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APPLIED BUDDHISM IN SELF CULTIVATION

ANKUR BARUA,

DIPAK KUMAR BARUA,

M.A. BASILIO

Hong Kong, 2009

Background: Dr. Ankur Barua had graduated with distinction from the University of Hong Kong (MBuddStud, 2009). He had also completed two other Master Degrees, one from Sikkim Manipal University (MBAIT, 2007) while the other from Manipal University (MBBS-2000, MD in Community Medicine - 2003) and presently working as Associate Professor of Community Medicine at Melaka-Manipal Medical College in Malaysia. Dr. Dipak Kumar Barua was the earlier Dean of the Faculty Council for Postgraduate Studies in Education, Journalism & Library Science in the University of Calcutta (1987-1991) and the Director of Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda (1996-1999). He is also the pioneer in developing the concept of applied Buddhism. Ms. M.A. Basilio is a nursing professional who has also a keen passion for conducting research on religion and science.

First Publication on 26th December 2009 Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen, Hong Kong Copyright © Ankur Barua, Dipak Kumar Barua and M.A.Basilio

Communication Address of Corresponding Author: Dr. ANKUR BARUA Block – EE, No.-80, Flat No.-2A,

Salt Lake City, Sector-2, Kolkata - 700091, West Bengal, INDIA. Email: Mobile: ankurbarua26@yahoo.com +91-9434485543 (India), +60122569902 (Malaysia)

Applied Buddhism in Self Cultivation

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Contents

Items No.

Page

Acknowledgements

04

Preface

05

Ignore Self-entity: Cultivate the Mind 06

Applied Buddhism: Phenomenal and Mental Cultivation 24

The Goal to Develop Mirror-like Wisdom

40

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Acknowledgements
The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to Ven. Dr. Jing Yin, Professor of Buddhist Studies and Director of the Centre of Buddhist Studies in the University of Hong Kong for his kind support, inspiration, encouragement and timely advice during the compilation of this book.

The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude and indebtedness to Prof. Y. Karunadasa and Ven. Dr. Guang Xing, the eminent professors at the Centre of Buddhist Studies in the University of Hong Kong for their constant

encouragement, constructive criticism, personal attention and valuable guidance throughout this work.

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Preface
“Applied Buddhism” is the foundation of our true understanding of all the events occurring in nature. The term “Applied Buddhism” explains how every person can relate Buddhist ideas in his or her daily life and in profession. This book provides guidance on how to apply the principles of the Doctrine of the Buddha in our day to day life in an effective manner to enrich our phenomenal and mental cultivation.

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IGNORE SELF-ENTITY: CULTIVATE THE MIND

Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen, Hong Kong

Hong Kong, 2009

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IGNORE SELF-ENTITY: CULTIVATE THE MIND

Abstract

Buddhism is the only world religion which does not recognize nor non-recognize the presence of any soul or self-entity. Whether a soul or a self-entity is present or absent was never answered by the Buddha. These questions are categorized as unanswered questions in

Buddhism which the Buddha had insisted to be put aside (thapaniya) as they always lead to suffering and never address the issue of cessation of suffering.

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The Anatta teaching in Buddhism is not a doctrine of no-self, but a not-self strategy for shedding suffering by letting go of its cause that leads to the highest level of unlimited happiness. Without viewing anything as

pertaining to “self” or “other”, we should recognize each phenomenon simply for what it is, as it is directly experienced and then perform the duty appropriate for it.

Key words:

Self, Entity, Soul, Cultivation, Mind, Four Noble Truths.

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IGNORE SELF-ENTITY: CULTIVATE THE MIND

Introduction A unique feature of Buddhist teachings is the emphasis on Anatta, which is often translated as no-self. Buddhism is the only world religion which does not recognize nor non-recognize the presence of any soul or self-entity.1,2 In fact, Buddhism holds a neutral position in this context. Many modern scholars misinterpret the teachings of the Buddha and believe that Buddhism does not believe in soul or selfentity. But the fact is that, whether a soul or a self-entity is present or absent was never answered by the Buddha.1,2,3

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These

questions

are

categorized

as

unanswered questions in Buddhism which the Buddha had insisted to be put aside

(thapaniya) as they always lead to suffering and never address the issue of cessation of suffering.1,2,3 Thus, the Buddhist philosophy is similar to modern science where the scientists also hold a neutral position in this aspect as no one has ever discovered a soul or a self-entity till date.4

The

word

“self”

is

a

misnomer

in

Buddhism Buddhism trains us not to identify ourselves with the soul or self-entity as these would lead to ego problems and discrimination in our

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minds. But it never regards or disregards the presence or absence of soul or self-entity. This creates confusion in the minds of the religious practitioners belonging to other

religious backgrounds. This concept does not fit well with the Judeo-Christian, Hindu, Muslim and Jain background which assumes the

existence of an eternal soul or self as a basic presupposition. There is often an argument on the issue that if there is no-self then what is transmitted from one life to the other. If there is no soul or self-entity then what is the purpose of a spiritual life. Also, the idea of there being no-self does not fit well with other Buddhist teachings such as the doctrine of Karma and Rebirth. If there is no self then what experiences the results of Karma and takes rebirth is a debatable issue.1,2,4
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While understanding the background why the Buddha had observed silence to address this issue, we must remember that Buddhism never interfered with existing local socio-cultural

practices and laws of the country. Wherever Buddhism had spread, it had recognized and incorporated the existing socio-cultural

practices of the community and modified its own rules and regulations accordingly. This is an important reason why Buddhism has

become a world religion without inflicting any harm or exerting any force on anyone. As the concepts of soul and self-entity were deeprooted in Indian culture and society since ancient times and the fundamental block for existing Brahmanism, Buddhism did not want to go for an outright clash on this issue and
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disturb the peace and harmony of the society. Buddhism had assumed a neutral position and never supported or disregarded the ancient Indian beliefs of soul and self-entity.4,5 The Concept of No-Self (Anatta) in

Buddhism If we explore the Pali Canon, the earliest extant record of the Buddha's teachings, we find that the Buddha had never addressed the issues related to soul or self-entity. In fact, when the Buddha was asked whether or not there was a soul or self, he refused to answer. He urged that to hold either that there is a self or that there is no self is to fall into extreme forms of wrong view that make the path of Buddhist practice impossible (Samyutta Nikaya XLIV.10). Thus, the question should be put aside

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(thapaniya) as these types of questions do not lead to the end the suffering and stress.1,2,3

There

are

some the

basic

ground

rules

for The

interpreting

Buddha's

teachings.

Buddha said that there are two types of people who misrepresented him. The first category of people comprised of those who drew inferences from statements drawn that from should them. not The have second

inferences

category included those who did not draw inferences from those which needed. But if we look at the way most scholars had addressed the Anatta doctrine, we find these ground rules being ignored. Some of the scholars tried to qualify the no-self interpretation by saying that the Buddha denied the existence of an eternal self or a separate self. If we accept this view
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then this means to give an analytical answer to a question that the Buddha insisted to be put aside.1,2,3

Some other scholars however, tried to draw inferences from the few statements in the discourse that implied that there is no-self. In this case, they forced those statements to give an answer to a question that should be put aside. Here, one was drawing inferences where it should not be drawn in the first place. These were attempts to refer the teachings of the Buddha out of context. We need to examine under what circumstances the Buddha gave his discourses. Quoting the Buddha out of context in order to win an argument is itself an example of our attachment of the minds to cling on to a dogmatic view.1,2,3
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Parable of the Poisoned Arrow3 It is against this background that we need to understand why Buddhism has set aside

(thapaniya) certain questions as undetermined (avyakata). Nothing illustrates this situation better than the parable of the poisoned arrow (sallupama). When the monk Malunkyaputta wanted to know from the Buddha the answers to these ten questions, the Buddha told him that these questions are “undetermined, set aside, and rejected” by the Blessed One. The answers to these questions were not relevant to understanding the fact of suffering and its elimination. It was as irrelevant as the need to know the name of the person who shot the arrow in order to remove it from the body. But
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here we should keep in mind that the parable of the poisoned arrow implied indirectly that questions regarding who shot the arrow could be answered, though they were irrelevant for the purpose of a cure. So, the questions of soul and self-entity were not undetermined

questions (avyakata), but they were irrelevant and should be put aside (thapaniya) in Buddhist perspective. The Four Noble Truths1,2,4,5 Instead of answering “yes” or "no" to the question of whether or not there is a soul or self-entity that is interconnected or separate, eternal or not, the Buddha considered these questions as irrelevant and inappropriate. This is because, no matter how we define "self" and "other," the notion of self involves an element of self-identification and clinging and thus
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suffering and stress. The notion of “self” is thus an attachment that leads to ego and thus culminates in suffering.

If we identify ourselves with all of nature, then we feel pain by the death of every creature or plant on earth. If we do not identify with anything at all in nature, then it holds for an entirely "other" universe. In this case, the sense of alienation would become so

debilitating as to make the quest for happiness, whether for one's own or that of other, as impossible. Considering these reasons, the Buddha advised paying no attention to such questions as "Do I exist?" or "Don't I exist?" for whatever manner we answer them; they lead to suffering and stress. We must remember that the prime goal of Buddhism is to end
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suffering for all sentient beings through the phenomenal and mental cultivations.

To avoid the suffering implicit in questions of "self" and "other," the Buddha had offered an alternative way of dividing up experience. This is through his preaching of the Four Noble Truths that includes Dukkha our sufferings, cause of suffering, its cessation, and the path to cessation of suffering. Stress should be comprehended. Its cause should be

abandoned. Its cessation should be realized and the path to its cessation should be developed. The main cause of our suffering is the attachment of our mind either to material forms or dogmatic views. We need to shed these clinging or attachments and keep our mind wide open all the time. Without viewing
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anything as pertaining to “self” or “other”, we should recognize each phenomenon simply for what it is, as it is directly experienced and then perform the duty appropriate for it.

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Conclusion Through the cultivation of mind if we are able to comprehend the inner meanings of the Four Noble Truths, then the common questions that earlier occurred in our minds as "Is there a self? What is my self?" would cease to occur.

Instead,

our

mind

would

reframe

these

questions as "Am I suffering stress because I'm holding onto this particular phenomenon? Is it really me, myself, or mine? If it is stressful, but not really me or mine, then why should I hold on?" This would help us in comprehending suffering and help us to abandon our

attachment and clinging with regard to the residual sense of self-identification.

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This would finally lead to the limitless freedom until ultimately all traces of self-identification are gone. In this context, we must remember that the Anatta teaching in Buddhism is not a doctrine of no-self, but a not-self strategy for shedding suffering by letting go of its cause that leads to the highest level of unlimited happiness. Once there is an experience of such total freedom, there would be no concern about who is experiencing it or whether there is any self or not.1,2

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References

1. Bhikkhu, T. 2009. Anatta: The Concept of

No-self in Buddhism [serial online]. [cited 2009 October 26]; [4 screens]. from: The URL:

Wanderling.

Available

http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/awakeni ng101/noself.html

2. V, Jayaram. 2009. The Buddhist Concept

of Anatta or No-self (Anatma) [serial online]. [cited 2009 October 31]; [2 screens]. URL:

Available

from:

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/ana tta.asp

3. Karunadasa,

Y. 2008. The Unanswered

Questions: Why were they left unanswered?
Applied Buddhism in Self Cultivation Page 23

A

New

Interpretation

based

on

a

Re-

examination of the Textual Data. Hong Kong: The Centre of Buddhist Studies, the University of Hong Kong.

4. Barua, A., Testerman, N., Basilio, M.A.

2009. Applied Buddhism the Foundation of Our True Understanding. Hong Kong:

Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen & Unibook Publications.
5. Barua, D.K. 2005. Environment & Human

Resources: Buddhist Approaches. Applied Buddhism: Studies in the Gospel of Buddha from Modern Perspectives. . Varanasi, India: Centre for Buddhist Studies, Department of Pali & Buddhist Studies, Benaras Hindu University: 90-6.
Applied Buddhism in Self Cultivation Page 24

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APPLIED BUDDHISM: PHENOMENAL AND MENTAL CULTIVATION

Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen, Hong Kong

Hong Kong, 2009

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APPLIED BUDDHISM: PHENOMENAL AND MENTAL CULTIVATION

Abstract

In

Buddhist

perspective, refer

the to

phenomenal the

and

mental

cultivations

successful

eradication of greed, hatred and delusion. There is also no cultivation without discipline, concentration and wisdom. Although the mind is the dominant factor of all, yet only through the body and the mouth can its activities be manifested. Thus, all the three aspects are indivisible and inseparable from one another. Since, the body and the mind are correlated and inseparable from each other, the cultivation of the one aspect necessarily involves that of the other.

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Key

words:

Cultivation,

Integration, Applied,

Phenomenal, Buddhism.

Mental,

APPLIED BUDDHISM: PHENOMENAL AND MENTAL CULTIVATION

Introduction The Phenomenal and mental cultivation in Buddhist perspective are numerous and

diversified. Some of the common practices include sutra-reading, ritual worship, abundant offering and charitable practices, strict

observance of the Canons of Discipline, Namereciting, Ch'an Meditation, taking a journey to visit venerable monks living in secluded places and so forth. But by practicing some of these
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activities out of mere faith and following them routinely and meticulously in our day to day life will not lead to salvation or liberation from suffering. understand We must make every effort to the inner meanings of the

teachings of the Buddha. The Buddha wanted to live through his teachings or the Dhamma. Thus, idol worship, offerings and rituals were never advocated by the Buddha and he never encouraged them either during his lifetime.1,2,3

The first and foremost priority in Buddhism is the true interpretations of the Dhamma. The faith and practice are secondary and are not mandatory. The success to end suffering lies in the internalization of the teachings of the Buddha. We must train and retrain our bodies, mouths and minds to attain grand-mirror-like
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wisdom in order to visualize all the phenomena as truly as they are.4

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Integration of Phenomenal and Mental Cultivation In Buddhism, cultivation is classified into two aspects – (1) the phenomenal aspect of

cultivation such as sutra-reading, ceremonial worship etc. which are referred as visible outward cultivation and (2) the mental aspect of cultivation which is subtle intangible inward cultivation such as self-introspection and

looking into the mind. Since, the body and the mind are correlated and inseparable from each other, the cultivation of the one aspect

necessarily involves that of the other. So, in the mental aspect there is the phenomenal and in the phenomenal aspect there is the mental. The better we understand the principle of cultivation, more serious would be our

cultivation. In other words, more serious our
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cultivation, the better is our understanding of the principle. From this it may be seen that principle and practice should go together and there is no need to lean against one and neglect the other. As long as we can integrate the two aspects of cultivation harmoniously and are always mindful of the Law of Karma operating the process of cause and effect at all times.1,3,4

Applied

Buddhism

in

Phenomenal

and

Mental Cultivation2,3,5 At the initial stage, we can start leaning the Buddhist teachings without developing any faith or belief at the beginning or performing any Buddhist rituals. Once, we understand the true meanings of Buddhist teachings and able
Applied Buddhism in Self Cultivation Page 32

to

relate

them

to

our

own

life,

then

automatically we shall start applying them in our daily practice. Believe and faith in Buddhism would develop gradually as our mind starts accepting the Dhamma. But we should always remember that blind faith without proper interpretation of Dhamma is never encouraged in Buddhism. The teachings of the Buddha should always be accepted with critical evaluation and analytical reasoning for our true understandings.

Buddhism should be adopted and applied in daily practice as a philosophical, Psychological and moral foundation of our society and a way of life rather than a religion. As we often present Buddhism wrapped up in a cover of religion, the followers of other religious faiths
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often feel uncomfortable to learn Buddhism. They often suffer from a feeling of guilt and injustice in having wrong notion of deceiving their own religion and accepting another new one. As a result, some religious communities still possess a hostile attitude towards

Buddhism.

Eradication of Three Poisons1,4,5 In Buddhist perspective, the phenomenal and mental cultivations refer to the successful eradication of greed, hatred and delusion. These are the three poisons which are the main cause for our attachments either to material forms or dogmatic views. It is the attachment of mind to material forms or dogmatic views that is responsible for all our sufferings in life.
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So, all the Buddhist teachings are directed towards achieving the goal of eradication of the three poisons of greed, hatred and delusion. However, the phenomenal and mental

cultivation in Buddhism advocates intensive and incessant practice. It is only by cultivating on regular and repeated occasions that we could advance nearer the goal of

Enlightenment.

If someone argues against the phenomenal and mental cultivations, he would be unaware of his own greed, hatred, stupidity, passions,

prejudices and subjective thoughts and also ignorant of the objective reality of those phenomena. He would be as foolish as a patient in serious condition refusing to take medical treatment.
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Purification

of

the

Activities

Involving

Body, Mouth and Mind All human activities generally involve the use of three aspects of the human anatomy as the body, mouth and mind. Although the mind is the dominant factor of all, yet only through the body and the mouth can its activities be manifested. Thus, all the three aspects are indivisible and inseparable from one another. This is same as the case of wave which is inseparable from water and itself is also water. So, illusion is also inseparable from truth. All activities, including the cultivation of mind, are manifestations of the True Nature. It is also appropriate to refer that all Dhammas are related to the cultivation of the True Nature. Hence, more the cultivation more is the

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manifestation of the True Nature and more the benefits of mankind.1,4,5 Practice of Discipline, Concentration and Wisdom The phenomenal and mental faculties need to be trained and retrained to become pure and stainless. This is known as Mental Purification. In Buddhism there is no cultivation without discipline, concentration and wisdom. There is no Dhamma without discipline, concentration and wisdom. These three-fold studies are the basic tenet for learning and cultivating

Buddhism. When the phenomenal and mental faculties are morally restrained, it is Discipline. When the phenomenal and mental faculties are calm and still, it is Concentration. When the phenomenal and mental faculties illuminate unobtrusively and freely, it is Wisdom.1,4
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Discipline, Concentration and Wisdom are the triple functions inherent in the True Nature. In other words, these are the three aspects of the same thing. The fundamental objective of cultivation is to orient the body, mouth and mind to the True Nature by evoking these three functions.1,4

It is only by cultivating Buddhism in accordance with this fundamental principle that the

beneficial effects of turning the mind from defilement into purity, from chaos into stability and from delusion into understanding may be achieved. We should finally realize that there is neither purity nor impurity; neither motion nor stillness; neither wisdom nor attainment of any

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sort. This is the fundamental expression of the True Nature.1,4

Conclusion In Buddhist perspective, the phenomenal and mental cultivations refer to the successful eradication of greed, hatred and delusion. Although the mind is the dominant factor of all, yet only through the body and the mouth can its activities be manifested. Thus, all the three aspects are indivisible and inseparable from one another. Since, the body and the mind are correlated and inseparable from each other, the cultivation of the one aspect necessarily

involves that of the other. So, in the mental aspect there is the phenomenal and in the phenomenal aspect there is the mental. In

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Buddhism there is also no cultivation without discipline, concentration and wisdom.1,4

With

this

background

of

the

benefits

of

phenomenal and mental cultivations, it is now time to send a clear message to everyone for the eradication of all unwarranted

apprehensions related to Buddhism. It has to be borne in mind that Buddhism never

interferes with the socio-cultural or religious practices of any community. So, any person belonging to any other religious community can feel free to learn Buddhism and apply the Buddhist teachings in his daily life to end suffering, without changing his own religion or getting converted into Buddhism.2,3,5

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References

1. Manabu, W. 2008. Self-Cultivation and

the Body in Religious Traditions: From the Point of View of the History of Religions. Shūkyō kenkyū. Japan: Annual Convention of the Japanese Association for Religious

Studies No66. 81(355):98.

2. Barua, A., Basilio, M.A. 2009. Applied

Buddhism in Modern Science: Episode 1. Hong Kong: Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen & Unibook Publications.

3. Barua, A., Testerman, N., Basilio, M.A.

2009. Applied Buddhism the Foundation of Our True Understanding. Hong Kong:

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Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen & Unibook Publications.

4. Chatterjee,

A.K.

1975.

The

Yogācāra

Idealism. Varnasi, India: Bhargava Bhushan Press, the Banaras Hindu University Press.

5. Barua, D.K. 2005. Environment & Human

Resources: Buddhist Approaches. Applied Buddhism: Studies in the Gospel of Buddha from Modern Perspectives. . Varanasi, India: Centre for Buddhist Studies, Department of Pali & Buddhist Studies, Benaras Hindu University: 90-6.

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THE GOAL TO DEVELOP MIRROR-LIKE WISDOM

Buddhist Door, Tung Lin Kok Yuen, Hong Kong

Hong Kong, 2009

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THE GOAL TO DEVELOP MIRROR-LIKE WISDOM

Abstarct

The most famous innovation of the Yogācāra School was the doctrine of eight consciousnesses and it upheld the concept that consciousness (vijñāna) is real, but its objects of constructions are unreal. The key emphasis of Yogācāra is on insight meditation which is actually considered to be a means of abandoning delusions about the self and about the world. When the storehouse consciousness is finally transformed into the grand-mirror-like wisdom, it reflects the entire universe without distortion. This wisdom can perceive many objects accurately and simultaneously.

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Key

Words:

Mind, Consciousness, Meditation.

Manas,

Ālaya, Insight,

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THE GOAL TO DEVELOP MIRROR-LIKE WISDOM

Introduction The Yogācāra school of Buddhist thought was founded by the two brothers, Asanga and Vasubandhu in the fifth century. Yogācāra was a synthesis created in response to all existing schools of Buddhism during the third century BC. Yogācāra extracted the common teachings from all the Buddhist traditions and made an attempt to resolve the problems that most of them were facing. The key epistemological and metaphysical insights of Yogācāra evolved from the common Buddhist belief that knowledge comes only from the senses (vijnapti). With a new insight, Yogācāra proposed that the mind, itself, was an aspect of vijnapti.1,2,3,4
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Asanga further recognized that though the mind can sense its own objects, which are known as thoughts (apperception), but it

cannot verify its own interpretation. As the senses thoughts are constantly misinterpreted, are way. and our also These nearly

(apperceptions) in are the same

misinterpreted misconceptions

instinctive

universal because they are caused by the desires, fears and anxieties that come with animal survival. This results in an automatic assumption of substance for self and objects (atman and dharma) which are created to suppress our fears.1,3,4,5

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Various Yogācāra

Types

of

Consciousness

in

The most famous innovation of the Yogācāra School was the doctrine of eight and

consciousnesses.

Early

Buddhism

Abhidhamma described six consciousnesses, each produced by the contact between its specific sense organ and a corresponding sense object. Thus, when a functioning eye comes into contact with a color or shape, visual consciousness is produced. Consciousness does not create the sensory sphere, but is an effect of the interaction of a sense organ and its true object. If an eye does not function but an object is present, visual consciousness does not arise. The same is true if a functional eye fails to encounter a visual object.5,6,7,8,9

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Arising

of

consciousness There are

is

dependent

on

sensation.

altogether

six sense

organs (eye, ear, nose, mouth, body, and mind) which interact with their respective sensory object domains like visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mental spheres. Here, the mind is considered to be another sense organ as it functions like the other senses. It involves the activity of a sense organ (manas), its domain (mano-dhātu) and the resulting consciousness (mano-vijñāna).

Each

domain

is

discrete

and

function

independent of the other. Hence, the deaf can see and the blind can hear. Objects are also specific to their domain and the same is true of the consciousnesses like the visual

consciousness is entirely distinct from auditory
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consciousness. There are six distinct types of consciousness namely, the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile and mental

consciousness.5,6,7,8,9 The six sense organs, six sense object domains and six resulting consciousnesses comprise our eighteen components of experience and are known as the eighteen dhātus. According to Buddhism, these eighteen dhātus are the comprehensive sensorium of everything in the universe.6,7,8,9

As Abhidhamma grew more complex, disputes intensified between different Buddhist schools along a range of issues. In order to avoid the idea of a permanent self, Buddhists said citta is momentary. Since a new citta apperceives a new cognitive field each moment, the apparent
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continuity of mental states was explained causally by claiming each citta, in the moment it ceased, also acted as cause for the arising of its successor. This was fine for continuous perceptions and thought processes, but

difficulties arose since Buddhists identified a number of situations in which no citta at all was present or operative, such as deep sleep, unconsciousness, and certain meditative

conditions explicitly defined as devoid of citta (āsaṃjñī-samāpatti, nirodha-samāpatti). So, the controversial questions were: from where does consciousness reemerge after deep sleep? How does consciousness begin in a new life? The various Buddhist attempts to answer these questions led to more difficulties and disputes. For Yogācāra the most important problems

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revolved around questions of causality and consciousness.6,7,8,9

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Yogācārins

responded

by

rearranging

the

tripartite structure of the mental level of the eighteen dhātus into three novel types of consciousnesses. Mano-vijñāna (empirical

consciousness) became the sixth consciousness processing the cognitive content of the five senses as well as mental objects (thoughts, ideas). Manas became the seventh

consciousness, which was primarily obsessed with various aspects and notions of "self". Hence, it was called "defiled manas" (kliṣṭamanas). vijñāna The also eighth consciousness, as ālaya-

known

"warehouse

consciousness," was totally novel.6,7,8,9

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Four

Wisdoms

from

Eight

Consciousnesses7,8,9 (1)The first five perceptual consciousnesses are transformed into the This and Wisdom wisdom of is

Successful

Performance. by pure

characterized

unimpeded

functioning (no attachment or distortion) in its relation to the (sense) organs and their objects.

(2)The sixth consciousness is the perceptual and cognitive processing center. It is

transformed into the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation corresponding “emptiness of which to has two aspects of of the the

understanding and that

self”

“emptiness of Dhammas”.

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(3)The seventh consciousness defiles the first six consciousnesses with self and selfrelated afflictions. It is transformed into the Wisdom of Equality which understands the nature of the equality of self and of all other beings.

(4) The

eighth, is

the transformed wisdom.

storehouse into the

consciousness, grand-mirror-like reflects the

This

wisdom without

entire

universe

distortion. Like mirror can reflect many objects simultaneously, the wisdom can perceive many objects accurately and

simultaneously. This can be achieved by proper transformation of the Ālaya-vijñāna to this wisdom and is considered to be the state of the Buddhahood.
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A similar principle is applied in the modern telescopes for observing the universe. The lens of a modern telescope is replaced by a mirror in order to avoid chromatic aberrations. Mirror of the telescope reflects the true image of the space and universe.

Conclusion In Yogācāra concept, true knowledge begins when consciousness ends. Thus,

“Enlightenment” is considered as the act of bringing the eight consciousnesses to an end and replacing them with enlightened cognitive abilities (jñāna). Here, the sixth consciousness (Manas) becomes the immediate cognition of equality (samatā-jñāna) by equalizing self and
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other. When the Warehouse Consciousness finally ceases it is replaced by the Great Mirror Cognition (Mahādarśa-jñāna) that sees and reflects things truly as they are (yathā-

bhūtam).5,6,8

Thus, the grasper-grasped relationship ceases and the mind projects the things impartially without exclusion, or prejudice, anticipation, "purified"

attachment,

distortion.

These

cognitions remove the self-bias, prejudice and obstructions that had previously prevented a person from perceiving beyond his selfish consciousness. Since enlightened cognition is non-conceptual, its objects cannot be

described. So, the Yogācāra School could not provide any description regarding the outcome of these types of enlightened cognitions except
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for referring these as 'pure' (of imaginative constructions).3,5,8

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References

1. Keenan, J.P. 1988. Buddhist Yogācāra

Philosophy as Ancilla Theologiae. Japanese Religions 15: 36.
2. Pensgard, D. 2006. Yogācāra Buddhism:

A sympathetic description and suggestion for use in Western theology and philosophy of religion. JSRI 15:94-103.
3. Lusthaus,

D. A

2002.

Buddhist Philosophical

Phenomenology:

Investigation of Yogācāra Buddhism and the Ch’eng Wei-shih lun. New York: Routledge Curzon.
4. Suzuki,

D.T.

1998.

Studies Delhi:

in

the India

Lankavatara

Sutra.

New

Munshiram Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd.

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5. Chatterjee,

A.K.

1975.

The

Yogācāra

Idealism. Varnasi, India: Bhargava Bhushan Press, the Banaras Hindu University Press.
6. Tripathi,

C.L.1972.

The

Problem

of

Knowledge in Yogācāra Buddhism. Varnasi, India: Bharat-Bharati Press.
7. King, R.1994.

Early Yogācāra and its

relationship with the Madhyamika school. Philosophy East & West 44: 659.
8. King, R. 1998. Vijnaptimatrata and the

Abhidhamma context of early Yogācāra. Asian Philosophy 8(1): 5.
9. Yin, J. 2009. Yogācāra school and Faxiang

school. Hong Kong: The Centre of Buddhist Studies, the University of Hong Kong.

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