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# CEE 367 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

LAB 2 – Forces on a Sluice Gate

Prepared For:
Sayed Abedin
Department of Civil Engineering

Prepared By:
Farid Najand

Laboratory Date: 01-31-2013
Submission Date: 02-19-2013

This experiment helps visualize water pressures at different depths by the control of water flow. Three methods used to estimate these forces are: hydrostatic pressure. A water level of 8 inches is maintained in the upstream side while the sluice gate experiences forces acting upon it. A proper understanding of how these forces act is imperative to the design of an efficient sluice gate. open . with the gate completely closed. piezometric head and pressure head is determined with data collected from the experiment.A. With the gate open. Objective The main objective of this lab is to analyze the forces acting upon a sluice gate that is necessary for a proper design. it is essential to maintain consistently eight inches upstream water level inside the channel. The sluice gate has several attached manometer at different depth and record the pressure height against the Sluice gate. .75 inches above the channel floor and once again maintain the same amount of eight inches upstream water flow. Summary A Sluice gate is a mechanism used to control water flow. water flow and pressure changes emerge. place the sluice gate at . Then. measure the temperature and observe the water pressure from the manometer. which allows the water to either flow out of a space or to be contained. hydrostatic pressure method. During each experimental procedure. Elevation head. Third. the elevation head also increases. C. During the procedure. These methods are applied with the sluice gate completely closed. Second. Once the Sluice gate is kept on right location. The gates often slide vertically on a frame. Then place the sluice gate inside the channel and block the water flow completely. actual pressure and momentum theorem.75 inch. B. observe the pressure change and record data. Laboratory 2 explores the forces applied on a sluice gate. Based on the results there is a relationship between the measured head and the monometer number. Then observe the pressure change and record data. Three methods are used to estimate these forces.5 inch. observations are made and monometer readings are recorded for data. Procedure Sluice gate experiment will be conducted into three different steps. place the Sluice gate at half an inch above the channel floor and maintain the same amount of eight inches upstream water flow. actual pressure method and the momentum theorem method. As the monometer number increases. and also with the gate open at .

1778 0.5 3.0127 0.21844795 11 0.5 5.5 1 1.19812 0.393508632 10 0.8 7.69006385 Total Force = Pressure Head Meters 0. B= 6”= 0.18798 0.5 0.19048 0.19812 0.4482 2.3 0.02032 -0.6 Specific weight of the fluid (N/m3).86226 .05588 -548.77163407 12 -0.0254 0.13462 0.8 7.1397 0. Data Tables Method 1 Data .5 7 8 10 Meters 0.003146 M2 (m3) 0 F (N) 30.19558 0.19812 0.2032 0.1524 m Water temperature (°C).0076 0.61665496 2 0.14732 0.Closed Width of the channel (m). = 9810 Depth of the water level.19812 0.19812 Data Result Table 1 -Sluice Gate Closed Actual Pressure Method Manometer Pressure Head Pressure (Pa) Force (N) 1 0.8 7.0508 0.5 0.8 7.472353313 4 0.0127 0.D.556037856 8 0.15748 0.4658 3.0051 0.7 7.0889 0.2092 2.0127 0.18288 1794.8 7. upstream side (m).8788 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Hydrostatic Method pc F (N) 996.18288 0.0254 0.7 7.0127 0.6088 3.6222 2.99008202 6 0.05842 573.0318 0.7 7.8 Meters 0.19558 0.1828 -2.17018 0.241515388 13 -0.231217667 5 0.18798 1844.8 7.19558 0.5 2 2.8348 -0.5 0.14732 1445.0191 0.19048 1868.86536279 Height Inches 0. h1 = 8” = 0.1143 0.19558 0.0127 0.25 Meters 0.5 0.656669267 29.10922 0.7 7.073766562 9 0.08382 822.7 7.3392 0.Sluice Gate Closed Manometer No.00508 -0.254 Piezometric Head Inches 7.0318 Elevation Head Inches 0.19558 0.5 0.797173502 7 0.5 0.15748 1544.19812 0.0127 0. T= 23.75 1 1 1.0254 0.05842 0.10922 1071.0381 0.2 0.0528 3.08382 0.5 4.569187313 3 0.05588 Momentum Theorem Method M1 (m3) 0.19812 0.5 0.0127 0.696 30. Q = 0 m3/s Data Table 1.0838 3.25 1.13462 1320.17018 1669.8 7.00508 -49.19812 0.2742 2.02032 199.0127 0.2032 m Flow rate (m3/s).5 0.0127 0.0635 0.1002 2.

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Actual Pressure Method Pressure Head Pressure (Pa) 0.18542 1.0178 5.12954 1270.1905 Manometer No.5 0.459583597 2.02794 -274.00508 -0.0914 Total = Force (N) 2.00336 Data Table 2.8348 -0.16256 0.14226 1395.18034 0.5 0.8 0.5” = 0.5 0.13716 1345.0127 1.08382 0.350359622 -0.5” = 0.2742 0.18542 1 0.328334634 21.10922 1071.2159 7.03556 -0.14732 0.0635 7. Δ = 7.03556 348.5" Piezometric Height Elevation Head Head Inc Inches Meters Inches Meters hes Meters 0.5” = 0.5396 0.4 0.127 7.12776 M.5 0.5" Hydrostatic Method pc F (N) 934.3 0.12952 1270.0127 m Difference in the water levels (m).3 0.13716 0.5 0.14226 0.5706 0.604264985 2.2 0. h2 = 0.5912 0.5 0.5 0.5” Depth of the water level. t = 0.0254 7.Method 2 Data – Open 0.5 0.4025 27.12952 0.17526 0.0127 2.1178 0.1002 0.0127 4 0.0762 7.Sluice Gate Open 0.668202986 1.1 0.0762 Data Result Table 2 -Sluice Gate Open 0.18288 0.02794 -0.192908517 -1.3 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Pressure Head Meters 0.25 0.5 0.0318 10.0127 0.18796 1.0203 6.5 0.25 0.94793814 .26667508 2.10922 0.0191 5 0.0127 3 0.7874 0.0127 2 0.05842 573. h1 = 8” = 0.591495269 1.5 0.18542 0.4 0.0254 6 0.1905 7.0254 6.9 0.604264985 2.5 0.003183486 0.0381 6.5 0.073766562 1.701098985 2.11938 1171.08382 822.4 0.0127 m Flow rate (m3/s).12954 0. Q = .05842 0.1905 m Sluice gate opening (m).2667 7.0127 1 0.2032 m Depth of the water level.8 0.000640373 24.16256 0.4 0.77891593 Momentum Theorem Method M1 (m3) M2 (m3) F (N) 0.7 0.75 0.0508 7. downstream side (m).13716 0.5396 0.1016 7.18796 1 0.8436 -0.4482 0.5 0.1524 7.459203856 2.13716 1345.0318 8.3 0.11938 0.00508 -49. upstream side (m).18542 0.0127 0.

Method 3 Data – Open 0.12954 0.25 1.0127 0.1333 0.03932 1233. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Height Inches 0.1651 0.1496 1059.48 959.3664 2.1 7.25 6.8 6.00199548 M1 0.0191 m Difference in t e water levels (m).067 1159.75 1 1 1.5 0.18288 0.2822 2.918214164 -0.Sluice Gate Open 0.02418 -0.75” Depth of the water level.1841 m Sluice gate opening (m).0127 0.75” = 0.2 7.07244 0. upstream side (m).05 1.18034 0. h2 = 0.5 0.75 2.95 1.290219032 M2 0.2 7.12062 0.912732 2 0.1 5.14732 0.5 6.2032 m Depth of the water level.9 7 7.0191 0.25 7.857693833 1. downstream side (m).05060235 1.6364 461.15748 0.18288 0.18288 Meters 0.528599717 -1.5 0.1778 0.4624 237.17526 0.2058 -136.25” = 0. Q = .1207 0.25 Elevation Head Meters 0.108 0.12578 0.10544 1034.75" Hydrostatic Method pc F (N) Manometer Actual Pressure Method Pressure Head Pressure (Pa) Force (N) Momentum Method 903.9018 1184.09784 0.1968 0.01392 -0.09012 Data Result Table 3 .108 0.75 8.243510868 2.1 7.00496 Data Table .0191 m Flow rate (m3/s). h1 = 8” = 0.5552 -385.04704 0.273 Piezometric Head Inches 5.75" Manometer No.25 5.291737997 2.5 0.01392 -0.0127 0.7292 2.03932 -0.388192256 2.0825 0.0254 0.25 1.8104 710.0318 0.343243212 0.12062 1183.1587 0.1207 0.0571 0.09784 0.0127 0.0267 0.12578 0.0444 0.446857 Total = 18.5 0.5 0.18034 0.07244 0.0318 Inches 0.11816 0.18288 0.375422539 1.5 0.1079 0.0032273 26.11816 0.75 10.0105 1 0.0254 0.0241 0.0127 0.0127 0.0317 0.02418 -0.0009391 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.0127 0.0127 0. t = 0.25 2.75 Meters 0.Sluice Gate Open 0.5 0.1 7.75 3.75” = 0.0698 0. Δ = 7.869367137 F (N) 22.2 7.2222 0.2 6.76083173 .25 4.2 Pressure Head Meters 0.18034 0.04704 0.10544 0.

E. Sample Calculations Variables Defined: pc : Pressure at centroid h : height sluice gate is submerged B : width of channel pi : pressure over the manometer hi : pressure head Q : flow rate M1 : upstream momentum estimate t : sluice gate opening Flow Rate for Closed Method: √ √ Hydrostatic Pressure Method for Sluice Gate Closed: ( ) ( )( ( ) ) Static Pressure at Monometer = (9810 N) (.19048) = 1868.60 Pa .

2 0.0127) = 29.60 * 0.05 Pressure Head 0 -0.1 Piezometric Head 0.25 0. Results and Discussion Head Change Plots Method 1: Head Change (Sluice Gate Closed) 0.Force at Monometer ∑ = (1868.69 N Momentum Theorem Method for Closed ( ) F.05 -0.1524 * .15 Elevation Head 0.1 0 5 10 Manometer Number 15 .3 Measured Head (m) 0.

1 Elevation Head 0.25 Measured Head (m) 0. a similar relationship exists for each measured head.15 0.1 Elevation Head Piezometric Head 0.Method 2: Head Change (Sluice Gate Open 0.25 Measured Head (m) 0. The pressure head decreases as the monometer number increases.75") 0.1 5 10 15 Manometer Number Method 3: Head Change (Sluice Gate Open 0.05 Piezometric Head 0 -0. This makes sense due to the fact that the first monometer is at the deepest level.05 0 -0. so does the elevation head.2 0. as the monometer number increases. .15 0.05 Pressure Head 0 -0.05 0 5 10 15 Pressure Head -0. The piezometric head showed minimal change. pressure would be greatest at the bottom due to the weight of the water exerting force. Theoretically. In addition.1 -0. however it did arrive at a plateau at a certain point as the monometer increases.15 Manometer Number Based on the graphical results.5") 0.2 0.

In this method.79% 3: Percent Difference of Hydrostatic Force Force and Momentum Force 8. The triangular pressure distribution cannot be assumed when the gate is open. The results indicate this is true with the hydrostatic method having the highest mean force at 28.30 23. h. The results are valid due to the fact that flow rate is dependent on the change of height of the gate.13 21. the flow rate increases as well. Some other error can occur. These 3 results for experiment 1 all had close values. Therefore.90% 2: Percent Difference of Momentum Equation Force and Actual Pressure Force 10.69 27.25 26.91 18. an increase in height allows for a greater area on which the flow is passing through. and less than 1% between Hydrostatic and Momentum.862 24.3 N. According to the results for the closed gate. With the gate open. 1 2 3 Total Mean Data Result Table 4 (Forces N) Method Actual Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure Force (N) Force (N) 30. as the opening of the sluice gate increases. Also.78 26.87 29.44 78. during the experiment an 8-inch elevation is to be maintained and monometer readings . Summary of Results Table Experiment No.16% Out of all three methods. A reason for this error is because the hydrostatic method is not an accurate method for estimating the force on an open gate.76 84.95 22. one could say that flow rate Q. is in direct relationship with the height of the sluice gate opening.23 28.91 70. the percentage difference value increases. the resulting forces for all three methods have a small percentage error: 3% between Hydrostatic and Actual Pressure method. The actual pressure method and momentum equations are a better choice. but this is only accurate for the closed method.According to the results.41 Momentum Equation Force (N) 30. a triangular pressure distribution is assumed. the lab states that the Hydrostatic Method is the most conservative.08 Percentage Difference Data Result Table (Percent Difference) 1: Percent Difference of Hydrostatic Force and Actual Pressure Force 18.

actual and momentum equations. .5 and . hydrostatic.75 inches. The forces are determined with a closed gate. water treatment plants and dams.can be inaccurate as well. Conclusions Overall this lab serves its purpose in calculating forces on a sluice gate by using 3 different methods. G. A graphical display of the results helps derive relationships between the measured heads and the monometers. It can be difficult to keep the downstream and upstream levels as steady as possible like stated in the procedures. Each method explores a different theory and is useful in accurately calculating forces. and open at both . These factors are very important in designing sluice gates in the real world such as open channels.