.81 97.69 95.47 93.85 92.63 91.07 89.82 94.081 89.46 88.15 85.15

t: discardeddue to suspectederror, *: not used in heat flux calculation.

-216-

Appendix J

Table J.15: Derived vapour-side quantities for steamtests


Run
No.

mx 10"
/kg s'

G
/kg m 2s1

q
/kW mZ

S-la

1.46

39.7

152.8

S-lb

3.23

88.2

287.0

12.14

S-2a

2.14

58.2

184.2

22.22

S-2b

3.15

86.0

168.3

23.94

S-3a

2.07

56.4

84.2

13.36

S-3b

1.92

52.4

663

11.20

S-4a

3.13

85.4

210.2

22.06

S-5a

3.11

84.8

165.5

20.40

S-6a

3.75

102.3

73.4

11.96

S-7a

4.38

119.4

236.3

26.43

S-7b

4.28

116.8

287.1

25.97

5-8a

5.51

150.3

105.5

14.01

S-8b

5.24

142.8

104.8

13.66

S-9a

5.69

155.1

99.6

15.16

S-9b

5.66

154.5

94.4

16.74

a,.
/kW m ZK
7.14

Table J.16: Derived coolant-side quantities for steamtests


Run
No.

mOX 10'
/kg s'1

mbX 10'
/kg s-'

Q-,,
/W

Q,,b
/W

S-la

3.0

3.26

203.7

152.4

S-lb

3.65

3.73

541.0

251.0

S-2a

4.05

3.96

286.4

221.9

S-2b

4.08

4.04

288.6

465.2

S-3a

3.99

3.85

282.4

203.3

S-3b

4.02

4.02

306.8

227.2

S-4a

4.07

4.07

423.7

336.8

S-5a

4.21

4.21

361.9

379.1

S-6a

4.16

4.19

329.2

260.1

S-7a

4.07

4.07

525.3

532.6

S-7b

4.11

4.13

611.4

427.7

S-8a

4.21

4.13

456.7

386.8

S-8b

4.13

4.22

468.2

373.5

S-9a

4.04

4.02

372.9

427.2

S-9b

4.0

3.98

367.1

391.5

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