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Argument In the argument above, the author states/concludes that … However, the argument is flawed because it is based

on numerous dubious/questionable/arguable assumptions. ...is unpersuasive because the author does not support it with adequate evidence. First, the author assumes/concludes that ... But for all we now, ... Another weakness of the argument is that it falsely assumes that ... In addition, the reasoning in the argument is flawed because it wrongly assumes that … Furthermore, we cannot assume, as the author does, that … was due to … It is equally possible that ... Moreover, (how to fix argument, ways of improving the logic) … the argument could be improved by … … would resolve the doubts expressed above A reliable survey of … might serve to … Furthermore, legitimate evidence that … would help as well Without more specific and detailed evidence as to what …, it is hard to share the author's opinion that ... Rather than …, a stronger argument would analyze unexplored possibilities... Thus, although the argument is weak for the reasons described, it can be strengthen with the suggestions given above. Because the argument leaves out several key issues, it is not sound or persuasive. If it included the items discussed above instead of only …, the argument would have been more thorough and convincing.

Issue Acknowledge the complexity of the issue Although the issue of … is not black and white and some experts object to the statement that …, I agree with the above statement that … because … (briefly state main reasons – P2, P3) First of all, … . For example, … (Relate the Example)

Just as it is ..., so it is ...

In addition, when a … does … For instance, … (Relate the Example) As a result ... On the other hand, some may argue/say that… However, … While it is true that …, this type of … (Rebuttal of Counter Point) (Example Supporting Rebuttal) (Relate the Example) In conclusion, ... Restate Thesis; Summary of Outline