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# Laboratory # 6

Deflection of Beams.

Prepared for
Chris Parker, CEE 370L
Department of Civil Engineering

Prepared by;
Mlay, Hemed
Group A
Test performed 10/08/2009
Date 1/15/2009
1

1. Abstract
.......................
3
2. Introduction . 3
3. Material and equipment ...................................................................................3
4. Procedure..4
5. Equations used .......................................5
6. Result ..............................................................................................................6
7. Table calculation and graph ............................ ...-7
6. Analysis and Conclusion.... 8

1. Abstract.

This report outlines the procedure for calculating deflection of beams. The main
objectives of the experiment is to familiarize ourselves with the bending stress equations
and be able to calculate bending stresses at any point along the beam. A square tube of
Maximum load of 225lb was applied and carefully deflection in inches was recorded.
However my result and theoretical comparison was of high percentage error than
expected; due to equipment used, and human error factor, the procedure was well
understood.

2. Introduction.
If a beam supported at two points, and a load is applied along the beam, deformation will
occur along the beam; depend on the magnitude, and location of the load, material
properties, and geometry of material used as a beam. In most cases deflection o the beam
depends on the stiffness and cross sectional area and the location of loading system. The
effect of the beam can be mathematically estimated. This experiment explains how the
experiment values was obtained, as well as how the deflection was estimated based on
the means of calculation.

3. Equipment needed
The following picture represent the sample specimen Aluminum 6061 Square tube of the
following measurements 2 IN X 2 IN external and Inside 1.75 x 1.75 in. The strain gage
was fixed to the specimen to detect the strain and deflection through the beam.

## Strain indicator gage

4. Procedure.
The following procedure was followed, during conducting this experiment. The centre of
the specimen was marked as well the two ends points where the point of reactions where

indicated. Mesuments of the distance from the centre of one end reaction to the centre of
the Strain gage was taken in order to be able to calculate the moment. from this point the
following steps was carefully followed.

We measure the out side and inside dimensions of the specimen in oerder
to be able to calculate the moment of inertia I

Measurement was taken from the centre of the support to the centre of
strain gage.

## The specimen was carefully mounted and centered in the Tinius-Olsen

Universal Testing Machine

The cross head of testing machine was lowered until it slightly contacted
the specimen for balancing purposes.

The loading process was done slowly and carefully in the centre of the
specimen while the deflection and strain was recorded at the interval of
every 25 lb up to the max of 225 lb.

3. Equations used.
The following equations was used in order to calculate deflection of the

specimen.
Maximum Moment M = P*L^3/14
Maximum deflection = P*L/48*E*I
Modulus of elasticity E=/
Theoretical Stress

M= P*X/2,

## Moment of inertia I= 1/12*b*h^3

Specimen I =( (1/12*b*h^3)- (1/12*b2*h2^3))

## 6. Results and calculation

My result somewhat has a significant error compare to theoretical values.. I believe the
main source of error may be due to the method used and equipment. for example based
upon the simple supported beam with one end fixed and the second support allowing the
movement my help some how to control deflection. In our case the beam was not
restricted at ant point, so it may be one of the cause of the significant amount of error.
The second reason may be caused to human error during balancing and loading the
specimen.

L=12
Force
(lb)
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225

0.551757810

strain
12
26
39
51
65
77
89
101
114

micro strain
0.000012
0.000026
0.000039
0.000051
0.000065
0.000077
0.000089
0.000101
0.000114

b1 =
b2 =
1 h1 =2.00" h2 = 1.75" 2.00"
1.75"
Measured deflection VS calculated deflection
Moment

## (lb-in) Deflection theoretical actual % error

150
0
271.858
120 227.718
300
0
543.717
260 495.898
450
0
815.575
390 767.756
600
0
1087.434
510 1040.534
750
0.007
1359.292
650 1311.473
900
0.009
1631.150
770 1583.945
1050
0.012
1903.009
890 1856.241
1200
0.016
2174.867
1010 2128.428
1350
0.02
2446.726
1140 2400.133

Theor
Defl
0.00016
0.00033
0.00049
0.00065
0.00082
0.00098
0.00114
0.00130
0.00147

Actu
Defl
0
0
0
0
0.007
0.009
0.012
0.016
0.02

%
ERROR
0.016
0.033
0.049
0.065
-858.208
-919.498
-1050.853
-1225.998
-1362.218

E = 10*10^6

C = h/2 = 2/2=1

Dist x

force lb

Defl in

I =in^4

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5

100
100
100
100
100
100

-4.281862796
-9.281862796
-15.7181372
-24.7181372
-35.7181372
-48.7181372

0.551758
0.551758
0.551758
0.551758
0.551758
0.551758

100

-63.7181372

0.551758

The chart below shows deflection along the beam at the given points
Loads given P=100 lb, Moment of inertia used is the same as used in the experiment,
Length of the sample 12 in,

7. Analysis
The goal of this experiment was fulfilled, however the results was not as expected. my
result came up with a huge amount of error compare to calculated deflection. This error
may have caused by the equipment we use and some how human error.

8. Conclusion.

This experiment shows the relationships between a horizontal member (Beams) and their
behavior on loading. Through this experiment also we explore the relationship between
Load, stress, moment, deflection, Modulus of Elasticity and strain. This lab helped us to
understand causes of deflections and how to calculate deflection at any point along the
beam. We learned and understand procedures for conducting deflect test from a given
specimen.