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In the design of a multi-storey building, much thought should be given to the type of vertical
transportation, number of units needed and their location, arrangement and design. Vertical circulation of traffic
may pass from level in a high rise building by elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, Stairs, Ramps and Conveyors.
Stairs for use when power is shut off, or when there is mechanical failure always supplements the powered
equipment unit, or maintenance work is in process or in emergencies.
Ramps are sloping surface that can be used to provide an easy connection from floor to floor especially
when large numbers of people or vehicles are moving from time to time. Ramps are adopted for buildings, such
as stadiums, railroad stations, exhibition halls, garage buildings, etc. it is generally built with slopes up to 15%
(15 feet in 100 feet) but 10% is preferred. With 10% slope and a storey height of 12 feet a ramp connecting two
floors would have to be 120 feet long. It can be curved, zigzagged, u-shaped or spiraled and bin all cases should
be constructed with a non-slip surface.
A stair is a series of flight of steps connected by landings, for passing from one level to another. They
may be constructed of wood, concrete or steel.
The minimum width of stair shall be .90 (900mm) for occupant load of 50 or less and shall not be less
than 1.10 (1100mm) for more than 50 occupants load. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not be less than .
25 (250mm).
A series of steps without an intervening platform or landing is called a flight.
Elevator is equipment for transporting people or things up and down the building. Whether a multistorey building is used as offices, hotels, hospitals, schools or commercial centers, dependable time saving
vertical transportation by elevators has become a prime necessity.
Elevator is a platform or car for hoisting or lowering passengers or freight, attached by cable to a
machine that moves it in a shaft through guide rails in vertical direction serving two or more floors of a
Two Types of Elevators in general use;
1. Electric elevator
2. Hydraulic Elevator
Electric Elevators are used exclusively in tall building and operated by direct current (dc) motors.
Two Types of Elevator Traction Machine;
1. Gearless Traction Machine
2. Geared Traction Machine
Traction Machine is one in which the motion of the car is obtained by means of fiction between
the traction sheave and the hoisting cable.


- The process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its

temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the
requirements of the conditioned space.
- That condition of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal
- These characteristics of the environment namely air temperature,
humidity, velocity, an surface temperatures which greatly affect the
heat exchange of people.
- The temperature of a gas or mixture of gases indicated by an accurate
thermometer after connection for radiation.
- The temperature at which liquid or solid water, by evaporating into
air, can bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same
- The ratio of the mol fraction of water vapor present in the air to the
Mol fraction of water vapor present in saturated air at the same
temperature and barometric pressure.

TEMPERATURE (MRT) - The temperature of a uniform black enclosure in which solid body or
occupant would exchange the amount of radiant heat as in the
existing non-uniform environment.
- A quantity which donates the instantaneous time rate and direction of
air motion.
- The temperature at which air water vapor mixture will become
saturated and begin to yield drops of condensed water.
- The formation of vapor in a pipe carrying liquids which prevents
normal fluid flow due to wrong application of freon gas.
- An inverted funnel leading into a ventilating flue.
- A device used for moistening air to a desired degree.
- A device used to vary the volume of air passing through an air
- An instrument, which responds to, changes in temperature.
- Usually refer to as the drafts in air condition.
- A current of air or gases which floes through a flue, chimney, or
heater, sometimes known as draught.
- It is the by product of combustion.
- Defined as the number of BTU that flow through one square foot of
material one inch thick when the temperature drop through the
material under conditions of steady heat flow is one degree
- The weight of the actual vapor in a mixture per pound of dry air.
- The total heat in the mixture measured above zero degree Fahrenheit,
including the latent heat of the water vapor.
- The number of DTU required the raise 1 lb of substance 1 degree
- That part of broiler or warm-air heating plant in which combustion
takes place.
- A vessel where the steam is generated.


- An air conditioning compartment maintained under a pressure slightly

above atmospheric and connected to one or more distribution duets.
- A furnace for consuming waste by fire.
- Heat transmission, either natural or forced (by means of fan), by
currents of air resulting from differences in density due to temperature
differences in the heated space.
- Instruments sensitive to change in pressure.
- Devices which electrical energy to amplify or convert power.
HYGROSTATS (HUMIDISTATS)- Controller or device sensitive to degree of moisture.
- Any valve used to regulate fluid flow.
- A structure on the roof of a building over which water is circulated, so
as to cool it evaporatively by contact with air.
- A space which is designed to isolate an air conditioned space from
another space to which it is connected.


AIR-TO-AIR COOLING - Unlike the technique in some buildings where chilled water is used for
Thermal transmission, structures are cooled by rather simple
arrangement of the refrigeration cycle. Air instead of water can be
used to cool the condenser and indoor air can be cooled directly by
passing it over the evaporator coil in which the refrigerant
expanding from liquid to gas. Thus heat is moved from the indoor air
to the outdoor air by the step-up action or heat pumping nature of the
refrigeration cycle. The through-the-wall conditioner uses this type of
cooling principle.
REFRIGERATION COOLING- Compressive refrigeration cycle is a scheme for transferring heat from one
circulated water system (chilled water) to condenser water. The
liquification and evaporation of the refrigerant, usually freon, processes
it respectively to give and take on heat. The heat that is drawn out of the
circulated water known as the chilled water, which is the medium for
subsequent cooling processes.
Since freon gas must be compressed and liquefied to be of service
Later as a heat absorber, it is first compressed to a high pressure vapor,
then by means of cool water, latent heat (term used to express the energy
involved in change of state) is extracted from the freon which condenses it
to liquid that is of high-pressure type as a potential heat absorber. When it
is released through an expansion valve it springs mechanically to gaseous
form. In this change of state, it takes on latent heat by drawing heat out of
the circulated water of the chilled water system to condenser water system.
Generally, in a refrigeration cooling, a ton of refrigeration is the
cooling effect obtained when 1 ton of 32 deg F ice melts to water at 32 deg
F in 24 hrs.
- In larger buildings and these with varied and diverse occupancy, it is
Usually preferred to centralize the refrigeration plant. The condenser is
cooled by water circulated to an outdoor cooling water then is pumped to
one air handling unit where the circulated air for one room is cooled and
its moisture partially condensed. In practice, the water is usually pumped
to many air-handling stations, each serving many rooms. Its air handling
centers are commonly located as close to the serviced areas as possible.
A balance must be achieved, however, and ducts from single air unit may
serve several stories. Advantages of central cooling is that the fan and
compressor noise doers not enter the apace. If, additionally, air velocities
at registers are kept low, quiet operation will result.




- Air conditioning in its full meaning is a system of complete all year climate control
which involves control of indoor air temperature, the regulation of humidity (water
vapor) content of the air, introduction of fresh, outdoor air at controlled rates, &
the cleaning, circulation, and proper distribution of the air. It is also used for
moistening air to a desired degree. Fresh air is introduced on the intake side of the
conditioning equipment so that it may be treated before entering the space. An
equal or slightly smaller amount of indoor air exhausted from points of odor

REFRIGERATION - The compressive refrigeration cycle is a scheme for transferring heat from one
circulated water system (chilled water) to another (condenser water), by means of
liquification and evaporation of a synthetic chemical refrigerant called Freon,
during which processes it respectively gives off and takes on heat it acquires is
drawn out of the circulated water known as the chilled water, which is medium for
cooling processes.
Freon, a gas at normal temperatures and pressures, must be compressed and
Liquefies to be of service later as a heat absorber. To qualify it, it is first
compressed to a high pressure vapor and by means of cool water, latent heat is
extracted from the Freon which condenses it to a liquid. It springs mechanically to
gaseous form when releases through an expansion valve. The refrigeration cycle
is the basis for the cooling in air conditioning systems that have fossil fuel sources
of heat and the basis for both heating and cooling in the heat pump.
- A ton of refrigeration is the cooling effect obtained when 1 ton of 32 deg F ice
melts to a water at 32 deg F in 24 hr. The requisite capacity of refrigerating
machine in tons may be found by dividing the total heat gain in a building in BTU
by 12,000. Of the materials tried out as refrigerating media, two of these are
generally used namely: (a) Monoflourotrichloroethane (CCL3F) is also known as
Freon 11. Its critical pressure is 535 psi and its saturation temperature at this
pressure is 388 deg F The boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure is 74.7
deg F and the freezing point is 168 deg F. It is very slightly toxic and well adapted
to centrifugal machines. (b) Dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2f1) is also known as
Freon 12.Its critical pressure is 582 psi and its saturation temperature at this
pressure is 232 deg F. At standard atmospheric pressure the boiling and freezing
points are, respectively 247 deg F. It is very slightly toxic and well adapted in all
types of reciprocating compressors.
- Air and water vapor are the media by which Air-conditioning systems operate.
Water vapor in varying amounts always exists in air and the regulation of this
moisture content & of the temperature of the vapor-air mixture is the problem
posed to the designer of air conditioning. A few brief definitions given here will
serve as an introduction to the subject.
-The ratio of the partial pressure of the actual water vapor in a mixture to the
pressure of a saturated mixture at the same dry-bulb temperature.
-The temperature at which an air-water vapor mixture will become saturated and
begin to yield drops of condensed water.
- An instrument, which responds to, changes in temperature, which is the basis of
automatic control.


- Controllers sensitive to degree of moisture in the air and are made for use in both
rooms and ducts.
- Evaporated water mixed with air in the form of water vapor when it is placed to dry
air at a higher temperature.
- Ratio weight of actual water vapor to dry air in a mixture, pounds of water vapor
per pound of dry air.
- Quantity of heat in BTU per pound in a fluid of gas in relation to the total heat in
the mixture above zero degrees F.

- A point presumed to be 459.8 deg F below 0 deg F

- A form of energy conceived to be expressed in molecular motion within a
substance, the greater the intensity of heat the more violent being the motion of
molecules and less cohesion between them.
- The qualities of mixtures of air and water vapor are summarized graphically in the
In the psychomatric chart. It is the working diagram of the air-conditioning
- The simplest of all air conditioning devices is the through the wall conditioner. It
is uses conducted air taken from the room from the room and blown over the
evaporator coils and returned directly to the room, paving up across the glass or
generally upward toward the ceiling to avoid causing draughts on occupants. Air
for condensing the refrigerant is taken from outdoors and blown across the coils
where it picks up the heat rejected by the unit. A baffle separates the two circuits
except for a small opening to admit fresh outdoor air for ventilation. Through-the
wall units have largely replaced window units which operate on exactly the same
principle. With the addition of heating coil, they are now adapted for use in large
buildings. The only disadvantages of this type of air conditioner is that it creates
some sounds due to its compressor when placed close to its occupied space, have a
somewhat shorter useful life than that of central plants and its large outdoor grills
sometimes present problems in architectural design.
CENTRAL COOLLING - In larger buildings and those with varied and diverse occupancy, it is usually
preferred to centralize the refrigeration plant. The condenser is cooled by water
circulated to an outdoor cooling tower and the evaporator produces chilled water.
The latter is ten pumped to wherever it is needed in the building and its moisture
partially condensed. In practice the water is usually pumped to many air-handling
stations, each serving many rooms. A balance must be achieved and ducts from a
single air unit may serve several stories. Advantages of central cooling is that fan
and compressor noise does not enter the space and air velocities at registers are
kept low and quiet in operation.
- Cooling coil in the air stream and the addition of preheating and reheating coils
supplied the steam from a steam broiler. Automatic controls start the steam flow or
by dampers (device used to control the flow of air or gases) place the heating coil in
the air stream. The reheat coil is available to raise the air temperature if required
without increasing the absolute humidity. The function of the cooling tower is to
dispose of the heat carried away from the condenser. The condenser cooling water
is pumped to the tower where it is dropped through a rising current of air which
effects some water vaporization. Latent heat is drawn from the remaining water,
cooling it for reuse in the condenser, Since some of the water is lost in vapor,
makeup water must be added at the tower.

- Fan is located in a compartment at right and drains air through unit, exhausting it
into DELIVERY DUCT SYSTEM at slight pressure. Part of air returned from
rooms recirculated, a predetermined proportion of outdoor air being mixed with it.
Entering fresh air is controlled by LOUVERS or DAMPERS & admitted through a
FILTER. Mixed air is then warmed or tempered if required, by passing over bank
Of streams coils called PREHEATER to prevent freezing spray in air washer and to
avoid heating spray water. Treatment in SPRAY CHAMBER follows to increase
moisture content of air to saturate it completely at some previously determined dew
point, or to cool air and condense out a percentage of moisture. Spray chamber may
also act as an AIR WASHER to cleanse air. ELIMINATOR PLATES NEXT baffle
air flow, removing air, if necessary, to such a temperature that when delivered to
to rooms, it will establish temperature and humidity desired. BY-PASS above
spray chamber is provided when part of return air does not pass through
conditioner. In summer cooling the sensible heat in by-passed air reduces very
considerably and often avoids reheating.
VELOCITY SYSTEMS - If air is delivered at a velocity of 3000 or more fpm instead of the more usual 1000
To 1500 fpm, ducts can be smaller. Obviously this fast-moving air must cause fans.
Routing the air through a box performing a function similar to solves these
automobile muffler. These units lined with acoustically absorbent material reduce
the sounds to acceptable levels before the air is discharged into the room.
The dual-duct high velocity system solves a lot of general problems that had
existed in tall and moderate buildings. Concurrently, in crowded interior
conference room or auditorium the heat and moisture gain from people can require
cooling to maintain comfortable conditions. This is done by a thermostat and
implemented by the high velocity attenuation and blending units each of which
delivers at a temperature called for by the local thermostat that controls it. The
small high velocity ducts are great advantage in tall buildings permitting vertical
risers of many storied with out excessive bulk. Return air at normal velocities and
pressures is often exhausted through ceiling grills-into a plenum between ceiling
and the floor structure above it or by system of return ducts of conventional size.
Vertical return ducts carry the air through the building core to the return air fan.
from there it is recirculated or exhausted. Bound ducts offer small frictional
resistance and are commonly used in this system. The flexibility of these serving
the interior areas allows for office changes with easy relocation of ceiling diffusers.
Two common methods of air delivery are the ceiling diffuser which creates a plane
of conditioned and induced air at the ceiling without draughts on occupants, and the
floor registers near exterior glass for delivery of air to cope directly with solar heat
gains or losses.
- There is a continuous struggle to bulk of passages turn which air must be flow.
Various solutions have appeared. High velocity has reduced duct sizes. Additional
mechanical floors have been added so that central apparatus could be closer to
spaces served. Supplying just a little (ventilation) air and recirculating air already in
room has been developed. Using a central air-handling unit on each floor makes
vertical ducts unnecessary.