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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

REQUIREMENTS OF CUTTING TOOLS
Many types of tool materials, ranging from high carbon steel to

ceramics and diamonds, are used as cutting tools in today’s metalworking
industry. Modern machining process consists of automated machining at high
speed and machining of work materials in its hardened condition. Consistent
tool performance is essential to meet the requirements of modern machining
process. In order to perform satisfactorily in the machining operation, the
cutting tool materials should have the basic properties such as abrasion
resistance, hot hardness, chemical stability, fracture toughness and thermal
shock resistance as reported by Li and Low (1994).
It is essential for a tool to have a high resistance to abrasion, in
order to withstand the change in dimensions due to rubbing. A cutting tool
requires hot hardness in order to maintain a sharp and consistent cutting edge
at elevated temperatures that occurs while machining. Chemical stability of
the tool material is an important property because the affinity between the tool
and the work material produces chemically activated wear in the tool material
especially at high temperatures. Toughness allows the insert to absorb the
forces and shock loads that are produced during machining. It is particularly
relevant in intermittent machining operations. Thermal shock resistance is
necessary for cutting tools to overcome the effects of the continuous cycle of
heating and cooling, in machining.

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From metalworking point of view, a cutting tool can generally be
stated as a tool used to remove material from a work piece (work material)
usually by the use of abrasive cutting and shear deformation. Muhammad
Farouq Bin Muhammad Faisal (2008) stated that for a cutting tool to be able
to do its job efficiently, the cutting tool needs to have certain characteristics of
which three of them are listed below.
i)

Hardness: Hardness and strength of the cutting tool must be
maintained at elevate temperatures also called hot hardness.

ii)

Toughness: Toughness of cutting tool is needed so that tools
do not chip or fracture, especially during interrupted cutting
operations.

iii) Wear Resistance: Wear resistance means the attainment of
acceptable tool life before tools needs to be replaced.
Generally, machinability is defined the as a combination of
optimum machining parameters such as low cutting force, high metal removal
rate, good surface integrity, accurate and consistent work piece geometry
characteristics, low wear rate, and acceptable chip formation as reported by
Noordin et al (2004). A single cutting tool material cannot obviously meet all
the above-mentioned requirements. This is especially so in the present day
needs of cutting tools for high speed machining and machining of hard
materials. Hence tool material technology is making great strides in producing
a wide variety of cutting tool materials to meet the ever-increasing demands
of the industries.
2.2

CERMET CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS
In recent years, cermet cutting tools are widely used for machining

cast iron and steel because of their excellent hot hardness and toughness.

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Cermets which are commonly used to describe TiC-NiMo or TiCN-NiMo
alloys have been mostly used for finishing turning operations. Cermets are
materials with high resistance at higher temperatures, making special
refractory materials resisting to corrosion in acid medium and a good wear
resistance. They present a set of physical and mechanical properties, which
allow them to be used in different fields of extreme working conditions.
Cermets are particularly useful for finishing hard materials such as
tool steel because in many cases they last longer than cutting tools made of
just metal or ceramic. In cutting performance, the relatively high enthalpy of
formation of Titanium Carbonitride increases its resistance to built-up edges,
scaling and crater formation; favorable flank wear when cutting tough steel at
a relatively high cutting speed prolongs tool life and increases total chip
removal between tool changes. As a result, Titanium Carbonitride cermet
cutting tools are used for the high speed milling, roughing and semi-finishing
of carbon alloy and stainless steels by Shanyong Zhang (1993).
D’Errico et al (1997) pointed out that cermet materials are widely
used in the production of cutting tools that can conveniently machine metals
like grey cast-iron and steels. A balanced combination of hardness and
toughness is achieved in cermet cutting tools by the ceramic hard phase like
TiC, TiN and a metal binding phase like Co and Ni. The ductile metal binder
has tough phase which helps in mitigating the inherent brittleness of the
ceramic phases, which in turn are responsible for the hardness and abrasive
wear resistance. Use of cermet tools is especially recommended for
application in dry cutting operations where high temperature rise at the insertwork piece interface.
Furthermore cobalt and nickel contribute to plastic deformation
resistance. The cermet tool’s lower reactivity with steel also contributes to
finer surface finishes. Steel adheres to the Titanium Carbide in cermet tools at

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a much higher temperature than it adheres to the Tungsten Carbide in carbide
tools. As a result, chips do not stick to cermet tools as readily. Compared to
Cemented Carbide cutting tool, Cermet has high temperature hardness,
resistance to oxidation and better chemical stability as reported by Ning Liu
(2005), Won Tae Kwon (2004). Because of these characteristics, cermet
cutting tools are used for high cutting speed machining operations. The most
important application of cermet cutting tool is for finish machining process.
Cermets composed of hard phase, namely TiC and TiN or Ti[C,N] bonded in
the soft phase metallic binders. The metallic binder represents as a tough,
ductile and conducting phase which helps in mitigating in inherent brittleness
of the ceramic and supplies the liquid phase that is necessary for sintering as
reported by D'Errico et al (1998).
D'Errico et al (2001) further stated that the performance of ceramic
tool materials, minimum in production cost, best for high speed finishing
operation and it is outperformed to other cutting tool materials like CBN and
PCD. However ceramic performs better than the cermets. Sarkar et al (2004)
compared the cutting performance of WC-Co conventional tool materials with
that of Ti (CN)-based cermets, it was observed that the TiCN-cermets
provided improved surface finishing and excellent chip and tolerance control
and after geometrical accuracy in the workpieces than WC-Co tools. All of
these characteristics are attributable to the mechanical properties of the hard
phases, which are retained in the cermets.
2.3

COATED CUTTING TOOLS
Several attempts have been made to improve the performance of

the cutting tool through different types of coatings by increasing abrasiveness
and the hardness. These coatings offer not only high hardness and excellent
refractoriness but also generally lower coefficient of friction, good oxidation
resistance and chemical stability by Venkatesh (1983, 1984). Supriya Sahu (2012)

The combined substrate-coating properties determine the important properties such as wear. Under dry machining with high cutting speeds and high-feed rates. Therefore. abrasion resistance and adhesion strength of a coating. The machining of hard and chemically reactive materials at higher speeds is improved by depositing single and multi layer coatings on conventional tool materials to combine the beneficial properties of ceramics and traditional tool materials. The effect of coatings layer can be summarized as follow (Abdul Kareem Jaleel and Kareem Abdulla Hadi 2012) i.20 stated when cutting ferrous and hard to machine materials such as steels. the coating is worn away rapidly which results wear of the carbide substrate by Lim et al (1999). ii. Prevention of galling. iii. cast iron and super alloys. a hard coating deposited on a soft substrate leads to poor properties reported by Smith (1989). and in cutting forces which allow the use of high cutting speeds and feed. softening temperature and the chemical stability of the tool material limits the cutting speed. . A hard wear resistant coating can not perform well unless complimented by a hard and tough substrate. Armarego et al (2002) observed that cemented carbide can be used for hot application due to their heat resistance and all types of PVD and CVD processes can be used to deposit coatings. Thus. Reduction in the diffusion between the chip and the surface of the tool. in generation heat. PVD and CVD coatings offer today a powerful alternative to improve further the cutting performance of the cutting materials. especially at higher cutting speeds (the coating acts as a diffusion barriers). Reduction in friction. it is necessary for tool materials to possess good high-temperature mechanical properties and sufficient inertness. especially at lower cutting speeds.

Further indicated that TiAlN-nanocoating performed better in terms of tool wear and surface roughness due to a combination of high hardness in the cutting temperature range and the presence of an oxidizing layer. the TiAlN coating shows age-hardening effects. Khrais and Lin (2007) investigated the tribological influences of PVD-applied TiAlN coatings on the wear of cemented carbide inserts and the microstructure wear behaviours of the coated tools under dry and wet turning of hardened steels. Zheng Liyun et al (2009) observed that when the Ti-Al-N coating subjected to high temperature.1 Ti-Al-N Coating TiAlN coatings are well known for their excellent wear and oxidation resistance which enable improved machining processes like high-speed and dry cutting. 2.3. The study reveals that when the material hardness rises above 40 HRC the material machinability decreases due to shortened tool life either in wet or dry conditions. Reginaldo Coelhoa et al (2007) analyzed the tool wear on turning hardened AISI 4340 with PCBN tools with TiAlN.21 A question of recent interest is to review whether the resistance of cermet cutting tools to wear has improved by the use of appropriate hard coatings. AlCrN and uncoated PCBN . Al atoms from Ti-Al-N coating diffused in to the surface and hence forms a layer which prevents further oxidation. multi component and multilayer coating and adding new elements to coating combination like silicon or vanadium to Ti-Al-N as reported by Dobrzanski and Go ombek (2005). TiAlN-nanocoating and AlCrN coating. It was observed that the lowest tool wear happened with TiAlN-nanocoating followed by TiAlN. which increases its hardness at higher .The cutting forces variation followed the same pattern except at the beginning of cutting operation the uncoated one showing higher cutting force. Because of its supersaturated metastable phase. Research in this area is concentrated on new composite gradient coating.

relatively low residual stress. It was found that the high hardness. Cselle et al (1995) compared the thermal properties TiAlN coating with TiN. which reduces cutting forces as well as the heat generated in the process as reported by Tijnshoff et al (1997).Al)N coating during dry machining. (Ti. improved wear resistance and the low friction against steel. wet and minimum fluid application conditions. TiAlN. Vikram Kumar et al (2008) studied the comparative performance of TiCN and TiAlN coated tools on machining of AISI 4340 hardened steel under dry. and low thermal conductivity of (Ti.N) and (Ti. Ti(C. finer grain size. machining of abrasive alloys and compared with coatings such as TiN. and CrN. high hot hardness. AlCrN coatings . The performance of the TiAlN tool was observed to be better with reference to wear resistance of the tools and better surface finish on the components. The higher hardness value of TiAlN was also attributed due to more random-oriented microstructure in crystallographic direction. high oxidation resistance. Khrais and Lin (2007) reported dry cutting is better than wet cutting on machining AISI 4140 steel using TiAlN coated carbide inserts under high cutting speed (around 200–400 m/min).Al)N coatings are most desirable properties at high speeds. TiCN.Zr)N. The Ti-Al-N coating separates tool and the workpiece material during machining and offers a possibility to replace coolants. Both the tools performed better with minimum fluid application when compared with wet and dry machining. PalDey and Deevi (2003) have discussed the wear resistant properties of (Ti. and possible residual stress due to substitution of Al ions for the Ti site in the TiN crystal lattice reported by Huang et al (1994). Al)N coating over the substrate of cemented carbide and cermet provides the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion. Claudin et al (2008) conducted dry machining of AISI 4140 treated steel with various coated carbide tools with TiN.22 temperature.

the performances of coated tools are better than the uncoated tools. surface coating and cryogenic treatment to improve tool life and performance of cutting tools. have been pointed out by Molinari et al (2001). Machining tests are carried out on Inconel 718 using uncoated and coated tools. 2. However. titanium nitride and aluminium nitride using the physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique.23 deposited by PVD. Al) N coating. TiAlN and AlCrN coated carbide tools have showed similar frictional properties and exhibited the best frictional properties under dry cutting conditions. The wear behaviour of the coated tools is analysed and different wear mechanisms are observed along the tool chip contact length. resulted in improved wear resistance. Barron (1982) performed abrasive wear tests on a variety of cryogenically treated steels and concluded that metals which can exhibit retained austenite at room temperature. Mohan Lal et al (2001). The hardness and wear resistance of tool and die steels can be improved simultaneously through cryogenic treatment. such as the heat treatment.4 CRYOGENIC TREATMENT New advances are being attempted in the secondary processes of cutting tool manufacturing. Al)N coating are less than the uncoated tool. the tools are observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness value of the CrN coating and (Ti. . Gatto and Iuliano (1997) have reported that SiC whiskers reinforced alumina tools are coated by chromium nitride. Cryogenic technology has been used on several types of materials including plastics and composites to improve their performance in their various applications. Cryogenic treatment is one of the secondary processes which are frequently used for the improvement of cutting tool performance. The improvement in performance is due to thermal barrier effect of CrN coating and (Ti. After machining.

resulting in improved the wear resistance. M2 and O1 tool steels and reported that the cryogenic treatment increased the tool life. Yugandhar et al.24 Huang et al (2003) carried out microstructural analysis on cryogenically treated M2 tool steels and indicated that treatment has increased the carbide population which was distributed the carbides evenly throughout the structure. The decrease in compressive strength is caused by residual stress. Leskovsek et al (2005) cryogenically treated the vacuum heat-treated AISI M2 HSS cutting tool and concluded that the deep-cryogenic-treatment improved wear resistance.4C tool steel and concluded that wear resistance of steels after cryogenic treatment is superior to that after cold treatment. (2002) cryogenically treated the 52100. Yuan et al (2008) investigated the effect on mechanical properties and microstructure of Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni.C. Fanju Meng et al (1994) conducted cold treatment (223K) and cryogenic treatment (93K) on Fe-12Cr-Mo-V-1. with better surface finish of the workpieces.Co alloy after quenching in liquid nitrogen for 24 hr. The increase in hardness is attributed to the transformation from austenite to martensite and precipitate of the very tiny carbide -Fe2C. Ya-Jun Liu et al (2006) concluded that the cryogenic treatment has improved the abrasion wear resistance of M10 tungsten carbide inserts due to the complete phase transition of cobalt. . power consumption approximately 20%. D2. The result shows that hardness increased by 1-2 HRC and compressive strength decreased slightly after cryogenic treatment. Kalsi et al (2011) in their study on cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts treated by following variable number of posttempering cycles found a maximum reduction in tool flank wear with triple tempered inserts after the cryogenic treatment was approximately 26% .

which held the carbide particles more firmly resulting increased wear resistance in the inserts. Kalsi et al (2013) concluded that controlled cryogenic treatment helped in fineness.25 Hongjuan Yan et al (2010) studied the deep cryogenic treated YT15 carbide inserts and concluded that the increase of hardness and enhance in wear resistance of inserts was due to effect of soaking temperature. Dinesh Thakur et al (2008) carried out different post treatments on Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt inserts and concluded that the cobalt densification was occurred. but there . TaC. and five grades of carbide-cobalt alloys (K3109. TiC and cobalt increases as temperature decreases on. K420. the increase in hardness of the carbide alloys at cryogenic temperatures can be regarded as a common element of both the carbides and the cobalt binder phase. George (1989) concluded that despite the composite nature of the microstructure. uniform distribution and densification of cobalt binder that held the carbides more firmly for better wear resistance. Thus. tempering temperature and multi-type martensite transformation of Co (Cobalt). wear resistance and fatigue resistance of cemented carbide. The binder phase may also play a predominant role in determining cryogenic properties. K68) and SP274 at cryogenic temperatures and reported that the micro hardness of each individual constituent of WC. Further the formation of W 2C and Co3W3C secondary carbides along with fine and dense cobalt binder formed a stress free harder and tougher matrix after cryogenic treatment. Peekuer et al (1986) reported some cobalt-base alloys are considerably tough at cryogenic temperatures. thereby improved performance of the inserts Zhao et al (1992) tested materials include a high-speed steel. M46. it has been well established that the amount of binder phase greatly affects the mechanical properties and other properties of the carbide-cobalt alloys. cooling rate. K313. Jiang Yong and Chen Ding (2011) indicated that cryogenic treatment increased hardness. compressive strength.

it is important to evaluate tool wear and to predict tool life reported by Devillez et al (2004). normally on the . The improvement of mechanical properties is highly dependent on the soaking time.26 is no effect on bending strength and toughness of cemented carbide. possible damage to the work piece. For these reasons. flank wear on the flank face or a notch that may appear at either the nose or the end of the cutting depth. regardless of the cause but here referring specifically to cutting tools. surface roughness. X-ray diffraction studies on treated and untreated polymers indicated an increase in crystallinity of amorphous and semi crystalline polymers due to treatment resulting in enhancement of wear performance. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).5 TOOL WEAR / FAILURE MECHANISMS The classic definition of wear. of Al2O3 particles. decreased surface integrity. 2. Polycarbonate (PC) and Polyurethane (PU)) and composites (PI. cryogenic temperature of -150 ºC and treatment duration of 50 hours. Panchakshari et al (2012) determined the wear properties of cryogenically treated Al/Al2O3 composites and concluded that the optimum level of cryogenic process parameters to obtain good wear resistance of Al /Al2O3 are 20 % wt. Tool wear results in undesirable effects: less in dimensional accuracy of the finished product. Polyetherimide (PEI). and amplification of chatter during the cutting process. Indumathi et al (1999) investigated the effectiveness of cryotreatment on the wear performance of polymers (Polyimide (PI). PEI and its copolymer with increasing amount of short glass fiber and solid lubricants) and it was proved that cryogenic treatment to be an effective technique enhancing abrasive wear performance which increases in hardness. is: “the loss or dislocation of mass of a material caused by some kind of tribological phenomenon”. residual stress. Wear on tools can appear in the form of a crater on the rake face.

The tool life curves were plotted using the flank wear criterion for carbides and the tool life of carbides decreased quickly at higher speeds. Venkatesh (1980) carried out tool wear investigations on carbide cutting tool materials. Moore (1975).05 mm during the entire cutting cycle and also concluded it is a promising result for practical applications. and high temperatures causing abrasive and/or adhesive wear. abrasion and wear under slide conditions. cracking and (to a limited extent) micro chipping appear to be the primary wear mechanisms resulting in the crater and flank wear of the present cermet tool when machining steels. Tool wear mechanisms are based on the stress and temperature on the rake face of the cutting tool. diffusion and adhesion are the main wear mechanisms in flank wear. plastic deformation under compressive stress.27 flank face. Yoram Koren et al (1991) designed and performed turning experiments and concluded that the difference between the true and the estimated wear is less than 0. have been pointed out by Trent and Wright. plastic deformation. has been pointed out by Senthilkumar et al (2006). Abrasion. diffusion. thus affecting the tool material’s properties as well as workpiece surface. Flank wear occurs on the relief face of the cutting tool and is generally attributed to the rubbing of the tool along the machined surface. HBkan Thoors et al (1993) concluded that abrasion. The flank . (2002). adhesion. In cemented carbide cutting tools these forms of wear can develop by one or a combination of the following wear mechanisms. Janne Laaksonen (2008) compared the silhouette images of the worn tool and unused tool taken by two cameras. Among the different forms of tool wear. to estimate the tool flank wear and reported that measurement error to be less than 5 %. attrition. flank wear is the significant measure as it affects the dimensional tolerance of the workpiece reported by Senthilkumar et al (2003).

micro-thermal. dimensional accuracy and economics of machining are influenced by tool wear. micro-tensile fracture. Yueh-Jaw Lin et al (2008) compared the wear performance of AlCrN and TiAlN coated cemented carbide tools at high cutting speed under dry and wet conditions on machining SAE4140 steel. Venkatesh (1980). the types of microstructure wear phenomena captured during the course of the experimental study are micro-abrasion. The performance of cermet cutting tool materials is usually evaluated in terms of tool life. Khrais and Lin (2007) identified micro-wear mechanisms include edge chipping. The wear of the cutting tool was the critical issue in metal cutting as well as in turning of metal. which both contributed to the material degradation. initially occurs due to abrasion and as the wear process progresses. Bellosi et al (2003) compared the wear mechanisms of two Ti(C. micro-fatigue.28 wear in carbide tools. Micro-abrasion and microfatigue behaviors were the dominant kinds of wear mechanisms in higher cutting speeds under dry cutting. N)-based tools with commercial tools. micro-adhesion. A study of the nature of wear of a tool helps in better utilization of the cutting tools. Blau (1997) observed that the desired surface quality. . consequently caused the tool failure as reported by Woodrow (2005). micro abrasion. the temperature increases causing diffusion reported by Bonifacio (1994). These micro-structural variations of coatings provide structure-physical alterations as the measures for wear alert of TiAlN coated tool inserts under high speed machining of steels. and micro-attrition through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs. micro-fatigue. The tool life and the performance of a cutting tool are limited by its wear. in order to understand key aspects due to thermal wear mechanisms (mainly diffusion and oxidation) and mechanical wear mechanisms. built up edge and micro-attrition. micro-thermal cracks.

29 An understanding of failure mechanisms directs new research into the development of more durable materials. when the dimensions of the work piece varies due to wear on the tool. Tool life may be measured in number of units of time. that it can no longer cut efficiently up to the requirement. when the power consumption rises sharply or when the tool wear exceeds the . iii) Tool softening leading to gross. ii) Accelerated wear leading to failure. Cook (1973) has stated that a tool is considered failed when it either does not cut or it cuts in a manner grossly different from a sharp tool. when excessive wear causes chatter or vibration. The type of contact between the tool and the work material in the process of metal cutting depends upon the cutting conditions. and the properties of the tool and the work material. very rapid loss of entire cutting zone. When the surface finish of the work piece deteriorates beyond the accepted limit. The problem of tool wear is a complicated one. when the tool ceases to cut. when the wear rate increases due to the cutting conditions. The primary cause of tool failure under normal cutting conditions is gradual wear. Failure of a tool can be categorised as follows: i) Fracture or chipping under severe conditions of cutting force or shock. Metal cutting studies so far have revealed different types of tool wear which are associated with multifarious mechanisms. The amount of work done by the tool between regrinds is called the life of the tool. It is necessary to regrind or discard a tool when the shape is so altered. pointed out by Loladze (1976). The type of wear depends on the character of contact. weight of metal removed before the end of tool life. number of components machined.

sliding along the tool surface and it is shown in Figure 2. The resistance to such a wear mechanism is associated with cutting tool material hardness and melting point. cracking and fracturing. which are the maximum allowable limit of wear in machining operation. then the tool has reached its failure under the above conditions. The tool failure / wear mechanism should be properly understood for the effective utilization of the cermet cutting tools. fatigue failure.5. plastic deformation. adhesive wear. Usually the wear in a cutting tool is a complex phenomenon and can be attributed to several wear modes / mechanisms. Tool wear affects the cutting tool geometry and hence the cutting forces. the most likely dominant wear mechanisms and the corresponding cutting speeds/temperatures are: abrasion at low speeds/temperatures.1.30 allowable limit. Opitz and Konig (1967) have pointed out that. temperature conditions at the cutting zone and surface quality. because the heat can then be removed rapidly from the chip formation region. Tool failure / wear mechanisms of the cermet cutting tools may be classified as abrasive wear.1 Abrasive Wear Abrasive wear is caused by the sliding of the hard asperities on the tool or it is caused by the hard wear debris between tool and work piece. Abrasion wear on cutting tools happens when tool material is removed or . Hastings and Oxley (1976). diffusion wear. chipping. micro spalling. followed by adhesion at moderate speeds/temperatures and then diffusion at high speeds/temperatures. 2. by tool wear criteria for failure such as flank wear criterion and crater wear criterion. Using tool materials with a high thermal conductivity may contribute to minimizing the action of the abrasive wear mechanism. Usually the tool life is evaluated quantitatively.

The severity of abrasion increases in cases where the work piece materials contain hard inclusions. Figure 2. between chip and rake face. Abrasion is characterized by development of grooves and ridges in the direction of tool sliding against a newly machined surface of the work piece or chip sliding against the rake face. when the strain hardened chips get trapped between the tool and the work piece. Abrasive wear can also occur when a third particle harder than one or both the surfaces in contact is trapped at the interface. i. The product of fracture toughness and hardness can be used to predict the abrasive wear resistance of a tool in a cutting operation. where abrasion is a dominant wear mechanism. The wear by abrasion is usually due to crack development and intersection caused by hard asperities or wear particles acting as small indenters on the cutting face. or when there is hard wear debris from the work piece or the tool at the interface. .31 dislocated by hard particles that can be loose.1 Abrasive wear mechanism in the machining operation Abrasive wear is usually a dominant wear mechanism on the flank face and it is also observed on the rake face. or emerging from workpiece material and/or from cutting tool material reported by Anderson et al (2006). This can also happen in metal cutting operations. It can then operate to remove the material from one or both the surfaces.e. where tribochemical wear is negligible.

High stresses generated at the tool-chip/work piece interface during machining cause many abrasive grooves and ridges on rake and flank faces. and creates scars in the tool material. 2. welded junctions are formed between the two sliding surfaces and subsequently these welded junctions are sheared off. During machining. This type of serrated chips and broken chips abrades the tool material under high cutting speed. For chemically stable cutting tools such as cermet. Flank and crater wear are the types of wear most frequently associated with this mechanism. which is characterised by a serrated profile along its edges and also by the broken chips of irregular shapes caught in-between the tool and work piece. at relatively high cutting speeds). plastically deformed grooves and ridges account for most of the rake and flank face wear. the abrasive action is attributed to special features of the flowing chip. This is due to (i) the insufficient amount of abrasives present in the work material. Figure 2. when two surfaces are brought into intimate contact under pressure and subjected to sliding friction. It may intensify at high temperatures prevailing at the tool-chip interface.5.2 Adhesive Wear Adhesive wear is produced. During this process. adhesive patches are periodically sheared off and formed which can be seen at the tool work interface. these mechanisms are unlikely to be dominant under the conditions normally used in practice (i. Anderson et al (2006) has pointed out attrition is frequently treated as . Wear mechanisms abrasion and oxidation of WC tools were considered by Hastings and Oxley (1976). (ii) insufficient hardness of abrasives to abrade WC and (iii) inability to detect any significant signs of abrasive wear in extensive metallurgical studies.Trent and Wright (2002) pointed out that when machining steel work materials.32 In many cases.e.2 shows the adhesive wear mechanism in which the tool and the chip are welded together at the adhesive junction.

The BUE can be sheared off . Attrition consists basically in: i) adhesion of workpiece material on the cutting tool surfaces.2 Adhesive wear mechanisms in the machining operation The adhesion can also be accelerated depending on the chemical affinity between tool and workpiece materials. with successive layers from the chip being welded to the tool. It usually happens at relatively low cutting speeds due to the irregular flow of chip material on the rake face and associated with a high pressure/high temperature on the cutting edge. It is a dynamic structure. Adhesive wear can occur at low machining temperatures on the chip face of the tool.33 adhesion. A built up edge and notch wear are the more common types of wear related to this mechanism. generally causing abrasion. This mechanism at low temperature often leads to the formation of Built-Up Edge (BUE). ii) breakaway of microscopic particles of the cutting tool material and iii) dragging of these particles on cutting tool surfaces. Figure 2.

The adhered work piece particles often remain attached to the tool edge. 2. The term ‘plucking’ is also used to describe the loss of tool particles from the edge or faces. Adhesive wear (often called attrition) of cutting tools involves the mechanism in which.34 and this causes the tool material to break away from the cutting tool edge. the adhesive wear is not a chemically activated wear like the diffusion wear. as opposed to the smooth wear surfaces generated by diffusion wear. During dry machining. individual grains or their small aggregates are pulled out of the tool surface and are carried away to the underside of the chip or torn away by the adherent work piece. . This supports the activation of the diffusion process and atoms move from the tool towards the chip through the tool–chip interface. and vice versa. Adhesion wear (attrition and galling) is the wear mechanism of flaking and chipping for tool. Nouari and Ginting (2006) studied wear mechanism of alloyed uncoated carbide tools during dry machining of the titanium alloy Ti-6242S and found that adhesion wear (attrition and galling) and diffusion wear have been the wear mechanisms of tools. and the process is activated by high temperatures and pressure is observed mainly at the tool-chip (rake face) interface. the tool–chip contact occurs under extreme conditions such as an intense friction and a high cutting temperature. The wear scars produced by adhesive wear are rough.3 Diffusion Wear Diffusion wear involves a chemical reaction between the work piece and the cermet tool. The difference between the adhesive wear and the diffusion wear is that. The cutting temperature is a crucial parameter controlling the diffusion rate of the tool and the chip constituents.5.

g.3 shows the diffusion wear mechanism.4 Plastic Deformation Apart from the above abrasion. Crater wear on cemented carbide cutting tools is normally formed due to diffusion. Figure 2.5. in which the tool atoms diffuse into the work material. flank and notch wear. the temperature and the stress at the cutting edge increase. to a less extent. This form of wear is mainly associated with crater wear and. resulting in poor cutting performance. time and solubility of the involved elements reported by Anderson et al (2006).3 Diffusion wear mechanism in the machining operation 2. adhesion and diffusion wear cutting tools also exhibit severe deformation at the cutting nose. where interchange of atoms occurs between rake face and chip root at the seizure zone. which are highly susceptible to wear. it was concluded that the tool wear was found to be greatly influenced by the temperature the most likely dominant tool wear mechanism for WC is diffusion and that for PCBN is chemical wear. As the cutting speed and the feed increase. During the diffusion wear mechanism. and it is strongly dependent of temperature. compounds of lower melting points (e. Plastic deformation .35 Arsecularatne et al (2006) investigated wear mechanisms of cutting tools for tool/work combinations WC/steel and PCBN/hardened-steel. eutectics) are formed. Figure 2.

This plastic deformation results in tearing-off of the grains of carbide from deforming cobalt layers. a liquid layer forms between tool and workpiece due to diffusion. . quite distinct from normal flank wear. This layer is quickly removed in cutting. and “spreading” of the tool material on the chip and workpiece contact surfaces. the plastic deformation is greater in the cobalt phase. Astakhov (2004) pointed the phases normally present in the sintered carbides used as the tool material. At first this may not have much effect on the rate of wear. the elastic limit is exceeded and the tool begins to deform. This may lead to gross and very rapid loss of entire cutting zone. No evidence of fracture is visually observed and hence it is concluded that the edge deformed plastically. If the temperature increases further. When the tool tip is not stressed above its elastic limit. the wear rate is not related to the resistance to deformation. “ploughing” this deforming layer by hard inclusions contacting the work material. Hot hardness is one of the properties required of the tool material to resist failure due to plastic deformation.36 takes place as a result of combined high temperatures and high pressures on the cutting edge. A tool with small radius will deform at much lower speed and feed than one with larger radius. Such plastic deformation occurs usually at the nose radius of the tool. leading to the formation of the low-melting point compound Fe 2W having melting temperature Tm = 1130 ºC. The tool material can withstand this combined effect up to a certain limit after this the tool material deforms plastically. then the limit to which the tool can be strained may be reached suddenly and it may fail all of a sudden. Deformation is a factor in tool life. As the cutting speed and feed are increased. This mode of failure mostly occurs at high cutting speeds.

Pure mechanical fatigue can occur due to high cutting forces or the variation in the cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool. The second can be associated with alternating cycles of heating and cooling. The cutting tool tip is subjected to compressive stresses due to the cutting forces from orthogonal directions. King and Wheidon (1966) have reported that the damage due to fatigue accumulates over a period of time before a tool fails as evidenced by the numerous micro cracks seen on the wear land and in the crater area. The tool may fail by fatigue when the tool tip is subjected to stress both static and cyclic for a long period of time. The compressive stresses in the cermet cutting tools inhibit the propagation of fatigue cracks.5 Fatigue Failure of Cermet Cutting Tools This can be mainly of two kinds: mechanical and thermal fatigue. In both cases the stress levels are below the macroscopic yield point and are applied for an extended period of time. Essentially there are two stress conditions to be considered in fatigue. In this case.5. The primary distinction between fatigue and short time stress applications is that. then a fatigue failure is said to have taken place normally. the fatigue damage can accumulate in the ceramic to a great extent prior to the destruction of ceramic by a catastrophic fracture.37 2. in fatigue. The fatigue can be either mechanical or thermal or the combination of both. sufficient time is provided for slow processes . cyclic stress and static stresses. The first is due to the alternating tensile and compression stresses on the cutting edge. Thermal fatigue may be due to the temperature fluctuations in the cutting operation and it can lead to edge cracking. The machining of high strength materials using ceramic cutting tools produces these conditions where fatigue may be expected. When a cermet cutting tool is machining a work piece well and fails suddenly without any observable changes in cutting conditions.

Cracking and Fracturing The cermet cutting tools are susceptible to chipping. accelerated wear results. some early ceramics were subjected to micro spalling which made them quite undependable. TiC. Because of their poor quality. Nouari and Ginting (2006) tested the TiN. Thus conditions are conducive for fatigue failure of tools. TiCN coated carbide during dry machining of the titanium alloy Ti-6242S. . 2. a phenomenon of coating delamination is clearly distinguished. cracking. cracking and fracturing. King and Wheidon (1966) have conducted tests with various tool materials having different grain sizes.7 Chipping. chipping.5. Superimposed upon these conditions are cyclic changes in stress due to machine tool vibrations. tool is held under high state of stress for an extended time and at high temperature. In general. In machining. The character and texture of the spalled wear surface systematically vary with grain size.38 to contribute to the material degradation. and plastic deformation at the leading cutting edge. Chipping and catastrophic failure are the main types of wear associated with the fatigue mechanism (comb cracks).5. and this process is often referred to as micro spalling.6 Micro Spalling Wear in cermet cutting tools sometimes occurs in a discontinuous fashion with a sudden removal of whole grains or small aggregate of grains from the cutting tool material. especially when it is used in interrupted machining operations. tougher materials show resistance to fatigue and the development of tougher ceramics would increase the tool life. A correlation is found between the width of the striations and the grain size. In addition. Flaking is another type of fracture mode of cermet cutting tool material. 2. it was observed that flaking. If this process occurs more or less continuously.

39 In flaking. The cracks may be due to mechanical fatigue caused by mechanical impacts and often run parallel to the cutting edge. Liu et al (2002) reported that during high speed milling of cast iron and carbon steel using Al2o3+TiC coated cemented carbide tool. Micro-chipping was observed on both coated uncoated cutting tool edge. This results in an increased rate of crack formation and propagation that may eventually lead to tool fracture. Slavko Dolinšek et al (2001) stated that the wear of the cutting tool is a result of mechanical (thermo-dynamic wear. Cracking is also regarded as a kind of fracture for the cermet tools which is often caused by fatigue effect after a long period of machining. Thermal cracks are caused by thermal shocks and they often run perpendicular or in an angle to the cutting edge. In general the number and size of mechanical / thermal cracks increase with the increase of load amplitude and cutting duration. Due to low resistance of the failure of coating. Jawaid et al (2001) observed the cutting performance and characteristic of PVD TiN coated and uncoated tungsten carbide cutting tools on face milling of Inconel 718 superalloy and it was found that dominant wear modes are galling and adherence of the workpiece material with associated coating lamination and substrate pitting or plucking. small chipping on tool corner was observed. due to thermally loaded . The high elastic modulus of the coating causes intensification of stress in brittle coating. Depending on the imposing position of the impact cutting force on the tool face. a thin layer of tool material is stripped off the tool rake face or flank face. increasing tendency towards fracture. the coating serves as an easy crack initiation. the fracture occurs and the fracture fragment is often a shell like shape.

abrasion. where elevated temperatures enhance the chemical processes. Figure 2. Further it was illustrated schematically the wear mechanisms of the coated carbide tools as shown in Figure 2.5 shows the various types of tool wear. Figure 2.40 motion.6 TYPES OF CUTTING TOOL WEAR Tool wear in cutting tools can be classified into different types and they are useful to evaluate the performance of cutting tools. oxidation) interactions between the tool and workpiece. i. By observing the cutting edge with magnification. adhesion. adhesion) and chemical (thermo-chemical wear. The classification of cutting tool wear is an important basis for assessing the machining operation and to optimize productivity. When machining steel with coated carbide tools.4 Illustration of the wear mechanisms on the coated carbide tool 2. . the wear pattern can be spotted and the wear in the cutting tool can be controlled to increase the tool life. By analysing the wear pattern.e. different tool wear mechanisms occurred such as abrasion. oxidation and diffusion. which act simultaneously reported by Abdul Kareem Jaleel and Kareem Abdulla Hadi (2012). diffusion.e. i.4. the performance of the cermet cutting tools and the machinability of the work material can be improved.

.41 The tool wear classification is important in identifying the cause of tool wear and wear mechanism. as the name indicates. The types of tool wear can also be classified as: Flank Wear Crater Wear Notch Wear Plastic Deformation Thermal Cracking Mechanical Fatigue Cracking Chipping Fracture Built Up Edge (BUE). The leading edge. The ideal wear pattern is to maintain safe progressive flank wear. occurs on the flank face of the tool and is generally attributed to rubbing of the tool along the machined surface as defined by Kalpakjian and Schmid (2003). The excessive flank wear will lead to poor surface texture. Flank wear is usually a normal type of wear. inaccuracy and increasing friction as the cutting edge changes shape. the trailing edge and the nose radius are subjected to rubbing of the work piece during and after chip formation. Flank wear occurs in the cutting tool mainly due to abrasive wear mechanism. Flank wear.

cobalt and stainless steel and it can develop either on the flank face or on the rake face of a cutting tool.42 The flank wear is caused by many mechanisms. Crater wear on the chip face can be mainly due to diffusion wear mechanism. and it is strongly dependent of temperature. and the dominant ones are: a) aberration of the tool flank face and also rake face by the just machined surface b) possible erosion of the flank face due to impingement of the flying hard machined particles c) shearing of tool material on the clearance face by the principal cutting force d) possible chemical reaction between the tool and the work piece. . time and solubility of the involved elements. Notch wear is caused due to rubbing of the machined surface at the depth of cut line (dcl) and also due to cutting of the part of the cutting tool over the dcl zone. titanium. Crater wear is caused primarily by the dissolution of tool material by diffusion or solution wear since it occurs in the region of maximum temperature rise reported by Subramanian and Strafford (1993). Crater wear is the formation of a groove or a crater on the tool face. Notch wear occurs mainly when machining materials with poor thermal properties such as nickel alloys. where interchange of atoms occurs between rake face and chip root at the seizure zone. e) microspalling of the grains near the cutting edge. Anderson et al (2006) stated that crater wear on cemented carbide cutting tools is normally formed due to diffusion.

5 Types of tool wear .43 Flank wear Crater wear Notch wear Chipping Fracture BUE Plastic deformation Thermal cracks Figure 2.

. Jie Gu et al (1999) conducted face milling on 4140 preheat treated steel using uncoated C5 carbide insert. since the fluid will amplify the temperature variations between in-cut and out-of-cut. The size of the edge rounding and cutting geometry also play a role in combining this wear type. initiates the loss of material from the notch region of the tool material. Plastic deformation takes place as a result of combined high temperatures and high pressure on the cutting edge. The typical bulging of the edge will lead to even higher temperatures. the hot strength of the tool at the adhesive junction and the frequency of interruption in the adhesive contact. adhesive affinity of tool and work material. The application of cutting fluid can often be detrimental to metal cutting. and chip flow changes and so on until a critical stage is reached. as well as TiN. mainly due to the amount of oxygen. For the tool material to stand up to this and not deform plastically. High speeds and feeds and hard work piece materials mean heat and compression. Thermal cracking is mainly fatigue wear due to thermal cycling. The temperature changes in machining operation can lead to this type of wear. Chandrasekaran and Johansson (1994) observed that notch wear would depend on the extent of area available for adhesion of the chip. geometry deformation. Varying chip thickness also affects temperatures throughout the cut. The repeated adhesive welding of the chip/work material to the tool and breaking away from the tool after adhesion. Tool material particles can then release themselves from the edge and lead to rapid breakdown and failure of the edge. high hot hardness is critical. this type of wear generally occurs in regions where sliding condition persists and involves abrasion and attrition and suffers strong influence of the atmosphere. TiAlN.44 According to Trent and Wright (2002). The cracks form perpendicular to the cutting edge and pieces of tool material between the cracks can be pulled out of the edge.

it was observed that cracks normal and parallel to the cutting edge. The cracks are parallel to the cutting edge because the insert is subject to dynamic stresses in the direction normal to the cutting edge. It is fracture due to continual variations in load where the load in itself is not large enough to cause fracture. Mechanical fatigue cracking can take place when the cutting force shocks are excessive. abrasion. Unlike wear. Jie Gu et al (1999) conducted face milling on 4140 preheat treated steel using uncoated C5 carbide insert.45 and ZrN coated inserts and concluded that at the highest cutting speeds. Intermittent cutting is a frequent cause of this wear type. surface integrity and dimensional accuracy of the work piece. Kalpakjian and Schmid (2003) have stated that chipping of the cutting edge occurs when the edge line breaks rather than wears. chipping results in a sudden loss of tool material and a corresponding change in shape and has a detrimental effect on the surface finish. These cracks are mainly parallel to the cutting edge. and thermal fracture . TiAlN and ZrN coated inserts and found that identified wear mechanisms of attrition. the temperature fluctuates. and as the tool moves periodically in and out the workpiece. The chipped pieces from the cutting tool may be very small (micro chipping or macro chipping) or they may be relatively large and it is called gross chipping. Temperature is very high at high cutting speeds. as well as TiN. Chipping is the term used to describe the breaking away of a small piece from the cutting edge of the tool. Spalling and nicking are variations of this type of edge breakdown. this is gradual process. Start of cut and variation in cutting force magnitude and direction may be too much for the strength and toughness of the insert. . mechanical fatigue. the insert flank face shows micro-cracks parallel to the cutting edge. Thermal cycling combined with thermal shock causes the thermal fatigue. Mechanical fatigue due to the mechanical impact increased as the speed and feed rate increased.

as in milling operations. Tool characteristics such as hardness. tool geometries. Fracture of cemented carbide tools is more likely to occur during interrupted cutting. The BUE formation is largely a temperature. Fortunately the temperature and cutting speed areas of built-up edge formation are relatively well defined and can be avoided. Brittle fracture. weakening of the edge and rise of temperatures and forces will eventually lead to some major failure of the edge. as the geometry changes and the particles from tool material breaks away along with the welded work material. Surface texture is often the first to suffer as the BUE grows but is this type of wear is allowed to continue. Edge fracture is often also the end of the line for the wear types. The adhesive affinity of tool material to work piece material forms an important role as well. causing sudden failure.46 Fracture can be the catastrophic end of the cutting edge. fracture toughness. Under these conditions. The low cutting temperatures and high pressures lead to the pressure welding of work piece material from the chip on the chip face of the tool. there is a risk of rapid edge breakdown and even fracture. and many modern grades are not so prone to the formation if used correctly. The bulk breakage is the most harmful and also it should be avoided as far as possible. Transverse Rupture Strength (TRS). . Shaw (1984) has stated that BUE is a negative aspect for the cutting edge. the cutting edge can be damaged due to cyclic mechanical impacts or fatigue. at heavy cutting data or from demanding work piece material may be the result of various stress factors on a tool material unable to cope with the operational demands. Much of modern machining takes places at speeds above the BUE area. cutting parameters and conditions of entrance and exit into and from the workpiece are all important variables for tool damage prevention has pointed out by Anderson et al (2006). and a cutting speed. related phenomenon. grain size. The change of geometry.

Manu Dogra et al (2011) observed that the surface roughness produced by cryogenically treated/ untreated coated-carbide inserts on machining AISI H11 steel was comparable with that produced by CBN inserts. resulting in decrease in tool tip . The experimental results indicated 77 and 126% improvement in cryogenic-treated and cryogenic. respectively. One of these methods is the application of cryogenic treatment used in recent years.and temper-treated drill lives. heat treatments. A-2 tool steel and 304-S stainless steel using cryogenically treated M-1 HSS drills and untreated M-1 HSS drills and concluded that significant increase in tool life and decreases in both drilling thrust force and torque. Sreerama Reddy et al (2009) observed the improvement in life of normal and deep cryogenically treated P30 coated tungsten carbide inserts on machining C45 steel and concluded that subjecting tool to cryogenic treatment results in better machinability due to increase in thermal conductivity of the tungsten carbide. 340 alloy steel.47 2. there is a continuous need to reduce tooling costs. Cohen et al (1998) carried out drilling operation on 1018 low-carbon steel. The improvement of tool life was attributed to the resistance of cryogenically treated drills against diffusion wear mechanism.7 MACHINING STUDIES USING CRYOGENICALLY TREATED CUTTING TOOLS To provide cost effectiveness in manufacturing and especially machining operations. The most well-known methods used to reduce tooling costs are various applications of more resistant tool materials. Firouzdor et al (2008) observed the effect deep cryogenic treatment on M2 HSS drill on drilling of carbon steel under high speed dry condition. which was due to the formation of fine and homogeneous carbide particles during cryogenic treatment. cutting fluids. and the development of coated cutting tool reported by Da Silva et al (2006). speed and feed rates.

Bonilla et al (2007) compared the performance of untreated and cryogenically treated TiCN-coated carbide inserts on machining gray cast iron clutch drum and concluded that cryogenically treated TiCN-coated carbide inserts enhancing the tool life due to less average residual weight of the inserts when compared with untreated. lesser cutting force and gives better surface finish compared to untreated tool. which is a definite advantage. The cryogenic treatment also results in better machinability due to increase in hot hardness of the tungsten carbide. In another study. Furthermore. This also indicates that cryogenic treated tool tips are subjected to lesser tool wear and increase in the tool life. coated and uncoated tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts on turning of AISI 1040 steel and reported that cryogenically treated TiN coated tools exhibited lower tool wear and cutting forces followed by cryogenically treated AlCrN coated and cryogenically treated uncoated tools. Yong Ayl et al (2007) analysed the performance of cryogenically treated and untreated tungsten carbide tool inserts during the high-speed milling of medium carbon steel and found cryogenically treated tools exhibit better tool wear resistance than untreated ones. Yong Ayl et al (2006) performed orthogonal turning on medium carbon steel (ASSAB 760) using cryogenically treated and untreated Tungsten Carbide tool inserts and it was shown that cryogenic treatment on carbide insert improves the resistance to chipping and flank wear resistance. Stewart (2004) applied cryogenic treatment to C2 tungsten carbide (WC–6% Co) inserts and compared with untreated carbide inserts during turning of Medium Density Fibre Board (MDF) and found that cryogenic treatment appeared to have an effect upon the cobalt binder by changing phase or crystal structure so that more cobalt binder was retained during turning which results cutting force .48 temperature during turning operation. Shivdev Singh et al (2012) investigated the cryogenically treated.

This shows that redistribution and densification of Co took place on the top surface of cryo treated inserts. The review of the literature reveals the potential of use of cryogenic treatment in improving the performance of WC–Co insert material from cutting tool point of view. Tungsten being the harder and more stable phase. and the underlying postulated mechanisms for achieving improved tool life is not well Crystallized reported by Simranpreet Singh Gill et al (2010). But the available results in the literature pertaining to wear behaviour of WC–Co insert material subjected to cryogenic treatment are not coherent. Biranchi Narayan Sahoo (2011) identified notable changes include increase in concentration of Co and C on the top surface of cryo treated tungsten carbide inserts on machining stainless steel. the changes was expected in cobalt binder only reported by Steward (2008). The increase in binder phase might be helpful in enhancing the bonding strength of WC particles XRD profile of the cryo treated inserts qualitatively indicated more amount of Co on the top surface.49 and tool wear was reduced. This again indicates the phase reorientation or . Increase in C percentage may be attributed to the formation of phase carbides which were also revealed from SEM. has the same valences as iron and forms similar phases in crystalline structures. Also stated that cobalt is next to iron in the periodic table as part of VIII B group. Simranpreet Singh Gill et al (2009) conducted machining studies on C60 steel and reported that the cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts performed better in interrupted machining mode as compared with continuous machining mode in both dry and wet cutting conditions. Gisip et al (2009) confirmed the cobalt densification which held the carbide particles more firmly resulting increased wear resistance in the inserts when machining medium density fiberboard using Tungsten Carbide inserts.

Sreerama Reddy et al (2009a) conducted turning studies on AISI 1040 workpieces using both untreated and deep cryogenic treated P-40 tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts and found that the flank wear and cutting force of deep cryogenic treated carbide tools lower than that of untreated carbide tools. It . and flank wear. an observation which was also supported by EDS analysis. Vadivel and Rudramoorthy (2009) reported on machining operation using cryogenically treated and untreated coated carbide inserts on nodular cast iron. Further the surface finish produced on machined AISI 1040 steel workpieces was superior with the deep cryogenic treated carbide tools as compared to the untreated carbide tools. Cryogenically treated inserts proved superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser flank wear of the inserts and reduced surface roughness of the specimens. Shirbhate et al (2012) studied the impact cryogenic treatment on AISI M2 grade of HSS tools and performed drilling operation on MS plate. torque and also superior surface roughness of the specimens. Further studied the performance of cryogenically treated HSS drills on drilling gray cast iron.50 densification of Co binder phase. Ramji et al (2010) examined the effect of cryogenic treatment of the coated carbide inserts on their performance in turning gray cast iron work pieces. power consumption. concluded that the treated drills were found superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser thrust force. The cryogenically treated coated carbide inserts exhibit better performance than that of the untreated coated carbide inserts based on the surface roughness of the work specimen. Kadam and Pathak (2011) compared the performance of TiAlN coated cemented carbide and HSS tool on drilling of T105CR1 EN31 steel under dry condition and found that machining time and torque in TiAlN less as compared to HSS where as chip load remains same.

75%. toughness and resistance to fatigue cracking. Cryogenic treatment on HSS improves mechanical properties like wear resistance. 2. Rupinder Singh and Kamaljit Singh (2010) conducted study on crank shaft machining using deep cryogenic treated HSS and carbide tools.8 MACHINING STUDIES USING CERMET CUTTING TOOLS The technologies of cermet cutting tool materials have made great strides in recent years with substantial improvements in their strength.51 is observed that cryotreated drills perform better as that of non cryotreated drills in terms of cutting torque and surface finish of work piece. Overall. This microstructure evolution induces the precipitation of very tiny carbides during the cryogenic treatment. cryogenic treatment effects on cobalt binder which in turns enhance tool life. The different cryogenic cycle might have affected the amounts and distributions of these carbides and appeared to have altered some of the properties of carbide tools. For WC tools. Hence. cryoprocessing is a good alternative for having productivity enhancement.22% increase in tool life. Further cost per component is decreased up to 14. The experimental results showed that the lowest thrust forces were measured with the cryogenically treated and tempered drills. . it highlights 20% . Adem Çiçek et al (2012) investigated the effects of deep cryogenic treatment on M35 HSS twist drills during drilling of AISI 316 stainless steel. The precipitations of phase at sub zero temperature might have improved the flank wear. The phase transformation leads to the increase in density of dislocations and vacancies which in turns enhance the diffusion coefficient of carbon. transformation of retained austenite into stable martensite. This is due to the. cryoprocessing has significant favorable influence on the performance of cutting tool steels and carbides.

Lima et al (2005) evaluated machinability of hardened AISI 4340 (42 and 48 HRC) high strength low alloy steel in the former. N)-based cermet cutting tools on dry machining of normalized medium carbon steel (AISI1045) under various cutting conditions. Abrasion was the principal wear mechanism acting when turning the 42 HRC steel. . It was found that the removal of the ceramic grain and abrasive wear were the main source of tools failure. In this section. machining studies conducted using cermet cutting tool materials on various types of work materials and the performance of the cutting tools are discussed from the available literature. N)–WC-based cutting tools obtained by hot pressing were tested in milling and turning operations on C45 carbon steel and compared to the best commercial inserts at different cutting conditions. The results indicated that when turning AISI 4340 steel using low feed rates and depths of cut. Zeng Min Shi et al (2007) tested the Ti(C. adhesion and oxidation were also observed. the forces were higher when machining the softer steel and that surface roughness of the machined part was improved as cutting speed was elevated and deteriorated with feed rate. a coated carbide insert was used as cutting tool. In addition. steel.52 toughness and wear resistance. The cermet cutting tools are used for machining various materials like cast iron. Bellosi et al (2003) two Ti(C. whereas diffusion was present when machining the 50 HRC steel. The wear mechanism was predominantly controlled by the flank wear under all cutting condition. these tools have performed better than commercial competitors. whereas in the latter a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride insert was employed and AISI D2(58 HRC) cold work tool steel were conducted using a mixed alumina-cutting tool. stainless steel in their hardened conditions. Cermet cutting tools are used to machine a variety of work materials and they are used to machine these materials at relatively higher speed than carbide tools.

It is known for its toughness and capability of developing high strength in the heat treated condition while retaining good fatigue strength. With increasing cutting speed.53 Ibrahim Ciftci (2006) has done experimental work in dry turning of austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and AISI 316) using CVD multilayer coated cemented carbide tools (TiC/TiCN/TiN and TiCN/TiC/Al2O3). The 2. the results indicate that cutting force was reduced as cutting speed increased and surface finish produced was tending to decrease as the speed was increased.0% Mo present in AISI 316 was considered to be the cause of the higher forces. the surface roughness values decreased until a minimum value is reached beyond which they increased. TiC/TiCN/TiN coated cutting tools gave lower cutting forces than TiCN/TiC/Al 2O3 coated tools though the difference was not significant. It was also reported that when the cutting speed is . The results showed that cutting speed significantly affected the machined surface roughness values. processing complex work pieces in one step and surface roughness comparable to grinding quality. Khan and Hajjaj (2006) illustrated capabilities of cermets tools for high speed machining of austenitic steel. They found that when cermet inserts were used for finishing cuts. Leonardo et al (2008) investigated the influence of cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness when dry precision turning AISI 1045 steel using uncoated and coated cemented carbide tools. very fine surface were produced. However. when used for roughing cuts. chromium and molybdenum. Cubic boron nitride and titanium carbide mixed aluminium oxide cutting inserts are the two most common insert materials for hard turning. AISI 316 resulted in higher forces at all cutting speeds employed than AISI 304. Anon (1995) has enumerated the advantages of hard turning as the increase in productivity. AISI 4340 steel is heat treatable and it is a low alloy steel containing nickel. they tended to fracture unpredictably rather than having gradual flank wear. This was attributed to a lower friction coefficient of the TiN top coating layer.

The cutting force on the tool edge increases as the cutting speed is increased. Khan et al (2002) that the life of cermet tools is very long while machining with low cutting parameters. However. According to experiments. but thermal conductivity of cermets tools is very low. Tie Fu et al (2008) conducted machining studies using the cermet insert NT7 and WC based carbide insert YT14 on high strength steel . As a result the temperature at the cutting edge rises to a high level which ultimately causes tool failure. The SiC particles in the composites micro-cut these tools due to their hardness.54 comparatively low. Crack grows rapidly at higher cutting speeds. He was also observed in his research that the other reason of tool failure is low fracture toughness of cermet tools. the cutting tools are able to machine without much difficulty. Ceramic cutting tools with higher hardness can be used for machining composites reinforced with coarse SiC particles. they have low fracture toughness. a brittle fracture occurs at the cutting edge rather than a gradual flank wear and the depth of the cracks on the cutting edge increases rapidly resulting in a catastrophic failure of the tool. the size and depth of the crack on the flank is very small. it is noted that the life of insert in conventional machining is 9. But as the cutting speed is increased up to a certain limit.7 times longer than high speed turning. Though cermet tools have high hot hardness and wear resistance. As a result tool wear intensifies at a high cutting speed. under heavier cutting conditions the rate of heat generation at the cutting zone is high. Yanming Quan and Zehua Zhou (2000) have conducted machining studies on SiC particles reinforced aluminium using ceramic tools and sintered carbide tools. At low cutting parameters a gradual flank wear is observed. when the SiC particles in the composite are fine enough. whereas sintered carbide tools can be used to machine the composites reinforced with fine SiC particles. According to Khan and Hajjaj (2006).

feed rate. which reduce the heat flux transmitted to the cutting tool substrate. A good surface finish and longer tool life were achieved using coated tool. feed rate. And its ability of impact resistance is similar to YT14. and depth of cut and at the combinations of low cutting speed. the thickness of the secondary shear zone and the temperature at this interface. Al)N+MoS2 coatings. TiN and (Ti. the uncoated cermets tools show more uniform and gradual wear on the flank face than that of the TiN-coated carbide tools. Ghani et al (2004) investigated the wear mechanism of TiN-coated carbide and uncoated cermets tools on milling of hardened AISI H13 tool steel at various combinations of cutting speed. Coated carbide (KC 9125) and uncoated carbide (K 313) were used in turning tool steel AISI D2 bar with hardness of 25 HRC and have found that the wear progression for both type of carbide tools experienced three stages of wear rate. compared to uncoated tools in the context of high-speed dry turning of steels. HRC36~40) results of these tests demonstrate that NT7 cutting tools have better performance on some characteristics. such as wear resistance. namely. especially at the combinations of high cutting speed. coated tool performed better as compared to uncoated tool.55 38CrNi3MoVA (hardened and tempered. Rech (2006) found out that various coatings deposited on a carbide insert has shown the sliding properties of the TiN and (Ti. It was observed that the time taken for the cutting edge of TiN-coated carbide tools to initiate cracking and fracturing is longer than that of uncoated cermets tools. and depth of cut. . tool life and cutting force. and depth of cut. Che Haron et al (2006) investigated the tool life and wear behaviour at various machining parameters. feed rate. gradual and abrupt stages of wear mechanism. Al)N+MoS2 coatings reduce the tool–chip contact area.05 mm/rev. Slow wear rate and uniform flank wear were observed at low feed rate of 0. initial. Generally.

Richetti et al(2004) studies have shown that the cutting speed is the most dominate factor influencing tool life. followed by feed and depth of cut. regression analysis method has been used. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) having properties as learning capability and adaptation. it is necessary that a great number of experimental data are used in the regression analysis method for obtaining suitable mathematical form.56 A lot of research work has been carried out on machining a variety of steel materials using cermet cutting tools. 2. working property with a few data and high speed working have been used. in that order. Further research on cermet cutting tools on their machining performance on hard work materials will lead to better utilization of these cermet cutting tools. . However. In addition.9 MODELLING OF CUTTING TOOLS LIFE Tool life can be defined as the total cutting time required to reach a specified tool life criterion. because. The results indicate that ANNs were giving better result with respect to regression analysis method. which is a predetermined value of deterioration of a specific tool. and the machining performance of these tools have been evaluated. Machining of work materials in their hardened conditions needs further study. For this purpose. Therefore. it is shown that ANNs can be used as an effective and an alternative method for the experimental studies whose the mathematical model cannot be formed. the wear of cutting tools drastically varies while machining work materials in their hardened conditions. Oberg et al (2004). The performance of cermet cutting tools can be evaluated by conducting machining studies on various materials and the sparseness of information available on their machining performance will lead to under utilization of these cutting tools. The analysis of engineering systems is generally based on numerical solution methods.

Tool wear affects dimensions and surface quality of the workpiece and it is also one of the important criteria in determining tool life. its stability and reliability. Dabade et al (2003) analyzed the various parameters affecting surface roughness using multiple regression analysis. regression analysis generates results comparable to that of artificial neural network. Oraby and Hayhurst (2004) developed tool wear and tool life models using nonlinear regression analysis techniques in terms of the variation of a ratio of force components acting at the tool tip. Paulo Davim (2003) studied the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear and surface finish while drilling metal matrix composites using multiple regression analysis. Jawahir (2004) developed various types of tool-life models through analytical modelling and experimental observations. Shibasaka et al (1993) reported the back propagation neural network method as a good method in building tool life models using limited data set. surface finish and cutting zone temperature using Design of Experiments and the neural network technique. Flank wear of cutting tools is often selected as the tool life criterion as it determines the diametric accuracy of machining. . Tool-life investigations of the cutting tools in machining have been among the most significant research topics during the last several decades. Jain et al (1999) analyzed the abrasive flow machining process using multiple regression analysis and neural network and also analyzed the influence of machining parameters on material removal rate and surface finish. Choudhury et al (2003) predicted the response variables for flank wear.57 Tool life is an important parameter in evaluating the performance of the cutting tools. Feng et al (2002) proved that for a reasonable large data set.

Palanisamy et al (2008) found that the ANN model is capable of better predictions of tool flank wear within the range that they had been trained. . fatigue resistance and reduces residual stresses. lowers the friction coefficient and thereby the contact temperature. The literatures reveal that cryogenic treatment improves wear resistance. A particle swarm optimization technique was used instead of back propagation algorithm (ANN). Kuo (2000) proved that integration of neural network and fuzzy logic was able to accurately predict the amount of tool wear and the accuracy was increased when compared to the conventional approaches. cryogenic treatment has been an effective method in improving the tool life of different cutting tools (in particular HSS and cemented carbide) used in machining processes. increases hardness.10 INFERENCE FROM LITERATURE SURVAY From literatures. the result showed PSO is a promising method to train ANN and accurate results were achieved in the estimation of tool life as reported by Natarajan et al (2007). feed and depth of cut as input parameters. coating acts as a heat barrier and provides lubrication. Adem Çiçek et al (2012) investigated the thrust force using ANN and multiple regression methods on drilling of AISI 316 stainless steel using cryogenically treated on M35 HSS twist drills. There are many studies have proven significant increases in tool life after deep cryogenic treatment (from –125°C to –196°C). It was found that both the methods are suitable for the prediction of the thrust forces within acceptable error limits and usage of ANNs is highly recommended for the prediction of the thrust force instead of complex and time-consuming experimental studies. 2. reduces cutting forces. From the literature review. It improves wear resistance.58 Chattopadhyay et al (1996) used the forward back propagation artificial neural network for evaluation of tool wear of carbide inserts with speed.

it was decided to investigate the performance of the plain. where as very little work has been carried out in the effect of cryogenic treatment on cermet and coated tools cutting tools. there are no reports of evaluation on post and pre-cryogenic treated of Ti-Al-N coated tools. Hence. From the above literature review. surface roughness. . it was found that a lot of experiment work has been carried out on various types of cryogenically treated carbide cutting tools. Since. cutting forces and chip formation study on machining AISI 4340 steel (45HRC) and AISI D2 steel (50HRC).59 Most of the research on cryogenic treatment has been concentrated on steel. cryogenically treated and Ti-Al-N coated cermet cutting tools and cermet tools with cryogenic treatment before and after Ti-Al-N coating by evaluating the effect of various parameters on tool wear.