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By: Chris Wilson

For: Senior Capstone 2008

Overview
Current process
New process
Economic comparison

Natural Gas Processing


The Way it is Done
Current process
Remove excess water
Remove acid gas
Dehydrate
Remove mercury
Remove nitrogen
Separate NGL (ethane, and heavier hydrocarbons)

Natural Gas Processing


Everything Together

Water removal
Removes free liquid water

and condensate gas


Sends the gas to a

refinery
The water goes to waste

Natural Gas Processing


Everything Together

Natural Gas Processing


Acid Gas Removal
Hydrogen sulfide
Mercaptans
Carbon dioxide
Acid gas removal processes
Amine treating
Benfield process
Sulfinol process
others

Natural Gas Processing


Amine Treatment
Most common used amines
Monoethanolamine
Diethanolamine
Diisopropylyamine
Methylethanolamine

Hydrogen sulfide goes

through a Claus process

Natural Gas Processing


Amine Treating

Natural Gas Processing


Sulfinol Process
Used to reduce H2S, CO2,

and mercaptans from gases


Great for treating large

quantities of gas
Solvent absorbs the sour gas
Sulfolane is used

Natural Gas Processing


Sulfinol Process

Natural Gas Processing


Everything Together

Natural Gas Processing


Glycol Dehydration
Method for removing the water vapor from the gas
Usable glycols
Triethylene glycol
most commonly used
Diethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol
Tetraethylene glycol
Works by having the glycol adsorb the water

Natural Gas Processing


Glycol Dehydration

Pressure Swing Adsorption


Adsorbent material is

used
Gas and material go
under high pressure
Material adsorbs the gas
( H2S, mercaptans, CO2)
Disadvantages
Requires high pressures
Slow cycle times

Natural Gas Processing

Mercury removal
Current Processes
Activated carbon through chemisorption. Activated
has extremely high surface area

Mercury can damages aluminum heat exchangers


Those used in cryogenic processing plants
Those use in liquefaction plants

Natural Gas Processing

Nitrogen Rejection
Processes that can reject

nitrogen
Cryogenic process

Absorption process (using

lean oil or solvent)


Membrane separation
Adsorption process
(activated carbon)

Natural Gas Processing


Cryogenic Process
Common refrigerants used

Most common method for removal of impurities such

as nitrogen
Disadvantages
Must reach extremely low temperatures
Only useful for large scale production

Natural Gas Processing


Lean Oil Removal
Lean oil is fed countercurrent with the wet gas

Temperature and pressure are set to allow for the

greatest absorption of unwanted gases

Natural Gas Processing


Membranes
Driving force
Partial pressure
Type of material determine

permeability

P Dk
D = diffusion coefficient (cm2/s)
k = Henrys law sorption
coefficient (cm3/cm3cmHg)

P1

P2
P1 = Permeability of component 1
P2 = Permeability of component 2

Natural Gas Processing


Economics

Demethanizer

Demethanizer
The next step is to recover

the NGLs
Process
Cryogenics using a turboexpander can be used

This is the most common

Lean oil adsorption can be

used here

Natural Gas Processing


Cryogenic Process

NGL recovery

NGL recovery
Now the rest of the

liquid is fed to three


units
Deethanizer
Debutanizer
Depropanizer

Process
Each sent to a
distillation column

Sweetening NGLs

Merox Processes
Mercaptan oxidation
Removes mercaptans from
Propane
Butane
Larger hydrocarbons

Natural Gas Processing


Another Process

Novel Method
Technical information

momentarily not available due


to IP issues
However economics will be

compared

Novel Method
Advantage
More cost effective than any previous methods
Less environmental impacts than previous methods
Separates all contaminants
Separates each component
Everything is done using one process

Novel Method

Current Method

Economics - Amine Treating


Cost of Equipment
Equipment
Column - 1
Column - 2
Heat exchanger - 1
Heat exchanger - 2
Pump
Total

Description
4.88 meters tall, 2,02 meters in diameter
6.71 meters tall, 3.60 meters in diamter
530 square meters
615 square meters
38,000 gallon flow, 235 psi rise

Price ($)
$23,000
$58,000
$59,000
$69,000
$68,000
$277,000

Operating Costs
Utilities
Cooling Water
column reboiler
Pump
Total

Price ($/hr)
19,800 gallons/hr ($0.08/1000kg)
139 million BTU/hr ($6 per million BTU)
97.53 Kw ($0.06/Kw)

$5.98
$834
$5.85
$845.83

Amine Treating - Simulation

Economics - Demethanizer
Equipment
Column
Heat exchanger 1
Heat exchanger 2
Heat exchanger 3
Heat exchanger 4
Heat exchanger 5
Heat exchanger 6
Heat exchanger 7
Refrigerant
Expander
Compressor
Compressor 2
Compressor 3
Pump
Total

Cost of Equipment
Description
Price
Diamter of 1.53 meters, Height of 8.54 meters
Area of 1055 square meters
Area of 15.6square meters
Area of 113.12 square meters
Area of 25.2 square meters
Area of 261.7 square meters
Area of 6.8 square meters
Area of 11.5 square meters
For a 10 year period
1200 KW output
Compresseing to pressure of inlet for deethanization
Bringing methane back to pipeline pressure

$25,000
$118,287
$1,874
$12,796
$2,953
$29,440
$890
$1,417
$880,000
$370,000
$50,000
$190,000
$640,000
$3,000
$2,325,657

Operating Costs
Utility
Cooling water
Electricity
Total

using $0.08 per 1000 kg of cooling water


Two compressors and an expander

Price ($/hr)
$1.17
$116.25
$117.42

Demthanizer - Simulation

Economics - Dethanizer
Cost of Equipment
Equipment
Column

8.7 meters tall, 1.86 meters in diameter

Price
$32,000

Operating Costs
Utility
Reboiler

Price
(8 million Btu's needed, 6 dollars/million BTU)

$48

Deethanizer - Simulation

Economics
Current
A
B-best
100% C-worst
Current
A
B-best
70% C-worst

Fixed Capital Investment


Operating Costs (per
Annulized Cost
(per 1000 cubic feet)
1000 cubic feet/day)
(perday)
$4,111.45
$6.74
$7.49
$8,239.58
$1.24
$2.74
$7,194.03
$0.98
$2.29
$16,697.63
$2.75
$5.80
$3,697.91
$6.74
$7.41
$7,459.32
$1.24
$2.60
$6,523.00
$0.98
$2.17
$14,372.45
$2.75
$5.37

Built in Error
Novel Method - Error for the Worse
Equipment Costs
$16,800,000
Operating Costs
$435/hr

Novel Method - Error for the Better


Equipment Costs
$6,600,000
Operating Costs
$155/hr

Current Process
Equipment Costs
$3,441,657
Operating Costs
$1,011/hr