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and Morality

John Michael Linacre, Ph.D.

University of Sydney, Australia

I. Measurement

Science Measurement Society ???

Treaty of the Meter - 1875

I. Measurement

Science Measurement Society ???

Treaty of the Meter - 1875

Society Measurement Science !!!

Babylonian land survey - 1500 BCE

I. Measurement

Science Measurement Society ???

Treaty of the Meter - 1875

Society Measurement Science !!!

Babylonian land survey - 1500 BCE

Measurement = Size or Quantity

I.1875 Society Measurement Science !!! Babylonian land survey . Measurement Science Measurement Society ??? Treaty of the Meter .1500 BCE Measurement = Size or Quantity Quantity = Numerable Amount .

1875 Society Measurement Science !!! Babylonian land survey . Measurement Science Measurement Society ??? Treaty of the Meter .1500 BCE Measurement = Size or Quantity Quantity = Numerable Amount “Measurement is the imposition of the rules of arithmetic on the world around us.I.” .

One Unit Extra … “One more unit means the same amount extra. no matter how much we already have.” .

One Unit Extra … “One more unit means the same amount extra.” One more Orange = One more unit of Juice ??? . no matter how much we already have.

no matter how much we already have. of Juice Texas Department of Agriculture .” One more Orange = One more unit of Juice ??? One more Orange = 59 cc. – 177 cc.One Unit Extra … “One more unit means the same amount extra.

no matter how much we already have.One Unit Extra … “One more unit means the same amount extra. of Juice Texas Department of Agriculture So. – 177 cc. we trade Oranges by abstract arithmetical units of volume or weight! .” One more Orange = One more unit of Juice ??? One more Orange = 59 cc.

Earthquakes .Measures: Numbers aren’t enough ….

Earthquakes ??? .Measures: Numbers aren’t enough ….

Measures: Clarity requires additivity Earthquakes !!! .

in any true sense. but their opinion might change if new facts were established” Final Report BAAS. 1940 ??? . is impossible in psychology.Educational and Psychological Additive Units? “Measurement.

. but their opinion might change if new facts were established” Final Report BAAS. we would never by any means investigate their chemical composition” Auguste Comte... 1940 ??? “the stars . is impossible in psychology. 1842 ??? . in any true sense.Educational and Psychological Additive Units? “Measurement.

Gustav Kirchoff . 1842 ??? 1859..spectral analysis of Sun !!! ..Educational and Psychological Additive Units? “Measurement. 1940 ??? “the stars .. is impossible in psychology. in any true sense. but their opinion might change if new facts were established” Final Report BAAS. we would never by any means investigate their chemical composition” Auguste Comte.

Campbell: additivity requires rules of concatenation: The length rule is: “Place rods end-to-end” !!! .Old Facts of Measurement: Concatenation Rod(A) Rod(B) = Rod(A+B) N.

Old Facts of Measurement: Concatenation Rod(A) Rod(B) = Rod(A+B) N. Campbell: additivity requires rules of concatenation: The length rule is: “Place rods end-to-end” !!! We need the psychological concatenation rule for: Outcome(Bni) Outcome(Bmi) Person n Person m =Outcome(Bni+Bmi) Item i ??? .

Let Pni be the probability of success of person n on item i. inferred from data: 0 Pni 1 ..Conjecturing a rule based on probability ….

Conjecturing a rule based on probability ….. Let Pni be the probability of success of person n on item i. inferred from data: 0 Pni 1 Commensurate with an infinite latent variable: 0 Pni / (1-Pni) .

. log(Pni / (1-Pni)) .Conjecturing a rule based on probability …. inferred from data: 0 Pni 1 Commensurate with an infinite latent variable: 0 Pni / (1-Pni) . Let Pni be the probability of success of person n on item i.

. log(Pni / (1-Pni)) Suppose: Outcome(Bni) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) Then: Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = …. inferred from data: 0 Pni 1 Commensurate with an infinite latent variable: 0 Pni / (1-Pni) . ..Conjecturing a rule based on probability …. Let Pni be the probability of success of person n on item i.

Revising a rule based on probability …. Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) ..

Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) So.. a revised concatenation rule: Let “Outcome” be “the log-odds of coincident scored observations” .Revising a rule based on probability ….

Outcome(Bni) is unchanged …. Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) So.Revising a rule based on probability …. a revised concatenation rule: Let “Outcome” be “the log-odds of coincident scored observations” Due to self-coincidence. ..

Outcome (Bni+Bmi) = log( Probability of coinciding on success / Probability of coinciding on failure ) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) . Outcome(Bni) is unchanged …..Revising a rule based on probability …. Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) So. a revised concatenation rule: Let “Outcome” be “the log-odds of coincident scored observations” Due to self-coincidence.

Outcome (Bni+Bmi) = log( Probability of coinciding on success / Probability of coinciding on failure ) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) = Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) !!! . Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) So.Revising a rule based on probability …. Outcome(Bni) is unchanged ….. a revised concatenation rule: Let “Outcome” be “the log-odds of coincident scored observations” Due to self-coincidence.

Outcome(Bni) is unchanged …. Outcome (Bni+Bmi) = log( Probability of coinciding on success / Probability of coinciding on failure ) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) = Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) !!! A concatenation rule for people taking test items!! .Revising a rule based on probability …. a revised concatenation rule: Let “Outcome” be “the log-odds of coincident scored observations” Due to self-coincidence. Outcome(Bni) + Outcome(Bmi) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) + log(Pmi / (1-Pmi)) = log( (Pni * Pmi) / ((1-Pni)*(1-Pmi)) ) So..

Old Facts of Measurement: Concatenation Rod(A) Rod(B) = Rod(A+B) N. Campbell: additivity requires rules of concatenation: We have the psychological concatenation rule for: Outcome(Bni) Outcome(Bmi) Person n Person m =Outcome(Bni+Bmi) Item i !!! .

A Glorious “New Fact” !!! The “Final Report” was not the last word …. There can be measurement in Education. Psychology and the Social Sciences equally as valid and rugged as in Physics! But Social Science measurement requires painstaking effort. exactly as in Physics .

The simple dichotomous Rasch model …..Di Bn . Outcome(Bni) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) Define: Outcome(Bni) = Bn .Di = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) which can be rewritten as the Rasch model: !!! .

The simple dichotomous Rasch model ….Di Bn .. . a “new fact” (Rasch.Di = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) which can be rewritten as the Rasch model: !!! Finding: the Rasch model is a concatenation rule. operationalizing “true” measurement for education and psychology. Outcome(Bni) = log(Pni / (1-Pni)) Define: Outcome(Bni) = Bn . 1953).

Measurement and Meaning Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi (830 CE.II. a value on a (latent) variable: = shay’ (Arabic) heard as xay (Spanish) x (English) So meaning is expressed as measures on an x-axis representing amounts of the latent variable “thing”. “Algorithm”) Book: Hisab al-jabr w'al muqabala (“Algebra”) “Calculating by restoring and comparing” What we want to find out is “the thing”. .

Mallinson (2001) Level of Difficulty How demanding/fatiguing is the activity? Less Demanding (Fatiguing) Activity Getting out of bed Bathe & dress Yard work Sports activity Equal Intervals 2 Most Fatigued Person 3 4 1 More Demanding (Fatiguing) Activity 5 6 7 8 Level of Fatigue How fatigued is the person? 9 10 11 Least Fatigued Person .

WRAT3 Item Map and Absolute Scale .

but qualitative forward-looking. Meaning and Morality Measures must be: ideal. but faithful to the past fair. even-handed. but accommodating demanding. Measurement. honest . but practical rigorous.III. but forgiving quantitative.

.” !!! (Tomilin.In Science: “The development of [physical] metrology … shows that the same principle is being fulfilled in physics. 1999) . The accord of ethical and physical principles was first noted by Sir Arthur Eddington.. We obviously live in the world where the fundamental principles of ethics and physics agree with each other.. Time and Gravitation. when in 1920 he chose the words from The Book of Deuteronomy* as an epigraph to the chapter on Weyl’s unified theory in his Space.

ca. and the good were enriched. The Analects.. … and the good government of the kingdom took its course. 500 BCE)..” (Confucius. 20. He carefully attended to the weights and measures. .In Politics: the good … !!! “Chau conferred great gifts. .

.In Politics: the good … !!! “Chau conferred great gifts. and the good were enriched. 500 BCE). But what if ….. ??? .. The Analects. ca. … and the good government of the kingdom took its course. 20.” (Confucius. He carefully attended to the weights and measures.

the falsification of standards by the feudal land owners and the distrust. one weight. … one that the Revolution furthered.. The rallying cry: un roi.In Politics: the bad … “Sixty thousand measures of weight in France before the Revolution of 1789. justified or not.not to avoid paying feudal dues but to assure an honest amount payable. 1989) . et une mesure (one king.” (Kennedy.. . un poids. one law. and one measure) was a slogan of equality and centralization. une loi. of the peasants. A common demand was to unify weights and measures .

In Religion: “And O my people! give just measure and weight” The Qur’an. The Prophet Hud. 11:85. 600 CE . ca.

In Religion: “And O my people! give just measure and weight” The Qur’an. 11:85. ca. they work together. The Prophet Hud. 600 CE Surely this injunction applies equally to educational. Measurement. psychological and physical measures. meaning and morality . .honestly.

University of Sydney. Australia .Measurement. Meaning and Morality John Michael Linacre.D. Ph.

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