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Business Communication Today, 12e (Bovee/Thill)

Chapter 13 Finding, Evaluating, and Processing Information


1) At the beginning of a research project, you need to
A) develop a formal outline that you plan to stick to throughout your researching and writing.
B) familiarize yourself with the subject.
C) just jump in by finding resources on the Internet and taking notes from them.
D) develop the conclusion you want to reach and start looking for evidence that supports that
conclusion.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) As you begin a research project, the most important thing to do is to familiarize
yourself with the subject. Read general, rather than specialized sources to get a broad, nondetailed view of the subject and identify critical gaps in your knowledge.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
2) A problem statement
A) outlines all the potential drawbacks of your research.
B) defines the purpose of your research.
C) is an unsupportable claim or assertion.
D) should be long and complex.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) A problem statement expresses the main idea that your research is pursuing.
You may find it convenient to express your problem statement as a question, such as, "How
likely is it that nuclear fusion will be an important energy source in the future?"
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

3) Sources of secondary information include


A) first-hand observation.
B) in-person interviews.
C) newspapers and periodicals.
D) experiments.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Secondary research uses already existing sources of data and evidence and
compiles them to draw conclusions. An example of a secondary research source is a published
research paper that measures the effectiveness of a new drug for migraine headaches.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
4) Primary research refers to
A) new research done specifically for your current project.
B) the evidence that stands out in your report.
C) the research you conduct first.
D) research that is fairly easy to conduct.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Primary research is research that is done specifically for the project you are
working on. For example, primary research for a childhood obesity project might collect data on
how often kids eat and watch TV at the same time.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
5) Which of these documents would not qualify as primary research?
A) A recent survey of your company's top clients
B) The most recent issue of a trade magazine in your industry
C) Notes from a conversation you recently had with a local government official
D) Your company's latest balance sheet
Answer: B
Explanation: B) If a data source is published it does not qualify as primary research. Primary
research involves data that you or people working on your project collect themselves. Data from
published sources is secondary research.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

6) In evaluating material you have gathered for a report, you should


A) assume that those who've written the material are credible.
B) shun information with any hint of bias because such information is inherently unethical.
C) check to make sure you're using the most current information available.
D) avoid using government documents.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) The data you have found might be relevant and convincing, but it might not be
the latest data out there. Before completing your report, make sure you're using the most current
information available.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
7) Regarding the five-step research process, the planning step includes all of the following
elements except
A) developing a problem statement.
B) prioritizing research needs.
C) documenting your sources.
D) maintaining standards of ethics and etiquette.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Step one, planning, includes maintaining research ethics and etiquette, getting
familiar with the subject and developing a problem statement, identifying information gaps, and
prioritizing research needs.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
8) Which of the following is not true of conventional search engines?
A) They travel the web automatically, identifying new websites.
B) They access the deep Internet or hidden Internet.
C) They return to previously identified websites to look for changes.
D) Not all search engines operate in the same way.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Search engines don't have access to all webpages on the Internet. The most
obscure pages in the "deep" Internet cannot be accessed by conventional search engines.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

9) A web directory differs from a search engine in that


A) it doesn't include Usenet newsgroups.
B) it doesn't provide as precise results as a search engine.
C) human editors find and index the websites to include.
D) it usually locates more sites than a search engine.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Search engines get results from computer algorithms that rank webpages. Web
directories have human editors who find and evaluate useful websites.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
10) A metacrawler is
A) a highly specialized directory that focuses on a specific subject matter area.
B) a search engine that examines only newsgroup messages.
C) a type of aggregator that offers subscribers all-day information on their desktops.
D) a special type of engine that searches several search engines at once.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) To account for the particular biases of search engines, metacrawlers aggregate
results from multiple search engines and rank their websites. The result is a search that is not
biased by any one particular method of ranking and evaluating webpages.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
11) Which of the following is not a characteristic of online databases?
A) They often categorize information by subject area.
B) They offer access to many materials that are not accessible through standard search engines.
C) Using them requires knowledge of basic search techniques.
D) Most of them are available free of charge.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Many online databases require a subscription or feature limited access that is
restricted to members of various societies and organizations.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

12) Unlike Internet search engines, online databases


A) can be accessed only from a library.
B) often provide access to various parts of the hidden Internet.
C) are rarely up to date.
D) do not require a subscription.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) If you suspect that standard search engines are missing sources because they are
part of the hidden Internet, use an online database to conduct searches.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
13) Possible uses of online monitoring tools include all of the following except
A) subscribing to newsfeeds from blogs and websites.
B) following people on Twitter and other microblogs.
C) entering key terms into general-purpose search engines.
D) setting up alerts on search engines and online databases.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Uses of online monitoring tools include subscribing to newsfeeds from blogs
and websites, following people on microblogs, setting up alerts on search engines and online
databases, and using specialized monitors to track tweets.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
14) Documenting the sources that you use in your writing
A) properly and ethically credits the person who created the original material.
B) shows the audience that you have sufficient support for your message.
C) helps readers explore your topic in more detail.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Proper documentation of your sources fulfills your ethical responsibility, builds
your credibility, and enables your readers to pursue their own research goals.
Diff: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

15) After you've developed a problem statement to define the problem or purpose of your
research, your next step will involve
A) evaluating sources of information.
B) analyzing numerical data and textual information.
C) creating a knowledge manipulation system to categorize your research.
D) discovering the specific information gaps that your research must fill.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Once you've developed a problem statement, focus your research by identifying
the most important gaps in your information.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages
16) Innovations in research technology allow you to
A) completely avoid unreliable information on the web.
B) rely exclusively on standard search engines, regardless of your needs.
C) access all online databases free of charge.
D) find webpages and also the documents webpages that are linked to those sites.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) The search engine Yolink specializes in finding links. Yolink will conduct a
normal search, then it will find all webpages and documents that are linked to your site. For
example, if you search for a research paper on toxic waste, the engine will give you all other
sources that are referenced by that paper as well as those that reference the paper itself.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
17) You would not need to cite a source if you have
A) used a direct quotation of under 250 words from a book titled Modern Economics.
B) used a table from the 1985 Farmer's Almanac.
C) described, in your own words, a plan for organizing production lines, which appeared in a
professional journal.
D) provided general knowledge about your topic.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) General knowledge need not be cited. For example, stating that the nuclear
meltdown in Japan in 2011 was caused by a tsunami is something you would not need to
reference. You would assume that your readers would accept this fact as a given.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
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18) According to the fair use doctrine


A) plagiarism is not an issue in the business worldit is a problem only in schools and academic
circles.
B) crediting sources is all that is necessary to avoid legal problems.
C) once material is made public, it no longer belongs to the author.
D) you can use other people's work only if you don't prevent them from benefiting as a result.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) For example, if you publish a cartoon without attribution that gets widely
picked up by newspapers and other sources, you are preventing the cartoonist from benefiting
since the cartoonist could have sold the rights to the cartoon in each instance that it was picked
up.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
19) The answers you receive from a person you're interviewing will be influenced by
A) the types of questions you ask.
B) the way you ask your questions.
C) his or her cultural and language background.
D) all of the above.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) The answers you receive in an interview are influenced by the types of
questions you ask, by the way you ask them, and by each subject's cultural and language
background.
Diff: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
20) Ask ________ to solicit opinions, insights, and information; ask ________ to elicit yes or no
answers.
A) indirect questions; direct questions
B) closed questions; open-ended questions
C) open-ended questions; closed questions
D) reflective questions; descriptive questions
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Open-ended questions solicit opinions, insights, and information. Closed
questions elicit specific answers, such as yes or no.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
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21) When you're selecting people to participate in a survey, be sure to get a ________ of the
population you want to survey.
A) stratified sample
B) representative sample
C) cross-sectional sample
D) small sample
Answer: B
Explanation: B) When selecting people to participate in a survey, the most critical task is getting
a representative sample of the population in question.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
22) Ronnie has just started an internship with Finedum & Sellum, Inc., a provider of online
surveys for retailers. One of her first assignments involved drafting an online questionnaire for a
local apparel store. After reviewing the questions she had written, her manager told her to revise
a question that read, "Do you prefer that we extend our weekend hours for the convenience of
customers?" Why did Ronnie's manager want her to revise that question?
A) It is an open-ended question.
B) It is a leading question.
C) It is an ambiguous question.
D) It is a closed-loop question.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Leading questions are framed so that they evoke a specific response from the
individual being questioned.
Diff: 3
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3
AACSB: Reflective Thinking skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

23) An online survey is vulnerable to ________ because it captures only the opinions of those
who visit the site and choose to complete the survey.
A) sampling bias
B) backchannel static
C) circular reasoning
D) transactional dysfunction
Answer: A
Explanation: A) An online survey is susceptible to sampling bias because it captures only the
opinions of those who visit the site and choose to participate, which might not be a representative
sample of the population.
Diff: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
24) The two most common primary research methods in the social sciences are
A) not appropriate for test marketing.
B) experiments and observations.
C) surveys and interviews.
D) test panels.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Primary research involves collecting your own data. Surveys and interviews in
which you query people with respect to their views on a topic are the most common forms of
primary research.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
25) You create a survey and administer it five times under identical conditions. Because it
yielded completely different results each time, you should conclude that this survey is
A) not valid.
B) not reliable.
C) valid.
D) reliable.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) The reliability of a survey measures how reproducible it is. If the survey yields
consistent results in different trials, it is deemed reliable. A survey that yields inconsistent results
is judged to be unreliable.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
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26) A survey is not valid if it


A) does not include at least 50 responses.
B) is more than one year old.
C) fails to measure what it is intended to measure.
D) lacks secondary evidence to supplement it.
Answer: C
Explanation: C) Validity is a measure of whether or not a survey measures what it is intended to
measure. For example, if a survey is intended to measure attitudes about the economy and it ends
up reflecting people's views on immigration, you would judge that survey as not valid.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
27) People are more likely to respond to a questionnaire if
A) they can complete it within a short time.
B) you allow them plenty of time to research their answers.
C) the questions are open ended.
D) all of the above are the case.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) The completion of a questionnaire is typically a disruption in people's lives.
Few busy people are willing to spend more than a few minutes completing a questionnaire, so
questionnaires should be limited to taking up 10 or 15 minutes of time.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
28) Questions such as, "Do you shop at the mall often?" are
A) perfect for most surveys.
B) too ambiguous to yield useful information.
C) likely to offend your respondents.
D) too personal and will offend most audiences.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) Vague questions yield vague and ambiguous results. Rather than ask a vague
question, it would be better to quantify the results by asking: Do you shop at the mall: (a) once a
week or more, (b) once a month, (c) less than once a month, (d) not at all? The data from this
question could be compiled and displayed in graphical form.
Diff: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

10

29) "How do you spend your leisure time on the weekends?" is an example of
A) a closed-ended question.
B) an open-ended question.
C) a restatement question.
D) an inappropriate question.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) An open-ended question allows the respondent to fill in the blanks, providing a
wide range of answers. Answers to this question might include gardening, bowling, sleeping,
hiking, playing poker, and any number of other responses.
Diff: 3
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
30) Which of the following is a closed-ended question?
A) Would you rate the proposed expansion plan as likely to succeed or unlikely to succeed?
B) What do you see as the primary benefit of the proposed expansion plan for your family?
C) What corporate goals does the expansion help achieve?
D) How will the expansion affect day-to-day operations?
Answer: A
Explanation: A) A closed-ended question gives the respondent only a few answer choices to
select from. Here, the correct answer has only two answer choices: likely to succeed or unlikely
to succeed.
Diff: 3
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
31) A disadvantage of using too many closed questions in an interview is that they
A) do not take full advantage of the interview format.
B) prevent any important information from being revealed.
C) diminish the interviewer's control over the interview.
D) none of the above.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) An interview format allows the researcher to probe a respondent's views in
depth. Too many closed questions put too narrow of a limit on how respondents can respond.
Adding more open-ended questions takes advantage of the interview format, allowing a wide
range of responses that truly reflect the attitudes and beliefs of the respondents.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

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32) When conducting an information interview, it is a good idea to


A) learn about the person you are interviewing ahead of time.
B) stick to using just one type of question.
C) save the most important questions for last.
D) avoid making an appointment, since you don't want the subject to think ahead about answers.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) The more you know about your interview subject, the better your interview will
be. So take time to learn about your subject and develop interview questions that take advantage
of what you learn.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
33) Researchers, who are analyzing numeric data, look for ________ to identify patterns that
tend to repeat over time.
A) trends
B) causations
C) correlations
D) cross-differentiations
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Trends represent growth, decline, and cyclical patterns that take place over
time.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
34) Unlike a summary, a paraphrase
A) restates the original material in your own words and with your own sentence structures.
B) presents the gist of the original material in fewer words by eliminating some of the original
words.
C) does not require complete documentation of sources.
D) is never acceptable in business documents.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) Paraphrasing is much more of an interpretation than summarizing. To
paraphrase you read or listen to the original, then write your impression and interpretation of
what you heard in your own words. To summarize you simply rewrite the original in a much
shorter, condensed form.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
12

35) To paraphrase effectively


A) avoid using any business language or jargon.
B) check your version against the original to make sure that you didn't alter the meaning.
C) make sure your version is the same length as or longer than the original.
D) do all of the above.
Answer: B
Explanation: B) When paraphrasing it is possible that you will begin to substitute your own
ideas for those of the original speaker. To make sure that you aren't distorting the speaker's
original ideas, check your paraphrased version of the text against the original text.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
36) What would be the median for the following set of monthly salaries: $1200, $1200, $1300,
$1500, $1700, $2000, $2800?
A) $1200
B) $1500
C) $1671.43
D) $1700
Answer: B
Explanation: B) The median value in a set of data is the value that has an equal number of data
points that are greater than itself and less than itself. In this set, there are three values greater than
$1500 and three values that are less than $1500.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
37) To find out your company's average monthly utility bill over the last year, you would need to
calculate the ________ of the last twelve bills.
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) highest
Answer: A
Explanation: A) An average, or mean value is calculated by dividing the sum of the values by
the number of values there are. For a utility bill you would divide the total amount you paid in
utilities over the year by 12 since there are 12 months in the year.
Diff: 3
Skill: Application
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
13

38) The number 29 is the ________ in this set of figures: 25, 29, 34, 29, 29, 42, 8.
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) correlation
Answer: C
Explanation: C) The value in a set of data that appears most frequently is termed the mode.
Here, the value 29 appears three times, more than any other value, so it is the mode.
Diff: 3
Skill: Application
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
39) Applying the findings of your research can involve all of the following except
A) summarizing your results.
B) making recommendations.
C) drawing conclusions based on your results.
D) developing a problem statement that defines your research.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Applying the findings of your research can involve summarizing the results,
drawing conclusions, and making recommendations.
Diff: 2
Skill: Synthesis
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
40) A ________ is an unbiased condensation of the information uncovered in your research.
A) problem statement
B) research summary
C) cause and effect analysis
D) primary collation
Answer: B
Explanation: B) A research summary is an unbiased condensation of the information uncovered
in your research.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

14

41) A ________ is a logical interpretation of the facts and information in a report; a ________ is
a suggested course of action.
A) recommendation; conclusion
B) problem statement; summary
C) conclusion; recommendation
D) trend analysis; synthesis
Answer: C
Explanation: C) A conclusion is a logical interpretation of the facts and information in a report; a
recommendation is a suggested course of action.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Revise, complete, and distribute business messages
42) A ________ is a set of technologies, policies, and procedures that can allow a company to
capture and share information throughout the organization.
A) process superstructure
B) desktop search protocol
C) cross-departmental interchange
D) knowledge management system
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Knowledge management systems help organizations share research results and
other valuable information and insights.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
43) When drawing conclusions for a report, you should
A) introduce new information that wasn't discussed in the report.
B) avoid getting input from other members of your research team.
C) ignore information in the report that doesn't support your point of view.
D) interpret your research results logically, based strictly on the information in your report.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Your conclusions must be logical, relevant, and based on evidence that you
gathered in your research. Don't introduce any new information, yet don't ignore information in
your report, just because it doesn't support your conclusion. Also, don't expect all team members
to reach the same conclusion, after examining the evidence.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages

15

44) Unlike conclusions, recommendations


A) suggest a clear course of action.
B) interpret evidence.
C) are always acceptable to readers.
D) always come at the end of the report.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) A conclusion is an evaluation that you make, based on your data. A conclusion
does not specify a course of action. A recommendation, on the other hand, specifies a course of
action, usually based on conclusions drawn from the research.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
45) The recommendations you make in a report should
A) interpret the results of your research.
B) not be limited by the report's conclusion.
C) tell audience members what they want to hear.
D) adequately describe the steps that come next.
Answer: D
Explanation: D) Don't leave readers wondering what they need to do in order to act on your
recommendation. For example, rather than saying, "Buy Stock A if the price drops," a much
better recommendation would say, "Buy 100 shares of Stock A if the price drops below $10 per
share."
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
46) To help guide your research, you should develop a problem statement that defines the
problem or purpose of your research.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: A problem statement boils down the purpose of your research into a single
statement or question. For example, a clear problem statement might be, "Are Apple laptop
computers worth the extra cost to consumers?"
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages

16

47) The difference between primary sources and secondary sources is that primary sources are
those you create specifically for your project.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Secondary sources typically are published data sources (professional journals,
periodicals, newspapers) that already exist and can be accessed. Primary sources involve you
collecting data to answer specific research questions for your project.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
48) When you need to consult government documents, your only option is to go to the
appropriate government office in your city.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The vast majority of government documents that are not classified are available
online.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
49) When using the Internet to conduct research, you can be reasonably sure that any information
you find will be accurate.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: When using the Internet, your basic assumption should be that the information you
find is not particularly reliable. With care, however, you can locate official sources, such as the
U.S. Department of Labor, and well known sources, such as The Wall Street Journal, that you
can rely on, as well as blogs and other websites. The key is to cross reference any fact that seems
dubiousif you can find it in a variety of reliable sources it is likely to be credible. If you can
find it only, for example, in a single blog it is likely not to be credible.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

17

50) The best general purpose search engines are capable of reaching information on the hidden
Internet.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: General purpose search engines such as Google cannot access the hidden Internet.
The only practical way to access the hidden Internet is through specialized databases.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
51) Some of the most useful and up-to-date resources available at libraries are online databases.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Some databases require a subscription, so if you find a need to use them, go to a
public library.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
52) Search engines and directories use different approaches to find and index websites.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Search engines use computer algorithms to find websites. Directories are organized
and set up by human editors. In both types of search, you use key words to find what you are
looking for.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
53) Unlike most search engines, a web directory yields results that have been screened by human
editors.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Human editors set up web directories based on specialized interests. An example of
a web directory is the Open Directory Project.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

18

54) A metacrawler enables you to use multiple search engines simultaneously.


Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Rather than simply search for websites, a metacrawler searches the results of
different search engines and compiles them into a single listing. A metacrawler gives you the
ranked results from various search engines such as Google and Bing.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
55) Boolean operators include terms such as AND, OR, and NOT.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Given search terms cute and puppy, the operator AND (cute AND puppy) will
include sites that include both cute and puppy, while the OR operator (cute OR puppy) will
include sites that feature just one or both of the terms. The NOT operator (NOT cute) will
eliminate all sites that include the term cute. Note that you can replace NOT with a minus sign,
as in -cute.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
56) A work is not considered copyrighted until it is legally registered.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Copyright protection is granted as soon as an author puts the copyright symbol
onto the text or item.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
57) According to the fair use doctrine, you can use other people's work only as long as you do
not unfairly prevent them from benefiting as a result.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The fair use doctrine would go into effect if you reproduced someone's copyrighted
material and were subsequently asked to appear on radio and TV talk shows to discuss the
material. The author of the material could claim that she was denied the opportunity of benefiting
from her work because she was not the one invited to make media appearances.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
19

58) Observations, surveys, and experiments are all considered secondary sources of information.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Observations, surveys, and experiments are all primary information sources if you
conducted them as part of your ongoing research project.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
59) A survey is considered reliable if it measures what it is intended to measure.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Reliability is defined as how reproducible a study is. If the results are consistent in
different situations at different times, the study can be labeled as reliable.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
60) A survey is valid if it produces identical results when repeated.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Validity is a measure of whether a study measures what its author intended it to
measure. For example, a study that was intended to measure health insurance coverage that ends
up measuring poverty levels instead would be labeled not valid.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
61) "Do you watch sports and news shows on TV?" is a compound question.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The respondent may watch sports shows but not news showsor the respondent
may watch news and not sports shows. This compound question fails to differentiate between the
two choices.
Diff: 3
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

20

62) "Do you think the styling of the new Mini Cooper is a departure from previous styling?" is
an example of an open-ended question.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The question is closed because it has only two possible responses: yes, the styling
is a departure, or no it is not a departure.
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
63) If you plan to quote your interview subject in writing, it is a bad idea to provide him or her
with a list of questions a day or two ahead of time.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Unless you plan on using hostile "ambush" questions to catch your subject being
untruthful or inconsistent, there is nothing wrong with providing questions ahead of time. That
said, your interview may turn out to be more spontaneous if your subject is hearing the questions
for the first time when you ask them.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
64) It is always preferable for interviews to take place in person rather than to conduct them via
email.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: There are distinct advantages to electronic interviews. For example, online an
interview subject gets to think about a response for as long as he or she likes and edit the
response if it does not accurately reflect the person's feelings about a topic.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
65) Paraphrases do not require documentation of sources.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: As with quotations or summaries, when you paraphrase a source, that source must
be identified.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages

21

66) If the price of a baseball cap in six different stores was $22, $20, $18, $20, $19, and $21, the
mean price would be $21.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The mean price, computed by dividing the sum of the prices by the number of
items, comes to $20, not $21.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
67) The median value of a group is the sum of all the values in a series divided by the number of
values in that group.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The median is the central value in the group that has as many values greater than
itself as it has values that are less than itself.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities, Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
68) If you find a strong correlation between employee use of company stress-reduction programs
and increased worker productivity, you can conclude that such programs do indeed cause
increased productivity, without considering any other variables.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: In this situation, a correlation between stress programs and productivity has been
found. However, there is no cause and effect relationship that has been proven here. Any number
of other factors could be causing the increase in productivity, such as personnel changes, new
equipment, scheduling changes, policy changes, and so on. Until these factors can be ruled out as
the cause of the productivity increase, stating that the stress programs caused an increase in
productivity is wrong.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 5
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

22

69) You should assume that everyone who examines the evidence you present in your report will
arrive at the same conclusion.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: You should aim to make your conclusions "bullet proof"that is, so well-reasoned
that no one could argue with them. However, most conclusions, no matter how rigorously arrived
at, still have an element of subjectivity to them. So do not be surprised if other people look at
your data and draw different conclusions.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
70) An example of a recommendation would be "Given the state of the economy, now is a good
time to invest in precious metals."
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The statement is a conclusion, not a recommendation. A recommendation would
specify a course of action, such as, "You should invest at least 20 percent of your portfolio in
gold or silver, keep it for six months, then put the money into bonds."
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 5
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
71) A(n) ________ ________ defines the purpose of your research.
Answer: problem statement
Explanation: A problem statement can be a statement or a question. A problem statement should
express what you aim to find with your research.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages
72) Books, periodicals, newspapers, and websites are all examples of ________ sources.
Answer: secondary
Explanation: Secondary sources of data are published sources or sources that you didn't
specifically compile or collect for your research project.
Diff: 1
Skill: Concept/Application
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

23

73) Online ________ ________ identify individual webpages that contain a specific word or
phrase you've asked for.
Answer: search engines
Explanation: Well-known search engines include Google and Bing.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
74) Online ________ provide access to journals, electronic books, and other resources often
unavailable through general purpose search engines.
Answer: databases
Explanation: Unlike search engines, which are entirely automated, databases are often compiled
and organized by human editors.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
75) You can narrow or broaden an Internet search by using ________ operators such as AND,
OR, and NOT.
Answer: Boolean
Explanation: Given search terms chocolate and cake, the operator AND (chocolate AND cake)
will include sites that include both chocolate and cake, while the OR operator (chocolate OR
cake) will include sites that feature just one or both of the terms. The NOT operator (NOT
chocolate) will eliminate all sites that include the term chocolate.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
76) A Boolean ________ operator placed between restaurant and Louie's will find all sites that
include both the word restaurant and Louie's.
Answer: AND
Explanation: An AND operator searches for only those sites that contain both search terms.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

24

77) A(n) ________ ________ search lets you ask questions in normal, everyday English.
Answer: natural language
Explanation: Natural language searches allow users to ask questions such as, "Which dog breed
is the most popular one in the United States?" and get reliable answers.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
78) ________ law covers printed materials, audiovisual material, many forms of artistic
expression, computer programs, maps, mailing lists, and even answering-machine messages.
Answer: Copyright
Explanation: Note that once the author affixes the copyright symbol on an item, that item is
protected from being copied. Note also that some things, such as slogans, names, and phrases,
are not protected by copyright.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
79) A survey is considered ________ if it produces identical results when repeated. A survey is
considered ________ if it measures what it's intended to measure.
Answer: reliable, valid
Explanation: Reliability measures reproducibility. Validity measures how well the study
measures what it was intended to measure.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
80) When conducting an interview, you use ________ questions to get the interviewee to offer an
opinion and not just a yes-or-no answer.
Answer: open-ended
Explanation: Open-ended questions give the person being interviewed the freedom to respond in
any way he or she likes.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

25

81) Unlike a paraphrase, a(n) ________ presents the gist of the material in fewer words than the
original.
Answer: summary
Explanation: A summary is a condensed version of the original. A summary should contain all of
the key ideas in the text using the same phrasing as the author. A paraphrase, on the other hand,
may express ideas using phrasing that is very different from that used by the author.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
82) When analyzing data, look for ________, which are definite patterns taking place over time,
such as growth and decline.
Answer: trends
Explanation: A common way to spot trends is to represent data on a graph and look for visual
patterns of upward and downward change.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
83) A(n) ________ is a simultaneous change in two variables that you're measuring.
Answer: correlation
Explanation: A correlation shows that two trends seem to coincide in time. Correlation does not
indicate cause and effect. For example, if it rains every time you forget your umbrella that does
not mean that forgetting your umbrella caused the rain.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 4
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
84) A(n) ________ is a logical interpretation of the facts in your report.
Answer: conclusion
Explanation: The aim of your report is to draw conclusions based on your data. If your data
show no definite trends, correlations, or cause and effect relationships, you can still conclude that
your data failed to reveal any meaningful relationships. That in itself can be viewed a meaningful
fact.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages

26

85) A(n) ________ suggests what ought to be done in response to the information you have
presented in your report.
Answer: recommendation
Explanation: Recommendations are specific suggestions to take action. If a statement does not
specify an action, it is a conclusion, not a recommendation.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 5
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
86) List three guidelines to follow in order to avoid ethical lapses when conducting research.
Answer: (Answers may include any three of the following.) (1) Don't force a specific outcome
by skewing your research. (2) Respect the privacy of your research participants. (3) Document
sources and give appropriate credit. (4) Respect the intellectual property and digital rights of
your sources. (5) Don't extract more from your sources than they actually provide. (6) Don't
misrepresent who you are or what you plan to do with the research results.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
87) You have been asked to help a company find ways to reduce the amount it spends on
employee health and dental benefits. Write a problem statement for the report that you will
produce.
Answer: "How can we decrease Company A's expenses on employee health and dental
benefits?" (Answers may vary.)
Diff: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages
88) Explain why it is important to prioritize your research needs early in the process of
conducting business research.
Answer: Prioritizing your research needs is important because you won't have the time or money
to answer every question you might have. Moreover, if you'll be using interviews or surveys,
you'll need to limit the number of questions you ask to respect participants' time.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages

27

89) Briefly explain the difference between primary research and secondary research.
Answer: Primary research is new research conducted specifically for your current project.
Secondary research involves consulting sources such as magazines, newspapers, public websites,
books, and other reports.
Diff: 2
Skill: Synthesis
Objective: 2, 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages
90) Briefly explain the difference between trade journals and academic journals.
Answer: Trade journals provide information about specific professions and industries. Academic
journals, on the other hand, offer research-oriented articles from researchers and educators.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Plan and prepare business messages
91) What illusion should you resist when using search engines to find information on the
Internet?
Answer: The neatly organized results you get from a search engine can create the illusion that
the Internet is a neatly organized warehouse of all the information in the universe. In reality, the
Internet is an incomplete, unorganized hodge-podge of millions of independent websites with
information that ranges in value from priceless to utter rubbish.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
92) Briefly explain the main difference between an Internet search engine and a web directory.
Answer: Whereas Internet search engines use no human editors to evaluate the quality of the
content they yield, web directories use human editors to categorize and evaluate websites and
other media.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

28

93) What is the difference between a reliable survey and a valid survey?
Answer: A reliable survey produces identical results when repeated. A valid survey measures
what it's intended to measure.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
94) Provide an example of an open-ended question, and then give an example of a closed
question on the same topic.
Answer: "What do you see as the future of digital rights management (DRM)?" is an openended question. "Do you support digital rights management?" is a closed question on the same
topic. (Answers will vary.)
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
95) Provide an example of a conclusion, and then give an example of a recommendation on the
same topic.
Answer: "Our company's last 12 utility bills clearly indicate a spike in energy use during the
winter months" is a conclusion. "We should invest in a more efficient climate control system" is
a recommendation on the same topic. (Answers will vary.)
Diff: 2
Skill: Application
Objective: 5
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Compose and shape business messages
96) List in order each part of the five-step research process that will help you gather and use
information efficiently.
Answer: (1) Planning, (2) locating information and data, (3) processing data and information,
(4) applying your findings, and (5) managing information.
Diff: 2
Skill: Concept
Objective: 1
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

29

97) What are some criteria you can use in evaluating the credibility of an information source?
Answer: In evaluating the credibility of sources, it is important to determine whether the source
has a reputation for honesty and reliability. You should also be sensitive to any potential bias in
the source. Knowing the purpose of the source can help you decide whether it is appropriate for
your project. You should also find out whether the author is credible and where he or she got the
information included in the source. Another important issue is whether or not you can verify the
material independently. You should also check to make sure that the material is current and
complete, and that all claims are supported with evidence. Finally, it is important to see how well
the sources claims stand up to scrutiny.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
98) List the three major disadvantages of Internet search engines; then, briefly describe other
electronic research tools that overcome those shortcomings.
Answer: The three disadvantages of Internet search engines are (1) no human editor screens and
evaluates the content of the websites they list; (2) various engines use different search techniques
so one engine might miss a site or page that another finds; and (3) search engines can't reach all
of the content on many websites. One other type of electronic research tool that helps to
overcome these drawbacks is the web directory, which uses human editors to categorize and
evaluate website content. Another is the online database, which offers access to the newspapers,
magazines, and journals you can't access via search engines. Finally, metacrawlers or metasearch
engines address the third shortcoming by automatically formatting your search request for the
specific requirements of multiple search engines and telling you how many hits each engine was
able to find for you.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 2
AACSB: Use of IT
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

30

99) Describe six strategies for producing surveys that are both valid and reliable.
Answer: To produce valid and reliable surveys, provide clear instructions so that respondents
know exactly how to fill out your questionnaire. You should also keep the entire survey short and
easy to answerall questions should be relevant, and respondents should be able to complete the
survey quickly and easily. Whenever possible, it is important to design questions to provide
answers that will be easy for you to analyze; numbers, for example, are easier to analyze than
opinions. Leading questions (which will bias the results of your survey) should be avoided.
Likewise, avoid ambiguous questions such as, "Do you shop at the mall often?" Ask only one
thing at a time rather than using compound questions, and adapt the question sequence based on
audience responses.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages
100) Explain important considerations to keep in mind when deciding whether to conduct an
interview face-to-face or via email.
Answer: Face-to-face interviews give you the opportunity to gauge the reaction to your
questions and observe the nonverbal signals that accompany the answers, but email interviews
are becoming more common, partly because they give subjects a chance to think through their
responses thoroughly rather than rushing to fit the time constraints of a face-to-face interview.
Also, email interviews might be the only way you will be able to access some experts.
Diff: 3
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytical Skills
Learning Outcome: Find and evaluate data to support business messages

31