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Laboratory 5

Determination of Friction Factor in Pipe Flow

Prepared For:
Sayed Abedin CEE 367L
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Prepared By:
Group Poseidon
JaLynn Zito (Data Collected 10% & Calculations 15%, Objectives
5%, Conclusions and Recommendations 10%, & Questions 10%))
Tyla Treasure (Discussion of Results and Errors 25%, Executive
Summary 15% and Lab Procedure 10%))
Farid

Date Laboratory Performed: October 4, 2013
Date Submitted: October 18, 2013

it is still important to experimentally determine these values for real world cases due to the uncertainty of the pipes actual material composition. The results yielded in high percentage errors (1” copper: 62%) of the experimental friction values compared with theoretical friction values. . After making sure of these steps are done. copper and PVC pipes of 1”. The reasoning for this discrepancy comes from several factors including the assumption of idealized conditions and errors occurring during the experiment.5” diameters are tested each with 5 different trials on the Scott Flow Apparatus. The data showed direct proportionality with friction factor and head loss. it can be determined by with various equations (Darcy-Weisbach) depending on the type of flow and graphically using the Moody Diagram. 2. 2 . the total head loss in the pipe also increases. In this experiment. Objectives 1. Determine the frictional headloss in pipes.75” and . the determination for the head loss for the head loss from 0. The sizes of diameters are from 0. Although the friction factor can be found with these equations. make sure that the valve that says L1 is closed and L6 is open all throughout the experiment. as the friction factor increases.5 inch to 1 inch. determine the temperature of the water and record this measurement. Second. 3.5” diameter to 1” diameter for each plastic and copper. In this experiment. Lab Procedure Friction factors and relative roughness of different sizes of diameters and material properties are determine in the laboratory. Compare experimental friction factors to theoretical friction factors. The friction factor is a function of the pipe’s roughness and Reynold’s number.Executive Summary Friction loss is the loss of energy that occurs in pipe flow due to the viscous effects generated by the surface of the pipe. First. the frictional headloss is determined in a PVC and copper pipes of different diameters. the material properties are plastic and copper. Determine experimental friction factors from the experimental headloss.

As the flow rate increase. Fourth. remove all the bubbles in the manometers to determine the measurements easily. Third. For the second and third part of the experiment.75” and 0. at the end of the laboratory the measurements include 5 trials for each 1”. ranging from flow rate of 2 gpm to 5 gpm. increase the flow rate between 2 gpm and 5 gpm. Figure 1: Experiment Set-up Figure 2: Set-up for plastic flow apparatus For the first part of the experiment. 0. start the water flow through the pipe.75” and 0. Therefore.The experiment set-up could be seen on Figure 1 and Figure 2. make into considerations the open and closed valves. Second. First. Repeat the steps from the first part experiment. and at least 5 measurements of flow rate are needed. it intends to determine the head loss for 0. it intends to determine the head loss for 1” diameter pipe. The hose is attached to the Scott Flow apparatus to determine the water flow rate. The start of the flow rate starts approximately and at least 2 gpm. These procedures are intended for both plastic and copper pipes. At least 5 trials for each diameter respectively are measured.5”diameter pipe respectively. However. Data Collected 3 . close and open several valves to redirect the flow to the manometers attached.5” diameter pipes for each plastic and copper material. head loss should be determined in the manometer.

25 3 15.000189 0.5 0.4826 0.5 3 3.723873 0.03 0.055224 0.1 3 4 4.842476 12984.436699 8966.050387 e/Dexp 0.31115 0.052806 0.000315 V (m/s) 0.000145 0.759477 15594.75" PVC pipe Area (m2 ) hL f Trial (in) 1 2.011186 0.625 0.482625 13713.5 3 3.02 0.005200 0.000315 V (m/s) 0.3937 0.00614557 0.000215 0.054073 0.0127 0.02 0.039361 e/Dexp e/Dtheo 0.413954 9170.350224 0.0254 0.4 4 4.000540428 hL f (m) 0.7 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.125 3 3.1 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.75 5 6.75 1 1.079375 0.03 0.211359 f 0.02 e/Dtheo smooth Table 3: Headloss Measurement for 0.5 5 (m3 /s) 0.355712 0.000252 0.000001002 hL f (m) 0.015875 0.000221 0.347962 20775.055403 0.092075 0.051364 0.064034 0.75 0.592853 Re 6399.02 0.018000 0.000189 0.000284 0.949347 19492.000189 0.5” PVC Pipe DATA TABLE 3: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5 4 5 (m3 /s) 0.000315 0.2286 0.1 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.03 0.000187217 Re V (m/s) 0.000221 0.5461 Q Q (gpm) 3 2.298498 0.000252 0.041275 Q Q (gpm) 2.466965 0.009525 0.006100 0.873122 f 0.145768 17659.3 3 3.01 e/Dtheo smooth Table 4: Headloss Measurement for 1” Copper Pipe DATA TABLE 4: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 1" COPPER PIPE 19.02 0.000001002 1" PVC pipe Area (m2 ) Trial 1 2 3 4 5 hL f (in) 0.862326 15284.827908 f 0.5 4 5 (m3 /s) 0.000158 0.051492 0.474283 0.064798 0.004138 1.853281 f 0.569608 11695.17145 Q Q (gpm) 2.125 2 3.04 0.050463 0.02 0.000252 0.0125 e/Dtheo smooth Table 2: Headloss Measurement for 0.044045 e/Dexp 0.00053209 hL f (m) 0.043695 0.01905 0.037380 0.037847 0.000001013 1" Copper pipe Area (m2 ) Trial 1 2 3 4 5 hL f (in) 0.03175 0.000332282 Re V (m/s) 0.000001002 hL f (m) 0.167953 15236.583706 Re 7642.015 0.664543 13645.059624 0.75" PVC PIPE 20.248998 0.034925 0.1 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.000284 0.5 4 19 5 21.25 1.006750 Table 5: Headloss Measurement for 0.516457 23372.0254 0.561866 1.291853 0.02 0.478378 9142.375 1.721636 0.375 0.111969 12189.408594 0.12065 0.014000 0.75” PVC Pipe DATA TABLE 2: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5" PVC pipe Area (m2 ) hL f Trial (in) 1 9 2 12.625 4 4.379536 12227.04445 Q Q (gpm) 2.02 0.298985 1.5 0.000132 0.000252 0.5 (m /s) 0.047213 e/Dexp 0.Table 1: Headloss Measurement for 1” PVC Pipe DATA TABLE 1: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 1" PVC PIPE 20.000158 0.000189 0.533568 0.75” Copper Pipe 4 .060526 0.050337 0.074965 0.010972 15581.75 0.896745 10699.625 1 1.053975 0.474239 1.5" PVC PIPE 20.

24E-01 7.06 0.14E-04 1.37E-05 1.007 0.25 3.1 3.75" COPPER PIPE 19.000284 V (m/s) 0.75 15 hL f (m) 0.003 0.18E-04 V (m/s) 2.057656 13926.017 0.000150428 Trial 1 2 3 4 5 hL f (in) 1.051054 0.94E-01 4.08255 0.98E+04 f 9.626682 0.01155819 0.037444 0.67E-02 3.04 0.041505 0.94E-02 3.000001013 0.5" Copper pipe Area (m2 ) 0.10795 Q Q (gpm) 2.875 3.066675 0.45 Q (m3 /s) 4.117475 0.002 Table 6: Headloss Measurement for 0.002 and Calculations Experimental Velocity: Velocity Flow Rate Area Friction Factor: Friction Factor Head Loss Diameter Gravity 5 .DATA TABLE 5: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5 2.006 0.5” Copper Pipe DATA TABLE 6: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5 4 4.7 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.79E+03 1.047625 0.25 4.44E-01 1.03E+04 1.45E+00 Re 4.203428 17905.625 7.75" Copper pipe Area (m2 ) 0.000252 0.01 1.19685 0.677999 15916.000221 0.85E-02 6.7 Temperature (°C) Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s) 0.032407 0.008 0.8 2.033485 e/Dexp e/Dtheo 0.55E-01 9.29E+04 1.627142 12335.01 0.909700 Re 9947.000196 0.62E-02 3.505389 0.381 Table 7: Percent Error of Q (gpm) 0.7 1.0508 0.000158 0.0635 0.5 3.707544 0.25 hL f (m) 0.42E-04 2.5" COPPER PIPE 19.000312088 Trial hL f (in) 1 2 3 4 5 2 2.000001013 0.808622 0.5 (m3 /s) 0.42E-05 6.073025 0.01E+03 5.728856 f 0.875 2.24E-02 e/Dexp e/Dtheo 0.625 4.00802447 0.

Velocity Reynolds Number: Reynolds Number Velocity Diameter Head Loss ( ) : 6 .

1125 2 -246.075 3 48.766875 7.69625 7 .89375 0.85188 2 0.5" COPPER PIPE AVERAGE PERCENT PERCENT TRIAL ERROR ERROR 1 -419.48125 5 82.75" COPPER PIPE AVERAGE PERCENT PERCENT TRIAL ERROR ERROR 1 -111.7415625 -62.07625 0.38625 -9.614375 5 75.782125 4 62.8351562 0.881469 15.18425 4 13.08875 -104.305 3 12.: Percent Error: Discussion of Results and Errors 1" COPPER PIPE TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE PERCENT PERCENT ERROR ERROR -127.80625 -192.

like pipes. Thus it becomes important to understand how to determine the friction factor in a laboratory setting. which this lab succeeded in doing. wastewater management. the use of the Scott Flow device in determining the friction factor of a given pipe helped highlight the importance of laboratory testing and experiments in both fluid mechanics and in hydraulics engineering as a whole. oil transportation and drainage basin design. Questions NONE 8 . Knowledge of how friction affects fluid flow is an essential part of the design process of a system where fluid flow is involved.Conclusion and Recommendations While the results were different from the expectations.