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# 

Selenium 75
Iridium 192
Cobalt 60

The decrease of activity of a radioisotope with time is given by the equation:
A(t) = A(0) exp (-0.69315 t/T), Where A(0) is the initial activity, A(t) is the activity after a
further time t has elapsed, and T is the half-life of the radioisotope, expressed in the same
units as t. The ratio A(t)/A(o) is called the decay factor of the radioisotope for elapsed
time t. Decay factors for various radioisotopes and for various elapsed times are tabulated
in the following pages. To determine the final activity of an isotope, multiply the current
activity by the decay factor in the correct table. For example, if on August 23, the activity
of Ir 192 is taken at 100 Ci, the calculation to determine the activity on August 30 would
be as follows: 100 Ci x 0.9364 = 93.64 Ci
Longer decay periods
To find the decay factor for a longer period than is shown in the table, multiply the decay
factors for two or more periods adding up to the desired one. For example, the 10 and 14year decay factors for cobalt 60 are 0.2677 and 0.1580, respectively. Hence, the 24-year
decay factor is: 0.2677 x O. 1580 = 0.0423
Times prior to calibration
To determine the decay factor for a time prior to the initial time, divide 1 by the factor
given in the decay table. For example, if 100 Ci of Ir 192 is calibrated on Wednesday,
July 13, and the activity as of July 6, is required, the calculation is as follows: 100 Ci x
1/0.9364 = 106.79 Ci
For uniformity, the decay factors are all given to four decimal places, and up to four
significant figures. In actual fact, the decay factors are not more accurate than the halflives, which in some cases are known to only two or three figures. Also some
approximations have been introduced; for example, the assumption that a month is
exactly the twelfth part of a year, which is not precisely true. For these reasons, the tables
should be used with a reasonable amount of caution.
A few commonly-used radioisotopes are so long lived that a decay tabulation would show
no significant change over any practical period of time, and have therefore been omitted
from the tables. Among the more important of these are carbon- 14(5,730 years), chlorine
36 (301,000 years), radium 226 (1,600 years) and plutonium 239 (29,110 years).
Most of the half-lives used are taken from A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements
Procedures National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report
No. 58, Second Edition. It had been published with nuclear data for some biomedically
important radionuclides, re-evaluated between August, 1983 and April, 1954. The Table
of Radioactive lsotopes by Edgardo Browne and Richard B. Fuestone, published in 1986
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. was also used in the preparation of these tables.

SELENIUM 75
Half-Life: 119.8 days
days

days
0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

0

1.0000 0.9885 0.9771 0.9659 0.9548 0.9438 0.9329 0.9222 0.9116 0.9011

20

0.8907 0.8805 0.8703 0.8603 0.8504 0.8407 0.8310 0.8214 0.8120 0.8026

40

0.7934 0.7834 0.7752 0.7663 0.7575 0.7488 0.7402 0.7317 0.7232 0.7149

60

0.7067 0.6986 0.6905 0.6826 0.6747 0.6670 0.6593 0.6517 0.6442 0.6368

80

0.6295 0.6222 0.6151 0.6080 0.6010 0.5941 0.5873 0.5805 0.5738 0.5672

100 0.5607 0.5542 0.5479 0.5416 0.5353 0.5292 0.5231 0.5171 0.5111 0.5052
120 0.4994 0.4937 0.4880 0.4824 0.4768 0.4713 0.4659 0.4606 0.4553 0.4500
140 0.4448 0.4397 0.4347 0.4297 0.4247 0.4198 0.4150 0.4102 0.4055 0.4008
160 0.3962 0.3917 0.3872 0.3827 0.3783 0.3740 0.3697 0.3654 0.3612 0.3570
180 0.3529 0.3489 0.3449 0.3409 0.3370 0.3331 0.3293 0.3255 0.3217 0.3180
200 0.3144 0.3108 0.3072 0.3036 0.3002 0.2967 0.2933 0.2899 0.2866 0.2833
220 0.2800 0.2768 0.2736 0.2705 0.2674 0.2643 0.2612 0.2582 0.2553 0.2523
240 0.2494 0.2466 0.2437 0.2409 0.2381 0.2354 0.2327 0.2300 0.2274 0.2248
260 0.2222 0.2196 0.2171 0.2146 0.2121 0.2097 0.2073 0.2049 0.2025 0.2002
280 0.1979 0.1956 0.1934 0.1911 0.1889 0.1868 0.1846 0.1825 0.1804 0.1783
300 0.1763 0.1742 0.1722 0.1703 0.1683 0.1664 0.1644 0.1625 0.1607 0.1588

320 0.1570 0.1552 0.1534 0.1516 0.1499 0.1482 0.1465 0.1448 0.1431 0.1415
340 0.1398 0.1382 0.1366 0.1351 0.1335 0.1320 0.1305 0.1290 0.1275 0.1260
360 0.1246 0.1231 0.1217 0.1203 0.1189 0.1176 0.1162 0.1149 0.1136 0.1122
380 0.1110 0.1097 0.1084 0.1072 0.1059 0.1047 0.1035 0.1023 0.1011 0.1000

IRIDIUM 192
Half-Life: 73.83 days
days

days
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1.0000 0.9907 0.9814 0.9722 0.9631 0.9541 0.9452 0.9364 0.9276 0.9190

10

0.9104 0.9019 0.8935 0.8851 0.8768 0.8686 0.8605 0.8525 0.8445 0.8366

20

0.8288 0.8211 0.8134 0.8058 0.7983 0.7908 0.7834 0.7761 0.7688 0.7617

30

0.7545 0.7475 0.7405 0.7336 0.7267 0.7199 0.7132 0.7065 0.6999 0.6934

40

0.6869 0.6805 0.6741 0.6678 0.6616 0.6554 0.6493 0.6432 0.6372 0.6313

50

0.6254 0.6195 0.6137 0.6080 0.6023 0.5967 0.5911 0.5856 0.5801 0.5747

60

0.5693 0.5640 0.5587 0.5538 0.5483 0.5432 0.5381 0.5331 0.5281 0.5232

70

0.5183 0.5135 0.5087 0.5039 0.4992 0.4945 0.4899 0.4853 0.4808 0.4763

80

0.4719 0.4674 0.4631 0.4588 0.4545 0.4502 0.4460 0.4418 0.4377 0.4336

90

0.4296 0.4256 0.4216 0.4176 0.4137 0.4099 0.4060 0.4023 0.3985 0.3948

100 0.3911 0.3874 0.3838 0.3802 0.3767 0.3731 0.3697 0.3662 0.3628 0.3594

110 0.3560 0.3527 0.3494 0.3461 0.3429 0.3397 0.3365 0.3334 0.3303 0.3272
120 0.3241 0.3211 0.3181 0.3151 0.3122 0.3093 0.3064 0.3035 0.3007 0.2979
130 0.2951 0.2923 0.2896 0.2869 0.2842 0.2816 0.2789 0.2763 0.2737 0.2712
140 0.2686 0.2661 0.2636 0.2612 0.2587 0.2563 0.2539 0.2516 0.2492 0.2469
150 0.2446 0.2423 0.2400 0.2378 0.2356 0.2334 0.2312 0.2290 0.2269 0.2248
160 0.2227 0.2206 0.2185 0.2165 0.2144 0.2124 0.2105 0.2085 0.2065 0.2046
170 0.2027 0.2008 0.1989 0.1971 0.1952 0.1934 0.1916 0.1898 0.1880 0.1863
180 0.1845 0.1828 0.1811 0.1794 0.1777 0.1761 0.1744 0.1728 0.1712 0.1696
190 0.1680 0.1664 0.1649 0.1633 0.1618 0.1603 0.1588 0.1573 0.1558 0.1544

COBALT 60
Half-Life: 5.26 years
year mont
s
hs
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

0

1.000 0.989 0.978 0.967 0.957 0.946 0.936 0.926 0.915 0.905 0.896 0.886
0
1
3
6
0
6
2
0
9
9
0
2

1

0.876 0.867 0.857 0.848 0.838 0.829 0.820 0.811 0.802 0.794 0.785 0.776
5
0
5
1
9
7
6
7
8
0
4
8

2

0.768 0.759 0.751 0.743 0.735 0.727 0.719 0.711 0.703 0.696 0.688 0.680
3
9
6
4
3
3
3
5
7
0
4
9

3

0.673 0.666 0.658 0.651 0.644 0.637 0.630 0.623 0.616 0.610 0.603 0.596
5
1
8
6
5
5
5
6
8
1
4
8

4

0.590 0.583 0.577 0.571 0.564 0.558 0.552 0.546 0.540 0.534 0.528 0.523
3
9
5
2
9
8
7
6
7
8
9
1

5

0.517 0.511 0.506 0.500 0.495 0.489 0.484 0.479 0.473 0.468 0.463 0.458
4
8
2
7
2
8
4
1
9
7
6
6

6

0.453 0.448 0.443 0.438 0.434 0.429 0.424 0.420 0.415 0.410 0.406 0.401
5
6
7
8
1
3
6
0
4
9
4
9

7

0.397 0.393 0.388 0.384 0.380 0.376 0.372 0.368 0.364 0.360 0.356 0.352
5
2
9
7
5
3
2
1
1
1
2
3

8

0.348 0.344 0.340 0.337 0.333 0.329 0.326 0.322 0.319 0.315 0.312 0.308
5
7
9
2
5
8
2
7
2
7
2
8

9

0.305 0.302 0.298 0.295 0.292 0.289 0.286 0.282 0.279 0.276 0.273 0.270
4
1
8
5
3
1
0
8
8
7
7
7

10

0.267 0.264 0.261 0.259 0.256 0.253 0.250 0.247 0.245 0.242 0.239 0.237
7
8
9
1
2
4
7
9
2
5
9
3

11

0.234 0.232 0.229 0.227 0.224 0.222 0.219 0.217 0.214 0.212 0.210 0.208
7
1
6
1
6
1
7
3
9
6
3
0

12

0.205 0.203 0.201 0.199 0.196 0.194 0.192 0.190 0.188 0.186 0.184 0.182
7
5
2
0
9
7
6
5
4
3
3
3

13

0.180 0.178 0.176 0.174 0.172 0.170 0.168 0.167 0.165 0.163 0.161 0.158
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
1
3
6
9

14

0.158 0.156 0.154 0.152 0.151 0.149 0.148 0.146 0.144 0.143 0.141 0.140
0
3
6
9
3
6
0
3
8
2
6
1

15

0.138 0.137 0.135 0.134 0.132 0.131 0.129 0.128 0.126 0.125 0.124 0.122
5
0
5
0
6
1
7
3
9
5
1
8

16

0.121 0.120 0.118 0.117 0.116 0.114 0.113 0.112 0.111 0.110 0.108 0.107
4
1
8
5
2
9
7
4
2
0
8
6

17

0.106 0.105 0.104 0.103 0.101 0.100 0.099 0.098 0.097 0.096 0.095 0.094
4
3
1
0
9
7
6
6
5
4
4
3

18

0.093 0.092 0.091 0.090 0.089 0.083 0.087 0.086 0.085 0.084 0.083 0.082
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
6
7

19

0.081 0.080 0.080 0.079 0.078 0.077 0.076 0.075 0.074 0.074 0.073 0.072
8
9
0
1
3
4
6
7
9
1
3
5