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**This experiment is to determine the capacity of oil reservoir if map showing contour lines
**

(isopach) for the area of the reservoir is available. This experiment is carried out using

planimeter. Firstly, the planimeter was switched on and one set of contour was chosen to be

measured. Secondly, a mark was made on the contour map as a starting point of measurement.

Thirdly, the tracer lens of the planimeter was placed exactly on mark and START key was

pressed. Fourthly, the tracer was moved in a clockwise direction. MEMO key was pressed when

the tracer was reached the starting point of measurement. The reading was recorded. As a result,

the total volume of the reservoir is 740 891 162 ft3 with the highest volume of reservoir is at

deprth of 50 ft which is 120 525 931.50 ft3 and the lowest reading is at 90 ft which is 107

15850.90 ft3.

1

planimeter is used to determine the capacity of the reservoir. Knowledge of the depositional environment.INTRODUCTION When discover a reservoir. cores or geophysical logs. The planimeter is a simple instrument for the precise measurement of areas of plane figures of any shape. the volume or capacity of the reservoir can be determined using planimeter. the isopachs. An isopach map drawn strictly to the numerical values and without regard to the geologic reasons for thickening and thinning of formations. Isopach is a contour that connects points of equal thickness. 2 . Commonly. In this experiment. display the stratigraphic thickness of a rock unit as opposed to the true vertical thickness. formation. and geological maps. is likely to present a picture difficult to integrate or reconcile with other geologic facts. the trapping mechanism. Although isopachs must be drawn to agree with thicknesses plotted on the map. If an isopach map is available. the structural complexities. An isopach is a line representing equal stratigraphic thickness. Volumetric estimation is also known as the “geologist‟s method” as it is based on cores. a petroleum engineer will seek to build a better picture of the accumulation. their spacing and the nature of thickening and thinning may be guided by other known facts concerning the source of sediments. original oil-in-place or original gas-in-place volumes can be calculated. truncation. and so forth. analysis of wireline logs. or group of formations. The volume is calculated from the thickness of the rock containing oil or gas and the areal extent of the accumulation with these reservoir rock properties and utilizing the hydrocarbon fluid properties. or contours that make up an isopach map. their relative rates of deposition. The subsurface isopach map is based primarily on formation thicknesses determined from well cuttings. and an isopach map is one that shows bv means of isopachs the variations in true stratigraphic thickness of a stratum. and any fluid interaction is required to estimate the volume of subsurface rock that contains hydrocarbons. The capacity (in terms of volumetric value) can be determined by multiplying the area and the depth/structural elevation of the reservoir.

a total tonnage can be deprived. the petroleum engineers are able to determine and estimate the volume of the reservoir. The second method utilizes a software package that includes digitizing the isopach map and applying geostatistics to determine the volumetric. Isopach and isochore maps are generally used: 1. it is possible for us to then measure the area of each reservoir. 3 .OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to determine the capacity of oil reservoir if map showing contour lines (isopach) for the area of the reservoir is available. for predetermining drilling depths to specific horizons in wildcat wells. Planimetry can be done by hand using several methods but the one we are using in this experiment is a mechanical device called a planimeter. In estimating the elevation of a datum bed below the total depth of a well that penetrated a higher known stratigraphic horizon. Planimeter. and from this. THEORY The geometry of the reservoir is projected onto a map called the isopach map which consists of several contour lines. 2. also known as platometer is a measuring instrument used to determine the area of an arbitrary two-dimensional shape. This data can be used to determine the available quantity of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Planimetry measures the area of the property.a volume of reservoir can be calculated. with the area and thickness know. From this map. 3. The first will be to use a planimeter to estimate the average thickness within the isopach area. 4. To locate buried structures in regions where formations habitually become thinner over structural crests. When a map showing contour lines (isopach) is available. To calculate the volume of oil in a formation Two methods will be applied in this lab to estimate volumes from an isopach map. This process is called planimetry. Therefore.

This volume technique computes the areas of the frustum of a pyramid or cone. An isopach map illustrates thickness variations within a tabular unit. The different techniques define the layer geometry in different ways. the Trapezoid Method though accurate always slightly overestimates the reservoir volume. structural geology. petroleum geology and volcanology. sedimentology. The Trapezoid Method has historically been commonly used for computing map volumes because of its ease in computing. Isopach maps are utilized in hydrographic survey. Another common volume method is the Pyramid Rule. The gross rock volume or the capacity of reservoir is obtained from the area 4 . The Trapezoid Rule computes the layer volume by computing the average area of the layer from the top and bottom layer and then multiplying the average area by the layer thickness. the volume is computed by various techniques. layer or stratum. Basic volume calculations can be viewed as dividing the structure into layers of a common thickness. area graph). Isopach are contour lines of equal thickness over an area.After the area of each contour is computed. (Mathematically. Because isopach maps always have smaller contour areas as the thickness increases. stratigraphy. this is also equivalent to computing the area underneath a thickness vs. understandability. and accuracy.

Planimeter 2.measured from the isopach maps. For measuring a common reservoir contour which is in normal pattern. The capacity in terms of volumetric value can be determined by multiplying the area measured by measured by planimeter with the depth elevation of the reservoir. the perimeter is trace in clockwise direction. Ruler 5 . The value obtained is the area of the whole space that is within the contour lines. Isopach Map 3. V = Ah Where: V = Volume of reservoir (m3) A = Area of the contours (m2) h = Depth (m) APPARATUS 1.

90 28 758 948.5 1.2 6. Step 4 until 7 was repeated for the rest of the depth.1 40.8 71.1 50.3 71.27 3 672 023.60 50 32.9 33.01 10 715 850. „Avg‟ key was pressed to get 3 readings average and the value was recorded.5 71.40 20 61.64 0 10 71. The unit was set (cm2) 3.38 110 160 701. and then pressed „hold‟ key and 3 readings was taken. Start key was pressed and figure 0 displayed.1 59.50 1 935 719.4 40.40 30 51.3 6.8 86.80 80 6.77 88 341 855. Pressed „Memo‟ key.7 1.15 740 891 162 Total 6 . 6.8 85. The power was switched on.00 90 1.4 33.7 32.63 119 065. 5.7 1.50 6 318 480. Starting point was marked with x as reference point at each of contour line. 8.6 50.7 27.1 16.6 40.4 17.47 4 417 092.53 5 224 981.37 2 948 867.9 86. 2.8 7. 4.77 494 521.00 70 16.74 52 249 817.1 26. 7.PROCEDURE 1.9 60.63 120 525 931.79 117 954 711.5 16. RESULTS Area (cm2) Depth Actual area (ft2) Volume (ft3) (ft) 1st 2nd 3rd Average 0 86.4 60.00 2 410 518.14 85 237 399.40 40 40. The tracer point was traced on the circumference clockwise until it meets the starting point.1 49.50 60 25.7 26.67 1 217 677.50 116 143 170.55 39 561 724.

Volume determination for every 10 ft of depth ( ) ( ) 7 ( ) ) .27 60. Basic map scale: 2.47 71.53 86.37 50.5 Average Area ( ft2) Graph Depth vs Average Area SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Basic formula/conversion: 1.Depth vs Average Area 100 90 80 Depth ( ft) 70 Depth vs Average Area 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1. Conversion from area in contour line map to actual area of geological structure: ( ) ( ) ( 3.77 16.67 26.5 33 40.63 6.

Sample calculation (from 90ft of depth): 1. Volume determination for 90 ft of depth ( ) ( ) 8 ( ) . Taking data from 90ft depth by using planimeter ( ) 2.

50ft3. The area under the graph was divided into a few sections.DISCUSSION In this experiment. From the result. it was determined that the volume of the reservoir is 740 891 162 ft3 with largest volume of the reservoir obtained at depth of 50ft which is 120. From the data analyzed. The volume was calculated in (ft3). The volume also decreased as the depth increased. although measured at fixed interval. CONCLUSION In this experiment. The volume is depend on the area of the contour.525 931. The volume was calculated from thickness of rock that containing oil or gas and the area extent of accumulation with these rock properties and utilizing the hydrocarbon fluid properties. the depth of the contour map used are from 0 – 90 (ft). it can be conclude that even the reservoir shape is smaller as the depth increases. where the area under the graph was calculated for each elevation of 10 ft before it was all sum up together. The number of contours in each reservoir represents the height of the reservoir. it must be used slowly and the tracing process should be accurate to get a very accurate area reading.50 (ft3) while the lowest reading at 90 ft which was 107 15850. The more line the contours have. the area of each of the reservoir contour was obtained by using the digital planimeter. There are lots of method in calculating the volume of the reservoir rock and planimetering can be considered as one the accurate ones. Then. In order to get the volumes of the reservoir rocks. The areas under the graphs were the total volumes of the reservoirs. The actual area in this experiment was decreased as the depth increased.90 (ft3). The calculated area was given in (cm2). The highest volume of reservoir at 50 ft which was 120 525 931. the calculated area was converted into (ft) in order to get the actual area. the higher the reservoir will be. The elevation height difference between each of the contour was estimated to be 10 ft each. 9 . it does not mean the volume also decrease with depth. graphs of area versus depth were plotted. Since the planimeter is a sensitive device.

edu/~petro/faculty/Engler370/fmevlab4-isopach. 2.org/wiki/Isopach_map 2.pdf 3. Make sure the scale in planimeter is correct based on studied isopach map.org/wiki/Contour_line 4. 4.com/doc/136465502/Volume-and-Capacity-of-Reservoir-Lab-Report 6. REFERENCES 1.1: Planimetering process (left) and the digital planimeter tools (right).wikipedia. http://www. http://infohost.wikipedia. http://infohost.RECOMMENDATION 1. Use planimeter in bright room to have a better tracing on isopach map. Take three (3) reading for each depth and take the average area to diminish human error and random error. http://en. Make sure the table is steady to prevent miscalculation in planimeter. CGE 558 lab manual APPENDICES Figure 2. 3.nmt. http://en.nmt. 10 .edu/~petro/faculty/Engler370/fmevlab6-isopach.pdf 5.scribd.

Appendix 1 11 .

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