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# Properties of Natural Gas

Question 1
A natural gas mixture consists of the following components.
Component
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane

Mol%
75
10
10
5

Calculate the average molecular weight and critical properties of this natural gas
mixture. Calculate the reduced temperature, reduced pressure mixture , compressibility
factor using CNGA equation, specific gravity and viscosity of this gas at STP and (80
O
F and 1000 psia).
Question 2
The gas is flowing at a flow rate of 1000 MMSCFD through a pipe of NPS 20 (ID of
19.5 inches) at a temperature of 80oF and 1000psia. Composition of gas is as follows:
Component
Mol%
Methane
75
Ethane
10
Propane
10
Butane
5
Express gas flow rate Qg in MMSCFD at STP as Q at (T and P) in m3/s
Express gas velocity ug at STP as u at (T and P) in m/s
Express gas density g at STP as  at (T and P) in kg/m3
Estimate gas flow rate, gas velocity and density at the operating conditions.
Properties of Liquids
Question 3
(a) Calculate the specific gravity of a crude oil that has an API gravity of 29.0.
(b) Calculate the API gravity of an oil whose specific gravity is 0.82.

c). Express viscosity of 150 cSt of an oil in terms of SSU.
d). Estimate viscosity of an oil with 200 SSU
e). Estimate viscosity of an oil with 200 SSF

72 50.760 -8.279 0.269 -296.081 58.169 H2S 34.19 112.242 0.8 365.450 Component o Density of Natural gas Molecular weight of a mixture   y i MWi i Molecular Weight of air  MWair  0.79 * 28  0.520 -83.8 78.191 0.13 0.14 0.818 -285.2 0.460 -24.12 190.016 405.01 30.3 369..359 CO 28.014 31.012 0.630 -33.340 Pentane C5H12 72 469.277 0.23 kg / m 3  1 kg / m 3 288 1 g MW g G 29  air  air .038 0.7 0.920 150 Carbon Dioxide Carbon monoxide Hydrogen Sulfide Sulfur dioxide Water (g) Water (l) Methanol(g) Methanol (l) Ammonia(g) Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen CO2 44.572 -237.276 0.07 28.01 304.21* 32  28.96 0.6 80.8 34 50.855 68.229 CH3OH 32.082 373.281 0.224 0.345 0.274 H f298 J/mol -74.194 H2O 18.224 NH3 N2 O2 H2 17.015 647.042 512.43 0.216 0.152 0.129 -161.84  29 29  1.054 44.27 -146.270 -16.960 -166. NTP  1.660 -46.509 -394.094 0. R Pc.710 -125.110 -228.5 89.4 42.289 0.7 126.790 i.Butene C4H8 56.108 420 40.299 -110.2 73.274 -393.4 273 1  air .83 0.43 13.9 34.Properties of Natural Gas/ product Components o M.286 0.6 425.288 0.253 0.680 19.97 0.295 kg / m 3 22.3 282.830 -300.660 -238.63 0.55 0.290 62.99 0.1 220.830 -200.031 28.510 -104.525 -137.25 0.570 o .stp   air .022 -0.10 42.266 -166.087 0.65 37.999 2.1 45.460 -31.252 0.8 33.277 -540 70.48 46.bar  Zc Methane Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Butane CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C3H8 C3H6 C4H10 16.6 30.1 0.6 33.205 -16.564 0.048 0.301 0.065 430.820 52.Wt TC. NTP  G f298 J/mol -50.6 305.284 -20.305 -241.560 SO2 64.2 154.84 0.650 Hexane C6H14 86 507.245 0.99 48.01 132.

604  58.s ya i Gas Constant: R=8.5 a  a  1.785G 1   T f3.5 1   i Pa.825  Pavg  Gas Pr essure.785 litres . Properties of Liquids Volume of Liquid is expressed in barrels (bbl) 1barrel  1 bbl  42 US Galons 1 US Galon  3.718G Compressibility factorgas mixtures 1 Z  Pavg 344400(10)1.00 kg / m 3 ) Viscosity of Natural GAs   G 0.Critical Properties of Natural gas Mixtures T pc  170.2  10 6 T 0.344G Ppc  709. psig     T f  Gas temperature o R G  Gas gravity(air  1. 1 atm:1.0133 bar.314 J/mol/K. 1 bar= 10 5Pa.491  307.

220(SSU) for SSU  100 SSU A rule of thumb is that SSU values is approximat el 5 times cSt value cSt  0.BT For Heavy Crude Oils viscosity is based on Seybolt Seconds Universal (SSU) 195 for 32  SSU  100 SSU 135 cSt  0. viscosity is based on Seybolt Seconds Furfural (SSF) 184 cSt  2.5 S 141.5 S 131.226(SSU) - For heavy fuel oils.5  131.APIgravity Density of Water API gravity units at 60 o F is 10 API 141.24(SSF) for 25  SSF  40 SSF 60 cSt  2.16(SSF) for SSF  40 SSF Vapor Pressure P  7 T  log  v    1    c  1 3 T   Pc  Reid Vapor Pressure at 100oF (560R) .5  API API  S l  water ST  S 60  a (T  60) Viscosity µ in cST ln(  )  A .

12 0.0075 1.25 0.4 0.5 0.5 1.6 atm 160000 65 15.056 0.8 1.0022 10 atm 1000000 15 2.36 0.026 0.0052 4 atm 400000 35 5.52 0.p i  yi P Dalton' s Law p i  xi PVi Raollt' s Law yi PVi  xi P Ideal solutions yi  Ki xi Real solutions Ki is a f(P .1 0.032 0.75 0.082 0.2 0.16 0.55 0.013 .068 0.5 4.8 0. T and species) V-L Equilibrium for hydrocarbon species temperature Pressure kPa Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane octane 293K 60 atm 6000000 2.01 0.