You are on page 1of 25

Design of load-bearing structures

19th lecture
Earthquake and buildings

Contents

Introduction
The effect of earthquake on buildings
Conceptual design of buildings for earthquake
Design of slabs
- the principles of design
- design for vertical forces
- design for horizontal forces
Summary

Introduction 1.
The earthquakes do not kill men however the collapsed
building does.
Charles Richter
The earthquake does not read codes.
Thomas Paulay

Introduction 2.
Design for earthquake: (Hungary)
It is a requirement of the building law.
Az OTK elrja
Zaj- s rezgsvdelem
55. (1) Az ptmnyt s rszeit, szerkezeteit gy kell mretezni s
megvalstani, hogy a krnyezetbl hat zaj- s rezgshatsoknak
(pl. szeizmikus s forgalmi rezgshatsoknak) az elrt mrtkben
ellenlljon, illetleg azt meghatrozott mrtkig csillaptsa.
4

Introduction 3.
There is earthquake in Hungary too !!!!!!
Date

Location

Magnitude,
M

EMS
intensity

Damage

2006 11. 23.

Beregsurny

4,5

VI.

Smalldamage
in buildings

2006 12. 31.

Gymr

4,1

V. VI.

2007 03. 03.

Rpcelak

2,9

2008 11.13

Murony

3,5

10 M Ft
building
damage
No damage

IV.

No damage

The judgment of earthquakes by geophysicists are


changed.
5

The earthquake 1.
The origin of earthquake:
a
epicenter

P
Ground surface

R
P

Focal depth

Wood-Anderson
seismograph

hypocenter

Fault rupture
6

The earthquake 2.
Seismic waves:
Characterization by:
- acceleration
- velocity
- amplitude

The ground surface


moves horizontally
and vertically too.
7

Horizontal vibration

The effect of movement


of soil on buildings:
Vibration 

Movement of the soil


Vertical vibration

Lateral forces, movement,


Internal forces,
Possibility of damage, and
collapse.

Role of floors:
Movement of the soil
Torsional vibration

Horizontal and tensional


vibration: distribution of
lateral forces between bracing
elements.

Vertical vibration:
Movement
of the soil

Movement of
the soil

balancing lateral forces and


transferring them to the
vertical load-bearing
elements.
8

The earthquake 3.
Measure of the effect of earthquake:
Magnitude:
e.g.: Richter magnitude:
- M=log A; (A measured amplitude in m);
- maximal value: M = 9.

Intensity scale:
e.g.: MCS-1917; MSK-1964, 1976, 1978;
newer EMS-1992, 1998
- 12 class; takes into account the effect of earthquakes on man, objects
nature and the extent of damage caused in buildings.

Soil acceleration:
- Basic data for design; depends on direction and soil.
9

The earthquake 4.
Seismic map of Hungary:

EC
8-

NA

The reference, horizontal peak ground acceleration,


10
agR, on rock.

A fldrengs s a hatsa az pletekre.

The earthquake 5.
The seismicity in Hungary:
Zone

Seismicity
low

simplified design
method according to
EN 1998

moderate

design according to
EN 1998

1. zone
2-3.
zone
4-5.
zone

Design method

Similar to Australia, but since the earthquake in Newcastle, 1989,


design for earthquake is part the design process.

11

A fldrengs s a hatsa az pletekre.

The earthquake 6.
Measure of the effect of earthquake :
EMS

I.

0,4

ag/g

II.

1,5

< 0,001

III.

2,5

0,001 0,007

IV.

3,5

0,006 0,03

V.

4,4

0,015 0,06

VI.

5,2

0,03 0,15

VII.

6,0

0,07 0,36

VIII.

6,7

0,15 0,71

IX.

7,4

0,30 1,53

X.

8,0

0,51 3,06

XI.

8,5

1,53 3,56

XII.

8,9

> 2,04

2.zone

3.zone

4-5.zone

12

A fldrengs s a hatsa az pletekre.

The earthquake 7.
European Macroseizmic Scale (EMS):

13

A fldrengs s a hatsa az pletekre.

The earthquake 8.
European Macroseizmic Scale (EMS):
VII. class: Damaging
- Most people are frightened and try to run outdoors. Many find it
difficult to stand, especially on the upper floors
- Furniture is shifted and top-heavy furniture may be overturned.
Objects fall from shelves in large numbers. Water splashes from
containers, tanks and pools.
- Masonry buildings: large, long cracks on most of the walls;
partitions, end walls, chimneys are collapsed.
- RC buildings: cracks on columns, beams, walls; cracks on partitions,
infill walls; covers and plaster are falling down.

14

Conceptual design 1.
Seismic response of the building, the expected
damage are strongly influenced by the architectural
design together with quality of material and
execution.
Principles:
- simplicity, symmetry and regularity in plan;
- regularity in elevation;
- continuity in resistance and stiffness;
- redundancy and robust behavior;
- rigid floors;
- adequate foundation.
15

Conceptual design 2.
Even the cleverest calculations and detailed design cannot
compensate for errors and defects in he conceptual design of
the structural and non-structural elements!

Close collaboration between architect and structural


engineer from the earliest planning stage!

16

Conceptual design 3.
Cost of the structure designed for earthquake
depends on:
design principles,
applied design method.

EN

19
98

No significant extra costs thanks to the


modern methods!

17

Conceptual design 4.

Avoid soft storey


ground floor!

Avoid soft storey


upper floors!

18

Conceptual design 5.

19

Conceptual design 6.

Avoid asymmetrical
horizontal bracing!

20

10

Conceptual design 7.

Avoid bracing offset!

Discontinuity in stiffness
and resistance cause
problems.
21

Conceptual design 8.

Two slender RC structural walls in each principal


directions!

22

11

Conceptual design 9.
nagy meredeksg
nyomatkbra
 nyrsi
tnkremenetel!

Avoid short
columns!

Avoid partially
infilled frames!

23

Conceptual design 10.

Gap is needed!
24

12

Conceptual design 11.


disadvantageous

Separate adjacent
buildings by joints!

advantageous

Favor compact plan


configuration!

25

Conceptual design 11.a)


Seismic joints between buildings:
The earthquake-induced pounding between buildings should be
avoided.
It is satisfied, if the distance to the property line:
Let the displacement of the building at the top: de=H/1000
If H=35m (10 stories), then the gap:
50 - 100 mm.
If H=10m (3 stories), then the gap: 15 - 30 mm.
Between buildings belonging to the same property:
If H=35m (10 stories), then the gap :
70 - 150 mm.
If H=10m (3 stories), then the gap :20 - 50 mm.
26

13

Conceptual design 12.


disadvantegous

advantageous

Use the slabs to tie in


the elements and
distribute the forces!
Rigid floor.
27

Floors 1.
Supporting load:
- as a plate:
- loads due to gravity;
- lateral load due to vertical
vibration;
support: vertical structural elements
- as a diaphragm: - wind load;
- lateral load due to horizontal
vibration;
- lateral load due to torsional
vibration;
support: vertical bracing elements
28

14

Floors 2.
Floor as a diaphragm:
RIGID FLOOR:
Relative idea: depends on the
rigidity (deformation) of the
floor and bracing elements.
Displacement: rigid body
translation, rotation.

Simple calculation methods.

FLEXIBLE
FLOOR
SEMI RIGID
FLOOR
3D building model.
29

Floors 3.
Making rigid floor:
Building material, building construction
method:
Rigid floors:

- cast in situ RC floors;


- prefabricated RC composite floor;
- corrugated metal sheet composite
floor.

30

15

Floors 4.
Making rigid floor:
By seismic joints:
YES

NO

ce
displa
ontal
Horiz
Vertical
displacement Changing ground motion

ment

x < 4y
Rigid units
YES

NO

31

Floors 5.
Making rigid floor:
By additional bracing elements:

Flexible floor

Rigid floor
32

16

Floors 6.
Making rigid floor:
Avoiding stress concentration:

Locations for stress concentration

33

Floors 7.
Making rigid floor:

NO

NO

YES

NO

YES

YES

NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

NO

YES

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

YES

34

17

Floors 8.
Making rigid floor:
IGEN

NO

YES

NO

YES
NO

NO

YES
NO

NO

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

35

Analysis 1.
Design of floors for earthquake
according to Eurocode 8
EN 1998 Design of structures for earthquake
resistance: supplement to the other Eurocode
standards and should be used together them.

36

18

Analysis 2.
Ultimate Limit State: Resistance

Ed Rd
Ed effect of action for seismic action,
Combination according to: EN 1990: 6.4.3.4
Ed=E{Gk,j; P; Aed; 2,iQk,i},

Gk,j+ Aed+ 2,iQk,i

Design value of seismic action: Aed= IAek ,


I importance factor
Rd design resistance of structural elements.

37

Analysis 3.
Guidance:
Mass of the building used for dynamic analysis:
Gk,j+ E,iQk,i ,

E,i= 2,i

Residential building (A):


E=0,15; 2=0,3; =0,5 (independently occupied stories)

38

19

Analysis 4.
Analysis of the stiffening system:
Static analysis: lateral force method of analysis
Dynamic analysis: modal response spectrum analysis
Both uses response spectra, which considers:
- the effect of soil: soil factor
- type of building: importance class
- the behavior of the stiffening system: behavior factor

39

Analysis 5.

Design response spectra (Sd/ag)

Design response spectra:

Period (s)

40

20

Analysis 6.
Analysis of floors for vertical acceleration:
- The vertical mass forces are defined by, avg,
vertical response spectra.
- avg is at most 45 90 % of the horizontal
acceleration.
- avg, max= 0,15g x 0.9 = 0,13g, that is 13% of the
total mass.
- Not necessary to take into account.
41

Analysis 7.
Analysis of floors for horizontal acceleration :
-

Analysis of stiffening system results the forces acting


on the shear walls.

1.

Find the forces acting on the floor. Calculation of the bending


moment and the shear force in the plane of the floor. (Membrane
model, strut and tie model.)
Checking of shear resistance of the floor in its plane.
Analysis of the joint between the floor and the stiffening
elements.
Calculation of edge reinforcement, reinforcement in ring beams.
Calculation the deflection of the floor in its plane. Is the floor
rigid?

2.
3.
4.
5.

42

21

Analysis 8.
Analysis of floors for horizontal acceleration:
Edge reinforcement, reinforcement in ring beams:
Reinforcement of the ring beam is lapped as usual.
Edge beams and cross beams are used.
Edge beam
Cross
beams

Cross
beams

43

Analysis 9.
Analysis of floors for horizontal acceleration:
Example: four storey building, stiffened by RC walls, (Dulcska-Kollr)
1. zone: ag = 0,08g
Continuous ring beam
1112 kN
961 kN
641 kN
320 kN

44

22

Analysis 10.
Example: four storey building, stiffened by RC walls, (Dulcska-Kollr)
Top floor:
Continuous ring beam

Compressed column

283

416

27,8
1112
111,2
V
444,8
222,4
M
3336

45

Composite floor 1.
vasals a tmasz felett
kapcsol vasals

a fvasals 33%-a
a kregpanel feltmaszkodik a falra
vasals a tmasz felett

a fels vasals 33%-a

a kregpanel nem tmaszkodik fel a falra


szls tmasz

kzbens tmasz

46

23

Composite floor 2.
Joint between prefabricated element and cast in situ concrete:
Direct connection is needed for the dynamic load.
Friction is diminishes, plates may buckle.

acl trrcs

kapcsol elemek
egyttdolgozst biztost elemek elrendezse

47

Composite floor 3.
Free edge:
Edge beam is important.

No

fggnyfal

Yes

fggnyfal

Yes

fggnyfal

A szabadszegly kialaktsa
48

24

Literature:
Chopra, A.K.: Dynamics of structures. Theory and
applications to earthquake engineering.
Prentice Hall, New Jersey 1995.
Charleson, A.: Seismic Design for Architects.
Elsevier Ltd., Architectural Press 2008.

25