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Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Fourth Edition

William Kays

Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Stanford University

Michael Crawford

Professor of Mechanical Engineering

The University of Texas at Austin

Bernhard Weigand

Professor and Head, Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics

University of Stuttgart

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

An Introductory Note

Some of the problems in the text are brief exercises leading to single numerical or

algebraic results, but the great majority are much more extensive investigations, some

approaching the magnitude of term projects. In the latter cases, there is usually no simple

answer. Student initiative is encouraged and this leads to results that may differ

numerically or may involve results not asked for in the problem statement. In any case,

the authors place more value on a written discussion at the end of the student's papers,

and on the development of the analysis, than on numerical results.

It is not practicable to provide a "solutions manual" containing examples of

complete papers for assignments of this kind. The authors have chosen rather to provide,

in a somewhat abbreviated form, some of the key results for these problems. In some

cases rather than give numerical results, a brief discussion of how to attack the problem is

provided. Only a small fraction of the problems can be used in any one course, and it is

hoped that instructors will find a sufficient number of problems to satisfy a variety of

needs, including differing tastes and interests, and differing teaching styles.

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 4

4-1

Equation, x - direction

P 2u

=

x x 2

Equation, y - direction

P

=0

y

P dP

=

. The equation becomes

x dx

2

dP

du

=

2

dx

dy

4-2 Consider the continuity equation (4-5) in cylindrical coordinates with V defined

in Appendix D,

V =

1

1 V Vx

+

=0

(rVr ) +

x

r r

r

R

v

v r

v

+ y r + vr + R

=0

y

y

x

For vr small and y R , the middle two terms in the equation are negligible compared to

the first and last terms. Thus the equation becomes identical to (4-7) in Cartesian

coordinates. (Actually these are curvilinear coordinates with y R ). Using similar

arguments, the applicable momentum equation is (4-11), with the convective acceleration

terms neglected. The applicable energy equation is (4-38).

4-3 The appropriate set of coordinates is the fixed, non-rotating cylindrical system with

r, the radial direction; , the circumferential direction; and x, the axial direction above the

disk. In the governing equations, all three velocity components will appear, but

derivatives with respect to will be zero due to rotational symmetry.

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

The flow over a rotating disk is boundary layer in character, but the complete

Navier-Stokes equations can be solved in exact form (see Schlichting, ref. 2, page 93).

The applicable energy equation is (4-35) with the conduction gradient in the r-direction

neglected. (See Schlichting, page 296, for references to heat transfer solutions.)

4-4 The applicable energy equation is (4-31). Assume no mass diffusion. Use the

definition of enthalpy, i = e + P/, and let be constant, yielding

De

k T = S

Dt

e

k T = S

t

This is the classic heat conduction equation for a solid where the thermal equation of

state is de = cdT . For steady conduction and constant properties, the Poisson form of the

conduction equation is obtained, and when S is equal to zero, the Laplace equation is

obtained.

2

T =

S

k

4-5 Eq. (4-1) can be considered a continuity equation for the j - component of a

mixture, but the creation term must be added, resulting in

Gtot , j , x

x

G tot , j , y

= m j

y

(Recall that G is the total mass flux vector.) Ignore Gdiff,j,x as a boundary layer

approximation and substitute into the continuity equation.

m j

m j m j

G x G y

+ Gx

+Gy

+

mj

j

= mj

x

y

y

y

x

y

4-6 For conservation of mass, the terms for mass flow rates (inflow on the radial face

and the axial face) are

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Gr = vr ; Ar = r d dx

m r = Gr Ar

m x = Gx Ax

Gx = u; Ax = r d dr

yields

(u ) 1

+

(r vr ) = 0

x

r r

Note the appearance of r comes from dividing through the equation by the differential

volume, ( r d dx ). For constant properties, Eq. (4-9) is found.

u 1

+

(rvr ) = 0

x r r

For x-momentum , the x-momentum flow rates, inflow on the radial face and the

axial face, and the x-forces are

M r = um r = u ( Gr Ar )

M x = um x = u ( Gx Ax )

and

Fx = x Ax rx Ar

x P

rx =

u

y

Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. (4-10) and (4-11), assuming steady

flow and constant properties yields

u

u

dP

1 u

+ vr

=

+

r

dx

r r r

x

r

For energy , the energy flow rates, inflow on the radial face and on the axial face,

and the corresponding heat and work rates are

( ) ( )

= ( i + u ) m = ( i + u ) G A

1

1

E r = i + u 2 m r = i + u 2 Gr Ar

2

E x

and

qr = kAr

T

r

1

2

1

2

q x = kAx

T

x

Wshear ,r = u rx Ar

Application of the procedure leading up to Eqs. (4-27) and (4-28), assuming steady

flow, no mass diffusion, and constant properties yields

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

i

i 1 T

dP

u

u + v r

=0

kr

u

x

r r r r

dx

r

and for ideal gases and incompressible liquids, using the approximations similar to the

development leading to Eq. (4-38), but retaining the pressure gradient term the enthalpy

equation reduces to

2

T

T

1 T Pr u

1 dP

u

+ vr

r

=0

x

y

r r r c r c dx

4-7 These steps are basically the redevelopment of the formulation leading up to Eq.

(4-39).

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 5

5-1 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the velocity

becomes the inviscid core velocity of the developing flow. Typical terms would be

R

2

M x = 2 R y u rdr

M y = ( R y )2 xv y yu y

and

R y

s 2 R x;

Shear stress :

y 2 ( R y ) x

s =

1 d R

2

ucore d R urdr ( u ) y 1 y ducore

u

rdr

core

R dx R y

R dx R y

2 R dx

5-2 Let r = R be the wall and r = y be the edge of the control volume where the

enthalpy is the core enthalpy. Neglect the kinetic energy term, and note that there is no

wall transpiration. Typical terms would be

R

E conv , x = 2 u ( i icore ) rdr

R y

qs = 2 R xq s

Now follow the procedure on pages 47-48,

qs =

1 d R

( i icore ) rdr

R dx R y

5-3 Assume: Fick's Law holds; steady flow; concentration boundary layer momentum

boundary layer thickness; y-direction gradients >> x-direction gradients; G at y = 0 is in

y-direction. Let mj,s be the mass concentration of j at the wall. For the j-component,

typical terms are

y

Inflow of j =

G m dy + G

x

y ,s

dm x

dy

m j , s x j

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Rate of creation of j =

m j xdy

The conservation principle that Outflow - Inflow + Increase in Storage = Rate of Creation

for specie j is used to obtain the integral equation. Continuity Eq. (5-1) is used and

m j , y = m j , . Then,

j

( )

mj

y

=

s

y

d y

u ( m j m j , ) dy svs ( m j , s m j , ) m j dy

dx 0

5-4 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (5-8) and

Eq. (5-21).

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 6

6-1 Note that Eqs. (6-9) and (4-17) are both unsteady forms of the Navier-Stokes

equations written in index notation, although (6-9) is for compressible flow with variable

viscosity, whereas (4-17) is for constant density flow with constant viscosity. Their

forms differ in the convection term and in the stress (or diffusion) term. The form of the

convective term in (6-9) is called the conservative form. Chain-rule differentiate the

convective term of (6-9) and subtract from it (6-8) to modify the convection term, then

assume constant density for the time term. This recovers the left hand side of (4-17).

Now, substitute the stress tensor, (6-6) into (6-9) and substitute (6-3) for the strain-rate

tensor. Assume constant viscosity and constant density. For constant density flow, the

second coefficient of viscosity (the dilatation term) is eliminated. The second term in the

strain rate tensor also disappears from the conservation of mass (assuming constant

density), and the result is the right hand side of (4-17).

6-2 Note that Eq. (6-11) is a stagnation enthalpy equation, whereas (4-32) is a static

enthalpy equation. Multiply Eq. (6-10) by u and subtract it from (6-11). Note that you

will first have to chain-rule the viscous work term in (6-11) to obtain the unsteady static

enthalpy equation. Now, substitute (6-6) along with the strain-rate tensor (6-3) into the

static enthalpy equation. The result is (4-32).

6-3

i* = e +

+ 12 ui ui = i + 12 ui ui

i* = i * + i*,

i = i + i

i* = i + 12 ui ui = i + i + 12 ( ui + ui )( ui + ui )

Now, expand the velocity term

i* = i + i + 12 ( u u ) + ( ui u ) + 12 ( uui )

and collect the time-averaged terms and the fluctuating terms. The result is (6-16),

similar to what is found in Ref. 1.

6-4

These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-21).

10

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

6-5 The first step is to chain-rule the conservative form of the convective term that

appears in Eq. (6-26) and apply the conservation of mass equation (6-22). Then apply

the index notation rule that repeated subscripts sum, j = 1, 2. Note there will not be third

term (j = 3 ) because of the two-dimensional boundary layer assumption (w = 0). The

pressure gradient becomes an ordinary derivative. The diffusion operator changes under

the boundary layer assumptions to

( )

( )

x j

y

In the viscous stress tensor, ji , only one term will be present, due to the boundary

layer approximation and the constant density assumption. This also applies to the

Reynolds stress term. The result is:

ji

) (

uj ui yx v u

This stress is (= yx ) in Eq. (6-27). Now divide through by the density, and the

constant density assumption allows the density to be moved into the diffusion term;

becomes , and the density is removed from the Reynolds stress. Note Eq. (6-28)

remains valid for variable viscosity, but not for variable density.

6-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-31),

followed by the formulation leading to Eq. (6-34). Eq. (6-34) is valid for either an ideal

gas or an incompressible liquid (both obeying de = c dT), and it is valid for variable

thermal conductivity, but not for variable density.

6-7

These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (6-38).

6-8

where is the dependent variable. Rewriting momentum equation (4-10) in this form

yields

u

u u dP

+ v

=

x

y y y dx

The energy equation (4-39) needs to first be rewritten in variable-property form similar to

Eq. (4-37), and then formulated like the momentum equation.

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

11

T

T T

+v

=

x

y y y

Then, a form similar to Eq. (6-28) results by including the Reynolds stress term,

u

1 dP

u

u u

+v

=

uv

x

y y y

dx

A similar form to Eq. (6-34) results by including the Reynolds heat flux term.

u

T

T

T

+v

=

v T

x

y y y

Note that both the momentum equation and energy equations have a convective term and

a diffusive term, but only the momentum equation has a source term. An equivalent

energy source term would be a viscous dissipation term, which could be added.

12

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 7

7-1 Let the plate spacing of the channel be a and measure y from the plate surface

Reformulate the integral equation (5-4) for a non-axisymmetric geometry (eliminate R)

and no transpiration into the boundary layer at the surface ( v s = 0 ),

s =

d

dx

( u dy ) u

y

core

d

dx

( u dy ) + u

y

core

ducore

dy

dx

where core symbol replaces the symbol. For a velocity profile, consider first the

2

y y

parabola,

= a + b + c . Three boundary conditions are needed to determine

ucore

a, b, c. The first will be the boundary condition of no-slip, u ( y = 0) = 0 . The other two

come by applying boundary conditions at the edge of the developing boundary layer

within the channel, i.e. the flow between the surface ( y = 0 ) and the core flow ( y = ).

Thus, u ( y = ) = ucore and du dy at ( y = ) = 0 . The resulting profile is

u

u

ucore

y y

= 2

The velocity profile is substituted into the integrals of the integral equation. The wall

shear stress must also be evaluated, following the idea of Eq. (7-9), and using Eq. (3-1).

The resulting momentum integral equation becomes

du 2 2 d

u 3

2 core = ucore core + ucore

dx 15

dx

5

constant density,

m

a

Va =

a = constant = 20 udy + 2ucore ( x )

2

Ac

ucore =

V

2

1

3 a

and

ducore

V

d

=

2

dx

3 2 dx

a 1

2 3 a

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

13

This provides the relationship between the mass-averaged velocity of the channel, V, and

the local core velocity. Note that this equation shows how the effect of the no-slip

condition (leading to the velocity profile) causes the core velocity to increase, eventually

becoming centerline velocity ucore = u ( y = a 2) = 1.5V for laminar, constant-density flow

in a parallel-planes channel.

Now comes lots of algebra and plenty of chances to make mistakes. Substituting for the

core velocity (and its derivative into the momentum integral equation leads to

2

3

3a + 7 d

30 = aV

2

2

3

dx

a

2

Note, here one can separate variables and integrate. Hint: the integrand can be split into

two integrals of the form

I1 =

I2 =

1

d = 2 ln ( + ) +

2

+ 0

( + )

2

1

2

=

+

ln

(

)

(

)

2

3

+ 0

( + )

The lower limit of integration will be ( x = 0 ) = 0 and the upper limit will be

2 x fd

aV

= 0.10376748 ( a 2 )

Now reformulate the expression in terms of the hydraulic diameter Reynolds number (Eq.

7-17), where Dh = 2 plate spacing = 2a , leading to

x fd

Dh

= 16 ( 0.10376748 ) Re Dh =

Re Dh

154

This result, ( x Dh ) Re Dh = 0.0065 , is quite small compared to the published solution for

14

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note, had we assumed a sinusoidal shape for the velocity profile (often considered in

viscous fluid mechanics texts, along with the parabolic-profile boundary conditions,

u

ucore

y

= sin

7-2 This problem can be solved two ways. The first method involves partially

integrating the differential momentum equation over the flow cross-section. Reformulate

Eq. (4-11) into its conservative form by combining it with the continuity equation (4-8),

and by recasting the shear stress term back into its stress form

( uu ) ( vr u )

dP 1

+

=

+

( r rx )

x

r

dx r r

Then, integrate the momentum equation in a manner similar to how we formulate an

integral equation in Chapter 5, namely differential in the flow direction (x) and integrally

in the cross-flow direction, from the surface to the centerline of the channel (or over the

flow cross-section.

( uu )

( v u )

1

dP

dAc dx +

dAc dx =

dAc dx + ( r rx ) dAc dx

r r

x

dx

where dAc would be ( 2 rdr ) for a circular pipe. Now recognize that the cross-stream

convective term is zero at the surface and at the channel (or pipe) centerline, reducing the

equation to

x2

( uu ) dA

x1

x2

= P ( x2 ) P ( x1 ) Ac + rx dx

x1

The second method is the control volume formulation, similar to that used in Chapter 5

for the momentum integral equation (pp 41-43),

M x + x M x = ( s dAs ) + ( PAc ) x ( PAc ) x + x

or

dM x = d

( udm ) = d ( u dA ) = dA d ( PA )

2

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

15

where for a circular pipe dAs = Ddx and Ac is the flow cross-sectional area. Note the

similarity to Eq. (7-10) when the flow is assumed to be fully-developed flow, and dMx=0.

Now redefine s in terms of the definition of cf from Eq. (7-13) and integrate between

two flow locations 1 and 2 representing the flow distance from x1 =0 (the entry

location) to some arbitrary x-location, x2,

1

u dA

2

2

1

1

2

where the wall shear stress has been replaced by the local friction coefficient from Eq. (713). Rearranging, assuming constant density, and dividing through by the dynamic

pressure term yields Eq. (7-19),

( P2 P1 ) =

1

V 2

2

2 u

= c f ,m

+ dAc 2

1

( Dh 4 ) Ac V

V 2

2

x

where Dh is the hydraulic diameter (Dh=D for a circular pipe). Note the introduction of

the mean friction coefficient from Eq. (7-20).

For the case where x1 and x2 are both beyond the fully-developed location, the

momentum equation can be written as

2

) = dA d ( PA )

d ( mV

1

1

1

1 m 2 As

( P2 P1 ) Ac

m 2

c

f ,m

2

A

A

A

2

c

1 c

2 c

1

dAs is the average density over the flow distance from x1 to x2. Further

As

rearrangement leads to

where =

( P2 P1 ) = P =

1

m 2

1 As

1

c

+

f ,m

Ac

2 Ac2

2 1

16

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Here one can see the effect of density variation on the flow, while neglecting the extra

pressure drop in the entry region due to acceleration. Note that a change in density will

lead to a change in Reynolds number.

7-3 For fully-developed flow in a circular tube, the velocity profile is given by Eq. (78), where the mean velocity is given by Eq. (7-7). The momentum flow through a flow

area is defined by the product of the mass flow rate through the cross-sectional area and

the velocity component normal to that area,

2

rs

M x = udm = u 2 rdr =

2

rs

r 2

4

2V 1 2 rdr = V 2 rs2

3

rs 2

r 2

rs

rs

m = dm = u 2 rdr = 2V 1 2 rdr = V rs2

0

0

rs 2

When we talk about 1-dimensional flow, such as in the subjects of thermodynamics or

compressible flow, we assume there is a characteristic velocity that represents the flow

cross-sectional area, defined from the continuity equation,

V=

m

Ac

where the density is assumed constant over the cross-section. If the velocity is uniform

over the cross-sectional area, u ( r ) = V , then

Comparing these two results, we find that the actual momentum flow rate differs from the

one-dimensional flow rate by a factor of 4/3. Or, when u(r) exists, then at a given xlocation

Therefore, if we assumed a 1-dimensional flow approach we could not obtain the last

term of Eq. (7-19), which represents the contribution to the pressure drop due to flow

acceleration (kinetic energy change) as the profile changes shape from x1 to x2.

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

7-4

17

For the 2 tubes in parallel between the two tanks, the theory will be

m 1 + m 2 = 0.00013 kg / s

P1 = P2 =

1

2

V 2 c f ,app

m

VD

Re D =

=

D

Ac

4 x m 2

4x

c

=

2 f , app

D 2 Ac

D

4m

D

(a) arbitrarily select a mass flow rate for the larger tube

(b) compute the Re for each tube

(c) compute the parameter x + = ( x D ) Re for each tube

(d) using Figure 7-7, find the value of c f ,app for each tube

(e) compute the pressure drop for each tube

(f) iterate the mass flow of the larger tube until the pressure drops balance

Answers:

(a) mass flow rate for the larger tube is about 89% of the total mass flow

(b) Re for the larger and smaller tubes will be about 820 and 200 respectively

(c) pressure drop is about 15.2 Pa (for each tube)

note: for both flows Re ( x D ) < 6 or x + > 0.17 so the flow is fully-developed

therefore, Figure 7-7 is not needed, and c f ,app Re = 17.5 is ok to use

7-5 Note, this problem requires D to be replaced by Dh, the hydraulic diameter. Note

also, we can use Eq. (7-21) for the pressure drop. For this problem, the assumption of

fully-developed flow is made, and Figure 7-4 can be used to determine ( c f Re ) for these

* =

Dh =

Re Dh

b

1 cm

=

=5

a 0.2 cm

= 0.2

(c

Re ) = 19.1

4 ( ab )

4 Ac

4a

=

=

= 1.67a

a

perimeter 2a + 2b 2 + 2

b

m D

VDh Ac h m (1.67a ) 1.67 m

=

=

=

=

b

( a b)

18

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

P =

1

2

V 2 c f ,app

4 x m 2

4x

c

=

2 f , app

D 2 Ac

D

m 2 c f Re Dh

=

2

2 Ac Re Dh

4 x m 2 c f Re D ( 0.717 ) x

h

=

D

a 3b

Thus, for two parallel passages having the same pressure drop,

P =

m 12 c f Re Dh ( 0.717 ) x m 22 c f Re Dh ( 0.717 ) x

= 3

b

b

a13

a2

or

m 2 a2

=

m 1 a1

1.1a

=

0.9a

= 1.35

results in a 35 percent difference in the mass flow rates, the higher flow rate in the larger

passage.

7-6 These steps are essentially a repeat of the formulation leading up to Eq. (7-12).

Define a control volume, such as in Fig. 7-2, assuming fully-developed flow. Identify all

of the forces on the control volume surface (pressure and axial shear stress, rx ). Note

that there will be no momentum flux difference into and out of the control volume

because of the fully-developed assumption. Applying the momentum theorem Eq. (2-4)

leads to the Eq. (7-10). Applying this for r=rs gives Eq. (7-11). Forming the ratio of Eq.

(7-10) to Eq. (7-11) gives Eq. (7-12). This is a very important result for internal flows,

because it applies to both laminar and turbulent pipe flow. An alternative solution is to

derive the velocity profile for pipe flow, Eq. (7-8) and then form the shear stress for an

arbitrary r location and at r=rs, Eq. (7-9). Then forming the ratio of these shear stresses

yields Eq. (7-12).

7-7 For the parallel-planes geometry y is measured from the centerline and the channel

is of width a. Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. The

appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-10),

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

19

dP u

u

u

+ v

=

+

dx y y

x

y

and for fully-developed flow, u x = 0 and v=0, reducing the momentum equation to an

ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions

dP d du

=

dx dy dy

with boundary conditions of velocity profile symmetry at the channel centerline, and noslip at the channel surfaces.

du

dy

=0

and

u y = a 2 = 0

y =0

Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction, we can separate

variables and integrate, and apply the boundary conditions, leading to the parallel-planes

channel velocity profile,

u=

h2

y 2 dP

1

4

2

a 2 dx

Note the similarity to Eq. (7-2) for the circular pipe, namely a parabolic profile shape.

Next, we create the mean velocity, following Eq. (7-5) for constant density,

V=

1

Ac

Ac

u dAc =

+a 2

1

a 2 dP

udy

=

12 dx

( a 1) a 2

Where the cross-sectional area is per unit depth. Again, note the similarity to Eq. (7-7)

for the circular pipe.

Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields

u 3

y2

= 1 4 2

V 2

a

20

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

y =h

=s =

6V

a

Compare this result to Eq. (7-9) for the circular pipe. Now follow the procedure of Eq.

(7-13) to form the friction coefficient, considering the absolute value of the shear stress

to preserve the fact that the surface shear is in the direction opposite of the flow.

s =

6 V

V 2

= cf

a

2

or

cf =

12

24

=

Va Re Dh

where the hydraulic diameter in the Reynolds number is twice the plate spacing.

Comparing the result to Fig. 7-4 for * = b a (the parallel plate case where b a ,

hydrodynamically fully developed flow. In Fig. 7-5, the radius ratio r * 1 is the

limiting geometry of the annulus when the inner and outer radii are almost the same,

creating a parallel-planes geometry. Note this is the geometry of journal bearings.

7-8 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe, ri is

the radius of the inner pipe, ro is the radius of the outer pipe, and r* is the radius ratio,

r * = ri ro . Assume fully-developed laminar flow with constant properties. The

appropriate boundary layer equation is (4-11),

u

u

dP 1 u

+ v r

=

+

r

dx r r r

x

r

and for fully-developed flow, u x = 0 and vr=0, reducing the momentum equation to

an ordinary differential equation and boundary conditions

dP 1 d du

=

r

dx r dr

dr

with boundary conditions of no-slip at the channel surfaces.

u r =r = 0

i

and

u r =r = 0

o

Because the pressure gradient is a constant in the axial flow direction, we can separate

variables and integrate, and apply the boundary conditions, leading to the annular channel

velocity profile,

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

21

2

r dP

ro2 r

1 + Bln

u=

4 ro

ro dx

where

(r

B=

*2

ln ( r

Note the approximate similarity to Eq. (7-2) for the circular pipe However, it is

somewhat parabolic but it has an extra logarithmic term. For flow in the annular space

between two concentric pipes, there will be a peak in the velocity profile, and it is located

at rm (compared to the centerline for the pipe and parallel-planes channel).

Next, we create the mean velocity, following Eq. (7-5) for constant density,

V=

1

Ac

Ac

u dAc =

ro

ro2 dP

1

2

M

u

rdr

8 dx

( ro2 i2 ) ri

where M = 1 + r * B .

Again, note the approximate similarity to Eq. (7-7) for the circular pipe.

Creating the ratio of the velocity profile to the mean velocity yields an equation similar in

form to Eq. (8-26),

2

r

r

u

2

1 + Bln

=

V M

ro

ro

We can also derive the maximum velocity for the profile by setting

u

r

=0

r = rm

where

1 r *2

rm

=

r =

*

ro

2 ln(1/ r )

*

m

leading to

12

22

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

*

*

*

umax 2 1 rm + 2rm ln ( rm )

=

2

2

V

1 + r * 2rm*

2

Now evaluate the surface friction for each surface, following Eq. (7-9), but with sign

convention that reflects the profile behavior for annular flow.

i =

o = +

u

r

u

r

2 V 2r * B

+

M ro

ri

2 V 2 B

+

M ro ro

r = ri

r = ro

and formulate an area-weighted average of the friction coefficient, based on the inner

surface, Ai, and the outer surface, Ao, described on p. 71

i Ai + o Ao

cf =

Ai + Ao

V 2 2

( ri i + ro o ) = 4V

=

( ri + ro ) V 2 2 M

( 2r

*2

B2+B

( ri + ro ) V

Define the hydraulic diameter for the annulus, following Eq. (7-17), Dh = 2 ( ro ri ) , and

transform the friction coefficient,

2

16

1 r* )

12 M (

=

cf =

Re Dh

Vh

7-9 The data file for this problem is 7.9.dat.txt and the output file is 7.9.out.txt.

TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F, and the users manual for all internal laminar

flows is s30.man, which should be helpful to the new user. If you set up problem 7-9

following the instructions described in its problem statement, you should have a data set

similar to the s30.dat.txt file.

### 'title of data set'

7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

4

2

1

1

0

0

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

1

1

###

kfluid

kunits

1

1

###

po

rhoc

viscoc

amolwt

gam/cp

ktme

0

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

101325.0

1.17700 1.838E-05

00.00

1005.00

prc(1)

prc(2)

prc(3)

prc(4)

prc(5)

0.707

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)

6

0

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)

6

1

x(m)

rw(m)

aux1(m)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0000000

0.0350

0.0100

0.0000

0.0000

0.0350000

0.0350

0.0100

0.0000

0.0000

0.3500000

0.0350

0.2500

0.0000

0.0000

3.5000000

0.0350

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

6.0000000

0.0350

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

12.0000000

0.0350

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

ubI(m)

am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

ubE(m)

am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

xstart

xend

deltax

fra

enfra

0.0000000 12.000000

0.000

0.000 0.000E+00

kout

kspace

kdx

kent

8

50

1

0

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

0

0

0

0

20

0

k7

k8

k9

k10

k11

k12

0

0

0

0

0

0

axx

bxx

cxx

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

dyi

rate

reyn

tref

tuapp

epsapp

twall

5.000E-04

0.0900

1000.00

300.0

0.0

0.00

300.0

Note, for the circular pipe geometry , the variable rw(m) is the wall radius.

Here is the 7.9.out.txt output file

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.9.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

Laminar flow in a circular pipe benchmark test

cf,theo = 16.0/re,dh

nu,theo = 3.66, based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp

re,dh = 1.0000E+03

prm =

.707

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

xplus

.00003

.00025

.00050

.00101

.00292

.00877

cf*re

137.95

55.81

43.41

34.33

25.29

19.78

uclr

1.037

1.104

1.144

1.200

1.330

1.556

xstar

.00004

.00035

.00071

.00143

.00413

.01240

nu

58.044

20.308

14.883

10.968

7.147

4.897

th,cl tm/ts ts

1.018 .968 3.100E+02

1.057 .969 3.100E+02

1.083 .970 3.100E+02

1.123 .971 3.100E+02

1.232 .974 3.100E+02

1.475 .978 3.100E+02

qflux

2.128E+02

7.170E+01

5.129E+01

3.645E+01

2.166E+01

1.229E+01

23

24

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

634

.01842

.03303

.05500

.08000

.10471

.12971

.15471

.17143

17.59

16.57

16.13

16.03

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

1.768

1.911

1.976

1.993

1.996

1.997

1.997

1.997

.02605

.04672

.07779

.11315

.14811

.18347

.21883

.24247

4.074

3.763

3.675

3.660

3.658

3.658

3.658

3.658

1.691

1.782

1.799

1.799

1.798

1.798

1.798

1.798

.983

.988

.992

.995

.997

.998

.999

.999

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

3.100E+02

8.051E+00

5.402E+00

3.335E+00

1.983E+00

1.192E+00

7.121E-01

4.256E-01

3.017E-01

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

xplus

x Dh

Re Dh

cf2* re

c f Re

numerator in Fig.7-7

uclr

ucl V

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat

transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that

7.9.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary

condition.

The three friction factor variations in the entry region that are depicted in Fig. 7-7 can be

verified with TEXSTAN. The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction

factor, cf . To obtain the mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be

integrated with respect to x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will

need to use more output points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by

increasing the kspace variable.

To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given

by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the

pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to

obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.9a.out.txt output file for

kout = 4,

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.9a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - pipe - based on s30.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00

note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]

input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)

Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03

Prandtl number=

.707

U,mean = 2.2309E-01

d,h = 7.0000E-02

viscom = 1.8380E-05

rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

634

x/d,h

2.500E-02

2.500E-01

5.000E-01

1.011E+00

2.918E+00

8.767E+00

1.842E+01

3.303E+01

5.500E+01

8.000E+01

1.047E+02

1.297E+02

1.547E+02

1.714E+02

uclr

1.037E+00

1.104E+00

1.144E+00

1.200E+00

1.330E+00

1.556E+00

1.768E+00

1.911E+00

1.976E+00

1.993E+00

1.996E+00

1.997E+00

1.997E+00

1.997E+00

delp

2.145E-03

6.356E-03

8.982E-03

1.296E-02

2.280E-02

4.227E-02

6.629E-02

9.741E-02

1.405E-01

1.877E-01

2.341E-01

2.810E-01

3.279E-01

3.592E-01

cf2(I)

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

cf2(E)

6.898E-02

2.790E-02

2.171E-02

1.717E-02

1.265E-02

9.891E-03

8.796E-03

8.283E-03

8.067E-03

8.013E-03

8.002E-03

8.000E-03

7.999E-03

7.999E-03

nu(I)

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

25

nu(E)

5.804E+01

2.031E+01

1.488E+01

1.097E+01

7.147E+00

4.897E+00

4.074E+00

3.763E+00

3.675E+00

3.660E+00

3.658E+00

3.658E+00

3.658E+00

3.658E+00

In this modified output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook

variables

x/d,h

x Dh

uclr

ucl V

delp

cf2(E)

(c

2)

rs

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region for comparison

with Fig. 7-6, reset kout=4 and set k10=10. The output profile will then contain profiles

at each x(m) station. The variables in the output will include

y(i)

u(i)

u (r )

axial velocity

y/y(E)

r rs

non-dimensional radius

u/umean

uV

Note: the x(m) distribution for internal flows is a bit tricky, because of how TEXSTAN is

finite-differenced (or finite-volumed) for internal flows compared to external boundary

layer flows. With external flows, the numerical mesh extends from the surface to the free

stream and automatically expands to preserve the requirement that all dependent variable

profiles have zero gradient at the free stream (in the absence of flow-direction surface

curvature, which TEXSTAN does not have programmed into its differential equations).

TEXSTANs integration stepsize is proportional to the boundary layer thickness, so as

the boundary layer grows, the stepsize automatically increases. The controlling input

variable is deltax.

For internal flows, the numerical mesh is required to extend from surface to centerline (or

surface to surface). For entry flows, the developing shear layer (boundary layer) is a very

small part of this mesh, and therefore TEXSTAN must take very small flow-direction

integration steps. Making the stepsize proportional to the boundary layer thickness is not

26

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Instead of using deltax, we set the flag kdx=1, and input deltax using the array aux1(m).

This is why the user sees a peculiar x(m) distribution, and the accompanying aux1(m)

values.

###

x(m)

0.0000000

0.0350000

0.3500000

3.5000000

6.0000000

12.0000000

rw(m)

0.0350

0.0350

0.0350

0.0350

0.0350

0.0350

aux1(m)

0.0100

0.0100

0.2500

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

aux2(m)

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

aux3(m)

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

If you take these x(m) values and convert them to x + = ( x Dh ) Re Dh , you will find the

stepsize is controlled to match the logarithmic change of friction in the entry region, as

depicted by Fig. 7-7. The user needs to be careful when changing the input data set to

preserve how the integration stepsize changes. This is also discussed in some detail in

the s30.man.

Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the

velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ucl/V 2. This ratio is a measure of

fully-developed flow.

7-10 The data file for this problem is 7.10.dat.txt and the output file is 7.10.out.txt. If

you set up problem 7-10 following the instructions described in its problem statement,

you should have a data set similar to the s50.dat.txt file.

### 'title of data set'

7.10.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

ktme

5

2

1

1

0

0

0

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

1

1

###

kfluid

kunits

1

1

###

po

rhoc

viscoc

amolwt

gam/cp

101325.0

1.17700 1.838E-05

00.00

1005.00

###

prc(1)

prc(2)

prc(3)

prc(4)

prc(5)

0.707

###

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)

5

0

###

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)

5

1

###

x(m)

rw(m)

aux1(m)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0000000

0.0175

0.0100

0.0000

0.0000

0.0350000

0.0175

0.0100

0.0000

0.0000

0.3500000

0.0175

0.2500

0.0000

0.0000

3.5000000

0.0175

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

6.0000000

0.0175

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

###

ubI(m)

am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

###

ubE(m)

am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###

###

###

###

###

###

0.00

0.0

0.000

0.00

0.000

310.0

xstart

xend

deltax

fra

enfra

0.0000000 6.000000

0.000

0.000 0.000E+00

kout

kspace

kdx

kent

8

50

1

0

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

0

0

0

0

20

0

k7

k8

k9

k10

k11

k12

0

0

0

0

0

0

axx

bxx

cxx

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

dyi

rate

reyn

tref

tuapp

epsapp

twall

5.000E-04

0.0900

1000.00

300.0

0.0

0.00

300.0

Note, for the parallel-planes geometry and the assumption of symmetry (kgeom=5), the

variable rw(m) is half the plate spacing (centerline to surface).

Here is the 7.10.out.txt output file

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.10.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

Laminar flow between parallel plates benchmark

cf,theo = 24.0/re,dh

nu,theo = 7.54, based on f/d flow w/ const wall temp

re,dh = 1.0000E+03

prm =

.707

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

920

xplus

.00001

.00013

.00025

.00038

.00050

.00068

.00102

.00168

.00296

.00544

.00901

.01341

.01881

.02547

.03367

.04376

.05575

.06825

.08075

.08571

cf*re

192.13

76.33

59.05

51.31

46.68

42.47

37.69

33.05

29.12

26.21

24.75

24.20

24.03

24.00

23.99

23.99

23.99

23.99

23.99

23.99

uclr

1.026

1.075

1.104

1.126

1.144

1.166

1.202

1.257

1.335

1.422

1.473

1.493

1.498

1.499

1.499

1.500

1.500

1.500

1.500

1.500

xstar

.00002

.00018

.00035

.00053

.00071

.00096

.00144

.00238

.00419

.00770

.01275

.01896

.02661

.03603

.04762

.06190

.07885

.09653

.11422

.12124

nu

82.643

29.395

21.782

18.400

16.386

14.570

12.527

10.578

8.993

7.964

7.607

7.541

7.537

7.538

7.538

7.538

7.538

7.538

7.538

7.538

th,cl tm/ts ts

1.013 .968 3.100E+02

1.041 .969 3.100E+02

1.059 .970 3.100E+02

1.074 .970 3.100E+02

1.087 .970 3.100E+02

1.104 .971 3.100E+02

1.133 .972 3.100E+02

1.182 .973 3.100E+02

1.250 .975 3.100E+02

1.306 .977 3.100E+02

1.321 .981 3.100E+02

1.321 .984 3.100E+02

1.319 .987 3.100E+02

1.319 .990 3.100E+02

1.319 .993 3.100E+02

1.319 .996 3.100E+02

1.319 .997 3.100E+02

1.319 .998 3.100E+02

1.319 .999 3.100E+02

1.319 .999 3.100E+02

qflux

3.046E+02

1.054E+02

7.676E+01

6.394E+01

5.625E+01

4.925E+01

4.126E+01

3.338E+01

2.646E+01

2.084E+01

1.703E+01

1.399E+01

1.111E+01

8.372E+00

5.910E+00

3.850E+00

2.315E+00

1.362E+00

8.015E-01

6.493E-01

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

27

28

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

xplus

x Dh

Re Dh

cf * re

c f Re Dh

uclr

ucl V

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat

transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that

7.10.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary

condition on each surface (thermal symmetry).

The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN.

The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor, cf . To obtain the

mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to

x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will need to use more output

points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace

variable.

To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given

by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the

pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to

obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.10a.out.txt output file

for kout = 4,

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.10a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - parallel planes - based on s50.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00

note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]

input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)

Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03

Prandtl number=

.707

U,mean = 2.2309E-01

d,h = 7.0000E-02

viscom = 1.8380E-05

rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

x/d,h

1.250E-02

1.250E-01

2.500E-01

3.750E-01

5.000E-01

6.761E-01

1.018E+00

1.680E+00

2.964E+00

5.443E+00

9.012E+00

uclr

1.026E+00

1.075E+00

1.104E+00

1.126E+00

1.144E+00

1.166E+00

1.202E+00

1.257E+00

1.335E+00

1.422E+00

1.473E+00

delp

1.518E-03

4.505E-03

6.359E-03

7.799E-03

9.026E-03

1.055E-02

1.307E-02

1.707E-02

2.328E-02

3.290E-02

4.447E-02

cf2(I)

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

cf2(E)

9.607E-02

3.816E-02

2.953E-02

2.566E-02

2.334E-02

2.123E-02

1.884E-02

1.653E-02

1.456E-02

1.311E-02

1.237E-02

nu(I)

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

nu(E)

8.264E+01

2.940E+01

2.178E+01

1.840E+01

1.639E+01

1.457E+01

1.253E+01

1.058E+01

8.993E+00

7.964E+00

7.607E+00

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

920

1.341E+01

1.881E+01

2.547E+01

3.367E+01

4.376E+01

5.575E+01

6.825E+01

8.075E+01

8.571E+01

1.493E+00

1.498E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.500E+00

1.500E+00

1.500E+00

1.500E+00

1.500E+00

5.746E-02

7.290E-02

9.173E-02

1.149E-01

1.434E-01

1.771E-01

2.123E-01

2.474E-01

2.614E-01

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

1.210E-02

1.202E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

29

7.541E+00

7.537E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

7.538E+00

In this output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

x/d,h

x Dh

uclr

ucl V

delp

cf2(E)

(c

2)

rs

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4

and set k10=11. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The

variables in the output will include

y(i)

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

y/y(E)

y ycl

u/umean

uV

Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in

the solution to problem 7-9. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this

data set.

Plotting the ratio ucl/V shows a continual acceleration of the centerline velocity as the

velocity profile changes shape over the limits 1 ucl/V 1.5. This ratio is a measure of

fully-developed flow.

7-11 The data file for this problem is 7.11.dat.txt and the output file is 7.11.out.txt. If

you set up problem 7-11 following the instructions described in its problem statement,

you should have a data set similar to the s60.dat.txt file..

### 'title of data set'

7.11.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

7

2

1

1

0

0

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

1

1

###

kfluid

kunits

1

1

###

po

rhoc

viscoc

amolwt

gam/cp

ktme

0

30

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

101325.0

1.17700

prc(1)

prc(2)

0.707

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1)

5

1

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1)

5

1

x(m)

rw(m)

0.0000000

0.0350

0.0350000

0.0350

0.3500000

0.0350

3.5000000

0.0350

6.0000000

0.0350

ubI(m)

am(I,m)

ubE(m)

am(E,m)

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.000

xstart

xend

0.0000000 6.000000

kout

kspace

8

50

k1

k2

0

0

k7

k8

0

0

axx

bxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00

dyi

rate

5.000E-04

0.0900

1.838E-05

prc(3)

00.00

prc(4)

1005.00

prc(5)

jbc(I,2)

jbc(I,3)

jbc(I,4)

jbc(I,5)

jbc(E,2)

jbc(E,3)

jbc(E,4)

jbc(E,5)

aux1(m)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0100

0.0350

0.0000

0.0100

0.0350

0.0000

0.2500

0.0350

0.0000

1.0000

0.0350

0.0000

1.0000

0.0350

0.0000

fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

310.0

deltax

fra

enfra

0.000

0.000 0.000E+00

kdx

kent

1

0

k3

k4

k5

k6

0

0

20

0

k9

k10

k11

k12

0

0

0

0

cxx

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

reyn

tref

tuapp

epsapp

twall

1000.00

300.0

0.0

0.00

300.0

Note, for the annulus geometry and the assumption , the variable rw(m) is the inner

radius and aux2(m) is the annular separation (the outer radius will be the sum of rw(m)

and aux2(m), leading to r* = ro ri = ( 0.035 + 0.035 ) 0.035 = 0.5 ).

Here is the 7.11.out.txt output file

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.11.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

Laminar flow in an annulus, r* = 0.5, benchmark

for annulus with radius ratio r*=0.5:

cf,theo = 27.719/re,dh (I) and 21.859/re,dh (E)

nu,theo = 9.441 (I) and 6.401 (E) w/ const wall temp

re,dh = 1.0000E+03

prm =

.707

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

.00001 195.053 190.656

.00013

79.117

74.899

.00025

61.864

57.609

.00038

54.143

49.853

.00050

49.525

45.202

xstar

.00002

.00018

.00035

.00053

.00071

nu(I)

84.019

30.705

23.092

19.713

17.704

nu(E)

81.949

28.723

21.104

17.715

15.695

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

920

.00068

.00102

.00168

.00296

.00544

.00901

.01341

.01881

.02547

.03367

.04376

.05575

.06825

.08075

.08571

45.341

40.608

36.045

32.241

29.521

28.251

27.827

27.723

27.708

27.708

27.708

27.708

27.708

27.709

27.708

40.975

36.166

31.475

27.465

24.429

22.822

22.158

21.929

21.868

21.855

21.854

21.853

21.853

21.853

21.853

.00096

.00144

.00238

.00419

.00770

.01275

.01896

.02661

.03603

.04762

.06190

.07885

.09653

.11422

.12124

15.895

13.868

11.951

10.431

9.530

9.328

9.368

9.413

9.431

9.436

9.437

9.437

9.437

9.437

9.437

31

13.872

11.814

9.837

8.202

7.076

6.604

6.458

6.415

6.403

6.400

6.399

6.399

6.399

6.399

6.399

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

xplus

x Dh

Re Dh

cf * re(I)

c f Re Dh

I-surface is located at ri

cf * re(E)

c f Re Dh

E-surface is located at ro

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat

transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition. Note that

7.11.dat.txt computes heat transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary

condition on each surface.

The three friction factor variations in the entry region can be verified with TEXSTAN.

The output file of TEXSTAN always prints the local friction factor, cf . To obtain the

mean friction coefficient, cf,m, the local friction factor has to be integrated with respect to

x (the flow direction) following Eq. (7-20). Note the user will need to use more output

points for accurate integration. The extra points are obtained by increasing the kspace

variable.

To verify the apparent mean friction coefficient the pressure drop must be used, as given

by Eq. (7-21). The user needs to switch the output format to kout = 4 to obtain the

pressure variation in the flow direction. Again, the user will need to increase kspace to

obtain enough points to see the pressure variation. Here is the 7.11a.txt output file for

kout = 4,

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 7.11a.dat.txt - lam entry flow - r*=0.5 annulus - based on s60.dat.txt

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

initial pressure = 1.0133E+05

at x= 0.0000E+00

32

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]

input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)

Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03

Prandtl number=

.707

U,mean = 2.2309E-01

d,h = 7.0000E-02

viscom = 1.8380E-05

rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

920

x/d,h

1.250E-02

1.250E-01

2.500E-01

3.750E-01

5.000E-01

6.761E-01

1.018E+00

1.680E+00

2.964E+00

5.443E+00

9.012E+00

1.341E+01

1.881E+01

2.547E+01

3.367E+01

4.376E+01

5.575E+01

6.825E+01

8.075E+01

8.571E+01

uclr

1.026E+00

1.075E+00

1.104E+00

1.126E+00

1.144E+00

1.166E+00

1.202E+00

1.257E+00

1.335E+00

1.423E+00

1.477E+00

1.498E+00

1.505E+00

1.506E+00

1.507E+00

1.507E+00

1.507E+00

1.507E+00

1.507E+00

1.507E+00

delp

1.518E-03

4.506E-03

6.361E-03

7.801E-03

9.029E-03

1.056E-02

1.308E-02

1.708E-02

2.330E-02

3.293E-02

4.451E-02

5.748E-02

7.284E-02

9.155E-02

1.145E-01

1.428E-01

1.763E-01

2.111E-01

2.460E-01

2.598E-01

cf2(I)

9.753E-02

3.956E-02

3.093E-02

2.707E-02

2.476E-02

2.267E-02

2.030E-02

1.802E-02

1.612E-02

1.476E-02

1.413E-02

1.391E-02

1.386E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

1.385E-02

cf2(E)

9.533E-02

3.745E-02

2.880E-02

2.493E-02

2.260E-02

2.049E-02

1.808E-02

1.574E-02

1.373E-02

1.221E-02

1.141E-02

1.108E-02

1.096E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

1.093E-02

nu(I)

8.402E+01

3.070E+01

2.309E+01

1.971E+01

1.770E+01

1.590E+01

1.387E+01

1.195E+01

1.043E+01

9.530E+00

9.328E+00

9.368E+00

9.413E+00

9.431E+00

9.436E+00

9.437E+00

9.437E+00

9.437E+00

9.437E+00

9.437E+00

nu(E)

8.195E+01

2.872E+01

2.110E+01

1.772E+01

1.570E+01

1.387E+01

1.181E+01

9.837E+00

8.202E+00

7.076E+00

6.604E+00

6.458E+00

6.415E+00

6.403E+00

6.400E+00

6.399E+00

6.399E+00

6.399E+00

6.399E+00

6.399E+00

In this modified output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook

variables

x/d,h

x Dh

meaningless variable for flow in annulus

uclr

delp

cf2(I)

cf2(E)

(c

(c

2)

2)

ri

ro

To plot the developing velocity profiles in the hydrodynamic entry region reset kout=4

and set k10=11. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The

variables in the output will include

y(i)

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

y/y(E)

y ycl

u/umean

uV

Note: for a detailed discussion of the meaning of the x(m) distribution for this data set in

the solution to problem 7-9. It is recommended to not change the x-distribution for this

data set.

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

33

Correction: the request to plot the ratio ucl/V is not meaningful for the annulus problem.

The student can find the maximum velocity within the annulus and plot this ratio as a

measure of fully-developed flow. See the solution to problem 7-8 for the theoretical

value for this maximum velocity and its location.

34

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Chapter 8 INCOMPLETE

8-1 Let the plate spacing be a. This solution is derived based on the origin y = 0

located on the channel centerline. Let the heat flux into the 1-surface be q1 and its

corresponding surface temperature be T1, and let the heat flux into the 2-surface be q2 .

and its corresponding surface temperature be T2. Note that we have implied a sign

convention such that a positive heat flux is in the +y direction (into the fluid from surface

1 or out of the fluid from surface 2) and a negative heat flux is in the y direction (out of

the fluid from surface 1 or into the fluid from surface 2).

Assume steady laminar flow with constant properties. For this coordinate system, the

velocity profile has been derived in problem 7-7,

u 3

y2

= 1 4 2

V 2

a

Now consider the energy equation, neglecting viscous dissipation, and assuming constant

properties for an ideal gas and steady state. Equation (4-39 is

T

T

2T

u

+v

= 2

x

y

y

For thermally fully-developed flow, v=0 and from Eq. (8-7) T x = dTm dx and the

energy equation becomes

2T u dTm 3V dTm

y2

=

=

1 4 2

y 2 dx 2 dx

a

T ( y) =

3V dTm y 2 y 4

+ C1 y + C2

2 dx 2 3a 2

Now, carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow, similar

to that depicted in Fig. 8-3 for a curricular pipe,

=

dx a Vc

To obtain a solution for the Nusselt numbers on each surface, the solution, the most

straightforward approach is to apply a superposition idea because the two boundary

conditions are both Neumann or Type 2 from a differential equation point of view. That

is, only C1 can be resolved. Split the solution into the linear sum of two problems,

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

T = t1 + t2

35

Tm = tm ,1 + tm ,2

and

where

dt1

dx

y =+ a 2

dt2

dx

y = a 2

=0

and

t1

=0

and

t2

y = a 2

y =+ a 2

= ts ,1

= ts ,2

t1 = t1, s +

3V dtm,1 y 2 y 4 1

13 2

2 ay a

2 dx 2 3a 3

48

t2 = t2, s +

3V dtm ,2 y 2 y 4 1

13 2

2 + ay a

2 dx 2 3a 3

48

Now compute the mass-averaged fluid temperatures for these two solutions following Eq.

(8-5),

tm ,1 =

+a 2 3

1

3V dtm ,1 y 2 y 4 1

13

y2

1

4

V

t

+

2 ay a 2 ( dy 1)

1, s

2

2 dx 2 3a 3

48

V ( a 1) a 2 2

a

= t1, s

52 V dtm,1 2

a

140 dx

Now, carry out an energy balance on a control volume for an element of the flow, with

heating only on surface 1,

dtm ,1

q1

=

dx a Vc

Substitution of this into the formulation for tm,1 yields

tm ,1 = t1, s

Carrying out the same procedure for tm,2 yields

26 q1a

70 k

36

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

tm ,2 = t2, s

26 q2a

70 k

y 2 y 4 13 2

3

1

T = t1, s + t2, s +

( q1 + q2 ) 2 a ( q1 q2 ) ay

2ka

3

2 3a 48

Tm = t1, s + t2, s

26 a

( q1 + q2 )

70 k

Ts ,1 = T

y = a 2

Ts ,2 = T

y =+ a 2

a

q2

2k

a

= ts ,1 + ts ,2 q1

2k

= ts ,1 + ts ,2

Finally, we formulate the Nusselt numbers for each surface. For surface 1,

Nu1 =

h1 Dh

2a

4q1

1

q1

=

=

=

k

(Ts,1 Tm ) k 26 q1 9 q2 13 9 q2

35

35

70 140 q1

5.385

1 0.346

q2

q1

Nu 2 =

h2 Dh

5.385

=

q

k

1 0.346 1

q2

For this problem, where the heating on surface 2 is two times (2x) the heating on surface

1,

Nu1 = 17.5

and

Nu 2 = 6.51

and for the case where the heating on surface 2 is five times (5x) the heating on surface 1,

Nu1 = 7.37

and

Nu 2 = 5.79

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

37

To verify the solution, compare to the development on page 94, and Table 8-1. For

parallel planes, r* = 1 and both influence coefficients are 0.346. When the heat flux ratio

q2 q1 = 26 9 2.9 , Nu1 becomes infinite, indicating that (Ts,1-Tm) has become zero, and

for larger heat flux ratios the mean temperature exceeds the surface-1 temperature. Note

that a flux-flux boundary condition problem does not have a unique temperature level,

but rather it is set by a thermal boundary condition on the other side of one of the

surfaces.

The solution for this problem can also be carried out without strictly considering linear

superposition.

This solution can be verified with TEXSTAN. First, we need to review how TEXSTAN

is set up for heat transfer with regard to sign convention. TEXSTAN is programmed

such that positive heat flux is into the fluid from both the I-surface and from the Esurface surface for planar geometries (kgeom=5 or =6) and for annular geometries

(kgeom=7 where the I-surface is ri and the E-surface is ro). For planar geometries +y is

defined from the I-surface, and for annular geometries, +r is defined from the I-surface.

For the I-surface, the rate equations for conduction (Fouriers law) and for convection

(Newtons law of cooling) are

qs = k

T

y

I surface

hDh

k

I surface

TEXSTAN output file ftn83.txt can be used to confirm h, Ts, Tm, and Nu values for the Isurface, and the output file out.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature

profiles T(y) to confirm the wall heat flux calculation. So, when the heat flux boundary

condition is specified by the user as a positive number, the heat will be into the fluid, and

we will expect Ts>Tm, dT dy < 0 , and a positive Nu value.

For the E-surface, the rate equations for conduction (Fouriers law) and for convection

(Newtons law of cooling) are

qs = + k

T

y

E surface

hDh

k

E surface

Note the change in sign convention to match the TEXSTAN requirement that positive

heat flux is into the fluid (similar to first-law thermodynamic ideas). TEXSTAN output

file ftn84.txt can be used to confirm h, Ts, Tm, and Nu values for the E-surface, and the

output file out.txt (when k10=10 or =11) will contain temperature profiles T(y) to confirm

the wall heat flux calculation. So, when the heat flux boundary condition is specified by

the user as a positive number, the heat will be into the fluid, and we will expect Ts>Tm,

dT dy > 0 , and a positive Nu value.

38

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

To verify the solution to problem 8.1 with TEXSTAN, choose 8.1-two.dat.txt. If you set

up the input data set following the instructions described in its problem statement, you

should have a data set similar to the s516.dat.txt file (with the flux level for the E-surface

changed). The input file is:

### 'title of data set'

8.1-two.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

6

2

1

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

1

1

###

kfluid

kunits

1

1

###

po

rhoc

viscoc

101325.0

1.17700 1.838E-05

###

prc(1)

prc(2)

prc(3)

0.707

###

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2)

6

2

###

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2)

6

2

###

x(m)

rw(m)

aux1(m)

0.0000000

0.0350

0.0100

0.0350000

0.0350

0.0100

0.3500000

0.0350

0.2500

3.5000000

0.0350

1.0000

6.0000000

0.0350

1.0000

9.0000000

0.0350

1.0000

###

ubI(m)

am(I,m) fj(I,1,m)

###

ubE(m)

am(E,m) fj(E,1,m)

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

0.00

0.0

20.0

0.00

0.000

40.0

###

xstart

xend

deltax

0.0000000 9.000000

0.000

###

kout

kspace

kdx

4

50

1

###

k1

k2

k3

0

0

0

###

k7

k8

k9

0

0

0

###

axx

bxx

cxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

###

dyi

rate

reyn

5.000E-04

0.0900

1000.00

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

ktme

1

0

0

0

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

amolwt

00.00

prc(4)

gam/cp

1005.00

prc(5)

jbc(I,3)

jbc(I,4)

jbc(I,5)

jbc(E,3)

jbc(E,4)

jbc(E,5)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

fra

enfra

0.000 0.000E+00

kent

0

k4

k5

k6

0

20

0

k10

k11

k12

0

0

0

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

tref

tuapp

epsapp

twall

300.0

0.0

0.00

300.0

Note we arbitrarily chose the lower surface heat flux to be q y = a 2 = +20 W/m 2 , so the

problem statement of a 2x heating for the upper surface requires q y =+ a 2 = +40 W/m 2 .

This low level of heat flux gives realistic temperature differences for the constantproperty assumption, even though setting kfluid=1 forces TEXSTAN to compute constant

properties, regardless of level of heat flux (just as setting jsor(1)=1 suppresses viscous

dissipation effects regardless of fluid flow velocity). The overall fluid temperature level

of this problem is determined by choosing the temperature at the entrance to the channel,

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

39

and for a flat entrance profile (kstart=1), the variables twall=tref=300K were arbitrarily

chosen.

Here is the 8.1-two.out.txt output file

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 8.1-two.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel plates - based on s516.dat data set

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00

note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]

input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)

Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03

Prandtl number=

.707

U,mean = 2.2309E-01

d,h = 7.0000E-02

viscom = 1.8380E-05

rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

x/d,h

1.250E-02

1.250E-01

2.500E-01

3.750E-01

5.000E-01

6.761E-01

1.018E+00

1.680E+00

2.964E+00

5.443E+00

9.012E+00

1.341E+01

1.881E+01

2.547E+01

3.367E+01

4.376E+01

5.575E+01

6.825E+01

8.075E+01

9.321E+01

1.057E+02

1.182E+02

1.286E+02

uclr

1.026E+00

1.075E+00

1.104E+00

1.126E+00

1.144E+00

1.166E+00

1.202E+00

1.257E+00

1.335E+00

1.422E+00

1.473E+00

1.492E+00

1.498E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

delp

1.518E-03

4.505E-03

6.359E-03

7.799E-03

9.026E-03

1.055E-02

1.307E-02

1.707E-02

2.328E-02

3.290E-02

4.447E-02

5.746E-02

7.290E-02

9.173E-02

1.149E-01

1.434E-01

1.771E-01

2.123E-01

2.474E-01

2.824E-01

3.176E-01

3.527E-01

3.818E-01

cf2(I)

9.607E-02

3.816E-02

2.953E-02

2.566E-02

2.334E-02

2.123E-02

1.884E-02

1.653E-02

1.456E-02

1.311E-02

1.237E-02

1.210E-02

1.202E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

cf2(E)

9.607E-02

3.816E-02

2.953E-02

2.566E-02

2.334E-02

2.123E-02

1.884E-02

1.653E-02

1.456E-02

1.311E-02

1.237E-02

1.210E-02

1.202E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

nu(I)

1.227E+02

4.062E+01

2.990E+01

2.518E+01

2.239E+01

1.989E+01

1.708E+01

1.443E+01

1.233E+01

1.110E+01

1.107E+01

1.188E+01

1.315E+01

1.455E+01

1.578E+01

1.665E+01

1.714E+01

1.735E+01

1.743E+01

1.746E+01

1.748E+01

1.748E+01

1.748E+01

nu(E)

1.219E+02

3.976E+01

2.898E+01

2.421E+01

2.137E+01

1.881E+01

1.591E+01

1.309E+01

1.067E+01

8.837E+00

7.812E+00

7.278E+00

6.966E+00

6.769E+00

6.645E+00

6.572E+00

6.535E+00

6.520E+00

6.514E+00

6.512E+00

6.511E+00

6.511E+00

6.511E+00

In this output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

x/d,h

x Dh

nu(I)

Nu y = a 2

nu(E)

Nu y =+ a 2

The corresponding fluid mechanic variables are defined in the problem solutions for

Chapter 7. Note that the solution starts from the entry to the channel (kstart=1),

calculating the thermal entry region, and from observing the output, the flow becomes

40

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

x D, h 44 or x D, h Re Dh = 0.044 .

To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for

problem 8.1 y= -a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn83.txt (for the I-surface),

x D, h 44 and beyond, is

intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

4.3761578E+01

5.5750050E+01

6.8250049E+01

8.0749990E+01

9.3214265E+01

1.0571426E+02

1.1821422E+02

1.2857137E+02

6.2150E+00

6.3980E+00

6.4761E+00

6.5066E+00

6.5184E+00

6.5230E+00

6.5247E+00

6.5253E+00

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

3.1990E+02

3.2535E+02

3.3104E+02

3.3672E+02

3.4239E+02

3.4807E+02

3.5376E+02

3.5847E+02

3.2312E+02

3.2848E+02

3.3412E+02

3.3979E+02

3.4546E+02

3.5114E+02

3.5682E+02

3.6153E+02

For these ftn files, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook

variables

qflux

h

qs

surface heat flux

tmean

Tm

twall

Ts

surface temperature

htc

resetting set k10=11 (the dimensional profiles option). The output file (8.1-two.out.txt)

will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables in the output include

y(i)

u(i)

u ( y)

axial velocity

f(1,i)

T ( y)

For the I-surface, from the ftn83.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Be careful, this does not imply

a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.1two.out.txt. Here we find dT dy < 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming

Fouriers law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive

heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 17.48 in 8.1two.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 2 q I surface .

To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for

problem 8.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.txt (for the E-surface),

x D, h 44 and beyond, is

intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

4.3761578E+01

5.5750050E+01

6.8250049E+01

8.0749990E+01

9.3214265E+01

1.0571426E+02

1.1821422E+02

1.2857137E+02

2.4529E+00

2.4391E+00

2.4335E+00

2.4314E+00

2.4305E+00

2.4302E+00

2.4301E+00

2.4301E+00

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

4.0000E+01

3.1990E+02

3.2535E+02

3.3104E+02

3.3672E+02

3.4239E+02

3.4807E+02

3.5376E+02

3.5847E+02

41

3.3621E+02

3.4175E+02

3.4747E+02

3.5317E+02

3.5885E+02

3.6453E+02

3.7022E+02

3.7493E+02

For the E-surface, from the ftn84.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Again, be careful, this does

not imply a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in

8.1-two.out.txt. Here we find dT dy > 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming

Fouriers law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive

heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 6.51 in 8.1two.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 2 q I surface .

To verify the solution to problem 8.1 with TEXSTAN, with the flux level for the Esurface changed to q E surface = 5 q I surface , simply change the E-surface fluxes to 100

W/m2 in the 8.1-two.dat.txt , rename it 8.1-five.dat.txt and compute this data set.

Here is the 8.1-five.out.txt output file

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 8.1-five.dat.txt - lam ht - parallel plates - based on s516.dat data set

stepsize: var from dx= .010 to dx= 1.000

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17700E+00 vis= 1.83800E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.707

initial profiles: kstart= 1 dyi= 5.000E-04 rate= .0900

laminar flow

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

====================================================

initial pressure = 1.0133E+05 at x= 0.0000E+00

note: delp = abs[(pressure at x)-(initial pressure)]

input Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03 (not necessarily calculated value)

Reynolds number= 1.0000E+03

Prandtl number=

.707

U,mean = 2.2309E-01

d,h = 7.0000E-02

viscom = 1.8380E-05

rhom = 1.1770E+00

====================================================

intg

5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

x/d,h

1.250E-02

1.250E-01

2.500E-01

3.750E-01

5.000E-01

6.761E-01

1.018E+00

1.680E+00

2.964E+00

5.443E+00

9.012E+00

1.341E+01

1.881E+01

2.547E+01

3.367E+01

4.376E+01

5.575E+01

uclr

1.026E+00

1.075E+00

1.104E+00

1.126E+00

1.144E+00

1.166E+00

1.202E+00

1.257E+00

1.335E+00

1.422E+00

1.473E+00

1.492E+00

1.498E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

delp

1.518E-03

4.505E-03

6.359E-03

7.799E-03

9.026E-03

1.055E-02

1.307E-02

1.707E-02

2.328E-02

3.290E-02

4.447E-02

5.746E-02

7.290E-02

9.173E-02

1.149E-01

1.434E-01

1.771E-01

cf2(I)

9.607E-02

3.816E-02

2.953E-02

2.566E-02

2.334E-02

2.123E-02

1.884E-02

1.653E-02

1.456E-02

1.311E-02

1.237E-02

1.210E-02

1.202E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

cf2(E)

9.607E-02

3.816E-02

2.953E-02

2.566E-02

2.334E-02

2.123E-02

1.884E-02

1.653E-02

1.456E-02

1.311E-02

1.237E-02

1.210E-02

1.202E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

nu(I)

1.243E+02

4.245E+01

3.193E+01

2.738E+01

2.474E+01

2.245E+01

2.004E+01

1.817E+01

1.787E+01

2.277E+01

6.687E+01

-4.500E+01

-1.697E+01

-1.121E+01

-9.024E+00

-8.054E+00

-7.631E+00

nu(E)

1.218E+02

3.959E+01

2.880E+01

2.403E+01

2.118E+01

1.861E+01

1.569E+01

1.285E+01

1.039E+01

8.491E+00

7.378E+00

6.755E+00

6.367E+00

6.115E+00

5.956E+00

5.862E+00

5.815E+00

42

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

6.825E+01

8.075E+01

9.321E+01

1.057E+02

1.182E+02

1.286E+02

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

1.499E+00

2.123E-01

2.474E-01

2.824E-01

3.176E-01

3.527E-01

3.818E-01

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

1.200E-02

-7.471E+00

-7.411E+00

-7.388E+00

-7.380E+00

-7.376E+00

-7.375E+00

5.796E+00

5.789E+00

5.786E+00

5.785E+00

5.785E+00

5.785E+00

To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the I-surface (for

problem 8.1 y= -a/2) we examine abbreviated output from ftn83.txt (for the I-surface),

x D, h 44 and beyond,

intg

x/dh

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

4.3761578E+01

5.5750050E+01

6.8250049E+01

8.0749990E+01

9.3214265E+01

1.0571426E+02

1.1821422E+02

1.2857137E+02

htc

-3.0060E+00

-2.8484E+00

-2.7885E+00

-2.7661E+00

-2.7576E+00

-2.7544E+00

-2.7531E+00

-2.7527E+00

qflux

tmean

twall

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

2.0000E+01

3.3980E+02

3.5070E+02

3.6207E+02

3.7344E+02

3.8478E+02

3.9615E+02

4.0751E+02

4.1693E+02

3.3315E+02

3.4368E+02

3.5490E+02

3.6621E+02

3.7752E+02

3.8888E+02

4.0025E+02

4.0967E+02

For the I-surface, from the ftn83.txt output we see Ts<Tm. Be careful, this does not imply

a heat flux out of the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in 8.1five.out.txt. Here we find dT dy < 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming

Fouriers law for this I-surface (and the printout in ftn83.txt). With Ts<Tm and a positive

heat flux the Nu is calculated as a negative number. For this problem Nu = -7.38 in 8.1five.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 5 q I surface . The heating on the

E-surface controls the bulk of the fluid temperature, but the Neumann boundary condition

for the I-surface ( q I surface = +20 W/m 2 ) forces the temperature gradient at this surface to

be negative, and thus the negative Nu value.

To confirm the calculations of the fully-developed heat transfer for the E-surface (for

problem 8.1 y= +a/2) first examine abbreviated output from ftn84.txt (for the E-surface),

x D, h 44 and beyond, is

intg

x/dh

htc

qflux

tmean

twall

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1092

5.5750050E+01

6.8250049E+01

8.0749990E+01

9.3214265E+01

1.0571426E+02

1.1821422E+02

1.2857137E+02

2.1880E+00

2.1705E+00

2.1634E+00

2.1607E+00

2.1597E+00

2.1593E+00

2.1591E+00

2.1591E+00

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

1.0000E+02

3.3980E+02

3.5070E+02

3.6207E+02

3.7344E+02

3.8478E+02

3.9615E+02

4.0751E+02

4.1693E+02

3.8550E+02

3.9678E+02

4.0830E+02

4.1972E+02

4.3108E+02

4.4246E+02

4.5383E+02

4.6325E+02

For the E-surface, from the ftn84.txt output we see Ts>Tm. Again, be careful, this does

not imply a heat flux into the fluid. We must instead check the temperature profile in

8.1-five.out.txt. Here we find dT dy > 0 , and thus the heat flux is positive, confirming

Fouriers law for this E-surface (and the printout in ftn84.txt). With Ts>Tm and a positive

heat flux the Nu is calculated as a positive number. For this problem Nu = 5.82 in 8.1five.out.txt agrees with our derived solution for q E surface = 5 q I surface .

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

43

In summary, it is important to emphasize that the heat transfer coefficient and its nondimensional equivalent, Nu, reflect its definition based on (Ts Tm ) in Newtons law of

cooling, whereas the heat flux at the surface is governed by the local temperature

gradient and how Fouriers law is defined. We saw that Fouriers law for the E-surface

has had a sign change to make it agree with the thermodynamic-like sign convention in

TEXSTAN (heat transfer into the fluid is positive).

Note that we have the same dilemma in pipe flow. Consider thermally fully-developed

flow in a pipe. If Ts > Tm , heat is transferred into the fluid. If we define Newtons law of

cooling as h = qs (Ts Tm ) then the only way to have a positive heat transfer coefficient

is to have a heat flux. This will require a modified Fouriers law qr = + k T r , because

the only way to have heat transfer into a fluid is to have T r > 0 . The other option is

to change the signs of both Newtons law of cooling and Fouriers law. TEXSTAN uses

the sign convention qr = + k T r .

8-2 For the annulus geometry r is measured from the centerline of the inner pipe, ri is

the radius of the inner pipe, ro is the radius of the outer pipe, and r* is the radius ratio,

r * = ri ro . Now consider the energy equation (8-1). This equation assumes no viscous

dissipation, and it assumes constant properties for an ideal gas and steady state. Let the

temperature profile vary with x and r only. The equation becomes

cu

T

T k T

+ cv r

=

r

x

r r r r

With the assumption of a slug flow, u=V and vr=0, and with the assumption of a

thermally fully-developed temperature profile with constant heat rate, Eq. (8-8), the

energy equation becomes

1 T V dTm

r

=

r r r dx

The boundary conditions for the annulus are a constant heat rate at ri and an adiabatic

surface at ro. These two boundary conditions are very much similar to those for a

circular pipe (zero heat flux at the pipe centerline and a constant heat flux at the surface).

Thus the boundary conditions are to that following Eq. (8-10)

T

r

=0

r = ro

and

r = ri

= Ts ,ri

44

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note that any time we have a Nuemann-Neumann boundary (adiabatic surface and heatflux surface for this problem or a pipe with a heat-flux surface), we can not find the two

constants of integration when we separate variables and integrate. So, we substitute for

one of the Neumann conditions with its Dirichlet counterpart (in this case the surface

temperature) and we bring in the heat flux through the energy balance when we

determine dTm dx .

Separate variables and integrate the 2nd-order ordinary differential equation, and apply

the boundary conditions,

T = Ts ,ri

r

Vro2 dTm r 2

*2

2 r 2 ln

4 dx ro

ri

Tm =

ro

r

1

Vro2 dTm r 2

*2

V

T

s ,ri

2 r 2 ln ( 2 rdr )

2

2 r

4 dx ro

V ( ro ri ) i

ri

= Ts ,ri

ln ( r * )

Vro2 dTm 3 1 *2

+

r +

*2

dx 8 8

2

1

r

qri = hi Ts ,ri Tm

ln ( r * )

Vro2 dTm 3 1 *2

= h

r +

*2

dx 8 8

2

1

r

The next step can be carried out one of two ways. The first way is form an energy

balance similar to Eq. (8-15), and then equate the surface heat flux to the convective rate

equation and form a Nusselt number. The second approach is to independently formulate

the surface heat flux using Fouriers law, equate the two forms of heat flux and form a

Nusselt number. Using the first approach

qri =

(r

2

o

ri 2 )

2ri

( cV )

dTm

dx

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

( ro ri )

(r

*2

* 1 1 r

r

ro2 )

r

hD

Nu i = i h = 2 i2

=

4

k 3ro ri ro ln ( ri ro ) *2

ln ( r * )

+

r 3

2

2

8

2 ( ro ri )

2

8

2 1 r*

Nu i r* =0.6 = 6.176

45

Note, compare this solution with Table 8-1 for the Nusselt number solution for the inner

wall heated and the outer wall adiabatic, Nuii(r*), and you will find a very close

agreement for small r* between the plug-flow solution and the solution with

hydrodynamically fully-developed profiles. The profile shapes are not that dissimilar.

8-3

of x is obtained from Table 8-13. The highest fluid temperature is 127C. Note, five

terms are ok.

8-4 Nu = 4.00 for both sides. Temperature profile is linear. If viscosity is a function of

temperature the velocity profile will be affected, but this has no influence on temperature

profile or Nusselt number.

2

8-5 Total heat flux from inner surface is approximately 2550 W/m . Outer tube surface

temperature is approximately 278C. 55 percent of the heat from the fluid is transferred

directly from the inner surface, and 45 percent indirectly from the outer surface.

8-6

Surface temperature = 110 + 75(x/L) + 27sin(x/L) + 61(1-cos(x/L))

Re = 1650,

8-7

Nu = 8.24,

h = 57 W/(m K)

() ()

4V 2 Pr r

T = Tc +

c ro

1 r

2 ro

46

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

dT 8V Pr

=

2

dx

cr o

8-8

y 1 y 2

T = Th + u

k d 2 d

where

2

j

uj is the journal surface velocity

d is the clearance

qs =

u 2j

15500 W/m 2

d

u 2j DL

P=

d

8-9

qs( x + ) =

2k

2 +

2

+

+

a G n exp ( n x ) + b G n exp n ( x x1 )

rs n

n

m( x + ) = 1

8

Gn

Gn

2 +

2

+

+

a 2 exp ( n x ) + b 2 exp n ( x x1 )

a + b n n

n n

+

+

for x > x1

8-10

Ts ( x + ) Te

( rs k ) qs

Ts ( x + ) Te

( rs k ) qs

= 4x +

+

= 0.4 +

m

1 exp ( m2 x + )

Am

4

m

Am

4

m

, x > 0.1

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Tm ( x + Te )

( rs k ) qs

47

= 4x+ ,

8-11 This problem involves the same procedure as 8-10 except that the procedure is

repeated at x+ intervals of 0.02. A local Nusselt number is readily evaluated from:

Nu =

2 ( rs k ) qs

(Ts Tm )

After a few steps Nu will repeat with little change in each heated segment.

8-12

x+

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.10

0.20

1.00

5.00

Nux

4.55

4.10

3.42

3.07

2.98

2.98

2.98

Num

9.03

6.63

4.88

4.03

3.53

3.53

3.00

8-13

This problem involves substitution into Eq. (8-55) and evaluation of the infinite

series terms (an exercise in computer programming). A Nusselt number is defined as:

Nu =

2 ( rs k ) qs

(Ts Tm )

and Tm is obtained from Eq.(8-54). The Nusselt number goes to 0.0 at x = L, and the

student should explain this behavior by sketching the presumed temperature profile at x =

L.

8-14

Tm = Te +

2

cVrs

bL

x

ax + 1 cos L

48

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Ts = Te +

x

4rs ax bL

+

1 cos

+

k c c

L

1 exp ( m2 x c ) r b

rs a

+ s sin x

4

k m

Am m

k

L m

rs b c

x

cos

k L

L m

1

2 2

m4 + c 2

L

2

m

4 c 2 2

Am m + 2

L

exp ( m2 x c )

rs b c

k L

2 2

Am m2 m4 + c 2

L

where c = rsRePr

8-15

Eqs.(8-56) and (8-57) provide the basis for the procedure desired here. The first

integral in (8-56) and the second integral in (8-57) would be used. The integrations must

be carried out numerically, using the basic data from Table 8-11. Note that at each

station x+, integration must be carried out from = 0 to = x+. Note that, for example,

if x+ = 1.0 and = 0.8, then Nuii(x+ - ) = Nuii(0.2) = 6.19 for r+ = 0.5.

8-16 This problem is designed as an application of Eq. (8-23). The source of plane

radiation will produce a heat flux into the tube that varies sinusoidally around the

periphery. The re-radiation will produce a heat flux from the tube that subtracts slightly

from the inflow on one side, and results in net radiation from the tube on the other. The

complete heat flux distribution is then approximated by:

qs = qa (1 b cos )

Ts ( ) = Tm +

2q s ( ) rs k

Nu ( )

8-17 This problem is solved by substituting the proposed expression for t0 into Eq.(8-44)

and carrying out the indicated integration (the summation term in (8-44) is not used.)

The function is supplied by Eq. (8-36). The wall heat flux is evaluated as in Eq.(8-37),

and the Nusselt number as in Eq.(8-33). For large values of x+ it will be found that

certain infinite series terms drop out leading to a result that is independent of x+. The

results are

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

49

b x+

2n x +

G

G

ne

ne

2

4 2

n ( n + b)

n ( n + b)

Nu ( x + ) =

Gn

1 b x+

b x+

2n x +

Gn

1

1

e 1 8

e

e

2

b

n2 ( n2 + b )

n

b ( n + b)

n

4b G

2

b

+

n n

Nu ( ) =

n

1 8 G

2

b

+

n n

8-18

Vrs2 dTm 8V 2

k

dx

Nu =

2

11 Vrs dTm 5 V 2

48 dx 6 k

2q s 8V

dTm

+

where

=

2

dx rs Vc crs

8-19

Nu =

1

11 1 S

+ rs

48 16 qs

T = Ts +

V dTm r 2 r 4 3 2 S 2 2

rs r

rs +

dx 2 8rs2 8 4k

2qs

S

dTm

+

=

dx Vcrs Vc

8-20

The highest temperature occurs at the wall. The energy equation may be put in the

form:

2T 1 T S r 2

+

= 2 1 1

r 2 r r k rs2

50

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

By L'Hospital's rule:

1 T 2T

= 2

lim

r 0 r r

r

Thus at r = 0,

2T

S

=

>0

2

r s 2k

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

51

Chapter 9

9-1 The stagnation point flow is part of the family of flows over flat surfaces called

wedges. Using potential flow theory, the invicid flow field over these wedge-oriented

m

surfaces is described by Eq. (9-20), u = C x . The wedge-oriented family is depicted in

m

Fig. 9-2, and for stagnation point flow, =. Using Eq. (9-20), u = C x , and Eq. (9-21)

the stagnation point flow is found to have a linear variation of free stream velocity with x,

and thus C = 4V/D, where V is the approach velocity to the cylinder.

For this problem we will assume a constant density, i.e. no density variation through the

boundary layer which forms over the wedge. Density variation throughout the boundary

layer is caused either by an imposed thermal boundary condition (wall temperature or

wall heat flux) which leads to a large wall-to-free stream temperature difference, or when

viscous heating associated with viscous work cause local temperature variation in the

region near the surface. For gases, we find experimentally that we can ignore variable

properties (including density) when 0.95 Ts T 1.05 and when M 0.4. For this

problem we have no information about the thermal boundary condition. The Mach

number for an ideal gas can be computed to be

M=

V

RT

where is the ratio of specific heats, R is the gas constant (R=R/M where R is the

universal gas constant, and M is the fluid molecular weight). For this problem, M0.03,

and the assumption of constant density is justified in the absence of thermal boundary

condition information. Thus, displacement thickness Eq. (5-5) reduces to

1 = 1

0

u

dy

u

y

y

=

x / u

/C

and ( ) =

u

u

into

1 =

(1 ( ) ) d =

C

( )

0

C

52

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Note: the function ( ) is zero at the lower limit and becomes a constant value at

the upper limit. Table 9-1 contains information only for m=0, and so another source must

be used to obtain ( ) . One source is tabulated in Schlichting1.

The other source is to solve Eq. (9-24) with the indicated boundary conditions and m=1

using traditional numerical methods such as Runge-Kutta and a shooting method. Here

Y1 =

Y2 =

Y1 = Y2

Y2 = Y3

Y3 =

Y3 = Y22 Y1Y3 1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

()

0

0.0060

0.0233

0.0510

0.0881

0.1336

0.1867

0.2466

0.3124

0.3835

0.4592

0.6220

0.7967

0.9798

1.1689

1.3620

1.5578

1.7553

1.9538

2.1530

2.3526

2.8522

3.3521

3.8521

()

0

0.1183

0.2266

0.3252

0.4145

0.4946

0.5663

0.6299

0.6859

0.7351

0.7779

0.8467

0.8968

0.9323

0.9568

0.9732

0.9839

0.9906

0.9946

0.9970

0.9984

0.9997

1.000

1.000

()

1.233

1.1328

1.0345

0.9386

0.8463

0.7583

0.6752

0.5974

0.5251

0.4587

0.3980

0.2938

0.2110

0.1474

0.1000

0.0658

0.0420

0.0260

0.0156

0.0091

0.0051

0.0010

0.0002

0.0000

Evaluation of this table shows ( ) 0.4379 . Note that one can also obtain this

value by carrying out the integration of the displacement equation using Simpsons rule.

The final answer is 1 = 0.096 mm.

An alternative solution for this problem is to use Eq. (9-44) with R removed (recall R is

the transverse radius of curvature, not the curvature in the flow direction).

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

2 =

Substituting u =

0.664 0.5

u2.84

u4.68 dx

53

0.5

4Vx

into the integral and carrying out the integration yields

D

D

2 = 0.664 0.5

4Vx

2.84

4V

4.68

2

x5.68

5.68

0.5

At this point, one sees that x removes itself from the equation, which is characteristic of

the stagnation point flows, namely that d, d1, and d2 are all constant values over the

stagnation region. Evaluation yields a value of d2 of about 0.041 mm. This permits the

parameter defined by Eq. (9-39) to be evaluated, l=0.078. From Table 9-4, we find the

shape factor H = 2.34, and from Eq. (9-37) d1 = 0.096 mm (the same answer obtained

from the numerical solution).

9-2 This solution proceeds from the ideas of the velocity potential and the stream

function,

=

= u and

=

=v

x y

y

x

and the fact that both functions satisfy their respective Laplace equation formulations. In

complex variable theory, potential flow solutions are greatly simplified if the flow

domain can be transformed into a semi-infinite domain. A complex potential is

constructed as F ( z ) = ( x, y ) + i ( x, y ) where F(z) is an analytical function such that

dF

=

+i

= u iv w

x

dz x

and where w = u + iv . For uniform parallel flow the complex potential function is

F ( z ) = Vo z . The domain is now transformed to the upper-half of the w-plane. Then if

the transformation w = w ( z ) is conformal and z = w = , then F ( z ) = Aw ( z )

where A is determined such that u = Vo .

Applied for the wedge geometry, the transformation is w ( z ) = Az to map the wedge

domain of opening g into the semi-infinite domain. Then, if F ( z ) = Aw ( z ) ,

54

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

dF

1

= A z

w= A

dz

2

w=

A

z

2

= Cz m

w = u = Cx m ei m = Cx m

9-3 The applicable momentum integral equation is (5-9), rewritten as Eq. (9-31) by

substituting for the surface shear stress,

cf

2

s

u d

= 2 = 2

2

u u y s dx

This requires evaluation of the momentum thickness for the sine-function velocity

profile. From Eq. (5-6), assuming constant properties, substituting for the profile, and

integrating from the surface to the edge of the boundary layer (replacing by in the

upper limit.

2 =

u

u

u

u

2 1

1 dy = 0

1 dy =

u u

u u

2

Substitute the velocity profile into the wall-gradient term on the left-hand side (LHS) of

the momentum integral equation and the momentum thickness function into the righthand side (RHS) of the equation, separate variable and integrate, assuming (x=0)=0, to

obtain

12

x

= 4.80

u

or

= 4.80 Re x1 2

Substitute the solution for into the momentum thickness, and the result is

2

x

= 0.655 Re x1 2

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

55

Following the same procedure for evaluation of the displacement thickness from Eq. (55) gives

1

x

= 1.74 Re x1 2

For the friction coefficient, the definition is combined with the velocity profile and the

solution for d to give

cf =

s

1

2

2

u2

u

1 2

= 0.655 Re x

y s

Comparing these results with the similarity solution shows errors of +0.6% for 1, -1.4%

for 2 and for cf.

9-4

s

s vs d 2

1 1 du 1 d 1 dR

2

+

=

+

+

+

+

2

u2 u dx

2 u dx dx R dx

we can see that the density term is similar in form to the transverse-radius term. Thus, it

is easily added to Eq. (9-38),

u d 22 22u

+

dx

2 dR 2 d

22 du

T

H

2

(2

)

+

=

dx

R dx dx

Rearranging this equation using the ideas used in Eq. (9-40) and Eq. (9-41),

u d 22 22u

+

dx

2 dR 2 d

22 du

+

= ( a b ) = a b

dx

R dx dx

At this point the development follows that on page 144 of the 4th Edition. We need to use

the following derivative ideas,

d ( ub ) = bub 1 and d ( R 2 ) = 2 RdR and d ( 2 ) = 2 d

Move the b-term to the LHS, multiply and then multiply and divide each of the four LHS

terms with the appropriate variables to obtain terms with the same denominator,

56

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

ub R 2 2 d 22

22 R 2 2 dub

ub 22 2 dR 2

ub 22 R 2 d 2

+

+

+

=a

ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx ub 1 R 2 2 dx

Now, recognize this as an exact differential of four terms, and multiply through the

denominator and separate variables,

d ( R 2 2 22ub ) = a ub 1 R 2 2 dx

From this point the integration of this equation is exactly like the procedure leading to

Eq. (9-42).

9-5 The analysis procedure for this problem is: (1) calculate d2 using Eq. (9-42); (2)

formulate l from Eq. (9-39); use Table 9-4 to find H, and the from its definition, Eq. (937), determine d1; calculate the mass flow rate using Eq. (7-3);calculate a pressure drop

using a Bernoulli equation; and finally calculate a discharge coefficient, the ratio of

actual to theoretical mass flow through the nozzle. The problem requires assumptions of

steady flow and constant properties.

The nozzle geometry is defined in terms of the transverse radius of the nozzle at the start

of the boundary layer, Ra=0.05 m at xa=0; the nozzle radius of curvature, rc=0.0375 m;

and the nozzle transverse radius at the throat, Rb =0.0125 m, at the throat location,

xb = rc 2 = 0.058905 m .

Using this geometry, the transverse radius of the nozzle wall

x

R ( x ) = Ra rc sin ( ) = Ra rc sin

rc

The invicid core flow for this problem statement is assumed to vary linearly along the

boundary layer surface of the nozzle from the sharp corner to the throat, xa x xb , with

u ,a = 0 and u ,b = 10 m/s . Using a linear variation, the free stream velocity distribution

at the edge of the boundary layer on the nozzle wall becomes

u u

u ( x ) = u ,a + ,b ,a ( x xa ) = 169.8 x m/s

xb xa

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

57

12

0.664 1 2 xb

x

4.86

2 ( xb ) =

168.8

x

R

r

sin

dx

(

)

a c

Rbu2.84

rc

xa

,b

= 9.65 105 m

Now, formulate l from Eq. (9-39), l=0.105, and interpolate in Table 9-4 to find H=2.27,

and the from its definition, Eq. (9-37), determine 1 ( xb ) = 2.19 104 m .

The actual mass flow rate in the nozzle will be based on the flow cross-sectional area,

corrected for the displacement thickness,

m actual = Vb ( Ab Ablock ) = Vb ( rb 1,b ) = 5.71 103 kg/s

2

C=

m actual Vb ( Ab Ablock )

=

= 0.965

m theo

Vb Ab

The pressure drop through the nozzle, based on the Bernoulli equation, is

P = ( Pb Pa ) = (Vb2 Va2 ) = 60.2 Pa

1

2

decreases, as shown in Eq. (9-19), leading to a reduced flow blockage and a nozzle

discharge coefficient that approaches unity.

There are improvements to this solution. For example, the problem statement said to

assume that the boundary layer at the start of the nozzle was zero. This does not exactly

satisfy conservation of mass. Thus, there is a finite velocity at xa and a finite momentum

(and displacement) thickness. These are mostly second-order effects, but it changes the

discharge coefficient. There are also other definitions of discharge coefficient.

This problem is appropriate for TEXSTAN. Another nice variation on this problem is to

change it into a 2-dimensional flat nozzle.

9-6

9),

Start with Eq. (9-23), and transform the dependent variables u and v using Eq. (9-

y x y

2

2

y

u2 m

3

=

+

y 3

x

58

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

Now, transform the independent variables, x and y using the Blasius variable Eq. (9-11)

for y, and define the stream function using Eq. (9-10):

=x

=y

u

C ( m 1) 2

=y

x

x

( , ) = G ( ) ( ) = xu ( ) = C x ( m +1) 2 ( )

Transform the various derivatives using the chain rule:

( ) ( ) ( )

=

+

x

x x

( ) ( ) ( )

=

+

y

y y

At this point, you can do one of two procedures: the first is to transform the y equation

differential operators, keeping y as the independent variable, and then introduce its

definition to obtain an equation in G and z. Upon introducing the functional form of G,

the equation separates and Eq. (9-24) is obtained. A second procedure is to transform the

differential operators and y simultaneously. Either works.

9-7 The data file for this problem is 9.7.dat.txt and the output file is 9.7.out.txt.

TEXSTAN is described in Appendix F, and the users manual for all external laminar

boundary layer flows is s10.man, which should be helpful to the new user. Appendix G

contains a detailed printout of this particular manual. If you set up problem 9-7

following the instructions described in its problem statement, you should have a data set

similar to the s10.dat.txt file. The input file is:

### 'title of data set'

9.7.dat.txt - lam bl - flat plate - based on s10.dat.txt

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

1

2

4

1

0

0

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

1

1

###

kfluid

kunits

1

1

###

po

rhoc

viscoc

amolwt

gam/cp

101325.0

1.17660 1.853E-05

00.00

1005.00

###

prc(1)

prc(2)

prc(3)

prc(4)

prc(5)

0.711

###

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)

5

1

###

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)

5

1

###

x(m)

rw(m)

aux1(m)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0000000

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0500000

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.1000000

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.1500000

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.2000000

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

ktme

0

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

ubI(m)

am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

ubE(m)

am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

0.00

0.000

295.0

15.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

15.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

15.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

15.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

15.00

0.0

0.0

xstart

xend

deltax

fra

enfra

0.0010410 0.200000

0.100

0.010 1.000E-06

kout

kspace

kdx

kent

8

100

0

1

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

0

0

0

0

50

0

k7

k8

k9

k10

k11

k12

0

00

0

0

0

0

axx

bxx

cxx

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

dyi

rate

tstag

vapp

tuapp

epsapp

5.000E-05

0.0900

300.0

0.00

0.0

0.00

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 9.7.dat.txt - lam bl - flat plate - based on s10.dat.txt

stepsize: const, dx= .100

entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns;

enfra= 1.00E-06 fra= .010

dpdx: not-a-knot spline curve fit

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17660E+00 vis= 1.85300E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.711

initial profiles: kstart= 4 dyi= 5.000E-05 rate= .0900

laminar flow at xstart, transition not possible

axx= 0.0000E+00 bxx= 0.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 0.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf)

====================================================

Laminar flat plate flow benchmark

cf/2,theo = 0.332/sqrt(rex)

nux,theo = 0.332*(rex**0.5)*(pr(je,np1)**0.33)

====================================================

intg

5

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1688

rex

9.993E+02

2.168E+03

5.054E+03

9.149E+03

1.445E+04

2.096E+04

2.868E+04

3.761E+04

4.773E+04

5.907E+04

7.162E+04

8.537E+04

1.003E+05

1.165E+05

1.339E+05

1.523E+05

1.721E+05

1.905E+05

rem

2.100E+01

3.094E+01

4.726E+01

6.358E+01

7.990E+01

9.622E+01

1.125E+02

1.289E+02

1.452E+02

1.615E+02

1.778E+02

1.941E+02

2.104E+02

2.268E+02

2.431E+02

2.593E+02

2.756E+02

2.899E+02

cf2

1.050E-02

7.131E-03

4.667E-03

3.469E-03

2.760E-03

2.292E-03

1.960E-03

1.712E-03

1.519E-03

1.366E-03

1.240E-03

1.136E-03

1.048E-03

9.727E-04

9.073E-04

8.507E-04

8.003E-04

7.607E-04

nu

9.3

13.7

21.0

28.2

35.4

42.6

49.9

57.1

64.3

71.5

78.8

86.0

93.2

100.4

107.7

114.9

122.1

128.5

reh

1.000 .995 2.590 2.578E+01

1.000 .995 2.590 3.822E+01

.999 .994 2.590 5.862E+01

.999 .993 2.590 7.900E+01

.999 .993 2.590 9.937E+01

1.000 .992 2.590 1.197E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 1.401E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 1.605E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 1.808E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 2.012E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 2.215E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 2.419E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 2.622E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 2.825E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 3.029E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 3.231E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 3.434E+02

1.000 .992 2.590 3.613E+02

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

59

60

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

rex

Re x

rem

Re 2

cf2

cf 2

h12

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat

transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.

The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction

coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex, Eq. (9-13), and cfrat should

be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.

TEXSTAN executes include various ftn files that are suitable for cut-and-paste into

spreadsheet or plot software. These are discussed in detail in Appendix G.

To plot the developing velocity profiles, reset kout=2 and set k10=10. Then expand the

x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required. Be sure to change the two

nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition

information for each new x-location. This is explained in detail in the s10.man user

manual. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables

in the output will include

y(i)

u(i)

u ( y)

velocity

eta

f(eta)

( )

ratio u u

9-8 The data file for this problem is 9.8.dat.txt and the output file is 9.8.out.txt. If you

set up problem 9-8 following the instructions described in its problem statement, you

should have a data set similar to the s15.dat.txt file.

regarding the calculations of xstart and axx. For the given starting x-Reynolds number

=200, there are not unique numbers for xstart and axx, so choose xstart (=0.00195 m)

which uniquely determines the value of free stream velocity at that location (=1.615 m/s),

and then calculate A (which is the variable axx) to match this velocity, u = A xstart for

B=1, C=0 and m=1. The input file is:

### 'title of data set'

9.8.dat.txt - lam stag-pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) - based on s15.dat.txt

###

kgeom

neq

kstart

mode

ktmu

ktmtr

1

2

5

1

0

0

###

kbfor

jsor(1)

jsor(2)

jsor(3)

jsor(4)

jsor(5)

ktme

0

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

###

1

1

kfluid

kunits

1

1

po

rhoc

viscoc

amolwt

gam/cp

101325.0

1.17660 1.853E-05

00.00

1005.00

prc(1)

prc(2)

prc(3)

prc(4)

prc(5)

0.711

nxbc(I) jbc(I,1) jbc(I,2) jbc(I,3) jbc(I,4) jbc(I,5)

5

1

nxbc(E) jbc(E,1) jbc(E,2) jbc(E,3) jbc(E,4) jbc(E,5)

5

1

x(m)

rw(m)

aux1(m)

aux2(m)

aux3(m)

0.0000000

1.0000

0.1250

0.0736

0.0000

0.0200000

1.0000

0.1250

0.0736

0.0000

0.0400000

1.0000

0.1250

0.0736

0.0000

0.0600000

1.0000

0.1250

0.0736

0.0000

0.0872070

1.0000

0.1250

0.0736

0.0000

ubI(m)

am(I,m) fj(I,1,m) fj(I,2,m) fj(I,3,m) fj(I,4,m) fj(I,5,m)

ubE(m)

am(E,m) fj(E,1,m) fj(E,2,m) fj(E,3,m) fj(E,4,m) fj(E,5,m)

0.00

0.000

295.0

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.000

295.0

0.00

0.0

0.0

xstart

xend

deltax

fra

enfra

0.0019500 0.0872070

0.100

0.010 1.000E-06

kout

kspace

kdx

kent

8

200

0

1

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

0

0

0

5

0

0

k7

k8

k9

k10

k11

k12

0

00

0

0

0

0

axx

bxx

cxx

dxx

exx

fxx

gxx

8.283E+02 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

dyi

rate

tstag

vapp

tuapp

epsapp

5.000E-05

0.0900

300.0

0.00

0.0

0.00

TEXSTAN(academic)

dat: 9.8.dat.txt - lam stag pt (m=1 Faulkner-Skan) - based on s15.dat.txt

stepsize: const, dx= .100

entrainment based only on mom + energy eqns;

enfra= 1.00E-06 fra= .010

energy eqn: solved, no source terms

props: const

po= 1.01325E+05 den= 1.17660E+00 vis= 1.85300E-05 sp_ht= 1.00500E+03

prc(je)=

.711

initial profiles: kstart= 5 dyi= 5.000E-05 rate= .0900

laminar flow at xstart, transition not possible

axx= 8.2830E+02 bxx= 1.0000E+00 cxx= 0.0000E+00 dxx= 1.0000E+00

exx= 0.0000E+00 fxx= 0.0000E+00 gxx= 0.0000E+00

Stanton number and htc based on (twall-tinf)

====================================================

Laminar m=1 accel flow benchmark

cf/2,theo = 1.233/sqrt(rex)

nux,theo = 0.56863*(rex**0.5)*(pr(je,np1)**0.3748)

====================================================

intg

5

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

rex

2.034E+02

2.705E+03

9.936E+03

2.166E+04

3.796E+04

5.879E+04

8.415E+04

rem

4.169E+00

1.523E+01

2.916E+01

4.305E+01

5.698E+01

7.090E+01

8.482E+01

cf2

nu

cfrat nurat h12

reh

8.640E-02

7.1 .999 .997 2.216 1.001E+01

2.364E-02 25.9 .997 .997 2.216 3.648E+01

1.235E-02 49.7 .998 .997 2.216 6.993E+01

8.366E-03 73.4 .999 .997 2.216 1.033E+02

6.321E-03 97.2 .999 .997 2.216 1.367E+02

5.080E-03 121.0 .999 .997 2.216 1.701E+02

4.246E-03 144.7 .999 .997 2.216 2.036E+02

61

62

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2638

Solutions Manual

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Kays, Crawford, and Weigand

1.141E+05

1.485E+05

1.875E+05

2.310E+05

2.790E+05

3.316E+05

3.888E+05

4.000E+05

9.874E+01

1.127E+02

1.266E+02

1.405E+02

1.544E+02

1.684E+02

1.823E+02

1.849E+02

3.648E-03

3.197E-03

2.845E-03

2.563E-03

2.332E-03

2.139E-03

1.976E-03

1.948E-03

168.5

192.3

216.0

239.8

263.6

287.3

311.1

315.6

.999

.999

.999

.999

.999

.999

.999

.999

.997

.997

.997

.997

.997

.997

.997

.997

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.216

2.370E+02

2.704E+02

3.038E+02

3.373E+02

3.707E+02

4.041E+02

4.375E+02

4.438E+02

In the output, the following TEXSTAN variables translate into the textbook variables

rex

Re x

rem

Re 2

cf2

cf 2

h12

Note, there are also heat transfer variables because this data set also computes heat

transfer for a constant surface temperature thermal boundary condition.

The variable cfrat in the output file is the ratio of the TEXSTAN-computed friction

coefficient to the Blasius theoretical value at the same Rex, Eq. (9-25) and Table 9-2, and

cfrat should be close to unity if the data set is constructed properly.

To plot the developing velocity profiles, reset kout=2 and set k10=10. Then expand the

x(m) file to include the x-locations where profiles are required. Be sure to change the two

nxbc variables and add the appropriate sets of two lines of boundary condition

information for each new x-location. This is explained in detail in the s10.man user

manual. The output profile will then contain profiles at each x(m) station. The variables

in the output will include

y(i)

u(i)

u ( y)

velocity

eta

f(eta)

( )

ratio u u

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