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Encryption for data

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encryption in which the sender and recipient share a common secret password, pass-phrase

or key. The sender uses the key to encrypt plaintext and sends ciphertext to the recipient,

who, in turn, uses the same key to recover the plaintext. Symmetric encryption is typically

faster than asymmetric encryption, but it can't be used unless the sender and recipient have

already exchanged keys. Indeed, the main limitation of symmetric encryption is the need to

distribute large numbers of keys securely.

Examples

Common examples of symmetric encryption include the Data Encryption Standard, Triple

Data Encryption Standard and the Advanced Encryption Standard. DES uses a 56-bit

encryption key, while Triple DES applies the same mathematical formula, or algorithm,

three times to produce a 128-bit key. However, while Triple DES is considered acceptably

secure for most applications, the National Institute for Standards officially adopted AES -which uses a 128-bit, 192-bit or 256-bit encryption keys -- as the successor to DES in 2001.

or conventional / private-key / single-key

sender and recipient share a common key

all classical encryption algorithms are private-key

was only type prior to invention of public-key in 1970s and by far most widely used

Symmetric-key algorithms are a class of algorithms for cryptography that use trivially

related, often identical, cryptographic keys for both decryption and encryption etc.

Data Encryption Standard (DES): An encryption algorithm that encrypts data with a 56-bit, randomly

generated symmetric key. DES is not a secure encryption algorithm and it was cracked many times.

Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed by IBM and the U.S. Government together. DES is a

block encryption algorithm.

most widely used block cipher in world adopted in 1977 by NBS (now NIST) as FIPS PUB

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encrypts 64-bit data using 56-bit key

Triple DES (3DES): Triple DES was developed from DES, uses a 64-bit key consisting of 56 effective

key bits and 8 parity bits. In 3DES, DES encryption is applied three times to the plaintext. The

plaintext is encrypted with key A, decrypted with key B, and encrypted again with key C. 3DES is a

block encryption algorithm.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a newer and stronger

encryption standard, which uses the Rijndael (pronounced Rhine-doll) algorithm. This algorithm was

developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen of Belgium. AES will eventually displace DESX and

3DES. AES is capable to use 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit keys.

A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in,

probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are

needed. Most of these programs produce endless strings of single-digit numbers, usually

in base 10, known as the decimal system. When large samples of pseudo-random

numbers are taken, each of the 10 digits in the set {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} occurs with equal

frequency, even though they are not evenly distributed in the sequence.

Many algorithm s have been developed in an attempt to produce truly random

sequences of numbers, endless strings of digits in which it is theoretically impossible to

predict the next digit in the sequence based on the digits up to a given point. But the

very existence of the algorithm, no matter how sophisticated, means that the next digit

can be predicted! This has given rise to the term pseudo-random for such machinegenerated strings of digits. They are equivalent to random-number sequences for most

applications, but they are not truly random according to the rigorous definition.

in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary

digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.

A stream-cipher is a coder that encrypts and decrypts data streams

A stream cipher generates successive elements of the keystream based on an internal state. This

state is updated in essentially two ways: if the state changes independently of the plaintext or

ciphertext messages, the cipher is classified as a synchronous stream cipher. By contrast, selfsynchronising stream ciphers update their state based on previous ciphertext digits.

In a synchronous stream cipher a stream of pseudo-random digits is generated independently of

the plaintext and ciphertext messages, and then combined with the plaintext (to encrypt) or the

ciphertext (to decrypt). In the most common form, binary digits are used (bits), and the keystream is

combined with the plaintext using the exclusive or operation (XOR). This is termed abinary additive

stream cipher.

In a synchronous stream cipher, the sender and receiver must be exactly in step for decryption to be

successful. If digits are added or removed from the message during transmission, synchronisation is

lost. To restore synchronisation, various offsets can be tried systematically to obtain the correct

decryption. Another approach is to tag the ciphertext with markers at regular points in the output.

If, however, a digit is corrupted in transmission, rather than added or lost, only a single digit in the

plaintext is affected and the error does not propagate to other parts of the message. This property is

useful when the transmission error rate is high; however, it makes it less likely the error would be

detected without further mechanisms. Moreover, because of this property, synchronous stream

ciphers are very susceptible to active attacks: if an attacker can change a digit in the ciphertext, he

might be able to make predictable changes to the corresponding plaintext bit; for example, flipping a

bit in the ciphertext causes the same bit to be flipped in the plaintext.

Another approach uses several of the previous N ciphertext digits to compute the keystream. Such

schemes are known as self-synchronizing stream ciphers, asynchronous stream

ciphers or ciphertext autokey (CTAK). The idea of self-synchronization was patented in 1946, and

has the advantage that the receiver will automatically synchronise with the keystream generator after

receiving N ciphertext digits, making it easier to recover if digits are dropped or added to the

message stream. Single-digit errors are limited in their effect, affecting only up toN plaintext digits.

An example of a self-synchronising stream cipher is a block cipher in cipher feedback (CFB) mode.

In cryptography, RC4 (also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is the

most widely used software stream cipher and is used in popular protocols such as Transport Layer

Security (TLS) (to protect Internet traffic) and WEP (to secure wireless networks). While remarkable

for its simplicity and speed in software, RC4 has weaknesses that argue against its use in new

systems.[2] It is especially vulnerable when the beginning of the output keystream is not discarded, or

when nonrandom or related keys are used; some ways of using RC4 can lead to very

insecure cryptosystems such as WEP.

As of 2013, there is speculation that some state cryptologic agencies may possess the capability to

break RC4 even when used in the TLS protocol.[3] Microsoft recommends disabling RC4 where

possible.[

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