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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

21

**1 CHAPTER 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
**

3.1 Structural Concrete Design

At first, the general planning is carried out by the architect to set out the

layout of the building floors based on customer's needs. Only then, the

structural engineer determines the most appropriate structural system to

ensure strength, serviceability and economy of the building. This is done

through the following steps.

1. Setting out the building structural system/systems.

2. Evaluating the external loads on the members. These loads include own

weights of the members, which are estimated at the start, in addition to other

loads that the members are intended to support. Own weights of the members

are to be checked later once the design process is done.

3. Carrying out the structural analysis using computer or manual calculations

to determine the internal forces. The analysis is done using manually or using

computer software.

4. Determination of member dimensions and required reinforcement.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

22

5. Preparation of structural drawings.

**3.2 Types of Concrete Design
**

Concrete design can be classified into three main categories; plain concrete

design, reinforced concrete design, and prestressed concrete design.

3.2.1 Plain Concrete Design

With the advent of reinforced concrete, plain concrete is hardly used as a

structural material. It is mainly used for nonstructural members. This is due

to the low strength of concrete in tension which results in large sections,

especially, when required to resist tensile stresses resulting from direct

tension or bending.

3.2.2 Reinforced Concrete Design

The compressive strength of concrete is high while its tensile strength is

low. To alleviate the situation, high tensile strength reinforcement in the

form of steel bars is added in the tension regions to enhance the capacity of

concrete members as shown in Figure 1.1. The reinforcement is usually

placed in the forms before casting the concrete. Once hardened, the

resulting composite material is called reinforced concrete.

the concrete member is called post-tensioned. (b) a plain concrete beam. Prestress is applied to a concrete member by high-strength steel tendons in the forms of bars. prestressing is used to produce compressive stresses in tension regions.1 Prestressed Concrete Design Since the strength of reinforced concrete can be enhanced by the elimination of cracking.1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 23 Figure 1. When the tendons are tensioned before the concrete is cast around them. When the tendons are passed through ducts and tensioned after the concrete has hardened and gained enough strength. (c) a reinforced concrete beam 1. . the concrete member is called pre-tensioned. wires. or cables that are first tensioned and then anchored to the member.1: Mechanics of reinforced concrete: (a) beam and loads.

and annoying vibrations are forms of these limit states.1 Ultimate Limit States These involve structural collapse of some structural elements or the structure altogether. if any to external forces and moments. 1. and the required reinforcement.2. . A higher probability of occurrence can be tolerated than in case of an ultimate limit state since there is less danger of loss of life. rupture.2 Design Versus Analysis It involves the determination of the type of structural system to be used. Elastic instability.2 Service Limit States These involve the disruption of the functional use of the structure. The designed structure should be able to resist all forces expected to act during the life span of the structure safely and without excessive deformation or cracking.3 Limit States of Reinforced Concrete Design When a structural element becomes unfit for its intended use.3. it is said to have reached a limit state. Excessive deflections. immoderate crack widths. 1. thus allowing the economic use of much longer spans.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 24 When compared to classical reinforced concrete design. The limit states are classified into three groups: 1.1 Analysis It involves the determination of the capacity of a section of known dimensions. material properties and steel reinforcement. and fatigue are forms of these limit states. not its collapse. 1. These limit states should be prevented as they tend to cause loss of life and property. the cross sectional dimensions.3. 1. prestressed concrete design produces lighter sections. progressive collapse.

A building code. and past experience help in the process of setting these specifications. on the other side. Every three or six years. structural steel. the first is called structural code.3. which is one of the most solid codes due to its continuing modification.3 Special Limit States These involve damage or failure due to abnormal conditions such as collapse in severe earthquakes. and second a serviceability limit state is conducted to check whether these elements satisfy those serviceability limit states. damage due to explosions. There are two types of codes. and tornadoes in the specifications. is a code that reflects local conditions such as earthquakes. improvement. for buildings. or deterioration of the structure and its main structural elements. combining all revisions made since the last comprehensive edition. Supplements containing such revisions are made on yearly basis. etc. Usually the building code which describes the prevailing conditions in a . A structural code is a code that involves the design of a certain type of structures (reinforced concrete. a comprehensive code edition is made. It also helps to provide protection for the public from dangers resulting from the use of inadequate design and construction techniques. fires. Generally. experiments. a limit state design is carried out first in order to proportion the elements. snow. winds. and the second is called building code. Theoretical research. 1. The purpose of such code is to set minimum requirements necessary for designing safe and sound structures. and revision to incorporate the latest advancements in the field of reinforced concrete design and construction.).4 Design and Building Codes A code is a set of technical specifications that control the design and construction of a certain type of structures. The structural code that will be used extensively throughout this textbook is The American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-08).CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 25 1.

1 The Strength Design Method At the present time. elements are designed so that the internal forces produced by factored loads do not exceed the corresponding strength capacities and allow for some capacity reduction. In the 2002 code edition. Prior to the year 2000. the strength design method is the method adopted by most prestigious design codes. The Working Stress method was the principal method used from the early 1900s until the early 1960s.5. including the 1999 edition mentioned in Appendix “A”. The 1956 ACI Code (ACI 318-56) was the first code edition which officially recognized and permitted the Ultimate Strength Design method and included it in an appendix. The factored loads are obtained by multiplying the working loads (service . The 1963 ACI Code (ACI 318-63) dealt with both methods equally. Ultimate Strength Design is identified in the code as the Strength Design Method.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 26 certain city or state. In 2000. including the 2008 version of the ACI building code (ACI 318-08). except for a small section dedicated to what is called the Alternate Design Method. is used in addition to the main structural or national code. these three codes were replaced by the International Building Code (IBC) . which is updated every three years. there has been a rapid transition to Ultimate Strength Design. the Standard Building Code (SBC) and the Basic Building Code (BBC). It has been preserved in all editions of the code since 1977. there were three model codes: the Uniform Building Code (UBC). In the 1977 ACI Code (ACI 318-77) the Alternate Design Method was demoted to Appendix “B”. the so called Alternate Design Method was taken out. In this method.5 Design Methods Two methods of design for reinforced concrete have been dominant. 1. The 1971 ACI Code (ACI 318-71) was based fully on the strength approach for proportioning reinforced concrete members. Since the publication of the 1963 edition of the ACI Code. 1.

which are associated with the factored loads.1. The use of elastic methods of analysis to determine the internal forces in the members. 1. linear elastic relationship between stress and strain is assumed for both concrete and steel reinforcement. structures are expected to behave elastically or nearly under normal working loads. the working stress design method was used in design. Under this condition. This is due to the fact that when the ultimate load is approached.1 Shortcomings: 1. 1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 27 loads) by factors usually greater than unity. Now only the design of sanitary structures holding fluids is based on the working-stress design method since keeping stresses low is a logical way to limit cracking and prevent leakage. This method is based on the condition that the stresses caused by service loads without load factors are not to exceed the allowable stresses which are taken as a fraction of the ultimate stresses of the materials. a basic requirement of the validity of the elastic methods of design. .5. Regardless of the method of design used. In this method. the strength method can not be used and the working stress analysis should be made to determine the deformations and crack widths. fc′ for concrete and f y for steel. The favored mode of failure is the one that ensures a controlled local failure of members in a ductile rather than brittle manner.2 The Working-Stress Design Method Before the introduction of the strength-design method in the ACI building code in 1956. steel and concrete are no longer behaving elastically. is inconsistent.5. 2. The working stress-design method will generally result in designs that are more conservative than those based on the strength design method.

standard of construction and variations indicating the magnitude of damage that may be caused by possible failure of a particular element.5. however. the designer must use his own judgment to make these estimates which are needed for the analysis process . the designer must use the available codes to estimate these loads if such estimates are available. for example.1 Shortcomings 1. is of a vital importance in the field of design for most dynamic effects.2. The elastic theory does not allow for prediction of the ductility of a structural member. It has been found that the value of this factor is far different from the ratio of the strength to the so-called working stress. It has been confirmed by tests that the working stress design method does not give correct information with respect to the actual factor of safety against failure of reinforced concrete members. Therefore.6 Loads on Structures All structural elements must be designed for all loads anticipated to act during the life span of such elements. No way to account for degrees of uncertainty of various types of loads. Experimental investigations showed that analysis according to the working-stress design method does not predict actual behavior. 4.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 28 1. These loads should not cause the structural elements to fail or deflect excessively under working conditions. Consideration of ductility. The working stress design method does not make allowances for varying quality control. 2. 3. at high stresses. especially. can be predicted more accurately than live loads which are usually variant and harder to predict. 5. The factor of safety is defined as the ratio between the load that would cause the total collapse to that used as the service or working load. Dead loads. If not. 1.

1 Dead Load (D. Only then. such as the own weight of the structure. flooring and roofing. or if he expects a larger value than the one specified by the code. modifications of the assumed values are necessary to guarantee economy on one extreme and adequacy on the other.1 shows typical live load values used by the ASCE 7-05. Live loads are arranged in such a way to give maximum values for the internal forces.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 29 before embarking on the design process.6.2 Live Load (L.L) The live load is a moving or movable type of load such as occupants. this load is calculated and used with other loads to design these members. The exact value of the dead load is not known until the structural members have been proportioned. furniture. the assumed loads are compared with the actual ones. Live loads used in designing buildings are usually specified by local building codes.L) The dead load is usually a load of permanent status. Table 1. Live loads depend on the intended use of the structure and the number of occupants at a particular time. 1.1: Typical live loads specified in ASCE 7-05 Apartment Buildings: § Residential areas and corridors § Public rooms and corridors Office Buildings: § Lobbies and first-floor corridors § Offices § Corridors above first floor § File and computer rooms Schools: § Classrooms 200 kg/m2 480 kg/m2 480 kg/m2 240 kg/m2 380 kg/m2 400 kg/m2 195 kg/m2 . Once this is done.6. its partitions. The most important load types are listed below. The structural engineer must use a good judgment if the expected live load is not specified by the local code. Table 1. if the difference is substantial such as in long spans. etc. 1.

In moderate to high-risk regions. its height. Usually this load is considered to act in combination with dead and live loads.L) The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind pressure and gusts. is a lateral load caused by ground motions resulting from earthquakes. The magnitude of this force depends on the shape of the building. 1.CHAPTER THREE § § Corridors above first floor First-floor corridors Stairs and Exit Ways: Storage Warehouses: § Light § Heavy Garages (cars): Retail Stores: § Firest floor § Upper floors Wholesale.L) The earthquake load.6. all Floors DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 30 385 kg/m2 480 kg/m2 480 kg/m2 600 kg/m2 1200 kg/m2 200 kg/m2 480 kg/m2 360 kg/m2 600 kg/m2 1. The provisions of the ACI Code provide enough ductility to allow concrete structures to stand earthquakes in low seismic risk regions. 1. special arrangements and detailing are needed to guarantee ductility. the velocity of the wind and the type of terrain in which the building exists. It is a type of dynamic load that is considered static to simplify analysis.4 Earthquake Load (E.3 Wind Load (W. which is also called seismic load.6.7 Safety Provisions Safety is required to insure that the structure can sustain all expected loads during its construction stage and its life span with an appropriate factor of . The magnitude of such a load depends on the mass of the structure and the acceleration caused by the earthquake.

. or distributed differently. usually greater than unity to increase the service loads. involves a two-way safety measure. The ACI strength design method.1 Load Factors These load factors are required for possible overloading resulting from. . the load combination and strength reduction factors of the 1999 code were revised and moved to Appendix C. The factor of safety is used to account for the following uncertainties: § Real Loads may differ from assumed design loads. In the ACI 318-2002 Code. § § Magnitudes of loads may vary from those assumed in design. The magnitude of such a load factor depends on the accuracy of determining the type of load under consideration. Uncertainties involved in determination of internal force. § Material strengths could be smaller than those used in the design.7. and remains in the ACI 318 08 code edition. The second safety measure specified by the ACI Code involves a strength reduction factor multiplied by the nominal (theoretical) strength to obtain design strength. The load factors and the strength reduction factors will be discussed in detail in the following section. 1. § Executed dimensions or reinforcement are less than those specified by the designer. § Assumptions and simplifications are made during analysis or design. The first of which involves using load factors. The factor of safety should account for the expected type of failure and its consequences and for the importance of the member in terms of structural integrity. The magnitude of such a reduction factor is usually smaller than unity.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 31 safety.

2 (D + F + T ) +1.6W + 1.1. temperature load. roof live load. roof live load.Dead load.2) U = 1.2 D +1. wind load. snow load.6W + 1.5 R c.6 (L + H ) + 0.6 Lr + 0.4 (D + F ) (1.8W (1.6 R +1.6 R + 0.Dead load.6 S +1.0 L + 0.6W + 1.0 L + 0.8W U = 1.6 (L + H ) + 0.6 Lr +1.2 D +1.5 Lr U = 1.2 D + 1.3) U = 1.1) b.5 S U = 1. live load. roof load.0 L U = 1.2 D +1.8W d. wind load. soil load.5 Lr U = 1.5 R (1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.2 D +1.6 S + 0. snow load.2.4) .2 (D + F + T ) +1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 32 According to ACI 9. fluid load. and rain load combination: U = 1.Dead Load.7).2 D + 1.0 L + 0.2 D +1. (1. and snow load combination: U = 1.0 L U = 1. live load.5 S (1. required strength U shall be at least equal to the effects of factored loads in Eqs. a.Dead load and fluid load Combination: U = 1. and rain load combination: U = 1.6 (L + H ) + 0.2 D +1.2 D +1.1) through (1. rain load. live load. The effect of one or more loads not acting simultaneously is to be investigated.0 L U = 1.

0 E +1.6 W + 1.6 H (1. or internal forces D = Dead loads.3).2. the following important notes are also given in ACI 9.CHAPTER THREE 33 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS e.9 D + 1. (1.5) f.The live load factor on L on Eqs.9 D +1. earthquake load. shrinkage.Dead Load. and all areas where the live load is greater than 485 kg / m2 . or related internal forces Regarding the above given equations.2 S (1. or related internal forces H = Soil pressure. areas of public assembly.7) Where U = Required strength to resist factored loads.0 E + 1.Dead Load.2.4) and (1. .2 a.2 D + 1. and differential settlement L = Live loads. or related internal forces Lr = Roof live loads. and soil load combination: U = 0.5) is permitted to be reduced to 0.6) g. earthquake load. and snow load combination: U = 1. wind load.0 L + 0. or related internal forces T = Cumulative effects of temperature.6 H (1.1 and 9. or related internal forces R = Rain loads. live load.5 except for garages. or related internal forces F = Fluid loads. (1. creep. or related internal forces S = Snow loads. or related internal forces W = Wind loads.Dead Load. or related internal forces E = Earthquake loads. and soil load combination: U = 0.

Live (L) and Equation NO. elevator shafts.0 L + 1. it is permitted to use 1. (1.2 D + 0. loading docks.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 34 b.1) 1.1) through (1..6W in Eqs.4) 0.If the live load is applied rapidly.4) and (1.7) simplify to those given in Table (1. R. H.6 W (1. (1.2 D + 1. (1. 1. warehouse floors.0 E in Eqs.Where the wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality factor.2 D + 1.2: Required Strength for simplified load combinations Loads Required Strength Dead (D) and Live (L) Dead (D).Where earthquake load E is based on service level forces.6). For many members. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to actions from other forces it shall not be included in H but shall be included in the design resistance. Live (L) and wind (W) Dead (D).5) and (1. substitute (L + impact) for L when impact should be considered. S .3W instead of 1.2) below. Lr and T loads are not considered equations (1.3) 1.4 E is to be used in place of 1.0 L (1.6 L (1.2) 1. d.6) and (1. c.0 E (1.4 D (1.3) 1.6 W + 1. Where the F.7) if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E . wind and earthquake.9 D + 1. impact effects should be considered. 1.0 L (1.6) 1.5) . live.7). In all equations. Table 1.2 D + 1. e.The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in Eqs.8 W (1.2 D + 1. as may be the case for parking structures. the loads considered are dead. etc.

2 strength reduction factors Φ are given as follows: a.……… Φ = 0.2 Strength Reduction Factors According to the ACI Code 9.Strut and tie models …………………………………………. Φ = 0. According to ACI 9.Post-tensioned anchorage zones ………………. Allow for inaccuracies in the design equations.…………………….90 b. the nominal (theoretical) strength is multiplied by a strength reduction factor to obtain the design strength.……. Design strength ≥ Required strength The reasons for using the strength reduction factors include: § § § § Allow for the probability of under-strength due to variations in material strengths and dimensions. Φ = 0.…………… Φ = 0. Φ = 0.For compression-controlled sections.……….……….3. Reflect the degree of ductility and required reliability of the member under the load effects being considered. Φ = 0.85 f.9 D + 1. • Members with spiral reinforcement …………….7.. Φ = 0.For bearing on concrete ……………………………. In the ACI 318-2002 Code. the strength reduction factors were adjusted to be compatible with model building code.….7) 1.CHAPTER THREE Earthquake (E) DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 0..1..75 An example of showing the importance of a member in a structure is that columns have smaller strength reduction factors. Reflect the importance of the member in the structure.75 • Other reinforced members ………………………..For shear and torsion ………………………………….0 E 35 (1.65 c.For tension-controlled sections ……….65 e..3.75 d. thus larger safety .

as shown in Fig.003. 1.2.c. (c) compression-controlled section. columns are less ductile than beams. Moreover. shown in Fig. sections are called tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0. (b) Section in transition between tension and compression.b.4.a. 1.3. as shown in Fig. This is due to the importance of columns when paying attention to their extensive type of failure which differs from the localized type of failure encountered in beams. (a) (b) Figure 1. There is a transition region between tension-controlled and compressioncontrolled sections.005 when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.3. thus requiring a larger factor of safety.2: Classification of sections for (c) f y = 4200 kg / cm2 .003. sections are called compression-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than ε y (permitted to be taken as 0. In ACI 10. 1. In ACI 10.002 for reinforcement with f y = 4200 kg / cm2 ) when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.3.2.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 36 measures than beams. . (a) Tension-controlled section.2.

5) = 5.a: Frame Solution: The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design software for the following load combinations. which may act to the right or left on member AB and CD.20 D + 1. . Combination (2): D + W.5 t/m on member BC.) . based on Eq. as shown in Figure 1.0 tons (comp.60 L = 1. determine the axial forces for which member AB should be designed for the following service loads are applied: − a dead load of 1 t/m on member BC. (1.2 (1) + 1.2 D + 0. based on Eq.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 37 Example (1.2) wu = 1. Figure 1.3) U = 1.2.0 tons (comp.2 ton/m F AB = 5. (1.) . − a horizontal wind load of 5 tons at joint C.b. respectively.6 (2.2.2.8W Wind acts to the right F AB = 4.2. as shown in Figure 1. − a live load 2.c.a. Combination (1): D + L.1): For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1.2 (10 / 2) = 26.

2. member AB should be designed for an axial compression load of 26.2.4) U = 1. .g.50 tons (comp. Combination (4): D + W. based on Eq. as shown in Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1.) .6 W + 1. Wind acts to the left F AB = 8. Studying the four combinations.0 tons (comp.5 tons (comp.2.2.2.f.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 38 Wind acts to the left F AB = 8. (1. as shown in Figure 1.60 W Wind acts to the right F AB = 0.50 tons (comp.e.d.5 tons (comp.h. (1. as shown in Figure 1.9 D + 1. based on Eq.6) U = 0.) .0 L Wind acts to the right F AB = 14.) .) .) .0 tons.2 D + 1. Wind acts to the left F AB = 22. Combination (3): D + L + W. as shown in Figure 1.

(e) D+L+W combination (Right). (h) D+W combination (Left).2: (continued).CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 39 Figure 1. (f) D+L+W combination (Left). (d) D+W combination (Left). (c) D+W combination (Right). (g) D+W combination (Right). . (b) D+L combination. Frame and loading combinations.

For the span loaded with dead and live loads. as shown in Figure 1.2 (3) = 3.3.2(3) + 1. as shown in Figure 1. wu = 1.0 t.0 ton / m The maximum negative moment is given as.3.5) = 6.20 D + 1.m .6 t/m The maximum positive moment is given as.75 t.m . wu = 1.60 L = 1.a carries a uniformly distributed service dead load of 3 t/m. M − ve (max .6 (1.3. Maximum negative moment: This case is evaluated by fully loading the two spans by dead and live loads. Determine the maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC .60 L = 1.2 (3) + 1.e.) =18.5 t/m. M + ve (max) =12.a: Beam ABC The Beam is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design software for the following loading cases.5) = 6.0 t/m For the other span. .2): The beam shown in Figure 1. and a service live load of 1.3. wu = 1.20 D + 1.6(1.20 D = 1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 40 Example (1. Maximum positive moment: This case is evaluated by fully loading one of the two spans by dead and live loads while loading the other span by dead load only.c. Solution: Figure 1.

(c) corresponding bending moment diagram. (e) corresponding bending moment diagram.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 41 (b) (c) (d) (d) Figure 1.3 : (continued). (d) loads causing maximum positive moment in span BC. (b) loads causing maximum negative moment at point B. .

2 (4) + 1. Combination (1): D + L load wu = 1. which may act to the right or left on member AB and CD. − a live load 3 t/m on member BC.6 ton/m .6 (3) = 9. − a horizontal wind load of 1 tons at joint C.3): For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1. determine maximum positive and negative bending moments for which member BC should be designed for when the following service loads are acting: − a dead load of 4 t/m on member BC.20 D + 1.4.4.a: Frame Solution The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design software for the following load combinations.60 L = 1. respectively. Figure 1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 42 Example (1.

8 ton/m wu (horizontal ) = 0.c: Dead and wind loads (on member CD) 43 .b: Dead and live loads Combination (2): D + W load (on members CD and AB) U = 1.4.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Figure 1.8W = 0.2 D + 0.8W wu (vertical ) = 1.8 (1) = 0.4.2 (4) = 4.8 ton/m Figure 1.2 D = 1.

8W = 0.6 W + 1.2 D + 1.4.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Figure 1.2 D + 1.0 L = 1.d: Dead and wind loads (on member AB) Combination (3): D + L + W load (on members CD and AB) U = 1.8 ton/m Figure 1.4. Live and wind loads (on member CD) 44 .0 L wu (vertical ) = 1.e: Dead.8 (1) ) = 0.8 ton/m wu (horizontal ) = 0.2 (4) + 1(3) = 7.

9 (4) = 3.6 (1) ) = 1.9 D + 1.4.4.9 D = 0.g: Dead and wind loads (on member CD) 45 .6 ton/m wu (horizontal ) = 1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Figure 1.6 W = 1.60 W wu (vertical ) = 0. Live and wind loads (on member AB) Combination (4): D + W Load (on members CD and AB) U = 0.6 ton/m Figure 1.f: Dead.

member BC should be designed for a maximum negative bending moment of 252.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 46 Figure 1.57 ton.m and a maximum positive bending moment of 227.4.m .43 ton.h: Dead and wind loads Based on the results obtained from the four combinations.

10. − a live load 2. Figure P1.8 Problems P1.10. Figure P1.1 The beam shown in Figure P1. − a horizontal wind load of 8 tons at joint C.5 t/m on member BC.5 t/m. which may act either to the right or left.0 t/m.0 t/m on member BC.10. determine the axial forces for which the member CD should be designed for when the following service loads are applied: − a dead load of 1.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 47 1.1 carries a uniformly distributed service dead load of 2.2.10. Determine the maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC should be designed for.10.10. and a service live load of 2.2 For frame ABCD shown in Figure P1.2 .1 P1.

− a service dead load of 3 t/m and a service live load of 2 t/m on member CD. − a service dead load of 5 t/m and a service live load of 1.10. Figure P1. Determine the maximum positive and negative bending moments for which member BE should be designed for.3 The multi-story frame shown in Figure P1.3 .3 carries the following loads: − two 5-ton service concentrated live loads applied at points G and H.5 t/m on member BE.10.CHAPTER THREE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 48 P1.10.

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