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Class XII Chemistry, Board Paper 2014, Set-2 DELHI

General Instructions:
(i) All questions are compulsory
(ii) Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short-answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Question numbers 9 to 18 are short-answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short-answer questions and carry 3 marks.
(v) Question numbers 28 to 30 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vi) Use Log Tables, if necessary. Use of calculators is not allowed.
Question 1

Questions

Q1
Give one example each of sol and gel.
Solution:

Dispersed phase

Dispersed
medium

Sol

Solid

Liquid

Gel

Liquid

Solid

Examples
Paints, Milk of magnesia, Mud
water
Cheese, Butter, Jellies

Q2
Which reducing agent is employed to get copper from the leached low-grade copper ore?
Solution:
Copper can be obtained from low-grade ore through the process of leaching using acid or
bacteria (leaching is a process in which ore is treated with suitable reagent that dissolves ore but
not the impurities).
The solution containing copper can be reduced with the help of reducing agents such as scrap
iron or H2 to get copper metal.
Cu2+(aq) + Fe →Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq)
Cu2+ (aq) + H2 (g) →Cu(s) + 2 H+(aq)

Q3
Write the IUPAC name of the compound

Solution:

The IUPAC nomenclature of the given organic compound is 3-aminobutanal.

Q4
Which of the following isomers is more volatile:
o-nitrophenol or p-nitrophenol?
Solution:
o-nitrophenol forms intra-molecular hydrogen bond. On the other hand, p-nitrophenol is
involved in stronger inter-molecular hydrogen bonding and hence, it has higher boiling point
than o-nitrophenol. So, o-nitrophenol is more volatile than p-nitrophenol.

Q5
Some liquids on mixing form 'azeotropes'. What are 'azeotropes'?
Solution:
Azeotropic solutions are those solutions whose boiling points remain constant. As a
result, both components boil at the same temperature, regardless of difference in their
respective
boiling
points.
Thus, binary mixtures that have the same composition in liquid and vapour phase and
have constant boiling points are called azeotropes. It is not possible to separate the
components of azeotropes by fractional distillation.

Q6
Arrange the following in increasing order of basic strength:
C6H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, C6H5CH2NH2
Solution:
C6H5NHCH3 is more basic than C6H5NH2 due to the presence of electron-donating −CH3 group
inC6H5NHCH3. Again, in C6H5NHCH3, −C6H5 group is directly attached to the N-atom.
However, it is not so in C6H5CH2NH2. Thus, in C6H5NHCH3, the −R effect of −C6H5 group
decreases the electron density over the N-atom. Therefore, C6H5CH2NH2 is more basic
than C6H5NHCH3.
Hence, the increasing order of the basic strengths of the given compounds is as follows:
C6H5NH2 < C6H5NHCH3 < C6H5CH2NH2

Q7
Which component of starch is a branched polymer of α-glucose and insoluble in water?
Solution:
Starch is a polymer of α-glucose that has two components, namely amylose and
amylopectin. Out of these, amylopectin is insoluble in water and constitutes about 8085% of starch.

Q8

Hence causing decrease in the solubility of gases in liquids. An increase in temperature results in a decrease in gas solubility in liquid. while a decrease in temperature results in an increase of gas solubility in liquid. The most commonly used form of Henry’s Law states that “the partial pressure of a gas in vapour phase (p) is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the gas (x) in the solution. breaking intermolecular bonds which enable molecules to escape from the solution allowing the gases dissolved to evaporate more readily. [Co(en)3]3+ will be a more stable complex than [Co(NH3)6]3+. p∝x p = KH x where KH = Henry’s Law Constant The solubility of gases is dependent on temperature.e. inversion of cane sugar or hydrolysis of cane sugar is an example of pseudo first-order reaction. . CH3COOC2H5 + H2O → CH3COOH + C2H5OH Similarly. in acidic hydrolysis of ester (ethyl acetate).  Q10 Define the following terms: (i) Pseudo first-order reaction (ii) Half-life period of reaction (t1/2). If we use the mole fraction of a gas in the solution as a measure of its solubility. then it can be said that the mole fraction of gas in the solution is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the solution.Which of the following is a more stable complex and why ? [Co(NH3)6]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ Solution: Chelating ligands form more stable complexes as compared to non-chelating ligands. resulting in a more rapid motion of molecules. An increase in temperature causes an increase in kinetic energy. Since ethylene diammine is a bidentate ligand so it forms stable chelate. For example. Solution: i) Pseudo first-order reaction Pseudo first-order reaction: The reaction which is bimolecular but whose order is one is called pseudo first-order reaction. i. What is the effect of temperature on the solubility of a gas in a liquid? Solution: Henry's Law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas. This happens when one of the reactants is present in a large amount. water is present in a large quantity.  Q9 State Henry's Law.

first-order reaction. An upward stream of water is used to wash the powdered ore. zirconium and titanium. ii) Vapour-phase refining: Vapour-phase refining is the process of refining metal by converting it into its volatile compound and then. t1/2=[Ro]2k For t1/2=0. (i) the metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent. In other words. (ii) the volatile compound should be easily decomposable.  Q12 Draw the structure of major monohalo product in each of the following reactions : (i) (ii) Solution: . To carry out this process. This method is used for refining nickel.ii) Half-life period of a reaction Half-life period of a reaction is the time taken for half of the reaction to be completed. The lighter gangue particles are washed away. For zero-order reaction. decomposing it to obtain a pure metal.693k  Q11 Write the principle behind the following methods of refining: (i) Hydraulic washing (ii) Vapour-phase refining Solution: The principle behind the given methods of refining are: i) Hydraulic Washing: This method is based on difference of gravity between ores and gangue. so that the metal can be easily recovered. the time in which the concentration of a reactant is reduced to half of its original value is called half-life period of the reaction. leaving behind the heavier ones.

The alkyl halide (a) does not contain a chiral centre and and it also gives faster SN2 reaction as SN2 is more favourable in primary alkyl halides. which reaction occurs with (a) Inversion of configuration (b) Racemisation Solution: (i) Among the given pair of compounds.  Q13 (i) Which alkyl halide from the following pair is chiral and undergoes faster S N2 reaction? (ii) Out of SN1 and SN2. alkyl halide (b) has a chiral centre.(i) (ii) Addition in presence of peroxide yields product according to anti-Markovnikov rule of addition. (ii) (a) Inversion of configuration takes place in SN2 reaction. .

(ii) H2O.  Q14 Complete the following chemical equations : (i) Ca3P2 + H2O → (ii) Cu + H2SO4(conc.(b) Racemisation takes place in SN1 reaction.) → CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O OR i) The arrangement of the given hydrogen halides in increasing order of bond-dissociation enthalpy is given below: H−I < H−Br < H−Cl < H−F ii) . H2Te − increasing acidic character. H2Se. HCl. Solution: The balanced reactions are given below: i) Ca3P2 + 6H2O → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2PH3 ii) Cu + 2H2SO4(conc. HI − increasing bond-dissociation enthalpy. HBr. H2S.) → OR Arrange the following in the order of the property indicated against each set : (i) HF.

Z (fcc) = 4 We know for a crystal system.c. Density. a = 4 x 10-8 cm Avogadro number. in which the two chloride ligands may be oriented cis and trans to each other.2 g cm-3 Edge length.c. This complex exhibits geometrical isomerism. (Given : NA = 6. What type of isomerism does it exhibit? Solution: The IUPAC name of the complex [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ is Tetraamminedichlorochromium(III) ion.The increasing order of acidic character of the given hydrides of Group 16 elements is given below: H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te  Q15 Write the IUPAC name of the complex [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+.2 g cm–3 forms a f. NA = 6. Thus. [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ is a [MA4B2] type of complex.  Q17 .91 g. d = 11.  Q16 An element with density 11. atomic mass of the element is 107. Calculate the atomic mass of the element. lattice with edge length of 4 × 10– 8 cm.022 × 1023 mol–1) Solution: Given.022 X 1023 Number of atoms present per unit cell.

as equal number of cations and anions are missing in the crystal lattice.Examine the given defective crystal: Answer the following questions : (i) What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by the crystal? (ii) How is the density of the crystal affected by this defect? (iii) What type of ionic substances show such defect? Solution: (i) Schottky defect is shown by the mentioned crystal. B and C in the following reactions : (i) (ii) OR How will you convert the following? (i) Nitrobenzene into aniline (ii) Ethanoic acid into methanamine .12 K kg mol−1). Examples: NaCl.48 K (Kf = 5.  Q18  Q19 Calculate the mass of a compound (molar mass = 256 g mol−1) to be dissolved in 75 g of benzene to lower its freezing point by 0. (ii) This defect leads to decrease in density. (iii) This kind of defect is shown by those ionic substance in which the cations and anions are of almost similar sizes. KCl and CsCl. Solution: Give the structures of A. as equal number of the cations and anions are missing from the crystal lattice.

) Solution: (i) (ii) OR (i) Nitrobenzene into aniline (ii) Ethanoic acid into methanamine (iii) Aniline into N−phenylethanamide  Q20 (a) Write the mechanism of the following reaction : (b) Write the equation involved in Reimer-Tiemann reaction. Solution: .(iii) Aniline into N−phenylethanamide (Write the chemical equations involved.

as shown: Inversion of configuration takes place during the reaction.a. (ii) A polymer that can be decomposed by microorganisms within a definite period of time. . b. so that the polymer or its degraded product does not cause any harm to the environment. The reaction proceeds through nucleophilic substitution bimolecular (SN2) mechanism.hydroxy valerate (PHBV) is a bio-degradable aliphatic polyester. To make the awareness more impactful. After reading the above passage. (iii) Is polythene a condensation or an addition polymer? Solution: (i) From the given passage. students of a school decided to make people aware of the harmful effects of plastic bags on the environment and Yamuna River. we can conclude that the students show awareness about the environment. poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-CO-β. shopkeepers and departmental stores. they organised a rally by partnering with other schools and distributed paper bags to vegetable vendors. answer the following questions: (i) What values are shown by the students? (ii) What are bio-degradable polymers? Give one example. Reimer-Tiemann reaction:  Q21 After the ban on plastic bags. For example. All the students pledged not to use polythene bags in the future to save the Yamuna River. is called a bio-degradable polymer.

(iii) Polythene is an addition polymer that is formed by addition of ethene molecules. shape. (b) Write an important characteristic of lyophilic sols. Structure:  Structure: Q23 (a) In reference to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. write the expression for adsorption of gases on solids in the form of an equation. Solution: a. (b) Structural difference between White P and Red P: White P Red P It consists of four P atoms. consisting of chains of P4 tetrahedral give rise to a tetrahedral units that are linked together. linked with one another to It has a polymeric structure.  Q22 (a) Draw the structures of the following: (i) XeF2 (ii) BrF3 (b) Write the structural difference between white phosphorus and red phosphorus. .

(ii) What are antibiotics? Give an example.(c) Based on the type of particles of dispersed phase. So the Bi in +5 state will immediately get reduced to its +3 state and thus will be a better oxidizing agent than +5 state of Sb. the sol can be reconstituted by simply remixing the two again. As a result. the lone pair of electrons on the both the N atoms repel each other leading to unstability or weakening of N-N bond. m is the mass of the absorbent and p is the pressure of the gas and n is a constant which is greater than 1. Solution: (a) Freundlich adsorption isotherm for adsorption of gases on solids: where x is the mass of the adsorbate. give one example each of associated colloid and multimolecular colloid. .  Q25 (i) Name sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient. (c) Example of associated colloid: Soap solution Example of multimolecular colloid: Gold sol  Q24 Account for the following : (i) Bi(V) is a stronger oxidizing agent than Sb(V). ii)N-N single bond is weaker than P-P bond due to smaller size of N as compared to P. Solution: i)Because of inert pair effect +5 oxidation state is less stable in Bi than in Sb. iii)Noble gases have very weak interatomic forces between them and thus have a very low boiling point. (b) Lyophilic sols are sols that are solvent-attracting. (ii) N − N single bond is weaker than P − P single bond. An important characteristic of these sols is that if the dispersion medium is separated from the dispersion phase by any method. (ii) Noble gases have very low boiling points. That is why these sols are also known as reversible sols. Smaller size of N leads to smaller N-N bond length.

(iii) Give two examples of macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets. . log 2 = 0.3010) Solution: The thermal decomposition of SO2Cl2 at a constant volume is represented by the following equation: After time t. Solution: (i) Saccharin is the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient.6021. (Given : log 4 = 0. total pressure.P0 Therefore. (ii) Antibiotics: These drugs are used to treat infections because of their less toxicity for humans and animals.4 2 100 0. Example: Salvarsan (iii) Enzymes and receptors are the two examples of macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets. These are produced wholly or partly by chemical processes and they inhibit the growth or even destroy microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes. = 2 P0 − Pt For a first-order reaction. Pt = P 0 + p which on rearrangement gives: p = P t .7 Calculate the rate constant.  Q26 The following data were obtained during the first-order thermal decomposition of SO2Cl2 at a constant volume: SO2Cl2(g) → SO2(g) + Cl2(g) Experiment Time/s−1 Total pressure/atm 1 0 0.

 Q27 (i) Deficiency of which vitamin causes rickets? (ii) Give an example each for fibrous protein and globular protein. (ii) Carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol. .  Q28 (a) Write the products of the following reactions: (i) (ii) (iii) (b) Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds: (i) Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid (ii) Propanal and Propanone OR (a) Account for the following: (i) CH3CHO is more reactive than CH3COCH3 towards reaction with HCN. (ii) Fibrous protein: Collagen. keratin (any one) Globular protein: Hemoglobin.When t = 100 s.gluconic acid.glucose into D. Solution: (i) Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets. carboxypeptidase (any one) (iii) Br2 water oxidises D. (iii) Write the product formed on reaction of D-glucose with Br2 water.

However. C6H5CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + 3OH− → C6H5COO− + 2Ag + 2H2O + 4NH3 However. whereas propanal does not give iodoform test. (ii) Test-1 Iodoform Test Propanone gives positive iodoform test. no such reaction is given by benzoic acid. The reaction is as follows: CH3CH2CHO + 3I2 + 4NaOH → No reactionHeatPropanal OR . as it contains CH3CO group.(b) Write the chemical equations to illustrate the following name reactions: (i) Wolff-Kishner reduction (ii) Aldol condensation (iii) Cannizzaro reaction Solution: (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid Test-1 Through sodium bicarbonate Benzaldehyde does not react with sodium bicarbonate. benzoic acid will produce brisk effervescence on reaction with sodium bicarbonate as shown in the given reaction: C6H5COOH + NaHCO3 →C6H5COONa + H2O + CO2 Test-2 Through Tollen's reagent Benzaldehyde reacts with ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate to form a silver mirror.

In the resonance structures ofcarboxylate anion. These alkyl groups make ketone less reactive by donating electron to carbonyl group. while in resonance of phenoxide ion. making them less reactive towards nucleophilic attack because both methyl groups have electron releasing tendency due to -I effect.Therefore. which leads to less stability of phenoxide ion than carboxylate anion. the negative charge is present on the O-atoms. Carboxylic acids are more acidic than phenols because the negative charge in carboxylate anion is more spread out compared to the phenoxide ion. acidic character is present due to resonance stabilisation of phenoxide anion.(a) (i) CH3COCH3 is sterically hindered than CH3CHO due to the presence of alkyl group on both sides of the carbonyl carbon. negative charge is also present on electropositive carbon atom. as there are two electronegative O-atoms in carboxylate anion compared to one in phenoxide ion. (b) . (ii) Carboxylic acids are acidic due to resonance stabilisation of carboxylate anion and in phenols. acetaldehyde is more reactive towards reaction with HCN.

(b) Calculate emf of the following cell at 298 K: Mg(s) | Mg2+(0.02 mol L−1 KCl solution. 1 F = 96500 C mol–1] Solution: (a) (i) When concentration of an electrolyte approaches zero.71 V. If the resistance of the same cell when filled with 0. How much charge in terms of Faraday is required for the reduction of 1 mol of Cu2+ to Cu.01) | Cu(s) [Given Eocell = +2. then its molar conductivity is known as limiting molar conductivity. etc is directly converted into electrical energy. . OR (a) State Faraday's first law of electrolysis.29 × 10−2 Ω−1 cm−1. calculate the conductivity and molar conductivity of 0.02 mol L−1 KCl solution is 520 Ω. Q29 (a) Define the following terms : (i) Limiting molar conductivity (ii) Fuel cell (b) Resistance of a conductivity cell filled with 0. The conductivity of 0. (ii) Fuel cells are the galvanic cells in which the energy of combustion of the fuels like hydrogen. methanol.1 M) || Cu2+ (0.1 mol L−1 KCl solution is 100 Ω.1 mol L−1 KCl solution is 1.

The reduction of one mol of Cu2+ to Cu can be represented as: Since.1 mol L−1 Resistance of cell filled with 0.02 mol L−1 KCl solution is .02 mol L−1 = 1000 0.02 mol L−1 KCl solution = = Concentration = 0. the molar conductivity of 0. in this reaction there are two moles of electrons involved.1 mol L−1 KCl solution = 100 ohm Cell constant = G* = conductivity resistance 1. Conductivity of 0.) → Mg2+(aq.(b) Given that: Concentration of the KCl solution = 0. OR (a) Faraday's first law of electrolysis states that "the amount of chemical reaction which occurs at any electrode during electrolysis by a current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the electrolytic solution or melt". Molar conductivity = Therefore.) + Cu(s)  Q30 (a) How do you prepare: (i) K2MnO4 from MnO2? (ii) Na2Cr2O7 from Na2CrO4? .29×10−2 ohm−1cm−1 × 100 ohm = 1.29 cm−1 = 129 m−1 Cell constant for a particular conductivity cell is a consant. (b) The cell reaction can be represented as: Mg(s) + Cu2+(aq. so the amount of charge required is 2F.02 mol m−3 = 20 mol m−3 Now.

Therefore. the yellow solution of sodium chromate is acidified with sulphuric acid to give a solution from which orange sodium dichromate. Why does this happen? (ii) Which transition metal of 3d series has positive E° (M2+/M) value and why? (iii) Out of Cr3+ and Mn3+. to give K2MnO4. Balanced equation for above reactions is as follows: 2 Na2CrO4 + 2 H+ Yellow Na2Cr2O7 + 2 Na+ + H2O Orange b) i) Electronic configuration of Mn2+ is [Ar]18 3d5 . Also. Mn2+ shows resistance to oxidation to Mn3+. . such as KNO3 or KClO4. 2 MnO2 + 4 KOH + O2 2 K2MnO4 +2 H2O green ii) Na2Cr2O7 can be prepared from Na2CrO4 in the following way: For the preparation of sodium dichromate. its configuration changes to a more stable 3d5 configuration. Mn in +2 state has a stabled5 configuration. which is a stronger oxidising agent and why? (iv) Name a member of the lanthanoid series that is well-known to exhibit +2 oxidation state. Therefore.2H2O can be crystallised. The ore is fused with KOH in the presence of either atmospheric oxygen or an oxidising agent. Fe2+ gets oxidised to Fe3+ easily. Na2Cr2O7. It is known that half-filled and fully-filled orbitals are more stable. Fe2+ has 3d6configuration and by losing one electron.(b) Account for the following: (i) Mn2+ is more stable than Fe2+ towards oxidation to +3 state. Electronic configuration of Fe2+ is [Ar]18 3d6 . Therefore. (ii) The enthalpy of atomisation is lowest for Zn in 3d series of the transition elements. (v) Complete the following equation: Solution: a) i) K2MnO4 can be prepared from pyrolusite (MnO2). (iii) Actinoid elements show wide range of oxidation states. OR (i) Name the elements of 3d transition series that show maximum number of oxidation states.

Due to the absence of these unpaired electrons.34). In all transition metals (except Zn. iii) Actinides exhibit larger oxidation states because of very small energy gap between 5f. the more will be its enthalpy of atomisation. so. M2+(g) M2+(aq) ΔhydH (Hydration energy) Since. it results in the half-filled (d5) configuration that has extra stability. . The value of E0(M2+/M) for copper is (+0. 3) Out of Cr3+ and Mn3+. M(s) M(g) ΔsH (Sublimation energy) 2. Hydration energy: The energy released when one mole of ions are hydrated. This happens because the E0(M2+/M) value of a metal depends on the energy changes involved in the following: 1. manganese has an atomic number of 25 that gives the electronic configuration as [Ar] 3d54s2 . 2) Copper is the transition metal of 3d series that exhibits positive E0(M2+/M). decides the enthalpy of atomisation. the inter-atomic electronic bonding is the weakest in Zn and as a result. Ionisation energy: The energy required to take out electrons from one mole of atom in the isolated gaseous state. OR 1) In 3d-series of transition metals.ii) The extent of metallic bonding an element undergoes. The (n+l) values of the three orbitals are: 5f=5+3=8 6d=6+2=8 7s=7+0=7 Since. 6d and 7s sub-shells . the E 0(M2+/M) value for copper is positive. Sublimation energy: The energy required for converting one mole of an atom from the solid state to the gaseous state. The energies are calculated on the basis of (n+l) rule. therefore all orbitals can involved in bonding resulting in larger oxidation number for actinoids.where we see that the maximum number of unpaired electrons is found in manganese atom. there are some unpaired electrons that account for their stronger metallic bonding. all the values are almost same. electronic configuration: 3d10 4s2). copper has a high energy of atomisation and low hydration energy. it can show a maximum oxidation state upto +7. The more extensive the metallic bonding of an element. Mn3+ is a stronger oxidising agent because it has 4 electrons in its valence shell and when it gains one electron to form Mn2+. M(g) M2+(g) ΔiH (Ionisation energy) 3. it has the least enthalpy of atomisation.

5) MnO4.+ 8H+ + 5e- Mn2+ + 4 H2O .4) Europium (Eu) is well-known to exhibit +2 oxidation state due to its half filled f orbital in +2 oxidation state.