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NT & A

November 2



Monitoring of diaphra
agm wall



November 2011

1. Intrroduction
Deep excavation
is a necesssity for con
nstruction off
es like high rise building
gs, undergrou
und garages
and und
derground mass
ort systems operating att
several levels. In many
such cases construction of a
gm wall provid
des a solution
n as:

They can be constructed in the immedia
ate vicinity off
exissting buildings

They can be used not only to secure a dee
ep excavation
but also as a loa
ad bearing me
ember for the
e structure to
be erected; thus
renderring constru
uction more

Excavattion in soft grround inducess ground movvement. This
may damage adja
acent existin
ng sensitive structures.
ation must be
e limited to acceptable
limits in deep
excavation. A stable deep excavvation is one in which the
o not collapse
e and heave of
o base is con
ntrolled within
walls do
limits. In
n such cases, diaphragm walls
are com
mmonly used
as perrmanent retaining wallss to minim
mize ground
Deep exxcavation sup
pport systemss have two ma
ain componen

Retaining wa

Support prov
vided for retain
ning wall

al types of reta
aining walls used
are diaphragm walls (slurry
with re
einforced cage
e), sheet piless, soldier
piles, co
ontiguous pile
es, secant pile
es and tangen
nt piles etc. Principal
typess of supports are struts and
d tieback
This app
plication note is about instrumentation and
a monitorin
ng of diaphrag
gm wall displa
acement and adjacent
ent of the gro
ound which afffects structurres in close proximity.
Secction 5 gives some
case sttudies for

2. Dis
splacementt of adjace
ent ground due to deep excavation
Deep exxcavation has
s two main efffects. Firstly,, removal of soil
s results in
n decrease off weight/stresss on soil
below the excavatio
on. Secondlyy, it results in loss of la
ateral supportt for soil aro
ound the excavation.
Horizonttal and vertic
cal displacem
ment that con
nsequently occcur have to be kept within acceptab
ble limits;
otherwisse damage to
o any buildingss, roads and underground facilities in th
he zone of inffluence will occcur.



vertical M s settlement n normalized byy e excavation he eight.9 0 (81)* Number N of cas ses studied Max. soft soil at dredg ge level Soft soiils.12 2 (35) (15) 0. method of construcction of diiaphragm wall w & adjacent facilities. high factor of o safety of base he eave. δl max/H (%) Strut Anchor support support 0.14 (81)* (50) Max.15 <0.0 Table 1: Ma aximum wall movement an nd vertical setttlement behind walls ENCARD DIO-RITE ELECT TRONICS PVT.1 Fac ctors affectin ng diaphragm m wall move ement Several factors affec ct diaphragm wall movement – type off soil. e figu ure on right sh hows increas sed base heave in case of a continuous s sand strata a below the diap phragm wall.39 0 (7) 0.13 0.14 4 (1) 0. type of diaphragm 2.2 % have been n recorded for the factorr of safety on the order of 0. excavatio on height.84 (35) 0. ground d water condition & chang ges in its level. δ max/H (%) δv S Strut Ancchor s support sup pport 0 0. depth & shap pe of excava ation. lateral wall Max.20 0. low facto or of safetty of base heave Clou ugh and O’Ro ourke (1990) Values ass high as 3.5 >2.21 (2) 0. high factor of o safety of base he eave Soft soiils. Effect of the factorss of safety aga ainst base he eave and the effect of the type of the su upporting system is also consid dered.80 0 (13) 6.91 (3) 0.Monitoring of diaphra agm wall AN N-11001 2. duration n of constru uction of wall w & structure e etc. structural load. high factor of o safety of base he eave. For example. Soils are classified as sofft or stiff soil. stiff soil at dredg ge level Soft soiils.11 0. Referen nce Long (20 001) Type off soil Max.2 Stu udy on diaph hragm wall mo ovement Table below b shows maximum la ateral wall movement m an nd maximum vertical setttlement behind walls normalizzed by excav vation height. δl ma ax/H (%) δv max/H H (%) Nott relevant 0. Cohesion less and cohessive soils are indiccated. lateral wall movemen nt normalize ed by excavatio on height.25 5 (1) Supporrting System Stiff soiils. verttical move ement settlemen nt norm malized by normalize ed by excavation height. L 3 .21 (14) 0. type & stiffness of o diaphragm wall & its supports. Reprodu uced below are a result of studies s by Long g (2001) and Clough C & O’ Rourke R (1990) who collec cted information on ented walls and categ gorized instrume them mainly based on type of so oil and d wa all constructed d. LTD.

Instrumentatiion of deep p excavatio on Deep excavations e are a instrumented before start of anyy excavation. For example.Monitoring of diaphra agm wall AN N-11001 2. which h is not possiible to be dettected by instrume visual means. LTD. L 4 . Instrumentation is requ uired for monitoring and con ntrolling beh havior of dia aphragm wa all and surrounding facilities. e entation is req quired to mea asure sub-surface displaccement. Reprroduced below w is a diagram showing tyype of instrum mentation that mayy be used in a deep excavation: ENCARD DIO-RITE ELECT TRONICS PVT. Some of o them are lissted below: • To verify and d control consstruction proce ess • To verify des sign paramete ers • To monitor sa afety during construction c • To save cons struction cost • To complete construction in time or red duce time of construction c • To certify the e performance e of new consstruction/exca avation • To monitor sa afety of adjoin ning buildingss and structurres • Long term pe erformance monitoring m for safety during life of structu ure 3. m It may y also be requ uired to monittor lateral mo ovement or tillt of structures in zone of influence or any cracks c that may develop in n them.3 Purpose of insttrumentation n Instrume entation of strructures has several s purpo oses.

Type Instrument Purpose Related problem Groundwater table/ piezometric pressure Water Standpipe Lateral movement Inclinometer Seepage and ground subsidence Consolidation settlement uplift or weakening of soil Instability of retaining system and adjacent structures Stress/load Vibrating wire strain gage Load cell Sister bar Change in groundwater level Change in piezometric level Lateral ground movement & deflection of retaining walls Stress along strut member Settlement/heave Piezometer Earth pressure cell/jackout pressure cell Surface settlement point Building/utility settlement point Settlement gage Extensometer Tilt/crack Tilt plate/tiltmeter Crack meter Vibration Vibration sensor Axial load on strut Stress in rebar of concrete retaining structure Earth pressure distribution on retaining wall Ground surface settlement Settlement of adjacent building and utilities Continuous settlement of structures Vertical ground movements in various depth zones Tilt of structures Cracks on structure surface Vibration effect to adjacent properties Over-load of struts Over-load of reinforcing bars Over-stress of earth retaining wall Movement of surrounding ground and damage to existing utilities Instability of structures Deep ground movement Instability of structures Uneven settlement of structures Disturbance to foundation soils and structures Table 2: Instrumentation for deep excavation ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. strain gages and load cells along with surveying methods are extensively used. A word of caution .Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Table 2 below summarizes an instrumentation scheme that can be used to monitor deep excavations. Inclinometers may be placed in boreholes in the soil and/or in piles or diaphragm walls. 5 . Instruments. Load cells on struts or anchor heads are very useful in checking calculated loads.redundancy in instrumentation must be provided to account for damage that may occur during construction activity. especially at critical locations. LTD. This is very important. like inclinometers. Strain gages are used in monitoring stress on struts or in piles and diaphragm walls. horizontal & vertical extensometers. piezometer. tiltmeters.

Planning a proper instrumentation scheme An instrumentation scheme should be properly planned and result oriented. The following should be taken into consideration: 4. It should provide for safety during construction activity and if required even after that. It should be carefully decided after review of all data available for the project and the site. 6 .1 Site and project conditions Site and project conditions such as type of soil. method of construction and location/type of structures in zone of influence should to be carefully analyzed during planning of the instrumentation system. LTD. depth & size of excavation. ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. Instrumentation scheme varies from location to location.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Table 3 below provides guidelines for the installation of instruments: Instrument Position Installation Water Standpipe Along excavation boundaries and within anticipated groundwater drawdown zone In compressible layers where consolidation is anticipated or below base of potential uplift structures At most critical location generally midspan of excavation boundaries or near sensitive structures On selected strut members Not shallower than depth of excavation On selected strut members Axial Sister bar On selected reinforcement Axial Earth/jackout pressure cell Surface settlement point On selected retaining wall panel Wall surface in contact with soil Along excavation boundaries and critical sections perpendicular to excavation boundary On selected columns of structures At 5 m to 10 m spacing and according to existing site condition Piezometer Inclinometer Vibrating wire strain gage Load cell Building/utility settlement point Extensometer Within anticipated stress influence zone Settlement gauge On selected columns of structures Tilt plate/tilt meter On selected columns of structures Crack meter On surface of selected structural members At sensitive structure locations Vibration Sensor At various depths in compressible layer or expected sensitive location Embedded in rigid base beyond movement influence zone but not shallower than depth of Excavation Web of steel member On surface of structural member after removal of paint and loose plaster Various depth zones On surface of structural member after removal of paint and loose plaster On surface of structural member after removal of paint and loose plaster On surface of structural member after removal of paint and loose plaster Fixed or portable Table 3: General guideline for installations of these instruments 4.

ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT.4 Technical specifications and method statements Technical specification should include type of instrument.2 Selection of monitoring instruments Several types of instruments are available. reference benchmark for settlement survey and surface protection to instruments is an essential part of any instrumentation and monitoring program. 4. precision and accuracy etc.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 4.5 Checking and maintenance procedure Instruments must be maintained in good working condition throughout the monitoring period in order to ensure validity and accuracy of monitoring readings. read-out loggers and reference points used in the monitoring works. 4. For example. more frequent monitoring is needed for inclinometers during excavation in view of its sensitivity to excavation sequences. In selection of instruments table 2 provides some guidelines.g. Regular checking and calibration at specified intervals should be carried out to verify instrument specifications including those of sensors.3 Layout of instrument locations Selecting proper locations of instruments is as important. Only the right type must be used to provide engineers with correct information on behavior of ground and structure during excavation. Method statements including notes for installation should be properly prepared. 4.6 Frequency of monitoring Monitoring frequency must be properly planned based upon sequence of construction and type of measurement. LTD. Verification of instrument readings during monitoring stage by constantly checking top level of water standpipes. Initial instrumentation data should be properly recorded and reflected in later interpretation works. pre-loading and removal of struts and the importance of movement magnitudes to site safety. excavation and installation. top level and co-ordinates of inclinometer casing. It is important that required specifications are fully complied with and installation is carried out under the supervision of a competent geotechnical engineer. 7 . taking into consideration absolute safety during construction. Table 3 provides guidelines for planning instrumentation locations. range. Employment of an independent specialist organization for Instrumentation and Monitoring is highly recommended. These are determined by designer based on result of analysis and his professional judgment.7 Control values and action plan Two typical control values namely alert level and action level are commonly adopted during deep excavation. 4. especially during long periods of monitoring or frequent applications. 4.8 Data processing and interpretation Timely analysis of instrument readings by competent geotechnical engineers is essential for control of safety during construction and instituting effective prevention measures (if required) for minimizing detrimental effects and possible failure in deep excavation. 4. Representative initial readings of all installed instruments must be properly established prior to commencement of major site activities to ensure reliable reference for future comparison. Instruments should be installed at the most critical and representative locations to accurately monitor influence of excavation on surrounding properties to determine response of ground & retaining system and to ensure the safety of construction. e.

8 . LTD.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Reproduced below are some typical instrumentation results at a Project in Abu Dhabi. UAE: Typical monitoring results: inclinometer in D-wall Typical monitoring results: standpipe piezometer inside excavation area ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT.

Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Typical monitoring results: extensometer outside D-wall Typical monitoring results: Anchor load cell for ground anchors ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. LTD. 9 .

10 .Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Typical monitoring results: tilt meter for adjacent structures ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. LTD.

LTD. 11 .Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Typical monitoring results: building settlement point Typical monitoring results: multilevel piezometer outside D-wall ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT.

1 Office and residential tower. Toe level of D-wall is -20 m and final excavation level is -12 m.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Interpretation of the above data aims at: • Ensuring construction is carried out safely and to provide data for modifying construction procedure. • Providing data for evaluating situation should some structure be endangered and preparing contingency measures should action be needed to safeguard these structures. • Providing data for clarifying responsibility in legal cases. Excavation level at -10 m 20 Daily during excavation (if not 10 critical) after excavation weekly Strain gages for struts ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. • Proving data for back analyses for refining design procedures and enhancing construction technology. LTD. if necessary. 10 Anchor Load cell for ground anchor Inclinometer installed in diaphragm wall 12 . UAE The office and residential tower will have 27 levels. • Ensuring that adjacent structures are safe during and after construction. Instrumentation has been provided to monitor behavior of diaphragm wall and settlement caused due to dewatering and deep excavation. Case studies 5. • Providing data for taking remedial measures should some structure suffer from damage and evaluating effectiveness of such measures.5 m from capping beam First layer of strutting Qty. Abu Dhabi. Instrumentation scheme for monitoring works is as follows: Description Depth/ Monitoring position frequency Inclinometer 20 m Anchor bolt load cell (1000 KN) Strain gage 2. 5.

LTD.2 Co orniche Hotell. Abu A Dhabi. Since final f excavattion was dee ep.5 eller on pipe strut s 23 Spot we eldable strain n gage A three layer of strutting All 68 Dailyy during excavation VW piezzometer O Outside D-walll Water standpipe s O Outside D-walll Tilt platte O sensitive structures On s nea arby Crack gage g O sensitive structures On s nea arby 58 Vibratio on & noise re ecorder 4 location 1 ENCARD DIO-RITE ELECT TRONICS PVT. To ensu ure ground movement and a deflectio on of wall within acceptab ble limits. UAE U The eleg gant and bea autiful 35-storrey building has h been de esigned by Surbana S Conssultant Pte. List of in nstruments us sed are descrribed below: Descripttion D Depth/Position n Monitoring Freque ency Q Qty. Inclinom meter 3 m 30 8 Strut load cell (5000 0 KN) 2 m from We 2. L (iff not critical) after a exxcavation wee ekly 7 7 4 13 . Ltd. L of Singa apore to refle ect the marittime heritage of Abu Dh habi. thrree layers of strutting was s provided.Monitoring of diaphra agm wall AN N-11001 Datta presentatiion 5. Khalidiya. appropriate instrume ents were used u to protect adjacent structures s and re educe grou und moveme ent.

4 16 14 . Toe level of D-wall was at -19. LTD. Monitoring Frequency Weekly Qty.0 m and excavation level was at -15. UAE Jumeirah Village encompasses more than 6. client specified installation of inclinometers and strain gages. Dubai.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Strutting works on site Inclinometer in D-wall Load Cell on strut Load Cell on strut (close view) Stain gage on pipe strut Stain gage on pipe strut (close view) 5.3 Jumeirah village. For monitoring lateral movement and load on diaphragm wall at JOURI 5 and JOURI 6 (part of Jumeirah village development).50 m. List of instruments used is as follows: Description Depth/Position Inclinometer 19 m Embedment strain gage At four levels in d-wall panel ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT.000 spaciously constructed villas and town houses set amidst luscious landscaping and unsurpassed leisure and lifestyle amenities to provide a great living experience for its residents.

420 m tower project presents a real challenge for the creation of an innovative and magnificent human habitat as one of the greatest landmarks of Doha. The site is surrounded by a number of high rise buildings.L. The target is to host more than 2. a pre-construction condition survey of all the buildings in the zone of influence was undertaken.000 inhabitants in an icon building that could be symbolically linked with Al Quds through an analogy with the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem.4 Al Quds Tower. Before constructing the diaphragm wall and the start of excavation. Excavation level is up to -24 m.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 Layout plan of Jumeirah Village Monitoring of strain gage at Jouri 5 Inclinometer in diaphragm wall 5. W. According to Islam. The Arabic name of Jerusalem is Al Quds or Baitul Maqdis. 15 . Doha. A large quantity of instruments as per specification of designers were supplied and installed during excavation/foundation works and behavior of diaphragm wall was closely monitored. it is the place where prophet Muhammad ascended to God in the heavens and symbolically the Al Quds Tower would do the same. The toe level of diaphragm wall is at -30 m. LTD. Qatar The 101 floors. ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. Instrumentation for the diaphragm wall was provided by the Encardio-rite Group of Companies. The foundation and the diaphragm walls were constructed by of Ammico Contracting Co. The foundation works includes a diaphragm wall all around the structure.L. The golden Dome of Rock at Jerusalem is one of the most important and ancient monument of Islamic culture.

30 m 20 Jack out pressure cell 15 Anchor bolt load cell 12 Sister bar 30 Tilt plate 10 Portable tilt meter 1 Crack meter.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 A L Q U D S T O W E R Typical installation of anchor bolt load cell Description of instruments supplied: Instruments Qty. 16 .50 mm 10 Readings from portable readout Typical installation of jackout pressure cell ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. Inclinometer. LTD.

Instrume entation for the t diaphragm m wall was pro ovided by Enccardio-rite. which comprised of o a diaphrag gm wall. a hotel with w 300 guesst rooms. Ground anchors were monitorred with anchor bolt load cells c and grou undwater with h piezometer.6 Dubai Metro Un nion Square Undergroun nd Station. LTD. the tow wer will soarr 105 stories into the sky and offer a panoramic city c view from m its prestigio ous central location on the Corniche. dewaterring water con ntrol. Instrume entation was specified forr monitoring ground and wall moveme ent. 80 serviced apartments and 300 3 residenttial apartmen nts. T Doha 5. Inclino ometers were used to mon nitor horizonttal deflection of secant pile e wall and D--wall up to 5 m below the toe level of pile wall. Excavation de epth inside re etaining wall is up to -14 4 m. The Con nvention Cen ntre. Doha. Dubai Union Square und derground metro m at Deira. sec cant pile walll and ground d anchors. and ancchors. Qatar Q Anotherr great symbo ol in Qatar’s desire d to crea ate world-classs architecture e is the Doh ha Convention Centre and d Tower whicch will bring a truly futuristic aspect to t the Doha skyline. su urface settleme ent and settle ement of utilitties & adjacent structures s using su urface settleme ent points & building b settle ement points. L 17 . succh as deforma ation of diaph hragm walls using inclinom meters and 3-D deform mation targets.Monitoring of diaphra agm wall AN N-11001 5. Anc chor load celll 1500 kN 6 Inclinometer 30 m Watter standpipe e 12 m 35 12 Watter level soun nder 30 m Jack out pressu ure cell Sistter bar 15 9 70 C Convention Centre C and Tower. Dubai.000 8 square e meters of co onvention spa ace is destine ed to become e an importan nt regional an nd internationa al exhibition location. It will be home to offices on the lower flo oors. W.L..L. s Scheduled to be completed c in 2012. station was extensivvely instrume ented to mo onitor key geo-technical parameters. The fou undation and diaphragm wall w construcction were in the scope of o work of Am mmico Contracting Co. ground water w drawd down ENCARD DIO-RITE ELECT TRONICS PVT. strut loads using electtronic load ce ells & strain n gages. List of instru uments used for the foundation works iss as follows: nts supplied d: Description of instrumen Instrruments Qty. The pro oject includes s 2 ~3 levels basement covering c the full plot area a. adjacen nt to the tow wer having 87.5 Co onvention Ce entre and Tow wer. A proper retention r sys stem was the erefore necesssary.

on each strut) On layer A struts below concourse level (2 no. 18 .Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 outside excavation using water standpipes and monitoring of pumping activities in pump wells within excavation using water level indicators. Depth/Position Inclinometer in diaphragm wall Inclinometer in ground Strut load cell (2000 kN) 47 m 52 m On layer A struts below concourse level (2 no. LTD. 9 2 6 14 36 17 211 21 14 Inclinometer readings being taken The observed data was processed and uploaded on client’s server both in graphical and numerical formats ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. on each strut) Outside excavation Spot weldable strain gage Water standpipe (including existing standpipes & observation wells for pumping tests) Pump wells Surface settlement points Building settlement points Diaphragm wall 3-D deformation monitoring Strut load cell Monitoring Frequency With-in excavation Outside excavation/ on utilities On surrounding buildings On diaphragm wall below concourse level Daily during excavation (if not critical) after excavation weekly Description Qty.

also containe ed other use eful informatio on such as as-built instrumentation layouts. MCV V breach forms. testing. maintenance m calibratio on. Typical readings s observed in n inclinomete er installed in diaphragm m wall post TBM break-through ENCARD DIO-RITE ELECT TRONICS PVT. but also for nine othe er undergroun nd stations and a six annexxed structure es of the Dub bai Metro Project. instrum mentation picttures. LTD. monitoring contro ol values (MCV) viz. mon nitoring.Monitoring of diaphra agm wall AN N-11001 on a da aily basis. instrum mentation ca alibration reco ords etc. w Alert. factua al reporting. The e server. v alert. Encardio o-rite execute ed the comple ete instrumentation & monitoring works not only of th he above underground & annual station on o a turn-key basis: supplyy. L 19 . action and maxim mum permisssible values (M MPV) for various instrume ents. previouss & latest weekly reports. eport issued contained su ummary of alll instrumentation & monito oring related activities Weekly monitoring re during th he previous week. insttallation. action a & MPV V forms were issued within n 24 hrs of any breach off MCV by any instrument. which was accessible by all concerned parties includin ng the Engineer.

interpreting and utilizing the data obtained. The data observed from monitoring instrumentation as described above. application notes.Monitoring of diaphragm wall AN-11001 6. The construction of high rise buildings and other structures through deep excavation is well benefited from the instrumentation and monitoring program. over cell phone network. a data base server and a web server software hosted on a high integrity server machine that periodically collects data from remote EDAS-10 data loggers. project manager etc. 2. In construction projects of significant size. protecting adjacent buildings/structures. The WDMS can also be programmed to send SMS alert messages to selected users as soon as any sensor data crosses its predefined alarm levels. More importantly. ground plan or a photograph can be put on the opening screen marked with installed sensors. etc. LTD. The researches carried out. it is recommended that: 1. which can be geographically spread over a large area. have greatly enhanced the construction technology in several parts of the world. The service can be judicially used for monitoring displacement & ground water pressure in the diaphragm wall or in its vicinity. monitoring. Web based remote Data Monitoring Services (WDMS) from Encardio-rite makes instrument data available online. manuals. The web server then makes this data available over the internet so that a user can view the logged data using a suitable web browser like Microsoft Internet Explorer from virtually anywhere in the world. to various authorized personnel like engineer. ENCARDIO-RITE ELECTRONICS PVT. consultants. 3. sufficient emphasis be given to instrumentation and monitoring. specialists must be engaged in processing. method statements. particularly those involving deep excavations in densely populated area. client. such that it can benefit and improve its quality of work and competitiveness. It also helps to manage the construction in a safe and controlled manner. or to provide relevant information related to safety of construction works and associated buildings. The WDMS allows the user to view the data from any transducer connected to the remote datalogger over a selected time period in either a tabular spread sheet type format or as a graph. Based on our successful experience. Encardio-rite WDMS consists of a data collection agent. 20 . provides verification of design assumptions. Encardio-rite provides a complete range of geotechnical and structural instrumentation along with technical support to the construction industry in form of installation. Concluding remarks It is seen that Instrumentation and monitoring plays an important role at both design and construction stages. based on the instrument readings obtained during ongoing excavation works. A graphic like a map.