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Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Solutions Manual to accompany

CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
Fourth Edition
William Kays
Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Stanford University
Michael Crawford
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Texas at Austin
Bernhard Weigand
Professor and Head, Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics
University of Stuttgart

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Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

An Introductory Note
Some of the problems in the text are brief exercises leading to single numerical or
algebraic results, but the great majority are much more extensive investigations, some
approaching the magnitude of term projects. In the latter cases, there is usually no simple
answer. Student initiative is encouraged and this leads to results that may differ
numerically or may involve results not asked for in the problem statement. In any case,
the authors place more value on a written discussion at the end of the student's papers,
and on the development of the analysis, than on numerical results.
It is not practicable to provide a "solutions manual" containing examples of
complete papers for assignments of this kind. The authors have chosen rather to provide,
in a somewhat abbreviated form, some of the key results for these problems. In some
cases rather than give numerical results, a brief discussion of how to attack the problem is
provided. Only a small fraction of the problems can be used in any one course, and it is
hoped that instructors will find a sufficient number of problems to satisfy a variety of
needs, including differing tastes and interests, and differing teaching styles.

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

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Chapter 4
4-1

Let x1 = x, x2 = y, u1 = u, and u2 = v in Eq. (4-17). Then
Equation, x - direction

∂P ∂ 2u
=
∂x ∂x 2

Equation, y - direction

∂P
=0
∂y

Thus, P = P(x) and

∂P dP
=
. The equation becomes
∂x dx
2
dP
du

2
dx
dy

4-2 Consider the continuity equation (4-5) in cylindrical coordinates with ∇ ⋅ V defined
in Appendix D,
∇⋅V =

1 ∂
1 ∂Vφ ∂Vx
+
=0
(rVr ) +
∂x
r ∂r
r ∂φ

where Vr = v r ; Vφ = vφ ; and Vx = u . Let r = R + y and x = Rφ, where R is the radius of

the inner surface. Note that ∂ ∂x = 0 (no axial flow). Thus
R

∂vφ
∂v r
∂v
+ y r + vr + R
=0
∂y
∂y
∂x

For vr small and y  R , the middle two terms in the equation are negligible compared to
the first and last terms. Thus the equation becomes identical to (4-7) in Cartesian
coordinates. (Actually these are curvilinear coordinates with y  R ). Using similar
arguments, the applicable momentum equation is (4-11), with the convective acceleration
terms neglected. The applicable energy equation is (4-38).
4-3 The appropriate set of coordinates is the fixed, non-rotating cylindrical system with
r, the radial direction; φ, the circumferential direction; and x, the axial direction above the
disk. In the governing equations, all three velocity components will appear, but
derivatives with respect to φ will be zero due to rotational symmetry.

but the creation term must be added. resulting in ∂Gtot . 2 ∇T = S k 4-5 Eq. j .x as a boundary layer approximation and substitute into the continuity equation. for references to heat transfer solutions. 4th Ed. ref.component of a mixture. x ∂x + ∂G tot .) 4-4 The applicable energy equation is (4-31). and when S is equal to zero. For steady conduction and constant properties. but the complete Navier-Stokes equations can be solved in exact form (see Schlichting. (See Schlichting. The applicable energy equation is (4-35) with the conduction gradient in the r-direction neglected. j = −γ j ∇m j . ∂m j ∂m j ∂  ∂m j   ∂G x ∂G y  + Gx +Gy − + mj  γ j  = m′′′j  x y y y ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ x y ∂ ∂     4-6 For conservation of mass. j + G conv . and Weigand The flow over a rotating disk is boundary layer in character.4 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Crawford. j . the terms for mass flow rates (inflow on the radial face and the axial face) are . yielding ρ De − ∇ ⋅ k ∇T = S Dt For no fluid motion.j. Use the definition of enthalpy.) Ignore Gdiff. j . Kays. 2. i = e + P/ρ. y = m ′′′j ∂y Now substitute G tot . the substantial derivative reduces to ρ ∂e − ∇ ⋅ k ∇T = S ∂t This is the classic heat conduction equation for a solid where the thermal equation of state is de = cdT . j = m j G and G diff .. where G conv . page 93). (Recall that G is the total mass flux vector. and let ρ be constant. Assume no mass diffusion. (4-1) can be considered a continuity equation for the j . the Laplace equation is obtained. the Poisson form of the conduction equation is obtained. j = G diff . page 296.

the x-momentum flow rates. ∂u 1 ∂ + (rvr ) = 0 ∂x r ∂r For x-momentum . (4-27) and (4-28). Crawford. Ar = r dφ dx m r = Gr Ar m x = Gx Ax Gx = ρ u. the energy flow rates.. assuming steady flow and constant properties yields ρu ∂u ∂u dP 1 ∂  ∂u  + ρ vr =− +µ r  dx r ∂r  ∂r  ∂x ∂r For energy . and the x-forces are M r = um r = u ( Gr Ar ) M x = um x = u ( Gx Ax ) and Fx = −σ x Ax − τ rx Ar σ x ≈ −P τ rx = µ ∂u ∂y Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. assuming steady flow. 4th Ed. Ax = r dφ dr Application of the procedure leading up to equation (4-2).Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. (4-9) is found. ( r dφ dx ). Eq. (4-10) and (4-11). For constant properties. and constant properties yields .r = uτ rx Ar Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. inflow on the radial face and on the axial face. yields ∂ (uρ ) 1 ∂ + (r ρvr ) = 0 ∂x r ∂r Note the appearance of r comes from dividing through the equation by the differential volume. Kays. inflow on the radial face and the axial face. and Weigand 5 Gr = ρ vr . assuming steady flow. no mass diffusion. and the corresponding heat and work rates are ( ) ( ) = ( i + u ) m = ( i + u ) G A 1 1 E r = i + u 2 m r = i + u 2 Gr Ar 2 E x and qr = −kAr ∂T ∂r 1 2 2 1 2 2 x q x = −kAx ∂T ∂x 2 x x Wshear .

(4-38). but retaining the pressure gradient term the enthalpy equation reduces to 2 ∂T ∂T 1  ∂  ∂T   Pr  ∂u  1 dP u + vr −α   r =0  −   − ∂x ∂y r  ∂r  ∂r   c  ∂r  ρ c dx 4-7 These steps are basically the redevelopment of the formulation leading up to Eq. (4-39). and Weigand 2 ∂i ∂i 1 ∂  ∂T  dP  ∂u  ρ u + ρv r − =0  kr −µ   −u ∂x ∂r r ∂r  ∂r  dx  ∂r  and for ideal gases and incompressible liquids. Kays. . using the approximations similar to the development leading to Eq. 4th Ed.. Crawford.6 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.

s  dm  δ x   dy  m j . − qs′′ = 1 d R ( i − icore ) rdr R dx ∫R − y 5-3 Assume: Fick's Law holds. Neglect the kinetic energy term. For the j-component. x = 2π ∫ ρ u ( i − icore ) rdr R− y qs = 2π Rδ xq s′′ Now follow the procedure on pages 47-48. Shear stress : τ y 2π ( R − y )δ x Now follow the procedure on pages 42-43. G at y = 0 is in y-direction. Typical terms would be R E conv .Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and Weigand 7 Chapter 5 5-1 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the velocity becomes the inviscid core velocity of the developing flow.. y-direction gradients >> x-direction gradients. Typical terms would be R 2 M x = 2π ∫R − y ρ u rdr M y = ( R − y )2πδ xv y ρ yu y and Normal stress = P R 2π rdr ∫ R− y τ s 2π Rδ x. steady flow. −τ s = 1 d  R 2  − ucore d  R ρ urdr  − ( ρ u ) y 1 − y  ducore ρ u rdr   core  R dx  ∫R − y  R dx  ∫R − y  2 R  dx 5-2 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the enthalpy is the core enthalpy. typical terms are y Inflow of j = ∫ G m dy + G x 0 j y .s be the mass concentration of j at the wall. 4th Ed. Let mj. sδ x − γ j  j s . Kays. concentration boundary layer ≥ momentum boundary layer thickness. Crawford. and note that there is no wall transpiration.

∞ ) − ∫ m ′′′j dy ∫ 0  dx  0 5-4 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. Continuity Eq. Then. (5-1) is used and m j ..∞ . Crawford.Inflow + Increase in Storage = Rate of Creation for specie j is used to obtain the integral equation.∞ ) dy  − ρ svs ( m j . −γ j ( ) ∂ mj ∂y = s y d  y ρ u ( m j − m j . 4th Ed. Kays. and Weigand Rate of creation of j = ∫ y 0 m ′′′jδ xdy The conservation principle that Outflow . . s − m j . y = m j .8 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. (5-21). (5-8) and Eq.

and the result is the right hand side of (4-17).. This recovers the left hand side of (4-17). (6-11). The second term in the strain rate tensor also disappears from the conservation of mass (assuming constant density). substitute (6-6) along with the strain-rate tensor (6-3) into the static enthalpy equation. The result is (4-32). (6-15) i* = i * + i*′. Their forms differ in the convection term and in the stress (or diffusion) term. Multiply Eq. similar to what is found in Ref. substitute the stress tensor. Chain-rule differentiate the convective term of (6-9) and subtract from it (6-8) to modify the convection term. Now. (6-11) is a stagnation enthalpy equation. For constant density flow. i = i + i′ Combining these. although (6-9) is for compressible flow with variable viscosity. 6-2 Note that Eq. i* = e + P ρ + 12 ui ui = i + 12 ui ui and the two Reynolds decompositions given by Eq. whereas (4-17) is for constant density flow with constant viscosity. along with the Reynolds decomposition for ui yields i* = i + 12 ui ui = i + i′ + 12 ( ui + ui′ )( ui + ui′ ) Now. Assume constant viscosity and constant density. 1. Crawford. (6-21). the second coefficient of viscosity (the dilatation term) is eliminated. (6-6) into (6-9) and substitute (6-3) for the strain-rate tensor. and Weigand 9 Chapter 6 6-1 Note that Eqs. Kays. 4th Ed.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. expand the velocity term i* = i + i′ + 12 ( u u ) + ( ui u′ ) + 12 ( u′ui′ ) and collect the time-averaged terms and the fluctuating terms. 6-4 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. Note that you will first have to chain-rule the viscous work term in (6-11) to obtain the unsteady static enthalpy equation. (6-9) and (4-17) are both unsteady forms of the Navier-Stokes equations written in index notation. then assume constant density for the time term. The form of the convective term in (6-9) is called the conservative form. Now. 6-3 We combine the definition of stagnation enthalpy following Eq. . The result is (6-16). whereas (4-32) is a static enthalpy equation. (6-10) by u and subtract it from (6-11).

(6-34). 4th Ed. (6-28) remains valid for variable viscosity. but not for variable density. (6-31). The result is: (τ ji ) ( − ρ u′j ui′ → τ yx − ρ v ′u′ ) This stress is τ (= τyx ) in Eq. 6-8 The structure of the equations follow the format of Eq.10 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Note Eq. 6-7 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. The diffusion operator changes under the boundary layer assumptions to ∂( ) ∂( ) → ∂x j ∂y In the viscous stress tensor. and the constant density assumption allows the density to be moved into the diffusion term. (6-34) is valid for either an ideal gas or an incompressible liquid (both obeying de = c dT). and Weigand 6-5 The first step is to chain-rule the conservative form of the convective term that appears in Eq. Rewriting momentum equation (4-10) in this form yields ρu ∂u ∂u ∂  ∂u  dP + ρv = µ − ∂x ∂y ∂y  ∂y  dx The energy equation (4-39) needs to first be rewritten in variable-property form similar to Eq. Crawford. Now divide through by the density. and the density is removed from the Reynolds stress. j = 1. Eq. τji . only one term will be present. Note there will not be third term (j = 3 ) because of the two-dimensional boundary layer assumption (w = 0). The pressure gradient becomes an ordinary derivative. and it is valid for variable thermal conductivity. 6-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-38). (6-26) and apply the conservation of mass equation (6-22). (6-27). 2. (6-39) convection (φ ) = diffusion (φ ) ± source (φ ) where φ is the dependent variable. This also applies to the Reynolds stress term. due to the boundary layer approximation and the constant density assumption. (4-37). followed by the formulation leading to Eq. Then apply the index notation rule that repeated subscripts sum. and then formulated like the momentum equation. µ becomes ν. but not for variable density. . Kays..

but only the momentum equation has a source term. . (6-28) results by including the Reynolds stress term.. (6-34) results by including the Reynolds heat flux term. which could be added. An equivalent energy source term would be a viscous dissipation term. a form similar to Eq. 4th Ed. Kays. and Weigand u 11 ∂T ∂T ∂  ∂T  +v = α  ∂x ∂y ∂y  ∂y  Then. u  1 dP ∂u ∂u ∂  ∂u +v = ν − u′v ′  − ∂x ∂y ∂y  ∂y  ρ dx A similar form to Eq. Crawford. u  ∂T ∂T ∂  ∂T +v = α − v ′T ′  ∂x ∂y ∂y  ∂y  Note that both the momentum equation and energy equations have a convective term and a diffusive term.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.

assuming constant density. and Weigand Chapter 7 7-1 Let the plate spacing of the channel be a and measure y from the plate surface Reformulate the integral equation (5-4) for a non-axisymmetric geometry (eliminate R) and no transpiration into the boundary layer at the surface ( v s = 0 ). The other two come by applying boundary conditions at the edge of the developing boundary layer within the channel. conservation of mass (continuity) must be applied to the channel. = a + b   + c   . Kays. c. u ( y = 0) = 0 . 4th Ed. b. u ( y = δ ) = ucore and du dy at ( y = δ ) = 0 . by substituting the parabolic profile into the integral. The first will be the boundary condition of no-slip. i. and using Eq. δ  m  a  Va =   a = constant = 2∫0 udy + 2ucore ( x )  − δ  2   ρ Ac  and. −τ s = d dx ( ∫ ρu dy ) − u y 2 0 core d dx ( ∫ ρu dy ) + ∫  − ρu y y 0 0 core ducore   dy dx  where “core” symbol replaces the “∞” symbol. The resulting profile is u u ucore  y  y = 2  −   δ  δ  2 The velocity profile is substituted into the integrals of the integral equation. The wall shear stress must also be evaluated. the flow between the surface ( y = 0 ) and the core flow ( y = δ ). Thus. The resulting momentum integral equation becomes du  2  2 dδ  u  3 2ν  core  =  δ ucore core  +  ucore  dx  15  dx   δ  5 Now.12 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. For a velocity profile..e. (7-9). Three boundary conditions are needed to determine ucore δ  δ  a. Crawford. (3-1). following the idea of Eq. consider first the 2  y  y parabola. ucore = V  2δ  1 −   3 a and ducore V dδ = 2 dx 3  2 δ  dx a 1 −  2  3 a .

05 . constant-density flow in a parallel-planes channel. Substituting for the core velocity (and its derivative into the momentum integral equation leads to    2  3  3aδ + 7δ  dδ 30ν =  aV   2 2   3   dx  a −δ      2 Note.10376748 ) Re Dh = Re Dh 154 This result. leading to x fd Dh = 16 ( 0. where Dh = 2 × plate spacing = 2a . Eq. Hint: the integrand can be split into two integrals of the form I1 = ∫ η 0 I2 = ∫ η 0 η η 1  α  dη = 2 ln (α + βη ) + 2 β  α + βη  0 (α + βη ) η η2 1  α2  = + − + − d η α βη 2 α ln α βη ( ) ( ) 2 β 3  α + βη  0 (α + βη ) The lower limit of integration will be δ ( x = 0 ) = 0 and the upper limit will be δ ( x = x fd ) = a 2 . here one can separate variables and integrate. Kays. (7-23). and Weigand 13 This provides the relationship between the mass-averaged velocity of the channel..0065 . Note that this equation shows how the effect of the no-slip condition (leading to the velocity profile) causes the core velocity to increase.5V for laminar. ( x Dh ) Re Dh = 0.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and the result is 2ν x fd aV = 0. V. Now comes lots of algebra and plenty of chances to make mistakes. 7-17). Crawford.10376748 ( a 2 ) Now reformulate the expression in terms of the hydraulic diameter Reynolds number (Eq. 4th Ed. and the local core velocity. ( x Dh ) Re Dh = 0. eventually becoming centerline velocity ucore = u ( y = a 2) = 1. is quite small compared to the published solution for a circular pipe.

integrate the momentum equation in a manner similar to how we formulate an integral equation in Chapter 5. and by recasting the shear stress term back into its stress form ∂ ( ρ uu ) ∂ ( ρvr u ) dP 1 ∂ + =− + ( rτ rx ) ∂x ∂r dx r ∂r Then.  ∂ ( ρ uu )   ∂ ( ρv u )  1  ∂  dP    dAc dx + ∫   dAc dx = ∫  −  dAc dx + ∫  ( rτ rx )  dAc dx r  ∂r ∂x   dx    ∂r  ∫  where dAc would be ( 2π rdr ) for a circular pipe. Kays. and Weigand Note. had we assumed a sinusoidal shape for the velocity profile (often considered in viscous fluid mechanics texts. Reformulate Eq. (4-11) into its conservative form by combining it with the continuity equation (4-8).. 7-2 This problem can be solved two ways. similar to that used in Chapter 5 for the momentum integral equation (pp 41-43). from the surface to the centerline of the channel (or over the flow cross-section. M x +δ x − M x = − (τ s dAs ) + ( PAc ) x − ( PAc ) x +δ x or dM x = d ( ∫ udm ) = d ( ∫ ρu dA ) = −τ dA − d ( PA ) 2 c s s c . along with the parabolic-profile boundary conditions. u ucore π y  = sin   2δ and the result would be similar (within 5%).14 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. reducing the equation to x2 ∫ ( ρ uu ) dA x1 c x2 =  P ( x2 ) − P ( x1 )  Ac + ∫ τ rx dx x1 The second method is the control volume formulation. Now recognize that the cross-stream convective term is zero at the surface and at the channel (or pipe) centerline. Crawford. The first method involves partially integrating the differential momentum equation over the flow cross-section. 4th Ed. namely differential in the flow direction (x) and integrally in the cross-flow direction.

and dMx=0. (7-13) and integrate between two flow locations “1” and “2” representing the flow distance from x1 =0 (the entry location) to some arbitrary x-location.m + ∫   dAc − 2 1 ( Dh 4 ) Ac  V  ρV 2 2 x where Dh is the hydraulic diameter (Dh=D for a circular pipe). the momentum equation can be written as 2 2 2  ) = − ∫ τ dA − ∫ d ( PA ) ∫ d ( mV 1 1 s s 1 c Integration.. ( P2 − P1 ) = 1 ρV 2 2 ∆P 2 2 u = c f . (7-19). ∫ 2 1 2 ρ u 2 dAc = − ∫ τ sπ Ddx − ( PAc )2 − ( PAc )1  1 ∫ ρ u dA 2 c 2 1  − ρV 2 Ac = − ∫ c f  ρV 2  π Ddx − ( PAc )2 − ( PAc )1  1 2  where the wall shear stress has been replaced by the local friction coefficient from Eq. Further As ∫ rearrangement leads to where ρ = ( P2 − P1 ) = ∆P =  1 m 2  1 As 1  c + − 2    f . Kays. use of the continuity equation (7-3) and rearranging leads to  1  1  1 m 2 As  − = − − ( P2 − P1 ) Ac  m 2  c   f . Note the introduction of the mean friction coefficient from Eq. (7-20). Crawford. and dividing through by the dynamic pressure term yields Eq.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. For the case where x1 and x2 are both beyond the fully-developed location.m 2 ρ ρ ρ A A A 2 c  1 c   2 c  1 ρ dAs is the average density over the flow distance from x1 to x2. Rearranging. (713). x2. assuming constant density. and Weigand 15 where for a circular pipe dAs = π Ddx and Ac is the flow cross-sectional area. Now redefine τs in terms of the definition of cf from Eq. 4th Ed. Note the similarity to Eq. (7-10) when the flow is assumed to be fully-developed flow.m ρ Ac 2 Ac2   ρ 2 ρ1   .

(78). Note that a change in density will lead to a change in Reynolds number. If the velocity is uniform over the cross-sectional area. the velocity profile is given by Eq. such as in the subjects of thermodynamics or compressible flow.. then M x = ∫ udm = Vm = V ρV π rs2 = ρV 2π rs2 Comparing these two results. if we assumed a 1-dimensional flow approach we could not obtain the last term of Eq. defined from the continuity equation. we find that the actual momentum flow rate differs from the one-dimensional flow rate by a factor of 4/3. V= m ρ Ac where the density is assumed constant over the cross-section. 7-3 For fully-developed flow in a circular tube. when u(r) exists. Or. we assume there is a characteristic velocity that represents the flow cross-sectional area. (7-19). u ( r ) = V . Kays. and Weigand Here one can see the effect of density variation on the flow. 4th Ed. 2 rs M x = ∫ udm = ∫ ρ u 2π rdr = ∫ 2 0 rs 0   r 2  4 ρ  2V 1 −   2π rdr = ρV 2π rs2 3   rs 2   and the mass flow rate is given by   r 2  rs rs   m = ∫ dm = ∫ ρ u 2π rdr = ∫ ρ  2V  1 −   2π rdr = ρV π rs2 0 0   rs 2   When we talk about 1-dimensional flow. which represents the contribution to the pressure drop due to flow acceleration (kinetic energy change) as the profile changes shape from x1 to x2. (7-7). where the mean velocity is given by Eq. The momentum flow through a flow area is defined by the product of the mass flow rate through the cross-sectional area and the velocity component normal to that area. Crawford. then at a given xlocation M x = ∫ udm = ∫ ρ u 2 dAc M x ≠ Vm Therefore. . while neglecting the extra pressure drop in the entry region due to acceleration.16 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.

the theory will be m 1 + m 2 = 0.app for each tube (e) compute the pressure drop for each tube (f) iterate the mass flow of the larger tube until the pressure drops balance Answers: (a) mass flow rate for the larger tube is about 89% of the total mass flow (b) Re for the larger and smaller tubes will be about 820 and 200 respectively (c) pressure drop is about 15.app ⋅ Re = 17. and Weigand 7-4 17 For the 2 tubes in parallel between the two tanks.2 (c f Re )∞ = 19.2 cm 1 α* = 0. we can use Eq.1 4 ( ab ) 4 Ac 4a = = = 1. and c f . Note also.2 Pa (for each tube) note: for both flows Re ( x D ) < 6 or x + > 0. (7-21) for the pressure drop. find the value of c f .app  m ρVD  Re D = = µ D Ac  µ 4 x  m 2  4x c = 2  f .00013 kg / s ∆P1 = ∆P2 = ( 1 2 ) ρV 2 c f .67a a perimeter 2a + 2b 2 + 2 b  m  D ρVDh  Ac  h m (1.17 so the flow is fully-developed therefore.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Kays. α* = Dh = Re Dh b 1 cm = =5 a 0. this problem requires D to be replaced by Dh.67 m = = = = µ µ µb ( a ⋅ b) µ ..5 is ok to use 7-5 Note. Figure 7-7 is not needed. the assumption of fully-developed flow is made.67a ) 1. 4th Ed. Crawford. the hydraulic diameter. app D  2 ρ Ac  D = 4m πµ D The procedural steps will be: (a) arbitrarily select a mass flow rate for the larger tube (b) compute the Re for each tube (c) compute the parameter x + = ( x D ) Re for each tube (d) using Figure 7-7. For this problem. and Figure 7-4 can be used to determine ( c f Re ) for these rectangular heat exchanger passages.

9a  3 2 = 1. An alternative solution is to derive the velocity profile for pipe flow. Note that there will be no momentum flux difference into and out of the control volume because of the fully-developed assumption. τ rx ). (7-10).app ( 4 x  m 2  4x c = 2  f . 7-2.717 ) x   = 3   ρb ρb a13   a2       or m 2  a2  =  m 1  a1  3 2  1.18 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 4th Ed. (7-12). ∆P = ( ) ( ) m 12  c f Re Dh ∞ ( 0. Forming the ratio of Eq. the higher flow rate in the larger passage. Eq. (7-9). Applying this for r=rs gives Eq. assuming fully-developed flow. (7-11) gives Eq. 7-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq.35 A 10 percent oversize of one partition and a 10 percent undersize of an adjacent partition results in a 35 percent difference in the mass flow rates. Crawford. . (7-12). Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. 7-7 For the parallel-planes geometry y is measured from the centerline and the channel is of width a. Then forming the ratio of these shear stresses yields Eq.717 ) x  m 22  c f Re Dh ∞ ( 0. Eq.1a  =   0. (2-4) leads to the Eq. (7-12). (7-11). (7-8) and then form the shear stress for an arbitrary r location and at r=rs. Kays. Define a control volume. Identify all of the forces on the control volume surface (pressure and axial shear stress. because it applies to both laminar and turbulent pipe flow. for two parallel passages having the same pressure drop. (7-10) to Eq. app D  2 ρ Ac  D  m 2   c f Re Dh  = 2   2 ρ Ac   Re Dh ) ∞ ( )  4 x m 2 c f Re D ( 0. The appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-10). This is a very important result for internal flows.717 ) x h ∞  = D a 3b ρ  h  Thus. such as in Fig. and Weigand The pressure-drop for a passage becomes ∆P = ( 1 2 ) ρV 2 c f . Applying the momentum theorem Eq..

∂u ∂x = 0 and v=0. V= 1 Ac ∫ Ac u dAc = +a 2 1 a 2  dP  udy = −  12µ  dx  ( a ⋅1) ∫−a 2 Where the cross-sectional area is per unit depth. and apply the boundary conditions. following Eq. Kays.. namely a parabolic profile shape. (7-2) for the circular pipe. and Weigand ρu 19 dP ∂  ∂u  ∂u ∂u + ρv =− + µ  dx ∂y  ∂y  ∂x ∂y and for fully-developed flow. following Eq. du dy =0 and u y =± a 2 = 0 y =0 Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction. we create the mean velocity. Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields u 3 y2  = 1 − 4 2  V 2 a  Now evaluate the surface friction. Again. and noslip at the channel surfaces. leading to the parallel-planes channel velocity profile. (7-5) for constant density. (7-9). u= h2  y 2   dP  − 1 4   −  2µ  a 2   dx  Note the similarity to Eq. (7-7) for the circular pipe. 4th Ed. we can separate variables and integrate. reducing the momentum equation to an ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions dP d  du  = µ  dx dy  dy  with boundary conditions of velocity profile symmetry at the channel centerline. Next. note the similarity to Eq. Crawford. .Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.

considering the absolute value of the shear stress to preserve the fact that the surface shear is in the direction opposite of the flow. (7-13) to form the friction coefficient. u r =r = 0 i and u r =r = 0 o Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction. and r* is the radius ratio. (7-9) for the circular pipe. Comparing the result to Fig. The appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-11). ∂u ∂x = 0 and vr=0. 4th Ed. and Weigand τ y =h =τs = −6µV a Compare this result to Eq. Kays. leading to the annular channel velocity profile. shows ( c f Re )∞ = 24 . 7-4 implies hydrodynamically fully developed flow. Note that the “infinity” symbol” in Fig. and apply the boundary conditions. the radius ratio r * → 1 is the limiting geometry of the annulus when the inner and outer radii are almost the same. Note this is the geometry of journal bearings. 7-4 for α * = b a → ∞ (the parallel plate case where b  a . ρu ∂u ∂u dP 1 ∂  ∂u  + ρv r =− +  rµ  dx r ∂r  ∂r  ∂x ∂r and for fully-developed flow. Now follow the procedure of Eq. Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. ro is the radius of the outer pipe.20 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. reducing the momentum equation to an ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions dP 1 d  du  =  µr  dx r dr  dr  with boundary conditions of no-slip at the channel surfaces. τs = 6 µV ρV 2 = cf a 2 or cf = 12µ 24 = ρVa Re Dh where the hydraulic diameter in the Reynolds number is twice the plate spacing. 7-5. we can separate variables and integrate. ri is the radius of the inner pipe. Crawford.. r * = ri ro . In Fig. 7-8 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe. creating a parallel-planes geometry. .

Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 4th Ed. Kays. V= ( 2 1 Ac ∫ Ac u dAc = ro ro2  dP  1 2 M− u rdr π =  8µ  dx  π ( ro2 −i2 ) ∫ri ) where M = 1 + r * − B . there will be a peak in the velocity profile.. Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields an equation similar in form to Eq. For flow in the annular space between two concentric pipes. Crawford. we create the mean velocity. (8-26). following Eq. it is somewhat parabolic but it has an extra logarithmic term. (7-2) for the circular pipe However. 2 r  r  u 2  1 −   + Bln    = V M   ro   ro    We can also derive the maximum velocity for the profile by setting ∂u ∂r =0 r = rm where  1 − r *2  rm =  r =  * ro  2 ln(1/ r )  * m leading to 12 . and Weigand 21 2  r    dP  ro2   r  1 −   + Bln     − u=  4 µ   ro   ro    dx   where (r B= *2 ) −1 ln ( r * ) Note the approximate similarity to Eq. and it is located at rm (compared to the centerline for the pipe and parallel-planes channel). (7-7) for the circular pipe. (7-5) for constant density. Again. Next. note the approximate similarity to Eq.

22

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

(

*
*
*
umax 2 1 − rm + 2rm ln ( rm )
=
2
2
V
1 + r * − 2rm*
2

(

2

)

)

Now evaluate the surface friction for each surface, following Eq. (7-9), but with sign
convention that reflects the profile behavior for annular flow.

τ i = −µ
τ o = +µ

∂u
∂r
∂u
∂r

=

−2 µV  −2r * B 
+ 

M  ro
ri 

=

2 µV  −2 B 
 + 
M  ro ro 

r = ri

r = ro

and formulate an area-weighted average of the friction coefficient, based on the inner
surface, Ai, and the outer surface, Ao, described on p. 71

τ i Ai + τ o Ao
cf =

Ai + Ao
ρV 2 2

( riτ i + roτ o ) = 4µV
=
( ri + ro ) ρV 2 2 M

( 2r

*2

−B−2+B

( ri + ro ) ρV

)

2

Define the hydraulic diameter for the annulus, following Eq. (7-17), Dh = 2 ( ro − ri ) , and
transform the friction coefficient,
2
16
1 − r* )
12 µ M (
=
cf =
Re Dh
ρVh

The result can be directly compared to Fig. 7-5.
7-9 The data file for this problem is 7.9.dat.txt and the output file is 7.9.out.txt.
TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F, and the user’s manual for all internal laminar
flows is s30.man, which should be helpful to the new user. If you set up problem 7-9
following the instructions described in its problem statement, you should have a data set
similar to the s30.dat.txt file.
### 'title of data set'
7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
###
kgeom
neq
kstart
mode
ktmu
ktmtr
4
2
1
1
0
0
###
kbfor
jsor(1)
jsor(2)
jsor(3)
jsor(4)
jsor(5)
1
1
###
kfluid
kunits
1
1
###
po
rhoc
viscoc
amolwt
gam/cp

ktme
0

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###
###
###
###

###
###

###
###
###
###
###
###

101325.0
1.17700 1.838E-05
00.00
1005.00
prc(1)
prc(2)
prc(3)
prc(4)
prc(5)
0.707
nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)
6
0
nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)
6
1
x(m)
rw(m)
aux1(m)
aux2(m)
aux3(m)
0.0000000
0.0350
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.0350000
0.0350
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000
0.3500000
0.0350
0.2500
0.0000
0.0000
3.5000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
6.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
12.0000000
0.0350
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
ubI(m)
am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)
ubE(m)
am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00
0.000
310.0
xstart
xend
deltax
fra
enfra
0.0000000 12.000000
0.000
0.000 0.000E+00
kout
kspace
kdx
kent
8
50
1
0
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
0
0
0
0
20
0
k7
k8
k9
k10
k11
k12
0
0
0
0
0
0
axx
bxx
cxx
dxx
exx
fxx
gxx
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
dyi
rate
reyn
tref
tuapp
epsapp
twall
5.000E-04
0.0900
1000.00
300.0
0.0
0.00
300.0

Note, for the circular pipe geometry , the variable rw(m) is the wall radius.
Here is the 7.9.out.txt output file
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
Laminar flow in a circular pipe benchmark test
cf,theo = 16.0/re,dh
nu,theo = 3.66, based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp
re,dh = 1.0000E+03
prm =
.707
====================================================
intg
5
50
100
150
200
250

xplus
.00003
.00025
.00050
.00101
.00292
.00877

cf*re
137.95
55.81
43.41
34.33
25.29
19.78

uclr
1.037
1.104
1.144
1.200
1.330
1.556

xstar
.00004
.00035
.00071
.00143
.00413
.01240

nu
58.044
20.308
14.883
10.968
7.147
4.897

th,cl tm/ts ts
1.018 .968 3.100E+02
1.057 .969 3.100E+02
1.083 .970 3.100E+02
1.123 .971 3.100E+02
1.232 .974 3.100E+02
1.475 .978 3.100E+02

qflux
2.128E+02
7.170E+01
5.129E+01
3.645E+01
2.166E+01
1.229E+01

23

24

Solutions Manual
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

300
350
400
450
500
550
600
634

.01842
.03303
.05500
.08000
.10471
.12971
.15471
.17143

17.59
16.57
16.13
16.03
16.00
16.00
16.00
16.00

1.768
1.911
1.976
1.993
1.996
1.997
1.997
1.997

.02605
.04672
.07779
.11315
.14811
.18347
.21883
.24247

4.074
3.763
3.675
3.660
3.658
3.658
3.658
3.658

1.691
1.782
1.799
1.799
1.798
1.798
1.798
1.798

.983
.988
.992
.995
.997
.998
.999
.999

3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02
3.100E+02

8.051E+00
5.402E+00
3.335E+00
1.983E+00
1.192E+00
7.121E-01
4.256E-01
3.017E-01

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables
xplus

x Dh
Re Dh

inverse of denominator in Fig.7-7

cf2* re

c f Re

numerator in Fig.7-7

uclr

ucl V

ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat
transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that
7.9.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary
condition.
The three friction factor variations in the entry region that are depicted in Fig. 7-7 can be
verified with TEXSTAN. The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction
factor, cf . To obtain the mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be
integrated with respect to x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will
need to use more output points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by
increasing the kspace variable.
To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given
by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the
pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to
obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.9a.out.txt output file for
kout = 4,
TEXSTAN(academic)
dat: 7.9a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt
stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000
energy eqn: solved, no source terms
props: const
po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03
prc(je)=
.707
initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900
laminar flow
axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00
exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00
====================================================
initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00
note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]
input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)
Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03
Prandtl number=
.707
U,mean = 2.2309E-01
d,h = 7.0000E-02
viscom = 1.8380E-05
rhom = 1.1770E+00
====================================================

the developing shear layer (boundary layer) is a very small part of this mesh.341E-01 2.000E+00 0.000E+00 0. With external flows.763E+00 3.767E+00 1. Crawford.000E+00 0..013E-03 8.011E+00 2.500E+01 8.000E+00 0.790E-02 2.592E-01 cf2(I) 0.h 2.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0. so as the boundary layer grows.283E-03 8.997E+00 1.002E-03 8.658E+00 3.000E+00 cf2(E) 6.556E+00 1.000E-03 7.660E+00 3.296E-02 2.279E-01 3.658E+00 3.000E+00 25 nu(E) 5.000E+00 0. 7-6. (7-13) To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region for comparison with Fig.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.227E-02 6.047E+02 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.877E-01 2.999E-03 nu(I) 0. (7-21) cf2(E) (c f 2) rs local friction coefficient divided by 2.297E+02 1.171E-02 1.000E+00 0.714E+02 uclr 1. For internal flows. Making the stepsize proportional to the boundary layer thickness is not . the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables x/d.200E+00 1.145E-03 6. and therefore TEXSTAN must take very small flow-direction integration steps.067E-03 8.891E-03 8.000E+00 0. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station.280E-02 4.037E+00 1.547E+02 1.104E+00 1.074E+00 3.h x Dh x normalized by the hydraulic diameter uclr ucl V ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity delp ∆P see Eq.993E+00 1.000E+00 0.741E-02 1.500E-02 2.810E-01 3.097E+01 7.897E+00 4.000E+00 0.658E+00 3.000E+00 0. The controlling input variable is deltax.000E+00 0.629E-02 9. and Weigand intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 634 x/d.000E+00 0.303E+01 5.500E-01 5.000E+00 0.488E+01 1.911E+00 1.997E+00 delp 2. reset kout=4 and set k10=10.000E+00 0. Kays.000E-01 1.804E+01 2. which TEXSTAN does not have programmed into its differential equations).000E+01 1.405E-01 1.147E+00 4.000E+00 0. see Eq.330E+00 1. TEXSTAN’s integration stepsize is proportional to the boundary layer thickness.000E+00 0.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.999E-03 7.982E-03 1.717E-02 1.768E+00 1.658E+00 In this modified output.796E-03 8.144E+00 1. The variables in the output will include y(i) r radial location of the profile point u(i) u (r ) axial velocity y/y(E) r rs non-dimensional radius u/umean uV ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity Note: the x(m) distribution for internal flows is a bit tricky.898E-02 2. the stepsize automatically increases.356E-03 8.842E+01 3.918E+00 8. For entry flows.265E-02 9.031E+01 1.996E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.675E+00 3. because of how TEXSTAN is finite-differenced (or finite-volumed) for internal flows compared to external boundary layer flows.976E+00 1. the numerical mesh is required to extend from surface to centerline (or surface to surface).000E+00 0.997E+00 1. the numerical mesh extends from the surface to the free stream and automatically expands to preserve the requirement that all dependent variable profiles have zero gradient at the free stream (in the absence of flow-direction surface curvature. 4th Ed.

3) jbc(E. This ratio is a measure of fully-developed flow. 7-10 The data file for this problem is 7. we set the flag kdx=1.0000000 0.000 310.0000 0.3.0000 0.0175 1.1) jbc(E.26 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.1.1) jbc(I.2) jbc(E.dat.2.3500000 3.man.00 0.4.0000 1. Kays.m) fj(E.00 0.0175 1.txt.3.707 ### nxbc(I) jbc(I.0 1.0000000 rw(m) 0.txt file.0175 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0100 0. ### 'title of data set' 7.00 1005.0 0.m) fj(I.00 0. This is also discussed in some detail in the s30.m) fj(E. The user needs to be careful when changing the input data set to preserve how the integration stepsize changes. 7-7. Crawford.0000 0.5) 5 1 ### x(m) rw(m) aux1(m) aux2(m) aux3(m) 0.000 0.00 0.dat.5.3500000 0.m) 0.0100 0.00 0.dat.17700 1. and input “deltax” using the array aux1(m). as depicted by Fig. If you set up problem 7-10 following the instructions described in its problem statement.000 0.2.000 0.0 0.0350 0.4) jbc(I. internal entry flows require a different stepsize mechanism.0 0.m) fj(I.lam entry flow .0000000 0.000 310.0000 0.00 0.0350 0.0000 0.txt and the output file is 7.00 0.2500 0.5000000 0.0 .1.0000 6.00 ### prc(1) prc(2) prc(3) prc(4) prc(5) 0..0000 1.parallel planes .0000 aux3(m) 0. you should have a data set similar to the s50.0175 0.00 0.2) jbc(I.0000 0.10.4) jbc(E.0000 0.0100 0.0175 0.0350 aux1(m) 0.0350000 0.txt .838E-05 00.4.0350 0. ### x(m) 0. This is why the user sees a peculiar x(m) distribution.0000 0.5.0350 0.10.2500 1.3) jbc(I.0000 0.0000 0. you will find the stepsize is controlled to match the logarithmic change of friction in the entry region.5) 5 0 ### nxbc(E) jbc(E.0000 ### ubI(m) am(I.0350 0.0000 0.0000000 0.0000 0.0350000 0.0000 3.0 0.0000 0.0000 If you take these x(m) values and convert them to x + = ( x Dh ) Re Dh . and the accompanying aux1(m) values.0000 0.txt ### kgeom neq kstart mode ktmu ktmtr ktme 5 2 1 1 0 0 0 ### kbfor jsor(1) jsor(2) jsor(3) jsor(4) jsor(5) 1 1 ### kfluid kunits 1 1 ### po rhoc viscoc amolwt gam/cp 101325.000 310.0000 0.m) fj(E. Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ≤ ucl/V ≤ 2.0000 aux2(m) 0.m) ### ubE(m) am(E.10.m) fj(I.0000 0. Instead of using deltax.out. and Weigand convenient.5000000 6.000 0.000 310.0 0.m) fj(I. Therefore.m) fj(E.based on s50.m) fj(E. 4th Ed.0100 0.dat.m) fj(I.0000000 12.0 0.0 0.

00419 .0 xstart xend deltax fra enfra 0.99 uclr 1.00901 .0000E+00 cxx= 0.319 .00050 .538 7.998 3.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 7.17700E+00 vis= 1. and Weigand ### ### ### ### ### ### 0.990 3. Here is the 7.theo = 7.202 1.500 1.999 3.54.75 24.306 .99 23.372E+00 5.707 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 920 xplus .100E+02 1.100E+02 1.01275 .00144 .20 24.00102 .100E+02 1.08571 cf*re 192.000 energy eqn: solved.394E+01 5.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.0900 1000.500 1.07885 .0 0.850E+00 2.10.0000E+00 dxx= 0.dh = 1.05 51.100E+02 1.100E+02 1.000E-04 rate= .319 .319 .100E+02 1.11422 .00071 .319 .676E+01 6.500 1.04376 .319 .607 7.0 0.984 3.321 .00038 .100E+02 1.997 3.based on s50.08075 .319 .925E+01 4.00018 .993 3.111E+01 8.970 3. the variable rw(m) is half the plate spacing (centerline to surface).000E+00 0.00013 .00296 .538 7.12124 nu 82.00001 .399E+01 1.703E+01 1.010 to dx= 1.074 .dat.txt stepsize: var from dx= .321 .046E+02 1.000E+00 0.99 23.646E+01 2.643 29.03603 .05 29.999 3.0000E+00 fxx= 0.00002 . the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables 27 .10.02547 .05575 .041 .00 0.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.0000E+03 prm = .0000E+00 gxx= 0.126 1.47 37.319 .257 1..000 310.084E+01 1.00096 .133 .498 1.00 23.100E+02 1.782 18.977 3.104 .06190 .00238 .31 46.538 7.250 .02661 .00025 .cl tm/ts ts 1.087 . no source terms props: const po= 1.104 1.00770 .972 3.100E+02 1.537 7.100E+02 1.993 7.000E+00 0.541 7. for the parallel-planes geometry and the assumption of symmetry (kgeom=5).059 .362E+00 8.013 .970 3.500 xstar .parallel planes .01896 .015E-01 6.000E+00 0.01341 .0000E+00 exx= 0.69 33.493E-01 In the output.00035 .100E+02 1.33 59. Kays.538 7.21 24.026 1.01881 .99 23.lam entry flow .100E+02 1.538 7.00168 .499 1.000E+00 kout kspace kdx kent 8 50 1 0 k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 0 0 0 0 20 0 k7 k8 k9 k10 k11 k12 0 0 0 0 0 0 axx bxx cxx dxx exx fxx gxx 0.981 3. Crawford.386 14.01325E+05 den= 1.126E+01 3.000 0.dat.06825 . based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp re. 4th Ed.00068 .319 .144 1.0000000 6.13 76.txt .100E+02 1.975 3.04762 .973 3.000E+00 0.625E+01 4.0 Note.578 8.100E+02 1.538 th.000000 0.473 1.395 21.99 23.996 3.0/re.00500E+03 prc(je)= .theo = 24.499 1.00 0.00 300.338E+01 2.970 3.527 10.99 23.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.166 1.00053 .000E+00 dyi rate reyn tref tuapp epsapp twall 5.100E+02 1.422 1.00 300.100E+02 1.493 1.910E+00 3.971 3.500 1.100E+02 1.0000E+00 ==================================================== Laminar flow between parallel plates benchmark cf.987 3.000 0.000 0.09653 .03 24.315E+00 1.03367 .182 .400 16.075 1.dh nu.968 3.68 42.100E+02 qflux 3.0 0.00544 .538 7.100E+02 1.570 12.969 3.964 7.707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.054E+02 7.000E-04 0.out.000E+00 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.12 26.335 1.100E+02 1.

txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition on each surface (thermal symmetry). Crawford.txt .000E+00 0.000E+00 0. The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor. Note that 7.0000E+03 Prandtl number= .000E+00 0.h 1.816E-02 2.28 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.012E+00 uclr 1.104E+00 1.lam entry flow .257E+00 1.123E-02 1..250E-02 1. (7-21). The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value) Reynolds number= 1.264E+01 2.018E+00 1.443E+00 9.txt output file for kout = 4.000E+00 0. Kays. Here is the 7.993E+00 7.out.0000E+00 bxx= 0.202E+00 1.000E+00 cf2(E) 9.964E+00 5.307E-02 1.456E-02 1. Note the user will need to use more output points for accurate integration.566E-02 2.dat. the user will need to increase kspace to obtain enough points to see the pressure variation.0000E+00 ==================================================== initial pressure = 1.dat. cf .607E+00 .mean = 2.707 U.0133E+05 at x= 0. and Weigand xplus x Dh Re Dh cf * re c f Re Dh uclr ucl V ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity Note.2309E-01 d.0000E+00 exx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.10a. cf.parallel planes .126E+00 1.953E-02 2.m.000 energy eqn: solved.000E-01 6.075E+00 1.10a.166E+00 1.000E+00 0.518E-03 4.010 to dx= 1.422E+00 1.h = 7.0000E+00 fxx= 0.dat.178E+01 1.0000E+00 dxx= 0.250E-01 2.750E-01 5. the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to x (the flow direction) following Eq.940E+01 2.0000E+00 gxx= 0.799E-03 9.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.964E+00 7.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.359E-03 7. Again.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.01325E+05 den= 1.457E+01 1.639E+01 1.058E+01 8.000E+00 0.txt stepsize: var from dx= .000E+00 0.000E+00 0.707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.680E+00 2.447E-02 cf2(I) 0.000E+00 0.473E+00 delp 1.10.026E-03 1.328E-02 3.000E+00 0. (7-20).000E+00 nu(E) 8.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.653E-02 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.707E-02 2.0000E-02 viscom = 1. there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.144E+00 1.000E-04 rate= .884E-02 1. To obtain the mean friction coefficient.761E-01 1. To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used.055E-02 1.290E-02 4.based on s50.334E-02 2.00500E+03 prc(je)= .026E+00 1.335E+00 1.0000E+00 note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)] input Reynolds number= 1. as given by Eq. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace variable.500E-01 3. TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 7.237E-02 nu(I) 0.1770E+00 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 x/d. no source terms props: const po= 1.8380E-05 rhom = 1. 4th Ed.607E-02 3.253E+01 1. The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the pressure variation in the flow direction.505E-03 6.000E+00 0.311E-02 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.840E+01 1.

7-11 The data file for this problem is 7.538E+00 7. If you set up problem 7-11 following the instructions described in its problem statement.000E+00 0.434E-01 1. see Eq. (7-21) cf2(E) (c f 2) rs local friction coefficient divided by 2.538E+00 In this output.out. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables x/d.500E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.499E+00 1.000E+00 0.493E+00 1.210E-02 1.538E+00 7.000E+00 0.541E+00 7. and Weigand 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 920 1. Crawford.149E-01 1.376E+01 5.11.500E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.571E+01 1.11.538E+00 7.290E-02 9.11.dat.200E-02 1.498E+00 1.500E+00 1.367E+01 4.000E+00 0.173E-02 1. ### 'title of data set' 7.771E-01 2.825E+01 8.txt and the output file is 7. This ratio is a measure of fully-developed flow.474E-01 2.txt file.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this data set.499E+00 1. (7-13) To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4 and set k10=11.r*=0.200E-02 1.547E+01 3.based on s60.lam entry flow .dat.200E-02 1. 4th Ed.341E+01 1.538E+00 7.000E+00 0.500E+00 1.202E-02 1.txt .538E+00 7.000E+00 0.881E+01 2.txt ### kgeom neq kstart mode ktmu ktmtr 7 2 1 1 0 0 ### kbfor jsor(1) jsor(2) jsor(3) jsor(4) jsor(5) 1 1 ### kfluid kunits 1 1 ### po rhoc viscoc amolwt gam/cp ktme 0 . you should have a data set similar to the s60. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station.123E-01 2.575E+01 6.500E+00 5.dat.txt..746E-02 7.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 29 7. The variables in the output will include y(i) y location of the profile point u(i) u ( y) axial velocity y/y(E) y ycl ratio y -location to centerline u/umean uV ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in the solution to problem 7-9.200E-02 1.h x Dh uclr ucl V ratio of centerline velocity to mean velocity delp ∆P see Eq..614E-01 0. Kays.5 annulus .538E+00 7.200E-02 1.000E+00 0.200E-02 0.537E+00 7.000E+00 0.5.dat.000E+00 0.075E+01 8. Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ≤ ucl/V ≤ 1.000E+00 1.200E-02 1.

4) jbc(E. 4th Ed.0000 0.3) jbc(I.0900 1.0 310.117 74.0000 0.m) fj(I..949 28.0 310.5.00 prc(4) 1005.0350 0.707 nxbc(I) jbc(I.000 0.0 0.0 310.4) jbc(I.0 1.0 310.000E+00 0.019 30.5) aux1(m) aux2(m) aux3(m) 0.00 0.00013 79.0350 0.m) fj(E.dh = 1.723 21.txt stepsize: var from dx= .704 nu(E) 81.0000 fj(I.0350 0.0000000 0.143 49.853 .859/re.000 energy eqn: solved.00 prc(5) jbc(I.441 (I) and 6.5) jbc(E.705 23.0000000 0. r* = 0.0 310.00 0.5000000 0. for the annulus geometry and the assumption .401 (E) w/ const wall temp re.0350000 0.1) 5 1 x(m) rw(m) 0.0000 0.0000E+00 exx= 0.1.000000 kout kspace 8 50 k1 k2 0 0 k7 k8 0 0 axx bxx 0.11.00053 .000E+00 0.2.0350 0.m) 310.715 15.000 xstart xend 0.0 310. Kays.00018 .0100 0. benchmark for annulus with radius ratio r*=0.719/re.000E+00 dyi rate 5.0 deltax fra enfra 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.01325E+05 den= 1.0350 0.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.707 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 xplus cf*re(I) cf*re(E) .0350 0.838E-05 prc(3) 00.5.0100 0.m) 0.dat.864 57.0000E+03 prm = .3.2) jbc(I.092 19.000E+00 0.0 Note.17700 prc(1) prc(2) 0.000 0.000E+00 0. leading to r* = ro ri = ( 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.dat.dh (E) nu.00035 .0350 3.theo = 9.899 .m) fj(I.00071 nu(I) 84.0000000 6.000E-04 0.000E+00 0.713 17.0 0.00 300.3500000 0.707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5. and Weigand 101325.00 0. Crawford.txt .053 190.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 7.010 to dx= 1.035 = 0.out.m) fj(E.m) fj(E.0 0. Here is the 7.695 .00 0.lam entry flow .00 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.000 0.m) ubE(m) am(E.1.00 0.000E-04 rate= .4.00 0.656 .00038 54.0350 0.m) fj(I.00050 49.035 + 0.3) jbc(E.0000 0.0000E+00 ==================================================== Laminar flow in an annulus.00025 61.based on s60.1) 5 1 nxbc(E) jbc(E.5.0 310.4.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.2.0 0.525 45.0 0.3.202 xstar .104 17.m) fj(E.dh (I) and 21.5 ).000 0.0000 1. the variable rw(m) is the inner radius and aux2(m) is the annular separation (the outer radius will be the sum of rw(m) and aux2(m).035 ) 0.0 0.m) fj(I.00002 .00500E+03 prc(je)= .00 0.r*=0.000 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.17700E+00 vis= 1.000E+00 reyn tref tuapp epsapp twall 1000.00 300.theo = 27.000 0.0350 ubI(m) am(I. no source terms props: const po= 1.0350 6.5: cf.11.609 .00 0.5 annulus .0000E+00 gxx= 0.000E+00 kdx kent 1 0 k3 k4 k5 k6 0 0 20 0 k9 k10 k11 k12 0 0 0 0 cxx dxx exx fxx gxx 0.2) jbc(E.0 310.00 0.0 310.00001 195.30 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.2500 0.0000 1.m) fj(E.0 0.

413 9.11a. The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the pressure variation in the flow direction.437 9.951 10..010 to dx= 1.00102 .01275 .341 40.415 6.403 6. Here is the 7.855 21.0000E+00 cxx= 0.437 9.00419 .431 9.202 7.868 21.12124 15.458 6.241 29.5 annulus .853 .707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5. cf.00238 . The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN. Kays.975 36. Note that 7. cf . Note the user will need to use more output points for accurate integration.11.07885 .09653 . To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used.04762 .txt stepsize: var from dx= .01325E+05 den= 1.251 27. as given by Eq.00144 .00168 .01881 .03603 .708 27.608 36.465 24.00296 .00901 .475 27.437 9.05575 .11422 .827 27.0000E+00 ==================================================== initial pressure = 1.929 21.814 9.dat.399 6.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.0133E+05 at x= 0.00068 .604 6. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace variable.853 21.853 21. 4th Ed.437 31 13.08571 45.0000E+00 fxx= 0.166 31. Again.045 32.17700E+00 vis= 1.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition on each surface.872 11. and Weigand 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 920 .83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.530 9. the user will need to increase kspace to obtain enough points to see the pressure variation.708 27. To obtain the mean friction coefficient.0000E+00 bxx= 0.00544 .04376 . Crawford.txt .03367 .429 22.854 21. TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 7.437 9.0000E+00 .08075 .708 27.400 6.723 27.708 27.076 6. (7-21).00770 .895 13.06825 .02661 .0000E+00 gxx= 0.368 9.708 27.000E-04 rate= .01896 .431 9.0000E+00 exx= 0.853 21.000 energy eqn: solved. the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to x (the flow direction) following Eq.436 9.822 22. there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.00096 .based on s60.521 28.00500E+03 prc(je)= .m.709 27.837 8. (7-20).11a.r*=0.dat. The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor.txt output file for kout = 4. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables xplus x Dh Re Dh cf * re(I) c f Re Dh I-surface is located at ri cf * re(E) c f Re Dh E-surface is located at ro Note.158 21.dat.01341 .lam entry flow . no source terms props: const po= 1.06190 .399 6.02547 .868 11.0000E+00 dxx= 0.708 40.328 9.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.399 6.399 6.399 In the output.

612E-02 1.498E+00 1. see Eq.707E-02 2. Crawford.029E-03 1.772E+01 1.049E-02 1.341E+01 1.093E-02 1..837E+00 8.293E-02 4.971E+01 1.385E-02 1.748E-02 7. local friction coefficient divided by 2.309E+01 1.0000E+03 Prandtl number= .451E-02 5.181E+01 9.506E-03 6.385E-02 1.399E+00 6.093E-02 nu(I) 8.368E+00 9.126E+00 1.507E+00 1.308E-02 1.801E-03 9.533E-02 3.753E-02 3.373E-02 1.387E+01 1.361E-03 7.8380E-05 rhom = 1.413E+00 9.437E+00 9.0000E-02 viscom = 1.437E+00 9.708E-02 2.574E-02 1.575E+01 6.330E-02 3.437E+00 nu(E) 8.956E-02 3.257E+00 1.385E-02 1.413E-02 1.110E+01 1.145E-01 1.598E-01 cf2(I) 9.030E-02 1.093E-02 1.400E+00 6.104E+00 1.155E-02 1.680E+00 2.250E-01 2.825E+01 8.507E+00 1.260E-02 2.590E+01 1. see Eq.507E+00 1.1770E+00 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 920 x/d.026E+00 1.202E+00 1. (7-21) f 2) f 2) at ri .096E-02 1. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this data set.093E-02 1. Kays.964E+00 5.070E+01 2. .507E+00 1.385E-02 cf2(E) 9.476E-02 1.570E+01 1.399E+00 6.385E-02 1.872E+01 2.328E+00 9. and Weigand note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)] input Reynolds number= 1.808E-02 1.32 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.428E-01 1.166E+00 1.493E-02 2.707 U.763E-01 2.391E-02 1. (7-13) ri at ro .386E-02 1.267E-02 2.093E-02 1.750E-01 5.458E+00 6.221E-02 1. local friction coefficient divided by 2.000E-01 6.2309E-01 d.093E-02 2.250E-02 1.437E+00 9.530E+00 9.385E-02 1.387E+01 1.141E-02 1.402E+01 3.477E+00 1.018E+00 1.761E-01 1.195E+01 1.h 1.075E+00 1.144E+00 1.h x Dh meaningless variable for flow in annulus uclr delp cf2(I) cf2(E) ∆P (c (c see Eq.385E-02 1. (7-13) ro To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4 and set k10=11.423E+00 1.076E+00 6.093E-02 1.881E+01 2.h = 7.506E+00 1.284E-02 9.012E+00 1.111E-01 2. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station.505E+00 1.075E+01 8.507E+00 1.518E-03 4. 4th Ed.443E+00 9.802E-02 1.880E-02 2.604E+00 6.500E-01 3.202E+00 7.108E-02 1.399E+00 In this modified output.403E+00 6.436E+00 9.476E-02 2.431E+00 9.770E+01 1.195E+01 2.415E+00 6.460E-01 2.507E+00 delp 1.376E+01 5.056E-02 1.437E+00 9.745E-02 2.399E+00 6.399E+00 6.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value) Reynolds number= 1.547E+01 3.571E+01 uclr 1.mean = 2.367E+01 4. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables x/d.043E+01 9.335E+00 1.093E-02 1. The variables in the output will include y(i) y location of the profile point u(i) u ( y) axial velocity y/y(E) y ycl ratio y -location to centerline u/umean uV ratio of axial velocity to mean velocity Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in the solution to problem 7-9.

Kays. See the solution to problem 7-8 for the theoretical value for this maximum velocity and it’s location. Crawford.. The student can find the maximum velocity within the annulus and plot this ratio as a measure of fully-developed flow.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 4th Ed. . and Weigand 33 Correction: the request to plot the ratio ucl/V is not meaningful for the annulus problem.

Note that we have implied a sign convention such that a positive heat flux is in the +y direction (into the fluid from surface 1 or out of the fluid from surface 2) and a negative heat flux is in the –y direction (out of the fluid from surface 1 or into the fluid from surface 2).34 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Assume steady laminar flow with constant properties. That is.  dTm  q1′′ + q2′′  =  dx  a ρVc To obtain a solution for the Nusselt numbers on each surface. 8-3 for a curricular pipe. v=0 and from Eq. (8-7) ∂T ∂x = dTm dx and the energy equation becomes ∂ 2T u dTm 3V dTm  y2  = = 1 − 4 2  ∂y 2 α dx 2α dx  a  which integrates to yield T ( y) = 3V dTm  y 2 y 4   −  + C1 y + C2 2α dx  2 3a 2  Now. the solution. Split the solution into the linear sum of two problems. and let the heat flux into the 2-surface be q2′′ . 4th Ed. For this coordinate system. neglecting viscous dissipation. the most straightforward approach is to apply a superposition idea because the two boundary conditions are both Neumann or Type 2 from a differential equation point of view. carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow. the velocity profile has been derived in problem 7-7. This solution is derived based on the origin y = 0 located on the channel centerline. and Weigand Chapter 8 INCOMPLETE 8-1 Let the plate spacing be a. Equation (4-39 is ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T u +v =α 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y For thermally fully-developed flow. u 3 y2  = 1 − 4 2  V 2 a  Now consider the energy equation. Let the heat flux into the 1-surface be q1′′ and it’s corresponding surface temperature be T1. . Crawford. Kays. and assuming constant properties for an ideal gas and steady state.. and it’s corresponding surface temperature be T2. only C1 can be resolved. similar to that depicted in Fig.

2 and where dt1 dx y =+ a 2 dt2 dx y =− a 2 =0 and t1 =0 and t2 y =− a 2 y =+ a 2 = ts .1 yields tm . Kays.1 2 a 140 α dx Now.1  y 2 y 4 1 13 2   − 2 − ay − a  2α dx  2 3a 3 48  t2 = t2.2 yields 26 q1′′a 70 k . with heating only on surface 1.2 Now solve for t1 and t2.2  y 2 y 4 1 13 2   − 2 + ay − a  2α dx  2 3a 3 48  Now compute the mass-averaged fluid temperatures for these two solutions following Eq. (8-5).  dtm .Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. s − 52 V dtm.1  y 2 y 4 1 13   y2   1 4 V t − + − 2 − ay − a 2   ( dy ⋅1)     1. t1 = t1. carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow.1 = +a 2 3  1 3V dtm .1 = ts .1  q1′′  =  dx  a ρVc Substitution of this into the formulation for tm. 4th Ed. s + 3V dtm. s 2 ∫ 2α dx  2 3a 3 48   V ( a ⋅1) − a 2 2  a  = t1. s + 3V dtm . and Weigand T = t1 + t2 35 Tm = tm . s − Carrying out the same procedure for tm. tm .1 = t1.1 + tm . Crawford..

1 + ts . Nu1 = 17.1 − Tm ) k 26 q1′′ − 9 q2′′ 13 − 9 q2′′ 35 35 70 140 q1′′ 5. s + t2.79 .37 and Nu 2 = 5.1 = T y =− a 2 Ts .5 and Nu 2 = 6. Nu1 = = h1 Dh 2a 4q1′′ 1 q1′′ = = = k (Ts.2 = t2.2 − q1′′ 2k = ts . we formulate the Nusselt numbers for each surface.36 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.51 and for the case where the heating on surface 2 is five times (5x) the heating on surface 1.2 = T y =+ a 2 a q2′′ 2k a = ts .1 + ts . 4th Ed.385 1 − 0. Nu1 = −7. s − 26 a ( q1′′ + q2′′ ) 70 k Now evaluate the surface temperatures in terms of the superposition temperatures. Ts . s + ( q1 + q2 )  − 2 − a  − ( q1′′ − q2′′ ) ay  2ka  3   2 3a 48  Tm = t1. following the same idea Nu 2 = h2 Dh 5.. s − 26 q2′′a 70 k and thus the superposition formulations become  y 2 y 4 13 2  3  1  ′′ ′′   T = t1. Crawford. For surface 1. where the heating on surface 2 is two times (2x) the heating on surface 1. s + t2.2 − Finally. and Weigand tm .385 = q ′′ k 1 − 0.346 q2′′ q1′′ and for surface 2.346 1 q2′′ For this problem. Kays.

compare to the development on page 94. So. For parallel planes.txt can be used to confirm h. Tm. For the E-surface. the rate equations for conduction (Fourier’s law) and for convection (Newton’s law of cooling) are qs′′ = + k ∂T ∂y E − surface = h (Ts − Tm ) E − surface and Nu E − surface = hDh k E − surface Note the change in sign convention to match the TEXSTAN requirement that positive heat flux is into the fluid (similar to first-law thermodynamic ideas). and Nu values for the E-surface. Nu1 becomes infinite. So. we need to review how TEXSTAN is set up for heat transfer with regard to sign convention.1-Tm) has become zero. . For the I-surface. Tm.9 . when the heat flux boundary condition is specified by the user as a positive number. the heat will be into the fluid.txt can be used to confirm h. r* = 1 and both influence coefficients are 0. and a positive Nu value. First. Ts. and we will expect Ts>Tm. and we will expect Ts>Tm. but rather it is set by a thermal boundary condition on the “other side of one of the surfaces”. and the output file out. the heat will be into the fluid. Ts. TEXSTAN is programmed such that positive heat flux is into the fluid from both the I-surface and from the Esurface surface for planar geometries (kgeom=5 or =6) and for annular geometries (kgeom=7 where the I-surface is ri and the E-surface is ro). dT dy < 0 . For planar geometries +y is defined from the I-surface. and Nu values for the Isurface. Note that a flux-flux boundary condition problem does not have a unique temperature level. and Weigand 37 To verify the solution.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature profiles T(y) to confirm the wall heat flux calculation. When the heat flux ratio q2′′ q1′′ = 26 9 ≈ 2. and the output file out. when the heat flux boundary condition is specified by the user as a positive number. dT dy > 0 . This solution can be verified with TEXSTAN. TEXSTAN output file ftn84. and for larger heat flux ratios the mean temperature exceeds the surface-1 temperature. +r is defined from the I-surface.346. the rate equations for conduction (Fourier’s law) and for convection (Newton’s law of cooling) are qs′′ = −k ∂T ∂y I − surface = h (Ts − Tm ) I − surface and Nu I − surface = hDh k I − surface TEXSTAN output file ftn83.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature profiles T(y) to confirm the wall heat flux calculation. and Table 8-1.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and for annular geometries. and a positive Nu value. Kays. The solution for this problem can also be carried out without strictly considering linear superposition. 4th Ed. indicating that (Ts.. Crawford.

0350 1.000E-04 0.000E+00 kent 0 k4 k5 k6 0 20 0 k10 k11 k12 0 0 0 dxx exx fxx gxx 0.2) 6 2 ### nxbc(E) jbc(E.000E+00 0.0 0.000E+00 0.txt.0 0.0000 fj(I. .000E+00 ### dyi rate reyn 5.0 0.0000 6.0 ### xstart xend deltax 0. choose 8.0000 ### ubI(m) am(I.000 40.0 0.000E+00 0. This low level of heat flux gives realistic temperature differences for the constantproperty assumption.000000 0.m) fj(E.0000 0.0 0.1) jbc(I. The overall fluid temperature level of this problem is determined by choosing the temperature at the entrance to the channel.0000 0.0350 1.0000 9.000 40.m) fj(I.0 20.5) aux2(m) aux3(m) 0.00 0.0 0.m) fj(I.0350000 0.00 0.5000000 0.0 0. so the problem statement of a 2x heating for the upper surface requires q ′′y =+ a 2 = +40 W/m 2 .00 0.1) jbc(E.1 with TEXSTAN.000E+00 0.00 0.0 0.m) fj(E. regardless of level of heat flux (just as setting jsor(1)=1 suppresses viscous dissipation effects regardless of fluid flow velocity).000 40. even though setting kfluid=1 forces TEXSTAN to compute constant properties.0 20.3) jbc(E.707 ### nxbc(I) jbc(I.00 0.0 20.m) 0.0350 0.0100 0.1.lam ht .txt file (with the flux level for the E-surface changed).parallel ### kgeom neq kstart 6 2 1 ### kbfor jsor(1) jsor(2) 1 1 ### kfluid kunits 1 1 ### po rhoc viscoc 101325.38 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.m) ### ubE(m) am(E.0000 0.2.0000 0.1-two.m) fj(I.based on s516.m) fj(E.0000000 9.m) fj(E.0000 0.0350 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000000 0.3) jbc(I.0000000 0.4) jbc(E.000E+00 0.00 0.3500000 0.0 0.00 0.0000 0.5.1.0 20.00 0.0 0.4.4) jbc(I.3.0100 0.00 0. 4th Ed. The input file is: ### 'title of data set' 8. If you set up the input data set following the instructions described in its problem statement.0900 1000.000E+00 tref tuapp epsapp twall 300.m) fj(I.17700 1.5. Kays.000 40.0350 0..00 prc(4) gam/cp 1005.00 prc(5) jbc(I.000 0.2500 3.0000 0.1-two.0350 0.000 40.dat.dat.0 0.0000 0.m) fj(E.5) jbc(E.00 0.000 40.3.0000 0.0 20.0 0.2) 6 2 ### x(m) rw(m) aux1(m) 0. and Weigand To verify the solution to problem 8.00 plates .4.0 Note we arbitrarily chose the lower surface heat flux to be q ′′y =− a 2 = +20 W/m 2 .2.00 300. you should have a data set similar to the s516.0 1.0000000 0.dat data set mode ktmu ktmtr ktme 1 0 0 0 jsor(3) jsor(4) jsor(5) amolwt 00.dat.m) fra enfra 0.00 0.000 ### kout kspace kdx 4 50 1 ### k1 k2 k3 0 0 0 ### k7 k8 k9 0 0 0 ### axx bxx cxx 0.00 0. Crawford.0 0.txt .0 20.838E-05 ### prc(1) prc(2) prc(3) 0.

825E+01 8.771E-01 2.511E+00 In this output.0000E+00 bxx= 0.714E+01 1.341E+01 1.200E-02 1.0000E-02 viscom = 1.dat data set stepsize: var from dx= .307E-02 1.499E+00 1.200E-02 1.200E-02 1.h = 7.123E-01 2.200E-02 1.518E-03 4.315E+01 1.1-two. and from observing the output.653E-02 1.200E-02 1.499E+00 1. (8-28) nu(E) Nu y =+ a 2 local Nusselt number.335E+00 1.680E+00 2. calculating the thermal entry region.447E-02 5.511E+00 6.mean = 2.200E-02 1.645E+00 6.026E+00 1.200E-02 1.498E+00 1.514E+00 6.0000E+00 dxx= 0.881E+01 1.665E+01 1.881E+01 2.0000E+00 ==================================================== initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.837E+00 7.250E-01 2.0000E+00 cxx= 0.166E+00 1.110E+01 1.1-two.953E-02 2.443E+01 1.182E+02 1.499E+00 1. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables x/d.799E-03 9. Here is the 8.505E-03 6.123E-02 1.499E+00 1.188E+01 1.735E+01 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.200E-02 1.237E-02 1. 4th Ed.237E-02 1.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.547E+01 3.816E-02 2.367E+01 4. (8-28) The corresponding fluid mechanic variables are defined in the problem solutions for Chapter 7.499E+00 1.578E+01 1.200E-02 cf2(E) 9.067E+01 8.026E-03 1. no source terms props: const po= 1.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 8.976E+01 2.748E+01 1.746E-02 7.376E+01 5.824E-01 3.210E-02 1.816E-02 2.00500E+03 prc(je)= .750E-01 5.989E+01 1.1770E+00 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 x/d.743E+01 1.257E+00 1.104E+00 1.txt .884E-02 1.057E+02 1.lam ht .out. the flow becomes .227E+02 4.421E+01 2.953E-02 2.055E-02 1.200E-02 nu(I) 1.200E-02 1.473E+00 1.202E-02 1.707E-02 2. Note that the solution starts from the entry to the channel (kstart=1).200E-02 1.200E-02 1.499E+00 1.572E+00 6.200E-02 1.500E-01 3.250E-02 1.200E-02 1.8380E-05 rhom = 1.dat.200E-02 1.748E+01 1.708E+01 1.239E+01 1.0000E+03 Prandtl number= .434E-01 1.01325E+05 den= 1.2309E-01 d.812E+00 7.321E+01 1.591E+01 1.010 to dx= 1.761E-01 1.173E-02 1.123E-02 1.000E-01 6.012E+00 1.707 U.h x Dh nu(I) Nu y =− a 2 local Nusselt number.707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.474E-01 2.176E-01 3.818E-01 cf2(I) 9.607E-02 3.309E+01 1.456E-02 1.233E+01 1.328E-02 3.202E+00 1.455E+01 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.0000E+00 note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)] input Reynolds number= 1.290E-02 4.126E+00 1.520E+00 6.200E-02 1. above Eq.286E+02 uclr 1.499E+00 1.parallel plates .566E-02 2.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.499E+00 1.107E+01 1.964E+00 5.200E-02 1.748E+01 nu(E) 1.0000E+00 exx= 0.202E-02 1.518E+01 2. and Weigand 39 and for a flat entrance profile (kstart=1).499E+00 1..884E-02 1.334E-02 2.278E+00 6.144E+00 1.210E-02 1.0000E+00 gxx= 0.311E-02 1.566E-02 2.062E+01 2.000E-04 rate= .219E+02 3.492E+00 1.499E+00 delp 1.511E+00 6.334E-02 2.607E-02 3.000 energy eqn: solved.based on s516.527E-01 3. above Eq.575E+01 6.746E+01 1. Crawford.653E-02 1.290E-02 9.018E+00 1.456E-02 1.075E+00 1.966E+00 6.422E+00 1.200E-02 1.075E+01 9.990E+01 2.769E+00 6. Kays.535E+00 6.898E+01 2.359E-03 7.200E-02 1.512E+00 6.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value) Reynolds number= 1.443E+00 9.149E-01 1. the variables twall=tref=300K were arbitrarily chosen.137E+01 1.h 1.311E-02 1.

2857137E+02 6.txt).2848E+02 3.5247E+00 6. Kays. this does not imply a heat flux into the fluid. x D. The output file (8.2150E+00 6. and Weigand thermally fully developed within about 95% at about x D.1two. is intg x/dh htc qflux tmean twall 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 4.3672E+02 3.3761578E+01 5.3214265E+01 1. 4th Ed. With Ts>Tm and a positive heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number.1821422E+02 1.1.0000E+01 2.0000E+01 2. The variables in the output include y(i) y location of the profile point u(i) u ( y) axial velocity f(1. is intg x/dh htc qflux tmean twall .5750050E+01 6.6153E+02 For these ftn files. Here we find dT dy < 0 .5847E+02 3.i) T ( y) temperature (for kfluid =1) For the I-surface.out. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.0000E+01 2. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables qflux h qs′′ heat transfer coefficient surface heat flux tmean Tm mean fluid temperature twall Ts surface temperature htc To confirm the temperature gradient.40 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.2312E+02 3.5253E+00 2. Be careful.0000E+01 2. To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for problem 8.0000E+01 2. h ≈ 44 or x D. x D. h ≈ 44 and beyond.3980E+00 6.out.txt) will then contain profiles at each x(m) station.48 in 8.txt (for the I-surface).txt (for the E-surface).out.0000E+01 2.txt.txt after resetting set k10=11 (the dimensional profiles option).4807E+02 3.0749990E+01 9. and thus the heat flux is positive. h ≈ 44 and beyond.5682E+02 3.0000E+01 2. To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for problem 8. confirming Fourier’s law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.044 .8250049E+01 8.3979E+02 3.5230E+00 6.txt output we see Ts>Tm.5066E+00 6.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.txt agrees with our derived solution for q ′′E − surface = 2 × q ′′I − surface . however.4239E+02 3.4546E+02 3.5376E+02 3.1two. from the ftn83.5114E+02 3.1990E+02 3..3412E+02 3.3104E+02 3.4761E+00 6.1-two. we need to re-run 8. Crawford.5184E+00 6.0000E+01 3.1 y= -a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn83.2535E+02 3.0571426E+02 1. h Re Dh = 0. For this problem Nu = 17.dat.

787E+01 2.1-two.707E-02 2.1two.750E-01 5..367E+00 6.547E+01 3.123E-02 1.026E+00 1.0000E+00 cxx= 0. For this problem Nu = 6. and Weigand 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 4.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.118E+01 1.000E-01 6.00500E+03 prc(je)= .018E+00 1.5750050E+01 6.1821422E+02 1.631E+00 nu(E) 1.1-five.0000E+03 Prandtl number= .499E+00 delp 1.518E-03 4.378E+00 6.5885E+02 3.txt .51 in 8.out.3214265E+01 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.257E+00 1.499E+00 1.4305E+00 2. with the flux level for the Esurface changed to q ′′E − surface = 5 × q I′′− surface .144E+00 1.953E-02 2.166E+00 1.250E-02 1.456E-02 1.653E-02 1. To verify the solution to problem 8. simply change the E-surface fluxes to 100 W/m2 in the 8.000 energy eqn: solved.566E-02 2.dat.7493E+02 For the E-surface.607E-02 3.218E+02 3. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.817E+01 1.3761578E+01 5.txt output we see Ts>Tm.277E+01 6.210E-02 1.499E+00 1.parallel plates .290E-02 9.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value) Reynolds number= 1.4314E+00 2.0000E+01 4.884E-02 1.680E+00 2.566E-02 2. Again.8250049E+01 8.959E+01 2.0000E+00 exx= 0.0571426E+02 1.123E-02 1.0000E+01 4.012E+00 1.3621E+02 3.237E-02 1.4747E+02 3.491E+00 7.447E-02 5.799E-03 9.334E-02 2.202E+00 1.8380E-05 rhom = 1.0000E+00 gxx= 0.245E+01 3.txt . With Ts>Tm and a positive heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number.0000E+01 4. Here is the 8.200E-02 cf2(E) 9.txt agrees with our derived solution for q ′′E − surface = 2 × q ′′I − surface .149E-01 1.367E+01 4.200E-02 1.0000E+01 4.359E-03 7.376E+01 5.0000E+00 fxx= 0.200E-02 1.956E+00 5.755E+00 6.771E-01 cf2(I) 9. confirming Fourier’s law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.505E-03 6.004E+01 1.dat data set stepsize: var from dx= .0000E+00 note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)] input Reynolds number= 1.290E-02 4.mean = 2.055E-02 1.500E-01 3.6453E+02 3.17700E+00 vis= 1.4302E+00 2.3672E+02 3.697E+01 -1.200E-02 nu(I) 1.202E-02 1.000E-04 rate= .422E+00 1.1990E+02 3.200E-02 1.h = 7.4529E+00 2.0000E+00 bxx= 0.328E-02 3.0749990E+01 9.964E+00 5.738E+01 2.816E-02 2.txt.434E-01 1. Kays.dat.861E+01 1.0000E+01 4.5317E+02 3.492E+00 1.575E+01 uclr 1.0900 laminar flow axx= 0.h 1.210E-02 1.01325E+05 den= 1.607E-02 3.4239E+02 3.237E-02 1.104E+00 1.473E+00 1. be careful.200E-02 1.1-five.200E-02 1.4335E+00 2.200E-02 1.039E+01 8.687E+01 -4.403E+01 2.026E-03 1.953E-02 2.024E+00 -8.4175E+02 3.1770E+00 ==================================================== intg 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 x/d.569E+01 1.746E-02 7.341E+01 1.311E-02 1.dat.054E+00 -7.456E-02 1.815E+00 .lam ht .075E+00 1.816E-02 2. this does not imply a heat flux into the fluid.1 with TEXSTAN.881E+01 2.0000E+00 dxx= 0.1-two.173E-02 1.4301E+00 2.0000E+01 3.010 to dx= 1.3104E+02 3. Crawford.121E+01 -9.285E+01 1.443E+00 9.5376E+02 3.250E-01 2.307E-02 1.880E+01 2. Here we find dT dy > 0 .499E+00 1. no source terms props: const po= 1.4391E+00 2.243E+02 4.500E+01 -1.311E-02 1.out.884E-02 1.0000E+01 4.out.474E+01 2.2535E+02 3.761E-01 1.707 initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.1-five.0000E+01 4.2309E-01 d.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 8.0133E+05 at x= 0.txt).0000E-02 viscom = 1. rename it 8.5847E+02 41 3.7022E+02 3.707 U.202E-02 1.4301E+00 4. from the ftn84.862E+00 5.2857137E+02 2.334E-02 2.335E+00 1.193E+01 2.based on s516.498E+00 1.0000E+00 ==================================================== initial pressure = 1.115E+00 5. 4th Ed.653E-02 1.126E+00 1.245E+01 2.txt and compute this data set.4807E+02 3. and thus the heat flux is positive.

42 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.380E+00 -7.7344E+02 3.1693E+02 3.789E+00 5.0967E+02 For the I-surface.1five.818E-01 1.0025E+02 4.7527E+00 qflux tmean twall 2. x D. Be careful.1705E+00 2.0000E+02 1.3315E+02 3.0830E+02 4.7344E+02 3.075E+01 9.527E-01 3.8550E+02 3.1591E+00 2.200E-02 1.057E+02 1.1880E+00 2.0000E+01 2.825E+01 8.200E-02 1. Crawford.200E-02 1. and Weigand 6.1591E+00 1.499E+00 1.0000E+02 1. intg x/dh 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 4.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.411E+00 -7.200E-02 1.txt).0000E+01 2.1693E+02 3.474E-01 2.0060E+00 -2.3980E+02 3.1five.0000E+01 3.0000E+02 1.7752E+02 3.txt output we see Ts>Tm. 4th Ed.4368E+02 3.txt.6621E+02 3.7531E+00 -2.8888E+02 4.8478E+02 3.1-five.7544E+00 -2.286E+02 1.3214265E+01 1.499E+00 1.9615E+02 4.3214265E+01 1.8484E+00 -2.0000E+02 1.txt (for the I-surface). We must instead check the temperature profile in 8. confirming Fourier’s law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.2857137E+02 2.6207E+02 3.9615E+02 4. this does not imply a heat flux out of the fluid.9678E+02 4. With Ts>Tm and a positive heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number.200E-02 1.2857137E+02 htc -3.499E+00 2. Here we find dT dy < 0 .5490E+02 3. The heating on the E-surface controls the bulk of the fluid temperature.txt (for the E-surface).0000E+02 1.499E+00 1.1634E+00 2.1593E+00 2. is intg x/dh htc qflux tmean twall 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1092 4.824E-01 3. h ≈ 44 and beyond.499E+00 1.txt. from the ftn83.1972E+02 4..0751E+02 4.176E-01 3.1597E+00 2.200E-02 1.7661E+00 -2.6207E+02 3. x D. and thus the heat flux is positive. this does not imply a heat flux into the fluid.0749990E+01 9.375E+00 5.786E+00 5.0000E+02 1.3108E+02 4.7576E+00 -2.5070E+02 3.499E+00 1.3761578E+01 5. but the Neumann boundary condition for the I-surface ( q ′′I − surface = +20 W/m 2 ) forces the temperature gradient at this surface to be negative.0571426E+02 1.out.8250049E+01 8.785E+00 To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for problem 8. For this problem Nu = -7.3980E+02 3. and thus the negative Nu value.200E-02 1.0571426E+02 1.0000E+01 2.0000E+01 2. With Ts<Tm and a positive heat flux the Nu is calculated as a negative number.200E-02 1.785E+00 5.376E+00 -7.1821422E+02 1.82 in 8.1821422E+02 1.0000E+01 2.6325E+02 For the E-surface. To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for problem 8.0000E+02 3.txt agrees with our derived solution for q ′′E − surface = 5 × q I′′− surface . from the ftn84.1607E+00 2. and thus the heat flux is positive. h ≈ 44 and beyond.0000E+01 2.txt).out. .out.123E-01 2.5383E+02 4.321E+01 1.38 in 8. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.796E+00 5.182E+02 1.200E-02 1.1 y= -a/2) we examine abbreviated output from ftn83.0000E+01 2. Kays.out.3761578E+01 5.txt output we see Ts<Tm.5070E+02 3.200E-02 1.471E+00 -7.txt agrees with our derived solution for q ′′E − surface = 5 × q I′′− surface .5750050E+01 6. Again.1five. For this problem Nu = 5. Here we find dT dy > 0 .0000E+02 1. be careful.8250049E+01 8.200E-02 -7.8478E+02 3.785E+00 5.4246E+02 4.5750050E+01 6.0751E+02 4.7885E+00 -2.200E-02 1. confirming Fourier’s law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.388E+00 -7.0749990E+01 9.

Let the temperature profile vary with x and r only. These two boundary conditions are very much similar to those for a circular pipe (zero heat flux at the pipe centerline and a constant heat flux at the surface).Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. The equation becomes ρ cu ∂T ∂T k ∂  ∂T  + ρ cv r = r  ∂x ∂r r ∂r  ∂r  With the assumption of a slug flow. Kays. The other option is to change the signs of both Newton’s law of cooling and Fourier’s law. 8-2 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe. We saw that Fourier’s law for the E-surface has had a sign change to make it agree with the thermodynamic-like sign convention in TEXSTAN (heat transfer into the fluid is positive). Thus the boundary conditions are to that following Eq. ri is the radius of the inner pipe. 4th Ed. This equation assumes no viscous dissipation. Consider thermally fully-developed flow in a pipe. reflect it’s definition based on (Ts − Tm ) in Newton’s law of cooling.ri . If we define Newton’s law of cooling as h = qs′′ (Ts − Tm ) then the only way to have a positive heat transfer coefficient is to have a heat flux. Eq. the energy equation becomes 1 ∂  ∂T  V  dTm  r =   r ∂r  ∂r  α  dx  The boundary conditions for the annulus are a constant heat rate at ri and an adiabatic surface at ro. and Weigand 43 In summary. Nu. and r* is the radius ratio. and with the assumption of a thermally fully-developed temperature profile with constant heat rate. (8-10) ∂T ∂r =0 r = ro and T r = ri = Ts . Crawford. (8-8). If Ts > Tm . u=V and vr=0. because the only way to have heat transfer into a fluid is to have ∂T ∂r > 0 . TEXSTAN uses the sign convention qr′′ = + k ∂T ∂r . r * = ri ro . ro is the radius of the outer pipe. and it assumes constant properties for an ideal gas and steady state. it is important to emphasize that the heat transfer coefficient and it’s nondimensional equivalent. whereas the heat flux at the surface is governed by the local temperature gradient and how Fourier’s law is defined.. heat is transferred into the fluid. Now consider the energy equation (8-1). Note that we have the same dilemma in pipe flow. This will require a modified Fourier’s law qr′′ = + k ∂T ∂r .

(8-5) Tm =  ro  r   1 Vro2 dTm  r 2 *2 V T −  s . Using the first approach qr′′i = (r 2 o − ri 2 ) 2ri ( ρ cV ) and form a Nusselt number and evaluate it at r*=0.ri  ln ( r * ) Vro2 dTm  3 1 *2 + − r + *2 α dx  8 8 2 1 r −  ( )     Now formulate the convective rate equation for the ri surface.6. So. Kays. Separate variables and integrate the 2nd-order ordinary differential equation.44 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and Weigand Note that any time we have a Nuemann-Neumann boundary (adiabatic surface and heatflux surface for this problem or a pipe with a heat-flux surface). we substitute for one of the Neumann conditions with it’s Dirichlet counterpart (in this case the surface temperature) and we bring in the heat flux through the energy balance when we determine dTm dx . Crawford. Now compute the mean temperature using Eq. T = Ts . and then equate the surface heat flux to the convective rate equation and form a Nusselt number. The first way is form an energy balance similar to Eq. and apply the boundary conditions. (8-15). ( qr′′i = hi Ts . we can not find the two constants of integration when we separate variables and integrate.. The second approach is to independently formulate the surface heat flux using Fourier’s law. equate the two forms of heat flux and form a Nusselt number.ri − Tm )  ln ( r * ) Vro2 dTm  3 1 *2 = −h − r + *2 α dx  8 8 − 2 1 r  ( )     The next step can be carried out one of two ways.ri  2 − r − 2 ln     ( 2π rdr ) 2 2 ∫r 4α dx  ro V π ( ro − ri ) i   ri    = Ts . dTm dx . 4th Ed.ri  r  Vro2 dTm  r 2 *2 −  2 − r − 2 ln    4α dx  ro  ri   where r * = ri ro .

Then. 2 h = 57 W/(m K) Let the centerline temperature be Tc. 8-4 Nu = 4. 8-7 Nu = 8. Nuii(r*). 2 8-5 Total heat flux from inner surface is approximately 2550 W/m . () ()  4V 2 Pr  r T = Tc + c  ro  Re = 1600. and Weigand ( ro − ri ) (r i 2 ( 1  *2  * − 1 1 − r r  − ro2 ) ) r hD  Nu i =  i h  = 2 i2 = 4  k  3ro − ri ro ln ( ri ro )  *2 ln ( r * ) +  r −3 − 2 2 8 2 ( ro − ri )  2  8 2 1 − r*  Nu i r* =0. five terms are ok.88 x. 4th Ed.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Outer tube surface temperature is approximately 278°C. Crawford. compare this solution with Table 8-1 for the Nusselt number solution for the inner wall heated and the outer wall adiabatic. 8-6 Mean fluid temperature = 100 + 75(x/L) + 61(1-cos(πx/L)) °C Surface temperature = 110 + 75(x/L) + 27sin(πx/L) + 61(1-cos(πx/L)) Re = 1650. Kays.24. Note.00 for both sides. Ts = Tm + qs′′D / ( k Nu ) and qs′′ = 6410 W/m2..176 ( 45 )     Note. 55 percent of the heat from the fluid is transferred directly from the inner surface. Nu as a function of x is obtained from Table 8-13. and you will find a very close agreement for small r* between the plug-flow solution and the solution with hydrodynamically fully-developed profiles. 8-3 Tm = 10 + 45. If viscosity is a function of temperature the velocity profile will be affected. The highest fluid temperature is 127°C. 2 1 r − 2 ro 4     . The profile shapes are not that dissimilar. Temperature profile is linear. and 45 percent indirectly from the outer surface. but this has no influence on temperature profile or Nusselt number.6 = 6. so flow is laminar.

46 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Kays.1 + . x > 0.1)  − exp ( −λm2 x + ) γ Am 4 m + where q ′′ is the constant heat flux for 0 < x < 0. γ Am 4 m exp  −λm2 ( x + − 0.1 + 0 < x < 0.1 . Crawford. and Weigand dT 8V α Pr = 2 dx cr o Axial temperature gradient: 8-8  y  1  y  2  T = Th + u   −    k  d  2  d   µ where 2 j Th is the bearing surface temperature uj is the journal surface velocity d is the clearance qs′′ = µ u 2j ≈ 15500 W/m 2 d µ u 2jπ DL P= d Journal surface temperature is about 97°C 8-9 qs′′( x + ) = 2k   2 + 2 + + a ∑ G n exp ( −λn x ) + b∑ G n exp  −λn ( x − x1 )   rs  n n  θ m( x + ) = 1 −  8  Gn Gn 2 + 2 + + a ∑ 2 exp ( −λn x ) + b∑ 2 exp  −λn ( x − x1 )   a + b  n λn n λn  + + for x > x1 8-10 Ts ( x + ) − Te ( rs k ) qs′′ Ts ( x + ) − Te ( rs k ) qs′′ = 4x + ∑ + m = 0.4 + ∑ m 1 − exp ( −λm2 x + ) . 4th Ed..

10 3. Kays.88 4. A Nusselt number is defined as: Nu = 2 ( rs k ) qs′′ (Ts − Tm ) and Tm is obtained from Eq. (8-55) and evaluation of the infinite series terms (an exercise in computer programming).00 Nux comes within 2% of its asymptotic value at x+ = 0.00 Nux 4.03 6.(8-54).0 at x = L. 8-14 Tm = Te + 2 ρ cVrs  bL  π x   ax + π 1 − cos L      .98 2.42 3.05 0. The Nusselt number goes to 0. and the student should explain this behavior by sketching the presumed temperature profile at x = L. 8-13 This problem involves substitution into Eq. 8-12 x+ 0.02.03 3.10 0.00 5.98 2.98 Num 9. and Weigand Tm ( x + − Te ) ( rs k ) qs′′ 47 + = 4x+ . 4th Ed.20 1..53 3.01 0. Crawford.07 2.53 3.63 4. A local Nusselt number is readily evaluated from: Nu = 2 ( rs k ) qs′′ (Ts − Tm ) After a few steps Nu will repeat with little change in each heated segment.55 4.118.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.02 0. 0 < x < 0.1 8-11 This problem involves the same procedure as 8-10 except that the procedure is repeated at x+ intervals of 0.

(8-44) and carrying out the indicated integration (the summation term in (8-44) is not used.(8-56) and (8-57) provide the basis for the procedure desired here.. (8-23). The first integral in (8-56) and the second integral in (8-57) would be used.0 and ξ = 0. 8-16 This problem is designed as an application of Eq. and the Nusselt number as in Eq.8. The complete heat flux distribution is then approximated by: qs′′ = qa′′ (1 − b cos φ ) The tube-wall temperature is evaluated from: Ts (φ ) = Tm + 2q s′′ (φ ) rs k Nu (φ ) 8-17 This problem is solved by substituting the proposed expression for t0 into Eq. The re-radiation will produce a heat flux from the tube that subtracts slightly from the inflow on one side.5. The source of plane radiation will produce a heat flux into the tube that varies sinusoidally around the periphery. for example. The wall heat flux is evaluated as in Eq.2) = 6. 4th Ed.ξ) = Nuii(0.) The function θ is supplied by Eq. Crawford. Note that. and Weigand Ts = Te + π x  4rs  ax bL  + 1 − cos  +  k  c cπ  L   1 − exp ( −γ m2 x c )  r b rs a   + s sin π x ∑ ∑ 4 k m Amγ m k L m rs b cπ πx cos ∑ k L L m 1 2 2   γ  γ m4 + c π2  L   2 m + 1 −  4 c 2π 2  Am  γ m + 2  L   exp ( −γ m2 x c ) rs b cπ k L ∑ m 2 2   Amγ m2  γ m4 + c π2  L   where c = rsRePr 8-15 Eqs. and results in net radiation from the tube on the other. The results are .(8-33). integration must be carried out from ξ = 0 to ξ = x+.48 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Kays. (8-36).19 for r+ = 0. The integrations must be carried out numerically. Note that at each station x+. using the basic data from Table 8-11.(8-37). For large values of x+ it will be found that certain infinite series terms drop out leading to a result that is independent of x+. then Nuii(x+ . if x+ = 1.

. Crawford. and Weigand 49 b x+ − λ 2n x +   G G ne ne −∑ 2 4 ∑ 2  n (λ n + b) n (λ n + b)     Nu ( x + ) =  Gn  1 b x+ b x+ − λ 2n x + Gn − + − 1 1 e − 1 − 8∑  e e  2 b λ n2 ( λ n2 + b ) n   b (λ n + b)  ( ) ( ) ( ) n 4b∑ G 2 b + n λn Nu ( ∞ ) = n 1 − 8∑ G 2 b + n λn 8-18 Vrs2  dTm  8V 2µ − k α  dx  Nu = 2 11 Vrs  dTm  5 V 2µ  − 48 α  dx  6 k 2q s′′ 8V µ  dTm  + where  = 2  dx  rs ρVc ρ crs 8-19 Nu = 1 11 1  S  +   rs 48 16  qs′′  T = Ts + V  dTm   r 2 r 4 3 2  S 2 2  rs − r  − − rs + α  dx   2 8rs2 8  4k  2qs′′ S  dTm  +  =  dx  ρVcrs ρVc 8-20 The highest temperature occurs at the wall.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. The energy equation may be put in the form: ∂ 2T 1 ∂T S   r 2   + =  2 1 −  − 1 ∂r 2 r ∂r k   rs2   . Kays. 4th Ed.

. Crawford. Kays. ∂ 2T S = >0 2 ∂r s 2k s .50 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 4th Ed. and Weigand By L'Hospital's rule: 1 ∂T ∂ 2T = 2 lim r →0 r ∂r ∂r Thus at r = 0.

and Eq. and the assumption of constant density is justified in the absence of thermal boundary condition information. (9-20).03. For this problem we have no information about the thermal boundary condition. For gases. (5-5) reduces to ∞  δ1 = ∫  1 − 0  u   dy u∞  and this equation transforms using y y = ν x / u∞ ν /C η= and ζ ′(η ) = u u∞ into δ1 = ν (1 − ζ ′ (η ) ) dη = C∫ ∞ 0 ν ∞ η − ζ (η )  0 C . Using potential flow theory. no density variation through the boundary layer which forms over the wedge. The wedge-oriented family is depicted in m Fig. Crawford. i. or when viscous heating associated with viscous work cause local temperature variation in the region near the surface. and for stagnation point flow. we find experimentally that we can ignore variable properties (including density) when 0. β=π. displacement thickness Eq.. (9-20). where V is the approach velocity to the cylinder. and M is the fluid molecular weight). R is the gas constant (R=R/M where R is the universal gas constant. u∞ = C x .4. Thus.05 and when M ≤ 0. (9-21) the stagnation point flow is found to have a linear variation of free stream velocity with x. For this problem we will assume a constant density. the invicid flow field over these wedge-oriented m surfaces is described by Eq. For this problem. and Weigand 51 Chapter 9 9-1 The stagnation point flow is part of the family of flows over flat surfaces called wedges. M≈0.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and thus C = 4V/D. Density variation throughout the boundary layer is caused either by an imposed thermal boundary condition (wall temperature or wall heat flux) which leads to a large wall-to-free stream temperature difference. Using Eq. Kays. u∞ = C x . 9-2.e. The Mach number for an ideal gas can be computed to be M= V γ RT where γ is the ratio of specific heats.95 ≤ Ts T∞ ≤ 1. 4th Ed.

000 ζ”(η) 1.8467 0.2 2.1867 0.7 0.8521 ζ’(η) 0 0.0002 0.9798 1.4 2.4587 0.0 1.3526 2.0345 0. Here Y1 = ζ Y2 = ζ ′ Y1′ = Y2 Y2′ = Y3 Y3 = ζ ′′ Y3′ = Y22 − Y1Y3 − 1 along with Y1 ( 0 ) = 0.5 0.0233 0.9386 0.9906 0.0260 0. Crawford.9997 1.9970 0. An alternative solution for this problem is to use Eq. and Y2 ( ∞ ) = 1 .3521 3.6 2.5578 1.2 1.233 1. One source is tabulated in Schlichting1. and so another source must be used to obtain ζ (η ) .4 0. .5974 0. Note that one can also obtain this value by carrying out the integration of the displacement equation using Simpson’s rule.8 0.3 0.2938 0.2266 0.9323 0.0510 0.5663 0.1328 1.6752 0.9 1.. not the curvature in the flow direction). Table 9-1 contains information only for m=0.3980 0.0051 0.8 3.8522 3.0156 0.4592 0.4379 . The results are as follows: η 0 0.1000 0.4946 0.7779 0. 4th Ed.6859 0.0010 0.1474 0.9946 0.4 1.6 0.1689 1. and Weigand Note: the function η − ζ (η )  is zero at the lower limit and becomes a constant value at the upper limit.0060 0.9984 0.2 0. (9-44) with R removed (recall R is the transverse radius of curvature.0881 0.7351 0.8968 0.7553 1.9732 0.9568 0.2110 0. Kays. (9-24) with the indicated boundary conditions and m=1 using traditional numerical methods such as Runge-Kutta and a “shooting method”.6299 0.0658 0.0420 0.5 ζ(η) 0 0.3252 0.0 2. Y2 ( 0 ) = 0.0091 0.0 4.4145 0.52 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.5251 0.3124 0.1336 0.2466 0.1 0.9538 2.8 2.3835 0.3620 1.8463 0.7967 0.6 1. The other source is to solve Eq.9839 0.1183 0.096 mm. The final answer is δ1 = 0.5 4.0 3.6220 0.0000 Evaluation of this table shows η − ζ (η )  → 0.000 1.1530 2.7583 0.

Then. and d2 are all constant values over the stagnation region. l=0. y ) where F(z) is an analytical function such that dF ∂φ ∂ψ = +i = u − iv ≡ w ∂x dz ∂x and where w = u + iv .664ν 0.5 4Vx into the integral and carrying out the integration yields D  D  δ 2 = 0.5 u∞2. namely that d. Applied for the wedge geometry. (9-37) d1 = 0. (9-39) to be evaluated. and Weigand δ2 = Substituting u∞ = 0. 4th Ed.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.078. if F ( z ) = Aw ( z ) . potential flow solutions are greatly simplified if the flow domain can be transformed into a semi-infinite domain. then F ( z ) = Aw ( z ) where A is determined such that u∞ = Vo . which is characteristic of the stagnation point flows. A complex potential is constructed as F ( z ) = φ ( x.68 2  x5. 9-2 This solution proceeds from the ideas of the velocity potential and the stream function. and from Eq.68  0. we find the shape factor H = 2.096 mm (the same answer obtained from the numerical solution).5 At this point.68     5.041 mm. d1. ∂φ ∂ψ ∂φ ∂ψ = = u and =− =v ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x and the fact that both functions satisfy their respective Laplace equation formulations. y ) + iψ ( x. Kays. The domain is now transformed to the upper-half of the w-plane.664ν 0.34.84 (∫ x 0 u∞4.. Then if the transformation w = w ( z ) is conformal and z = ∞ ⇒ w = ∞ .68 dx ) 53 0.5    4Vx  2. Evaluation yields a value of d2 of about 0. .84  4V     D 4. This permits the parameter defined by Eq. Crawford. In complex variable theory. From Table 9-4. For uniform parallel flow the complex potential function is F ( z ) = Vo z . the transformation is w ( z ) = Azπ γ to map the “wedge” domain of opening g into the semi-infinite domain. one sees that x removes itself from the equation.

separate variable and integrate. (5-6). assuming constant properties. z = reiφ = xeiγ . From Eq. to obtain 12 ν x  δ = 4. rewritten as Eq. and integrating from the surface to the edge of the boundary layer (replacing ∞ by δ in the upper limit. assuming δ(x=0)=0. (9-31) by substituting for the surface shear stress.655 Re −x1 2 . substituting for the profile.54 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Thus. and Weigand π dF π −1 = A zγ w= A dz γ From wedge-flow geometry γ = π − β 2 .. 4th Ed. and the result is δ2 x = 0. Kays. δ2 = ∫ ∞ 0 ∞ u  ρu  u  u   2 1  1 −  dy = ∫0 1 −  dy = δ  −  u∞  u ∞  ρ ∞ u ∞  u∞  π 2 Substitute the velocity profile into the wall-gradient term on the left-hand side (LHS) of the momentum integral equation and the momentum thickness function into the righthand side (RHS) of the equation. then β 2 w= Aπ z π −β π −β 2 2 = Cz m Here. Crawford. w = u∞ = Cx m eiγ m = Cx m 9-3 The applicable momentum integral equation is (5-9).80 Re −x1 2 Substitute the solution for δ into the momentum thickness. cf 2 = τs ν  ∂u  d δ = 2  = 2 2 ρ ∞u∞ u∞  ∂y  s dx This requires evaluation of the momentum thickness for the sine-function velocity profile.80    u∞  or δ x = 4.

9-4 From momentum integral equation (5-7). -1. (9-40) and Eq. d ( u∞b ) = bu∞b −1 and d ( R 2 ) = 2 RdR and d ( ρ∞2 ) = 2 ρ ∞ d ρ∞ Move the b-term to the LHS.4% for δ2 and for cf. Kays. 4th Ed. the definition is combined with the velocity profile and the solution for d to give cf = τs 1 2 ρ u 2 ∞ ∞ = 2ν u∞2  ∂u  −1 2   = 0..6% for δ1.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Thus.655 Re x  ∂y  s Comparing these results with the similarity solution shows errors of +0. u∞ d δ 22 δ 22u∞ + ν dx ν  2 dR 2 d ρ∞   δ 22 du∞  +    = ( a − bλ ) = a − b   ν dx   R dx ρ∞ dx  At this point the development follows that on page 144 of the 4th Edition. it is easily added to Eq. (9-41). u∞ d δ 22 δ 22u∞ + ν dx ν  2 dR 2 d ρ ∞   δ 22 du∞  T H 2 (2 ) + = − +    ν dx    R dx ρ ∞ dx  Rearranging this equation using the ideas used in Eq. We need to use the following derivative ideas.  τs ρ s vs dδ 2 δ1  1 du∞ 1 d ρ ∞ 1 dR  δ 2 + = + + + +     2 ρ ∞u∞2 ρ∞ u∞ dx δ 2  u∞ dx ρ∞ dx R dx   we can see that the density term is similar in form to the transverse-radius term.74 Re −x1 2 For the friction coefficient. multiply and then multiply and divide each of the four LHS terms with the appropriate variables to obtain terms with the same denominator. and Weigand 55 Following the same procedure for evaluation of the displacement thickness from Eq. . (55) gives δ1 x = 1. Crawford. (9-38).

calculate the mass flow rate using Eq. xb = rc π 2 = 0. and multiply through the denominator and separate variables. The nozzle geometry is defined in terms of the transverse radius of the nozzle at the start of the boundary layer.b = 10 m/s . Crawford.0125 m. (937).calculate a pressure drop using a Bernoulli equation. recognize this as an exact differential of four terms. 9-5 The analysis procedure for this problem is: (1) calculate d2 using Eq. (7-3). xa ≤ x ≤ xb . (9-42) becomes . Using this geometry. d ( R 2 ρ 2δ 22u∞b ) = aν u∞b −1 R 2 ρ 2 dx From this point the integration of this equation is exactly like the procedure leading to Eq. 4th Ed..058905 m . Rb =0. (9-39). Kays. at the throat location. determine d1.a = 0 and u∞ . and Weigand u∞b R 2 ρ∞2 d δ 22 δ 22 R 2 ρ ∞2 du∞b u∞b δ 22 ρ ∞2 dR 2 u∞b δ 22 R 2 d ρ∞2 + + + =a ν u∞b −1 R 2 ρ∞2 dx ν u∞b −1 R 2 ρ∞2 dx ν u∞b −1 R 2 ρ∞2 dx ν u∞b −1 R 2 ρ ∞2 dx Now. Ra=0. Using a linear variation. and the from its definition. the ratio of actual to theoretical mass flow through the nozzle. the transverse radius of the nozzle wall  x R ( x ) = Ra − rc sin (θ ) = Ra − rc sin    rc  The invicid core flow for this problem statement is assumed to vary linearly along the boundary layer surface of the nozzle from the sharp corner to the throat.a  ( x − xa ) = 169.b ∞ . The problem requires assumptions of steady flow and constant properties. (9-42).a +  ∞ .8 x m/s  xb − xa  and Eq. rc=0. (9-42). Eq. the free stream velocity distribution at the edge of the boundary layer on the nozzle wall becomes  u −u  u∞ ( x ) = u∞ . (2) formulate l from Eq.05 m at xa=0. with u∞ .56 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. and the nozzle transverse radius at the throat.0375 m. and finally calculate a discharge coefficient. the nozzle radius of curvature. use Table 9-4 to find H.

formulate l from Eq.19 ×10−4 m . Kays. There are also other definitions of discharge coefficient. (9-19). 9-6 9). These are mostly second-order effects.65 × 10−5 m Now. This does not exactly satisfy conservation of mass.. the displacement thicknesses decreases. (9- ∂ψ ∂  ∂ψ  ∂y ∂x  ∂y  ∂ψ −  ∂x  ∂ 2ψ  2  ∂y  u∞2 m ∂ 3ψ ν = +  ∂y 3 x  .2 Pa 1 2 Based on laminar boundary layer behavior.84 rc   xa  .27. Crawford. This problem is appropriate for TEXSTAN.664ν 1 2  xb x 4. leading to a reduced flow blockage and a nozzle discharge coefficient that approaches unity. is ∆P = ( Pb − Pa ) = ρ (Vb2 − Va2 ) = −60. Thus. (9-39).71× 10−3 kg/s 2 and the discharge coefficient becomes C= m actual ρVb ( Ab − Ablock ) = = 0. Start with Eq. and interpolate in Table 9-4 to find H=2. and Weigand 57 12 2  0. the problem statement said to assume that the boundary layer at the start of the nozzle was zero.86    − δ 2 ( xb ) = 168. (9-23). l=0. The actual mass flow rate in the nozzle will be based on the flow cross-sectional area. For example. and the from its definition. Eq.b  = 9.8 x R r sin dx ( )  a c  ∫ Rbu∞2. as shown in Eq. there is a finite velocity at xa and a finite momentum (and displacement) thickness. (9-37). corrected for the displacement thickness. but it changes the discharge coefficient. m actual = ρVb ( Ab − Ablock ) = ρVbπ ( rb − δ1. based on the Bernoulli equation.965 m theo ρVb Ab The pressure drop through the nozzle.105. Another nice variation on this problem is to change it into a 2-dimensional “flat” nozzle. and transform the dependent variables u and v using Eq. There are improvements to this solution. determine δ1 ( xb ) = 2. as Re increases.b ) = 5.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 4th Ed.

Either works. and Weigand Now. and define the stream function using Eq.1) jbc(I.0000 0. 9-7 The data file for this problem is 9. 4th Ed. and the user’s manual for all external laminar boundary layer flows is s10.η ) = G (ξ ) ζ (η ) = ν xu∞ ζ (η ) = ν C x ( m +1) 2 ζ (η ) Transform the various derivatives using the chain rule: ∂ ( ) ∂ ( ) ∂ξ ∂ ( ) ∂η = + ∂x ∂ξ ∂x ∂η ∂x ∂ ( ) ∂ ( ) ∂ξ ∂ ( ) ∂η = + ∂y ∂ξ ∂y ∂η ∂y At this point. Upon introducing the functional form of G.dat.txt file.7.txt and the output file is 9. keeping y as the independent variable.0000 0.7. (9-24) is obtained.0000 0. transform the independent variables.58 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.5) 5 1 ### nxbc(E) jbc(E.0000 0.0 1.1500000 1.0000 0. TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F.lam bl .853E-05 00.dat.out.0000 0.0000 ktme 0 .711 ### nxbc(I) jbc(I..0000 0. you should have a data set similar to the s10.2) jbc(E. and then introduce its definition to obtain an equation in G and z. which should be helpful to the new user. x and y using the Blasius variable Eq. The input file is: ### 'title of data set' 9.txt. A second procedure is to transform the differential operators and y simultaneously.man.txt . Crawford.0000 0.2) jbc(I.0000 0. you can do one of two procedures: the first is to transform the y equation differential operators.3) jbc(I.0500000 1. (9-11) for y.3) jbc(E.based on s10.0000 0.00 1005. (9-10): ξ=x η=y u∞ C ( m −1) 2 =y x νx ν ψ (ξ .txt ### kgeom neq kstart mode ktmu ktmtr 1 2 4 1 0 0 ### kbfor jsor(1) jsor(2) jsor(3) jsor(4) jsor(5) 1 1 ### kfluid kunits 1 1 ### po rhoc viscoc amolwt gam/cp 101325.00 ### prc(1) prc(2) prc(3) prc(4) prc(5) 0.7. If you set up problem 9-7 following the instructions described in its problem statement.0000 0.2000000 1. Kays.0000 0.1) jbc(E.0000 0.17660 1.0000 0.4) jbc(E.flat plate . the equation separates and Eq.0000 0.1000000 1.5) 5 1 ### x(m) rw(m) aux1(m) aux2(m) aux3(m) 0.0000 0.4) jbc(I.dat.dat.0000 0. Appendix G contains a detailed printout of this particular manual.0000000 1.0000 0.0000 0.

000 295.268E+02 2.590 1.995 2.995 2.0 15.992 2.00E-06 fra= .240E-03 1.339E+05 1.dat.0 0. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables 59 .1 64.096E+04 2.0000E+00 cxx= 0.992 2.104E+02 2.9 57.000 295.590 2.590 2.100 entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns.0 0.992 2.3.721E+05 1.00 0.17660E+00 vis= 1.003E+05 1.m) fj(I. dx= .590 3.727E-04 9.00 0.2.000 .m) fj(I.000 .215E+02 1.590 3.578E+01 1.5 78.5.0 0.992 2.2 100. Crawford.00 0.00 0.905E+05 rem 2.523E+05 1.445E+04 2.607E-04 nu 9.012E+02 1.0 0. enfra= 1.0 xstart xend deltax fra enfra 0.165E+05 1.2. and Weigand ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ubI(m) am(I.590 2.149E+03 1.000E+00 0.00 0.00 0.590 3.85300E-05 sp_ht= 1.0 28.593E+02 2.590 7.8 86.519E-03 1.613E+02 In the output.431E+02 2.m) 0.0 0.5)*(pr(je.992 2.00 0.000 295.993E+02 2.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.590 5.00 0.000 .537E+04 1.m) fj(I.00500E+03 prc(je)= .0 0.000 .0 0..900E+01 .136E-03 1.332*(rex**0.907E+04 7.000 .0 15.m) fj(I.000 295.000E+00 dyi rate tstag vapp tuapp epsapp 5.990E+01 9.0 0.4.7 114.168E+03 5.358E+01 7.5.712E-03 1.m) fj(E.100 0.0 0.theo = 0.00 0.m) fj(E.590 1.994 2.590 3.000 .m) ubE(m) am(E.000 .029E+02 1.000 .0900 300.3 71.778E+02 1.992 2.999 .590 1.992 2.999 .197E+02 1.289E+02 1.010 dpdx: not-a-knot spline curve fit energy eqn: solved.000 .756E+02 2.960E-03 1.01325E+05 den= 1.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 9.992 2.808E+02 1.4 42.434E+02 1.m) fj(E.00 0.452E+02 1.868E+04 3.flat plate .162E+04 8.0 15.0000E+00 dxx= 0.000 295.993 2.0000E+00 gxx= 0.590 3.993 2.0 0.1.txt stepsize: const. transition not possible axx= 0.667E-03 3.00 0.1 128.941E+02 2.822E+01 .000E+00 0.054E+03 9.9 122.000E+00 0.000 .366E-03 1.590 2.862E+01 .711 initial profiles: kstart= 4 dyi= 5.590 9.000E+00 0.726E+01 6. no source terms props: const po= 1.292E-03 1.000E+00 0.4.0000E+00 fxx= 0.m) fj(E.000E-05 0.773E+04 5.000E-06 kout kspace kdx kent 8 100 0 1 k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 0 0 0 0 50 0 k7 k8 k9 k10 k11 k12 0 00 0 0 0 0 axx bxx cxx dxx exx fxx gxx 0.3.0900 laminar flow at xstart.992 2.003E-04 7.100E+01 3.33) ==================================================== intg 5 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1688 rex 9. Kays.605E+02 1.131E-03 4.000 .622E+01 1.000 .np1)**0.000 .507E-04 8.0000E+00 Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf) ==================================================== Laminar flat plate flow benchmark cf/2.469E-03 2.761E+04 4.590 2.lam bl .0 0.332/sqrt(rex) nux. 4th Ed.0 93.992 2.m) fj(I.231E+02 1.048E-03 9.7 21.073E-04 8.0000E+00 bxx= 0.txt .937E+01 1.401E+02 1.6 49.000E-05 rate= .0000E+00 exx= 0.00 and here is the 9.0 15.000 .992 2.899E+02 cf2 1.3 13.615E+02 1.125E+02 1.010 1.4 107.050E-02 7.825E+02 1.1.992 2.200000 0.590 1.094E+01 4.based on s10.760E-03 2.992 2.000E+00 0.2 35.0010410 0.622E+02 1.419E+02 1.7.590 2.out.999 .0 15.5 cfrat nurat h12 reh 1.theo = 0.7.m) fj(E.dat.000 .

u∞ = A ⋅ xstart for B=1. The input file is: ### 'title of data set' 9. there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.8.lam stag-pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) .txt.txt and the output file is 9. 4th Ed.txt ### kgeom neq kstart mode ktmu ktmtr 1 2 5 1 0 0 ### kbfor jsor(1) jsor(2) jsor(3) jsor(4) jsor(5) ktme 0 .dat. and cfrat should be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.dat. there are not unique numbers for xstart and axx. To plot the developing velocity profiles. and Weigand rex Re x x-Reynolds number.(9 − 16) cf2 cf 2 friction coefficient divided by 2. This is explained in detail in the s10. (9-11) f(eta) ζ ′ (η ) ratio u u∞ 9-8 The data file for this problem is 9. TEXSTAN executes include various ftn files that are suitable for cut-and-paste into spreadsheet or plot software. you should have a data set similar to the s15. so choose xstart (=0.8. Then expand the x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required. Kays.(9 − 12) h12 H shape factor.txt . Eq. Eq. Be sure to change the two nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition information for each new x-location.60 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Eq.(9 − 14) rem Reδ 2 momentum-thickness Reynolds number. If you set up problem 9-8 following the instructions described in its problem statement. These are discussed in detail in Appendix G. (9-13). There needs to be a slight modification to the instructions in the problem statement regarding the calculations of xstart and axx.8. Eq.txt file. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. Crawford. Eq. reset kout=2 and set k10=10.(9 − 37) Note. and then calculate A (which is the variable axx) to match this velocity. Eq.615 m/s). The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex. C=0 and m=1.based on s15. The variables in the output will include y(i) y location of the profile point u(i) u ( y) velocity eta η Blasius variable.00195 m) which uniquely determines the value of free stream velocity at that location (=1.. For the given starting x-Reynolds number =200.out.dat.dat.man user manual.

216 3.001E+01 2.00 0.482E+01 cf2 nu cfrat nurat h12 reh 8.0 1.dat.648E+01 1.367E+02 5.1) jbc(E.00 and here is the 9.305E+01 5.7 .235E-02 49.m) fj(E.2.0 0.993E+01 8.00 0. enfra= 1.999 .1.034E+02 2.010 energy eqn: solved.415E+04 rem 4.00 prc(1) prc(2) prc(3) prc(4) prc(5) 0.0000E+00 dxx= 1.233/sqrt(rex) nux.17660 1.lam stag pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) . dx= .5.00 0.0 0.698E+01 7.00 0.010 1.0000 0.theo = 1.m) fj(I.036E+02 61 .4.0872070 0.000 295.00 0.283E+02 1.936E+03 2.00 0.366E-03 73.000 295. Crawford.m) fj(E.0 0.0200000 1.0000 0.000E+00 0.080E-03 121.100 0.m) fj(I.4 .00 0.0 0.m) ubE(m) am(E.0000 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.2) jbc(I.0000 ubI(m) am(I.1250 0.0000 0.997 2.4) jbc(I.364E-02 25. 4th Ed.3) jbc(E.0000 0.999 .879E+04 8.216 6.dat.0736 0.2 .999 .997 2.997 2.0900 laminar flow at xstart.txt output file TEXSTAN(academic) dat: 9.3.56863*(rex**0.0000 0.997 2.0736 0.0736 0.m) fj(E.100 entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns.216 1.000E+00 0.997 2.8..3) jbc(I.0 0.000E-05 rate= .216 2.000 295.m) fj(E.txt .000E+00 1.0000E+00 Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf) ==================================================== Laminar m=1 accel flow benchmark cf/2.000 295.1) jbc(I.0000 0.0 0.00 0.033E+02 6.m) 0.8.00 1005.701E+02 4.523E+01 2.m) fj(I.000E-06 kout kspace kdx kent 8 200 0 1 k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 0 0 0 5 0 0 k7 k8 k9 k10 k11 k12 0 00 0 0 0 0 axx bxx cxx dxx exx fxx gxx 8.5.2830E+02 bxx= 1.0872070 1.216 1.1250 0.1250 0.216 1.4) jbc(E.np1)**0.0 xstart xend deltax fra enfra 0.1250 0.999 .711 initial profiles: kstart= 5 dyi= 5.2) jbc(E.0 .85300E-05 sp_ht= 1. no source terms props: const po= 1.5) 5 1 nxbc(E) jbc(E.0 0.0000 0.9 .5)*(pr(je.0000E+00 gxx= 0.7 .916E+01 4.m) fj(I.796E+04 5.00E-06 fra= .0000000 1.0736 0.1250 0.166E+04 3.00500E+03 prc(je)= .216 1.00 0.999 .17660E+00 vis= 1.m) fj(E.0019500 0. and Weigand ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### 1 1 kfluid kunits 1 1 po rhoc viscoc amolwt gam/cp 101325.0900 300.0000E+00 exx= 0.997 2.based on s15.0 0.5) 5 1 x(m) rw(m) aux1(m) aux2(m) aux3(m) 0.4.0 0.705E+03 9.0400000 1.000E+00 0.0000 0.000 295.853E-05 00.997 2.998 .0 0.0 0.1 . Kays.Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.3.00 0.0736 0.246E-03 144.txt stepsize: const.2.997 .01325E+05 den= 1.640E-02 7.000E+00 dyi rate tstag vapp tuapp epsapp 5.1.m) fj(I.0 0. transition not possible axx= 8.0 0.321E-03 97.090E+01 8.169E+00 1.out.0 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0 0.000E-05 0.0600000 1.theo = 0.3748) ==================================================== intg 5 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 rex 2.00 0.0 0.711 nxbc(I) jbc(I.000E+00 0.

(9 − 16) cf2 cf 2 friction coefficient divided by 2.999 .216 2.1 315.999 .875E+05 2. This is explained in detail in the s10.874E+01 1.997 .197E-03 2.999 .373E+02 3.648E-03 3.8 263. 4th Ed.684E+02 1. Eq.216 2.man user manual.266E+02 1.375E+02 4.216 2.6 .849E+02 3.041E+02 4. Kays.0 239.999 .(9 − 14) rem Reδ 2 momentum-thickness Reynolds number. Eq. there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.997 2.790E+05 3.997 .5 192. the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables rex Re x x-Reynolds number.544E+02 1.62 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2638 Solutions Manual Convective Heat and Mass Transfer..(9 − 12) h12 H shape factor.139E-03 1.3 311. reset kout=2 and set k10=10.823E+02 1.141E+05 1.845E-03 2.216 2. The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex.704E+02 3.997 . Crawford.997 .997 .000E+05 9. Eq.405E+02 1.216 2.216 2.438E+02 In the output. Eq.038E+02 3. and cfrat should be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.999 .707E+02 4.948E-03 168. and Weigand 1. To plot the developing velocity profiles.997 . (9-11) f(eta) ζ ′ (η ) ratio u u∞ .999 . Be sure to change the two nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition information for each new x-location.332E-03 2. Then expand the x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required.370E+02 2.(9 − 37) Note. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station.999 .976E-03 1.999 .216 2. The variables in the output will include y(i) y location of the profile point u(i) u ( y) velocity eta η Blasius variable.3 216. Eq.310E+05 2.888E+05 4. Eq.6 287.563E-03 2.485E+05 1.997 . (9-25) and Table 9-2.127E+02 1.216 2.316E+05 3.