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RAM Structural System

V8i (SELECTseries 6)

Drift Control
Last Updated: October 09, 2013

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RAM Structural System

Drift Control

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RAM Structural System

Drift Control

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RAM Structural System

Drift Control

Disclaimer

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RAM Structural System

Drift Control

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction .......................................................................................................9
1.1

Results ..............................................................................................................................................................................................9

Chapter 2: Using the RAM Frame Drift Control Module ..................................................... 11


2.1
2.2

Creating Virtual Load Cases ................................................................................................................................................. 11


Drift Control Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................. 11
Load Pairs .................................................................................................................................................................12
2.2.1
View/Update ...........................................................................................................................................................12
2.2.2
Output Reports ........................................................................................................................................................12
2.2.3
Exiting Drift Control Module ............................................................................................................................13
2.2.4

Chapter 3: Technical Notes on Virtual Work Theory .......................................................... 15


3.1

Example Problem ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16

Chapter 4: References .........................................................................................................19

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Drift Control

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RAM Structural System

Drift Control

Introduction

The RAM Frame Drift Control module provides a great functionality to study and control the drift
behavior of buildings. Drift, related to the axial, shear, flexural, torsional and beam-connection behavior
of each member of a building structure, is an important design consideration. The total drift at a point
can be considered as the sum of all governing displacement components from each member such as
joint , axial, shear, flexure, torsion and beam-connections related displacements. To this end, RAM
Frame Drift Control module helps users identify which member contributes the most to the drift at a
point. The break-down of a member contribution to the drift constitutes displacement components such
as joint, axial, shear, flexure, torsion and beam-connection and this information helps the user identify
what sectional properties of a member to change to arrive at an optimized size. The joint displacement
represents the deformation in the rigid-end zones (panel-zones).
The module is based on the well-known Castiglianos Energy Theorem where a fictitious or virtual
load is applied in the direction of the drift under investigation. A special acknowledgement is given here
to Dr. Finley A. Charney, President, Advanced Structural Concepts Inc., for his prior work in this area,
particularly the virtual work based concepts as implemented it in the computer programs DISPAR and
PANELS, published by Advanced Structural Concepts, Inc., Golden, Colorado.
Energy methods, such as Castiglianos, help determine the deflection of a structure at a given point due
to an external load by pairing it with what is commonly called a virtual load. The loads are referred
to as fictitious or virtual interchangeably only because they do not represent any real-world load
cases. The module helps users quantify the contribution of each frame member to the flexibility of the
building under investigation. This information can then be used to modify the sizes and topology of the
frames to arrive at a building design optimized for drift considerations.
The steps required in using the module are explained in detail in Chapter 2. The chapter describes how
to set up nodal and story load cases that are required to calculate the so-called displacement
participation factors that help quantify the contribution of a member to the building flexibility. The
chapter also discusses the graphical and report outputs for the module. Chapter 3 covers the theoretical
basis for the Drift Control module.

1.1 Results
The Process Results command allows the user to visually observe, through normalized color-coding,
the contribution of each member to overall building flexibility. These quantities are called
Displacement Participation Factors [DPF] or alternatively PF, for short. The following DPF are
available for color-coded display:
Total Displacement
Participation Factor

RAM Structural System

This represents the total member contribution (which is the sum of axial,
shear, flexure, torsion, joint and beam connection displacements) and is
the default used in the module whenever Drift Control analysis is carried
out.

Drift Control

Introduction
Results
Total Displacement/
Volume Participation
Factor

The total DPF divided by the member volume gives critical information
for a minimum weight (or volume) design. Information on Total DPF per
volume helps identify members whose size can be modified to arrive at
the most weight/volume optimized design. Total DPF/Volume is also
called the Sensitivity Index (SI). SI can also be viewed as a measure of the
participation of each member per unit volume.

Axial Displacement
Participation Factor

This represents the contribution of members through axial deflection.

Shear Displacement
Participation Factor

This represents the contribution of members through major and minor


shear deflection.

Flexural Displacement
Participation Factor

This represents the contribution of members through major and minor


flexural deflection.

Joint Displacement
Participation Factor

This represents the contribution of members through deflections in the


rigid end zone. In centerline analysis, the joint DPFs are all zero.

Beam Connection
Displacement
Participation Factor

This represents the contribution of connections assigned to beams.

Member Volume

This represents the volume of the member under consideration.

The currently selected load pair can be changed through the load pair drop-down box. The quantities
of interest can also be changed

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Drift Control

Using the RAM Frame Drift Control Module

This chapter explains the basics of the Drift Control module. This includes how to set up nodal and story
load cases and how to pair them as load pairs and carry out a Drift Control analysis. The chapter also
discusses the graphical and report outputs for the module.

2.1 Creating Virtual Load Cases


A virtual work or optimization operation requires the application of fictitious load(s) in the direction of
the displacement under investigation. Such fictitious loads are grouped in the RAM Structural System as
Virtual Load Cases. Both nodal loads and story loads are available in the Virtual Load cases. The nodal
virtual load cases are defined in the Modeler while the story virtual load cases are defined in RAM
Frame Analysis Load Cases Mode.
The nodal virtual load cases are created just like any other nodal load case as described in the RAM
Modeler manual.
Virtual story loads are created in RAM Frame using the Loads Load Cases command while in Analysis
Load Cases Mode. Virtual loads have their own type: Virtual Load. The loads are entered by
specifying their magnitude, their direction and point of application.
The magnitude of the virtual load is not an absolute number. A load of any magnitude is theoretically
possible. The only practical requirement is that the load be of a magnitude that produces reasonable
(not very high or very low) participation factors (PF). The participation factor of an element is defined
as the measure of a members contribution to the quantity under investigation, such as roof
displacement. A good rule of thumb is to pick the magnitude as somewhere between 20 to 50% of the
estimated seismic or wind load base shear in the building.
The direction of the virtual load should be in the direction of the drift under investigation. For example,
for studying the behavior of the building in the global X-direction, both the virtual and real (wind,
seismic or other) load case should be oriented along the global X-Axis. For studying the rotational
characteristics of a building, the user should enter a small virtual load at a large eccentricity. This will
essentially produce virtually a twisting moment that can be paired with the real load that is producing
rotations in the building.
After both the real and virtual load cases are created and defined, they should be included in the list of
load cases that are to be analyzed using the Process Analyze command in Analysis Load Cases
Mode.

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Using the RAM Frame Drift Control Module


Drift Control Analysis

2.2 Drift Control Analysis


Once the analysis of the building is completed, the user needs to go to the Drift Control Mode, by
selecting Drift Control from the Mode menu. It is in this module that the load pairs are defined and
the actual Drift Control analysis carried out.

2.2.1 Load Pairs


In the Drift Control Module, the Virtual Load cases created and analyzed in RAM Frame are paired
with a corresponding real load cases. The pairing of loads is an important feature of energy methods
and care should be taken in identifying what virtual and real load cases to pair. For example, for
studying Drift Control in the global X-direction, a virtual load case applied in the X-direction should be
paired with a real load case in the same direction. These load pairs could be single load pairs or
multiple load-pairs. While single pairing is what is commonly used, multiple pairing may be necessary
to study drifts in a none-orthogonal direction. The load pairs are defined using the Loads - Load Pairs
command in the Drift Control Module, which lists both the analyzed virtual and real load cases. Pairing
is done by specifying the virtual and real components of the pair and the factor that multiplies them. The
factor is usually taken as 1.0.
Once load pairs are defined, the user needs to select the Process-Analyze command to perform the
Drift Control analysis. The module then evaluates the participation factors (PF) of each member and
color-codes the elements according to their contribution to the flexibility of the building.
For example, if the user is interested in reducing the roof story drift due to an earthquake load, an
earthquake load case is selected as the real-load component of a load pair. The virtual component of
the load pair will then be a virtual load that has lateral forces only at the roof level even though the real
displacement is caused by a distributed earthquake load. The structure is then displayed with the PF
that elements are experiencing from the stresses induced by the earthquake load case.

2.2.2 View/Update
The Process - View/Update command lets the user pick a particular member and view the different
components of its participation factor (such as flexural, shear, joint , axial and connections for beams).
For example doing a View/Update on a beam will display the beam properties (size, Fy etc) and also its
axial, joint, shear, flexural and beam connection displacement participation factors that contribute to the
total drift of the building.
The user can also modify the member size and material properties in this dialog box. Once sizes and
material properties are changed, the Drift Control Module automatically recalculates the member PFs
based on the new data. However, note that the elastic stiffness analysis results remain the same until a
re-analysis is invoked from the Analysis mode.

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Using the RAM Frame Drift Control Module


Drift Control Analysis

2.2.3 Output Reports


The module provides features for printing three outputs that are accessed through the Reports
command.
Reports - Displacement
Participation Single

A comprehensive summary of participation factors for each


lateral member for each load pair.

Reports - Participation Summary

A summary of member volume and participation factor/volume


for each lateral member for each load pair.

Reports - Displacement/Volume
Summary

A summarized output for a single member.

2.2.4 Exiting Drift Control Module


The user may exit the Drift Control Mode through the Mode drop-down list box right below the tool
bar. Once a Drift Control analysis is done, if any sizes are changed it is recommended to re-check the
validity of the design for strength considerations by going to the steel post-processors.

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Using the RAM Frame Drift Control Module


Drift Control Analysis

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Technical Notes on Virtual Work Theory

Energy methods such as Virtual Work method have traditionally been used to calculate deflections in
determinate and indeterminate truss structures. The principle of Virtual Work states that the external
work done in a physical domain should be equal to the internal work done.
This principle is further used in such theories as the Castiglianos theorem that states that the work
done by virtual loads going through real displacements is the same as the internal work done by real
loads causing virtual displacements. This can be expressed as follows:

( )T ir d V

Equation 3-1

DPF i = iv
where
DPFi
dV

iv
ir

=
=
=

the displacement participation factor for member i


the volume of the member i
the stresses in member i due to a virtual load

the strains member i due to real loads

The virtual stresses and real strains are computed during analysis in RAM Frame due to real and virtual
load cases, considering element properties and structural configurations.
In its most general form, the contributions to displacements could be expanded through its component
stresses and strains as:

h /2
v r
v r
v r
v r
v r
v r
F vir real = h
/2 xx xx + yy yy + zz zz + xz xz + yz yz + xy xy d z d A

Equation 3-2

As can be seen from the above equation, the contribution to the component participation is made of
strain energy due to in-plane, transverse shear and transverse normal stresses and strains.
This breakdown of contribution helps to identify which behavior is dominant and what sectional or
material property needs to be modified to arrive at acceptable and desired response.
The same principles are extended here to a case of civil engineering structures to get a useful
quantitative assessment of contribution of member flexibility to structural responses such as roof
displacement (or drift) and fundamental periods. Furthermore, the methodology also helps evaluate the
contribution of each energy component, i.e., shear, flexure, axial and joint deformation to the structures
response under consideration thereby indicating the member properties that need to be modified for an
optimized design.
By multiplying the contribution of both a virtual load case and a real load to each of the energy
components (i.e., shear, flexure, axial and torsion), the contribution of each member in the structure to
drift is evaluated. The elemental contribution (also called DPF - displacement participation factor) to
drift (or frequency, as the case maybe) is further broken down to each of the components such as shear,
flexure, axial, joint and torsion displacements.
This breakdown of contribution helps to identify which behavior is dominant and what sectional or
material property needs to be modified to arrive at acceptable and desired responses. For instance,
to reduce drift or frequency, members with large participation factors should be made stiffer
and contributing members with very small participation factors could be made smaller.
Furthermore, an important piece of information is the per volume contribution (or participation) of

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Technical Notes on Virtual Work Theory


Example Problem
each structural element, which is also referred to as Sensitivity Index (SI). It is obtained by dividing
the element participation factor by its volume. From a weight optimization point of view, the
Sensitivity Index provide valuable information as summarized below:
1. When adding material to a structure to reduce displacement, the material should be added to the
member (s) with the largest sensitivity index.
2. When removing material from a structure to improve economy, the material should be removed
from member (s) with the smallest SI values. [1]
The reader is referred to References [1] - [3] for further reading on Virtual Work optimization.

3.1 Example Problem


A simple 2-Dimensional braced-frame structure is used here to demonstrate the use of the Drift Control
module in generating useful information in controlling drift with minimum weight/volume
considerations. The following figure shows problem definitions and loadings on the frame. The frame is
subjected to lateral loads of 100 Kips, 75 Kips and 50 Kips at the roof, the second and the first floors,
respectively. A virtual load of 100 Kips is applied at the roof.
The member sizes are given in the following table. As shown in the table, columns and braces contribute
most to the flexibility of the frame, particularly Columns 5 and 6 at first floor and braces 2 and 3 at
second and first floor, respectively, which is an expected behavior. To decrease the roof drift, the
column sizes at the first floor and the braces need to be increased. The breakdown into components
suggests that columns of higher axial area are needed to reduce drift since it is the axial contribution
that is very significant. A column with higher Ixx and Iyy will not necessarily reduce drift as much as
expected.
The beams could be made much smaller because they account for less than 5% of the whole
deformation. From a weight optimization point of view, an increase or decrease in brace sizes will
produce the most change in drift. In other words, the braces have the highest sensitivity index. To
reduce drift, increasing the brace sizes (i.e., area) produces an efficient system. This exercise results in
maximum stiffness with a minimum volume of material.
On the other hand, if the need arises to allow more drift, then member sizes could be reduced. The
tabulated results indicate that beam and column sizes could be safely reduced without introducing a
significant increase in drift. The only practical limit on the sizes of the beams and columns will be
gravity load designs. However, since the braces have the highest SI (Sensitivity Index), then reducing
their sizes even slightly (particularly cross-sectional area) will result in large increase in drift. This
reduction in brace sizes is therefore very much limited, compared to beams and columns.

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Technical Notes on Virtual Work Theory


Example Problem

Figure 1: A simple Braced-Frame


Table 1: Distribution of Displacement Participation Factors Element-by-Element
Member

Size

Axial PF

Shear PF

Flexure PF

Joint PF

Total PF

Total PF /
Volume

Beam 1

W21x166

0.0

0.0970

0.3265

0.1122

0.535

0.00

Beam 2

W21x166

0.0

0.4221

1.4202

0.4881

2.33

0.01

Beam 3

W21x166

0.0

0.661

2.2253

0.7649

3.65

0.02

Col 1

W16x89

1.9311

0.1650

0.8922

0.4398

3.42

0.03

Col 2

W16x89

0.0265

0.1650

0.8922

0.4398

1.52

0.01

Col 3

W16x89

11.5828

0.2572

1.3924

0.7050

13.93

0.13

Col 4

W16x89

2.9996

0.2572

1.3924

0.7050

5.35

0.05

Col 5

W16x89

31.6713

0.5447

4.1813

0.2819

36.67

0.35

Col 6

W16x89

14.7126

0.5447

4.1813

0.2819

19.72

0.19

Brace 1

HSS4X4X1
/2

17.5384

0.00

0.00

0.00

17.5384

0.49

Brace 2

HSS4X4X1
/2

31.5886

0.00

0.00

0.00

31.5886

0.87

Brace 3

HSS4X4X1
/2

36.1335

0.00

0.00

0.00

36.1335

1.00

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Technical Notes on Virtual Work Theory


Example Problem

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References

1. Charney, F.A., The Use of Displacement Participation Factors in the Optimization of Wind Drift
Controlled Buildings, Proceedings of the Second Conference on Tall Buildings in Seismic Regions,
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Los Angeles, 1991.
2. Charney, F.A., Economy of Steel Framed Buildings through Identification of Structural Behavior,
Proceedings of the National Steel Construction Conference, AISC, Orlando, FL 1993.
3. Velivasakis, E.E., and DeScenza, R., Design Optimization of Lateral Load Resisting Frameworks,
Proceedings of the Eights Conference on Electronic Computation, ASCE, Houston, Texas, 1983.

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References

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Index
D

drift control
analysis 11
Drift Control control module
using 11
drift control module
exiting 13

Introduction 9

load pairs 12

viewing 12
virtual load cases
creating 11
virtual work theory
example problem 16
technical notes on 15

references 19
reports
output 12
results 9

updating 12

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